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Q: Ans: Q: Ans: Q: Ans: What is function of trip circuit supervision relay? This relay continuously supervise the healthiness of tripping circuit (opening circuit). It gives an alarm for Open or short tripping coil or tripping supply failure. Ho it monitors the trip circuit supervision? Trip circuit supervision relay ill monitor the proper functioning of trip circuits !ase" on the fee"!ac# signal o!ataine" from the trippe" circuit. Which factors are monitore" !y trip circuit supervision? This relay is use" to supervise $% the tripping circuit an" to provi"e alarm &in"epen"ent of !rea#er status '% to provi"e alarm for $)loss of "c supply ')faults in trip coil or ca!les ()faults on the !rea#er au) contacts *)faults in the relay itself

Primary and back-up protection

If the power system is protected mainly by unit schemes, automatic back-up protection is not obtained, and it is then normal to supplement the main protection with time graded over current protection, which will provide local back-up cover if the main protective relays have failed, and will trip further back in the event of circuit breaker failure. Such back-up protection is inherently slower than the main protection and, depending on the power system configuration, may be less discriminative. For the most important circuits the performance may not be good enough, even as a back-up protection, or, in some cases, not even possible, owing to the effect of multiple in feeds. In these cases duplicate high speed protective systems may be installed. These provide excellent mutual back-up cover against failure of the protective equipment, but either no remote back-up protection against circuit breaker failure or, at best, time delayed cover. Breaker fail protection can be obtained by checking that fault current ceases within a brief time interval from the operation of the main protection. If this does not occur, all other connections to the bus bar section are interrupted, the condition being necessarily treated as a bus bar fault. This provides the required back-up protection with the minimum of time delay, and confines the tripping operation to the one station, as compared with the alternative of tripping the remote ends of all the relevant circuits. The extent and type of back-up protection which is applied will naturally be related to the failure risks and relative economic importance of the system. For distribution systems where fault clearance Times are not critical, time delayed remote back-up protection is adequate but for EHV systems, where system stability is at risk unless a fault is cleared quickly, local backup, as described above, should be chosen. Ideal back-up protection would be completely independent of the main protection. Current trans-formers, voltage transformers, auxiliary tripping relays, trip coils and D.C. supplies would be duplicated. This ideal is rarely attained in practice. The following

compromises are typical: a. Separate current transformers (cores and secondary windings only) are used for each protective system, as this involves little extra cost or accommodation compared with the use of common current transformers which would have to be larger because of the combined burden. b. Common voltage transformers are used because duplication would involve a considerable increase in cost, because of the voltage transformers them-selves, and also because of the increased accommodation which would have to be provided. Since security of the VT output is vital, it is desirable that the supply to each protection should be separately fused and also continuously supervised by a relay which will give an alarm on failure of the supply and, where appropriate, prevent an unwanted operation of the protection. c. Trip supplies to the two protections should be separately fused. Duplication of tripping batteries and of tripping coils on circuit breakers is sometimes provided. Trip circuits should be continuously supervised. d. It is desirable that the main and back-up protections (or duplicate main protections) should operate on different principles, so that unusual events that may cause failure of the one will be less likely to affect the other. DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION IN TRANSFORMERS

POWER TRANSFORMER CONNECTIONS PRIMARY Stat with neutral earthed Delta Star Delta SECONDARY Delta Delta Star with neutral earthed Star with neutral earthed


ALTERNATING CURRENT VALUES MA IMUM !r PEA" #alue$% PEA"&t!&PEA" #alue$% EFFECTIVE #alue$% AVERAGE #alue$% INSTANTANEOUS #alue$'' A#era(e Value ) *'+,+E00e1ti#e Value ) *'2*2 Ma.i/u/ Value Ma.i/u/ Value

The e00e1ti#e #alue i$ !0ten 1alled the 3r!!t&/ean&$4uare3

E00e1ti#e !r RMS #alue ) *'2*2 Ma.i/u/ Value )

