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Acoustics

The science of sound, including its production, propagation and effects The objective study of the physical behavior of sound in an enclosed space

Sound
A wave motion consisting of a series of condensations and rarefactions in an elastic medium produced by a vibrating body

Requirements to Produce Sound


1. Presence of vibrating body 2. Presence of transmitting medium 3. Presence of receiving medium

AUDIBLE FREQUENCY RANGE

Infrasonic/Subsonic
frequencies below the audible range

Ultrasonic/Supersonic
frequencies above the audible range

Audible Range: 20 Hz 20kHz

Physical Properties of Sound


1. Amplitude magnitude of the vibration (pressure, current, voltage) 2. Period time it takes to complete a vibration/cycle 3. Frequency number of vibrations / cycle per unit time

Physical Properties of Sound


4. Wavelength physical length of a vibration
5. Velocity of Propagation Vsound << VRF (344 m/sec << 3 x 108 m/sec)

Velocity of Sound
Solids

Where: E = Youngs Modulus of elasticity, dynes/cm3 d = density of the medium, g/cm3

Velocity of Sound
Liquids

Where: E = Bulks Modulus of elasticity, dynes/cm3 d = density of the medium, g/cm3

Velocity of Sound
Gases

Where: k = specific heat ratio = hsp/hsv hsp = specific heat at constant pressure hsv = specific heat at constant volume p = gas pressure, dynes/cm2 d = density, g/cm3

Velocity of Sounds
Dry Air/Air (for TC 20 0C)

Velocity of Sounds
Dry Air/Air (for TC 20 0C)

where: TK = temperature in Kelvin

Velocity of Sounds
Notes
Sounds travel more slowly in gases than in liquids, and more slowly in liquids than in solids. Sounds travels slower with an increased altitude (elevation if you are on solid earth), primarily as a result and humidity changes.

Possibilities when a Propagated Sound is Obstructed (3)

Possibilities when a Propagated Sound is Obstructed (3)


Sound is Reflected
Echo
Becomes apparent to the listener only when the distance from the source and the reflecting medium is great and the difference between the original and reflected sound is greater or equal to 1/17 of a second.

Flutter
Brought about by a series of reflections between two parallel surfaces resulting to prolongation of sound Creates listening fatigue

Interference
Reflection caused by two parallel surfaces, producing standing waves

Possibilities when a Propagated Sound is Obstructed


Sound is absorbed
Conversion of sound energy to heat energy

Onward transmission through obstruction

Physiological Characteristics of Wave Motion (3)


Pitch

Physiological Characteristics of Wave Motion (3)


Pitch
Number of cycles a wave goes through in a definite interval The higher the frequency, the higher the pitch
Mel unit of pitch 1000 mels pitch of 1000Hz tone at 40dB Octave pitch interval 2:1; frequency is twice the given tone

Physiological Characteristics of Wave Motion (3)


Tone
Timbre quality of sound
Pure Tone a sound composed of only one frequency in which the sound pressure varies sinusoidally with time. Musical Sound composed of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics

Physiological Characteristics of Wave Motion (3)


Loudness
Fluctuation of air pressure created by sound waves Observers auditory impression of the strength of a sound and is associated with the rate at which energy is transmitted to the ear. Depends on the amplitude of the sound Loudness Level measured by the sound level of a standard pure tone or specified frequency which is assessed by normal observers as being equally loud

PHON
Phon is the unit of loudness level when:
The standard pure tone is produced by a sensibly plane sinusoidal progressive sound wave coming from directly in front of the observer and having the frequency of 1kHz The sound pressure level in the free progressive wave is expressed in dB above 2 x 10-5 N/m2

SONE
Sone is the unit of loudness of an individual listener. Phon = 40 + 10 log2 sone

Sound Levels
Sound Pressure (P) and Sound Pressure Level (SPL)
Sound Pressure
The alternating component of the pressure at a particular point in a sound field Expressed in N/m2 or Pa

Sound Levels
Sound Pressure Level
Equal to 20 times the logarithm to the base 10 of the ratio of the RMS sound pressure to the reference sound pressure
Where: P = rms sound pressure Po = reference sound pressure Po = 2 x 10-5 N/m2 or Pa or 2 x 10-4 dynes/cm2 Po = 0.0002 bar or 2.089 lb/ft2

