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MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji urge to protect oneself from threats, Maithunan means propogation of species.

Considering these common characters what is it that makes a human being the Crown of Creation? That is the faculty of Buddhi, the capacity to think, to know. Because of this unique faculty, a human being can study his life, learn from lifes experiences, project the future and thereby he can set goals for himself and consistently and carefully work for those goals. Animals on the other hand are programmed by nature and can function by instinct alone. So only a human being can have goals in life, otherwise called Purusharthas in Sanskrit (Purusha means human being, Artha means goal). How many goals are possible? Apparently, a single person can have many goals. I said apparently because, really does a human being have so many goals or is it really one? On analysis, we find, though superficially, there are many goals, in fact, deep down, he is seeking through money, position, fame and all the gadgets only one thing, that is happiness. We give logic in support of this. For example, let us say a person buys something; say a car or a new type of phone or something similar. He buys it with the hope that it will be useful and give him happiness (Ananda). Once he starts using it, after a while it starts giving trouble. He thinks I bought it thinking this will give me Ananda; but now it has become a source of trouble. So

2 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji let me sell it off even if I lose in the deal, it is ok! If he is fed up with it, he may even give it free to an Ashram! So we want all things only as long as they give Ananda. The moment trouble starts, we want to be rid of it. So the only real goal is Ananda. All of us including scientists are working in this direction alone. Every invention is ultimately connected with human happiness. Our scriptures too help us in this endeavour. Our original scriptures, the Vedas are a source of knowledge. They are supposed to be revelations to our Rishis in their meditations and have been handed down to us. As they were heard, they are called Shruthis. They are like the May I help you counters in the railway stations. The Vedas talk about the ultimate goal called Parama Purusharthawhich is nothing but Ananda. Anandacan be classified into two types depending on the source. 1. Anandacoming from external sources either from objects, people, situations or a combination of these. Scriptures call it Vishayananda. Majority of people work in this field alone. The spend most of their energy 3 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji and time to identify, acquire and enjoy happiness from external sources.

2. Anandafrom internal sorce. This source is called Atma, the essence of me/you. This belongs to you and this inner source gives Ananda called Atmananda. If we have an inner source, how come, the majority does not know about it and hanker after external sources? Scriptures point out that the inner source is hidden (Hiranya Nidhim, Goodham, Guhyam) So how to get this? It is exactly like a person who has a treasure buried in his land but is ignorant of it and thinks he is poor. Somebody who knows will have to come and tell him that he has a treasure in his property only and that he is in fact rich. Knowing is not enough. One has to remove the mud and rock above, own up the treasure and enjoy it. Similar is the case with Atmananda. Here mud and rock are the obstacles at the level of mind and intellect. So identifying the treasure is Shravanam, removing doubts is Mananam, owning up the ananda is Nidhidhyasanam. Between Vishayanandaand Atmananda, which is better? Shastrapresents the pros and cons of both and it is for you to choose. 4 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Vishayananda: The main plus point is that it is easier to acquire and that is why majority go for it. Even if it is hell, if there are a few friends, I feel at home! The main minus point is, Vishayanandais coming from external world, it depends on many external factors which

are invariably changing in a dynamic system that the world is. So there is a constant fear and anxiety about the set up remaining the same. Secondly, whatever is borrowed and not my own, is subject to loss. What has come will certainly go away. For example, let us take the case of a vessel on a fire. There is water in the vessel and vegetables in the water. In this system, the vessel, water and vegetables get heated up because of the fire. Here fire is always hot, heat being its intrinsic property where as all other things like vessel, water and vegetables borrow heat from the fire and get hot. When there is no longer any fire, they get cooled indicating that heat is only a borrowed character in them. Similarly Vishayanandacan never be permanent because it is borrowed. Atmananda: As it does not come from outside, it is unconditional. Outside fluctuations cannot disturb it. So it is 5 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji not subject to loss. The world cannot blackmail me, there is no anxiety. Total dependence on Vishayananda makes life miserable. When life is based on inner Ananda, one is independent. Scriptures objectively present the methods of acquiring both the Anandas. The portion dealing with getting Vishayanandais called Veda Purva and the portion dealing with Atmanandais Veda Antaha. This Vedanta (Veda +anta = Vedanta) is