Ma.i/u/ Value

5'656 E00e1ti#e !r RMS #alue INSTRU ENT TRANS!OR ERS

+,--./T T-A/01O-2.34$5& $36A& (5573 3 2a)imum 8 .rror 4 0tan"s for 4rotection $5 A91 (Accuracy 9imit 1actor) : if the Ip ; Is increases $5 times a!ove the rate" current value then error on secon"ary current ill !e ith <38 error. 6 : I=& 6A : I'=& = : 6I7I'& = : $3(6)A)73(A)A)& = : 5.>(67A) : 5.>? 6oltage across +T secon"ary : 5.> ) 3 : (6 2a)imum voltage "evelop at fault : ( ) A91 : ( ) $5 : (56 2a)imum current "evelop at fault : (575.> : 35 @ur"en: 6A of a +T is the rate" !ur"en hich can !e connecte" to its secon"ary ithout sacrificing accuracy. It is the e)ternal loa" hich is ma"e up of relays an" meters connecte" to secon"ary of +T. .)ample: +alculation of 6A !ur"en to +T. +T : >5573& 2a). Ip : >55A ; Is : 3A& -$(Internal resistance of +T) : 5.5*?& r'(-esistance of ca!le) : 5.55*?7m& 9ength of ca!le : '55m& -'(Total resistance of ca!le) : 5.A? 6A of relay : * +T @ur"en at Is : 3A : (I's ) -$) < (I's ) -') < 6A of relay : (3' ) 5.5*) < (3' ) 5.A) < * : '36A +T !ur"en at 3A is much greater then at $A. Types: $% 0econ"ary 2ulti% oun" 7 2ulti%core '% 0econ"ary 2ulti -atio (% 0econ"ary 2ulti%core ; 2ulti%-atio *% 4rimary 2ulti%-atio 3% 4rimary 2ulti%-atio ; 0econ"ary 2ulti% oun" $% +ontinuity Test '% 2egger7Insulation -esistance Test (% 4olarity Test *% -atio Test 3% 2agnetiBation +urve >% +;C1 Test


2agnetiBation +urve Dnee 4oint: 4oint here saturation start. At this point $58 increase in applie" voltage ill result in 358 in"uce" current. 4rotection +T or# !et een an#le an" #nee point region& having higher saturation& 6A !ur"en an" less accuracy as compare to 2etering +T. An#le 4oint: ,p to this point applie" voltage an" in"uce" current move linearly. 2etering +T or#

in an#le point region an" have lo saturation point& 6A !ur"en an" high accuracy. Dnee 4oint 6oltage: 6# : (6A ) A91) 7 Is : ($3 ) $5) 7 3 : (56 4otential Transformerupto $('D6 system& $('D67$$56 +oupling +apacitor 6oltage Transformer in ''5;355D6 system& ''5D67$$56& 355D67$$56 +A@9.0 +,--./T +A--EI/F +A4A+ITE

Ca"cu"ation i# ba#ed on a$era%e $a"ue#

0r. G $ ' ( * 3 > J A H $5 $$ $' $( $* $3 $> $J $A $H '5 '$ +a!le 0iBe 0tan"ar" ( 7 5.5'HI J 7 5.5'HI J 7 5.5(>I J 7 5.5**I J 7 5.53'I J 7 5.5>*I $H 7 5.53'I $H 7 5.5>*I $H 7 5.5J'I $H 7 5.5A(I (J 7 5.5J'I (J 7 5.5A(I (J 7 5.5H(I (J 7 5.$5(I >$ 7 5.5H(I >$ 7 5.$5(I H$ 7 5.5H(I H$ 7 5.$5(I $'J 7 5.$5(I $'J 7 5.$$'I $'J 7 5.$'JI 1le)i!le (mm') $.3 '.3 * > $5 $> '3 (3 35 J5 H3 $'5 $35 $A3 '*5 (55 *55 355 >(5 A55 $555 +urrent +apacity (Amp) '.3 K3.5 '5 (5 *5 >( A5 $55 $35 '55 (55 (35 *53 *>( 335 >(3 J(' A(3 H3( $5A> $'$>