SPL = 20 log (P/Po)

Sound Pressure Levels

Sound Pressure Levels


Sound Pressure Level (SPL) at any unit of pressure in dB

SPL = 20log(P+N)
Where: PN = rms sound pressure expressed in any of pressure in dB N = SPL constant corresponding to the unit at which sound pressure is expressed

Sound Pressure Levels

SPL Constants
Unit of Sound Pressure Microbar Pascal lb/ft2 SPL Constant Designation (N) bar N/m2 psf 74 94 127.6

mmHg torr lb/in2 atm (technical) atm (standard)

mmHg torr psi atm atm

136.5 136.5 170.8 193.8 194.1

Sound Levels
Sound Intensity (I) and Sound Intensity Level (SIL) Sound Intensity
Defined as the acoustic power per unit area The basic units are W/m2 or W/cm2 The average rate of transmission of sound energy through a cross-sectional area of 1 m2 at right angles to a particular direction.

Sound Levels

Sound Levels

Sound Levels
For sound produced at ground level

Sound Levels
Sound Intensity

I = 2 / d v
Where: d density of the medium (kg/m3) v velocity of sound in medium (m/sec) rms pressure in Pa (N/m2)

Sound Levels
Sound Intensity in Air

I = 2 / 410
Where: dv 410 ray/sec rms pressure in Pa (N/m2)

Sound Levels
Sound Intensity Level

Where: I = sound intensity, Io = threshold intensity, Io = 10-12 W/m2 or 10-16 W/cm2

Sound Levels
Sound Power (W) and Sound Power Level (PWL) Sound Power (W)
The total energy radiated per unit time.

Sound Levels
Sound Power Level (PWL)

Where: W = sound power , W Wo = reference sound power Wo = 10-12 w

Room Acoustics
Room Acoustics
Concerned with the behavior of sound within an enclosed space with a view to obtaining the optimum acoustic effect on the occupants

Room Acoustics

Room Acoustics
Requirements
Adequate amount of sound must reach all parts of the room. Even distribution of sound Noise must be reduced to an acceptable level. Optimum Reverberation time, RT60

Reverberation
Reverberation
Tendency for the sound to persist over a definite period of time after it has been produced originally and stopped at the source.

Reverberation
Reverberation

Reverberation
Reverberation Time, RT60
Time taken for the density of sound energy in the room to drop to 1 millionth (60dB) below of its initial value

Optimum Periods of Reverberation

Factors Affecting Reverberation Time


Volume of the room Type of materials Surface area of material

TYPES OF ROOM
LIVE ROOM - Little absorption (RT60 > 1 sec) DEAD ROOM - Large absorption (RT60 < 1 sec) ANECHOIC ROOM - 100% absorption (free field conditions)

Room Acoustics
Coefficient of absorption,
Ratio of incident sound and absorbed sound Efficiency of sound absorption

Room Acoustics
Coefficient of Absorption

Room Acoustics
Coefficient of Absorption

Reverberation Time Equations


a. Sabines Equation
For actual reverberation time with average absorption less than or equal to 0.2; (absorption coefficient, 0.2)

Where; V = room volume, m3 A = total absorption units

Reverberation Time Equations

Where; V = room volume, ft3 A = total absorption units

Reverberation Time Equations


Example: Calculate the reverberation time of a broadcast studio 8 ft. high by 13 ft wide by 20 ft. long. The material used has a total absorption of 180.75 sabines.

Reverberation Time Equations


b. Norris Eyring Equation
For actual reverberation time with average absorption greater than 0.2; ( 0.2 )
Where; V = room volume, m3 = average coefficient of reflecting surfaces

Reverberation Time Equations


Example: A lecture room, 16 m. long, 12.5 m. wide and 5 m. high has a reverberation time of 0.75 sec. Calculate the average absorption coefficient of the surfaces using the Eyring formula.

Reverberation Time Equations


c. Stephens and Bate Equation For ideal reverberation time computation

Where: r = 4 for speech r = 5 for orchestra r = 6 for choir

Optimum Volume / person


Concert Halls 7.1 Italian type opera houses 4.2 5.1 Churches Cinemas Rooms for Speeches 2.8
7.1 9.9 3.1

Reverberation Time Equations


Example: Suggest the optimum volume and reverberation time for a concert hall to be used mainly for orchestral music and to hold 450 people.

Microphone
An acoustic device classified as a transducer which converts sound waves into their corresponding electrical impulses

Transducer
A device which when actuated by energy in one transmission system, supplies energy in the same form or in another form, to a second transmission system

Classification of Microphones
A. General Categories
1. Passive (Generator Type) Microphone
Does not require external power source

2. Active (Amplifier Type) Microphone


Needs an external power source for its operation

Classification of Microphones
B. According to Impedance
1. High Impedance
Greater than 1000 ohms

2. Low Impedance
1000 ohms and below

Classification of Microphones
C. According to Method of Coupling
Pressure Type - Actuated by the pressure of sound waves against the diaphragm.

Classification of Microphones
C. According to Method of Coupling
Velocity Type
- actuated by
velocity of sound waves

Classification of Microphones
C. According to Method of Coupling

Contact Type

Classification of Microphones
D. According to Elements Used 1. Dynamic
Uses the principle of electromagnetic induction Electromagnetic moving coil microphone A medium-priced instrument of high sensitivity

Classification of Microphones

Classification of Microphones
2. Ribbon
Velocity microphone Ribbon moves as if it is a part of the air that experiences rarefactions and condensations

Classification of Microphones

Classification of Microphones
3. Capacitor
Condenser type or electrostatic microphone

Classification of Microphones
4. Carbon
Uses principle of variable resistance

Classification of Microphones
5. Crystal
Uses principle of piezoelectric effect

Classification of Microphones
6. Magnetic
Operated on the magnetic reluctance due to the movable core

Classification of Microphones
E. According to directional Characteristics Unidirectional

Classification of Microphones
E. According to directional Characteristics Bidirectional

Classification of Microphones
E. According to directional Characteristics Omnidirectional

Classification of Microphones
E. According to directional Characteristics Cardioid

Characteristics of Microphone
1. Frequency Response
Frequency over which the microphone will operate normally Magnetic Crystal Condenser Carbon : : : : 60 10 50 10 50 15 200 3 000Hz 000Hz 000Hz 000Hz

Characteristics of Microphone
2. Sensitivity
Ability that would be covered by the microphone

3. Dynamic Range
Range of sound intensity that would be covered by the microphone

Special Types of Microphones


Line Microphone
Capable of picking up sound from a great distance at an angle of 45 degrees and is highly sensitive

Special Types of Microphones


Differential Microphone Used in noisy places; good up to 3-in distance

Types of Loudspeakers
Direct Radiator Type
Those in which the vibrating surface (diaphragm) radiates sound directly into the air

1. Dynamic or Moving Coil Loudspeaker


Makes use of a moving coil in a magnetic field and a permanent magnet

Types of Loudspeakers
Dynamic or Moving Coil Loudspeaker

Types of Loudspeakers
Electrostatic Loudspeaker
Operates on the same principle as a condenser microphone

Types of Loudspeakers
Horn Type
Those in which a horn is interposed between the diaphragm and the air Used for efficient coupling of sound into the air Types:
Conical Horn Parabolic Horn Exponential Horn Hyperbolic Horn

Types of Loudspeakers
To cover the entire range of audible frequencies, the following speakers are used:

Types of Loudspeakers
Woofer for low frequencies

Types of Loudspeakers
Tweeter for high frequencies

Types of Loudspeakers
Midrange for normal range

Types of Loudspeakers
Subwoofer for very low frequencies

DIVIDING NETWORK

Loudspeaker Phasing
When more than one speaker is used:
Phasing must be uniform Polarities and voice coils are in phase such that the cone of all the speakers move inwards at the same instant.

Loudspeaker Enclosure (Baffle)


Loudspeaker mounting that is used to prevent the sound waves from the rear from interfering with the sound waves in the front of speaker