&ASIC INSULATION LEVEL Q: Cefine @asic Insulation level? Ans: The measure of the insulation capa!ility of a piece of electrical eLuipmentM the eLuipmentKs a!ility to ithstan" very high voltage surges. @I9 : @asic Impulse 9evel % !ascially a in"icator of "ielectric strength Q: What is purpose of lightning impulse? Ans: It is use" to simulate lightning stri#es here the full ave shape is here the voltage crest reaches a ma)imum at $.' microsecon"s an" then "ecays to 358 in 35 microsecon"s. Q: What is purpose of s itching impulse test? Ans: The s itching impulse test is use" to simulate man%ma"e type transients. Q: What is voltage surge? Ans: An uninterrupte" voltage increase that lasts more than a fe secon"s is usually calle" a Nvoltage surgeN rather than a spi#e. These are usually cause" !y malfunctions of the electric po er "istri!ution system. Q: Q: What is po er freLuency overvoltages? Ans: The only voltage rise that ca!le insulation ill !e capa!le to ithstan" is the po er freLuency overvoltages. Therefore& often ca!le insulation is teste" using Hi%pot. Q: +an ca!le insulation is capa!lt to ithstan" lightning overvolatges? Ans: 0ince the ca!le insulation ill not "irectly capa!le to ithstan" the lightning overvoltage ($55Os to $555Os D6 for $5P%> secon"s)& there is not reason to rate ca!le in term of @I9. Ho ever& the surge arrester use" to protect the ca!le is rate" for lightning ave an" other temporally overvoltage parameters. Q: Ho voltage spi#es are pro"uce"? Ans: @y a rapi" !uil"up or "ecay of a magnetic fiel"& hich in"uce energy into the associate" circuit. Ho ever voltage spi#es can also have more mun"ane causes such as a fault in a transformer or higher% voltage (primary circuit) po er ires falling onto lo er%voltage (secon"ary circuit) po er ires as a result of acci"ent or storm "amage. Q: What is aftereffect of 6oltage spi#e? Ans: The effect of a voltage spi#e is to pro"uce a correspon"ing increase in current (current spi#e). Ho ever some voltage spi#es may !e create" !y current sources. 6oltage oul" increase as necessary so that a constant current ill flo .

+ase%I If !rea#er is in close position an" a ne close comman" is sent to !rea#er& then spring ill "ischarge ; charge again. To prevent this charging an" "ischarging of spring& a mechanisms #no n as anti% pumping is use" in circuit !rea#er. the anti%pumping coil use" to !y pass the repetitive closing comman" .it is use" to save the closing coil. +ase%II If a circuit%!rea#er is in process of closing then "uring this process a fault happens (temporary) an" push !utton of the !rea#er is still presse" then circuit%!rea#er ill close in fault perio"& to prevent reclose anti%pumping relay is use". (o) do )e c"a##i*y an Antipumpin% re"ay+ It is classifie" as an au)iliary relay. Why Antipumping relay is use"? Anti pumping relaying is "one primarily to in"icate the spring failure of T/+ s itch an" a person nee" to atten" the pro!lem. The function of this relay is to cut off the supply to 3'+ (+@ closing coil) in case of T/+ s itch spring failure an" prevent +@ hunting effect (i.e. continuous closing& opening operation). Anti pumping is also calle" trip free mechanism of any circuit !rea#er. 0uppose the !rea#er has !een instructe" to close !y manual instruction !y pressing the T/+ (trip neutral close push !utton) s itch. The operating mechanism ill start operating for closing operation. 2ean hile a fault has ta#en place an" relay closes the trip circuit of !rea#er. The trip free mechanism7 Anti pumping feature permits the circuit !rea#er to !e trippe" !y protective relay even if it is un"er process of closing. Thus au)iliary relay (or sometimes the in!uilt feature of circuit !rea#er) hich prevent alternate tripping an" closing of the circuit !rea#er if closing push !utton is hel" close "uring fault is calle" the trip free mechanism or anti pumping mechanism. ,-at i# *unction . Uti"ity o* "ockout re"ay+ When a QQ"rive%to%loc#outOO input is energiBe"& the reclosing relay ill go into loc#out from any point in the seLuence. The relay ill stay in loc#out until the input is remove" an" the !rea#er is close" manually or !y supervisory control. ,pon removal& the recloser ill go through its reset seLuence an" return to QQrea"yO state.

All the "ifferent trip signals from fault "etection "evices are ire" to the loc#out relay& hich is the master trip relay for the circuit !rea#er. It is usually a manually reset relay ith an in"icating flag or lamp. The generator s itchgear is recommen"e" to have t o separate loc#out relays. One ill receive all the electrical protection relay trip signals& an" "enote" as A>R$. The other ill receive a master trip signal (or several trip signals) from the tur!ine unit control panel& an" "enote" as A>R'. It operates henever any of the protection relay operates an" oul" prevent any circuit !rea#er operation until the loc# out relay is manually rest. So an 86 lockout relay cannot fulfill the purpose of anti pumping relay. The function of anti pumping relay is to cut off the supply to closing coil in case of T/+ s itch spring failure an" prevent +@ hunting effect (i.e. continuous closing& opening operation) an" a person nee"s to atten" the pro!lem. Where as A> loc# out relay contact in closing circuit is meant to ensure that a person ha" atten"e" the fault occurre" an" e are closing the circuit after clearing the circuit.