known as Self Knowledge or Upanishad, which means that which destroys dependence. (Upani = atma vidya, Shadu = destroyer of dependence) As Veda Purvadeals with Vishayananda, it talks about action and rituals and urges one to work hard to procure all objects and therefore promotes dependence on external factors either persons, objects or situations. Atmanandawhich is the subject of Vedanta promotes independence and therefore the stress of Vedantais on renunciation which means dropping all dependencies. It is mainly knowledge based. 6 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Having pointed out the differences, Vedasgive us the freedom to pursue either of them depending on what I want. If Vishayanandais dependence promoting and subject to loss, then why does a part of Veda advocate it at all? Is there any relevance to it at all? Yes. Veda Purvahas one important role. Let us say a ritualistic person performs a lot of rituals and gets lots of things. Though there is constant anxiety of losing whatever is acquired, lot of people wont mind that. However, a few people will realize the futility of these exercises and the limitation of Vishayanandaand develop a desire for Atmananda.Even after a person develops a desire for Atmananda, he cannot directly go to it. Desire alone is not enough. One requires qualification to enter Vedanta. So he

should continue in Veda Purva, make some modifications in his Karmas. This modified Karma (also mentioned in Veda Purva) will help him come to Vedanta. So the two benefits of Veda Purvaare: 1. helps to get Vishayananda, 2. Provides required qualification to enter Vedanta. So Veda Purvaitself can be of two steps. First step is Karma(action, rituals), and 7 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Second step is Karma Yoga. Karmagives Vishayanandaand Karma Yogapolishes me to go to Vedanta. UPANISHADS Now we will focus on Vedanta. It is called Vedanta because of two reasons. One is because it is in the end portion of Vedas. The other reason is because; it is here that the ultimate meaning of the whole Vedasis revealed (Thathparyaha). There are many synonyms: Veda Shiraha Shruthi Shiraha Veda Shiro Matruka Sapta Swaraha The other name is Jnana Kandambecause the emphasis is on Self discovery. Another name is Atma Vidyaas here we are enquiring into ourselves. Another important name is Upanishad. This is a significant

word with three portions: Upa, Ni, Shad. Upa means that Self knowledge which is to be acquired from a Gurualone (Guru Upasadanam). Self study is a NO NO. With self study there is a ninety percent chance that he wont understand and a ten percent chance he will misunderstand which is worse. Shankaracharyasays 8 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Shastragnopi Swatantrena Brahmanveshanam Na Kuryat. So Guru Upasadanamis very important. Ni means Nishchaya Jnanam, a knowledge that has to be acquired thoroughly and comprehensively. Half knowledge is dangerous. This knowledge cannot be gained by casually hearing something here and there. Just like a feeble flame cannot ignite a log of wood, but a bright fire well kindled and nurtured can destroy any wood into ashes, knowledge has to be systematically acquired and nurtured until it is thoroughly internalized for ignorance to be burnt down. Sad/Shad means destroyer. That is destroyer of all types of psychological dependences. One with this knowledge is ready to have anything and prepared to lose anything. So that knowledge to be gained from a Guru thoroughly, which will destroy Samsara(bondage) is Upanishad. Upanishadsoccur at the end of all Vedas. Just like books, Vedashave many sub-divisions and each one is called a Shaka which means a branch. Originally Vedas had 1180 branches. Now many have been lost. That is why one section

of people, the Brahmanas job was only to study and teach Vedasin order to preserve and protect them. In fact in Shankaras commentary, we find Vedic Quotations which we are unable to find in available Vedic Mantras. So it means 9 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji many Mantrashave been lost between Shankarastime and now. Each Shakaof Vedahas an Upanishad. So originally there were 1180. Now 108 Upanishads are available.Out of these, the most popular and famous are ten Upanishadsto which Shankaracharyahas written commentaries. Thse are Isa, Kena, Katha, Prasna, Mundaka, Mandukya, Taittereya, Aithareya, Chndogyaand Brihadaranyaka. Why were these ten chosen for commentaries? Shankara says is it because in Brahma Sutras, these ten Upanishads are prominently commented upon. The BrahmaSutras lend logical support to Vedanticteaching. In Upanishads, there is not that much logic. The Bhagavad Gitais Upanishadin diluted form. All the three, the Brahma Sutra, Upanishadand Bhagawad Gitatogether are the Prasthana Traya and form the foundation of Vedanticthought. MUNDAKA UPANISHAD This Upanishadbelongs to the Atharvana Veda. It derives this name from a ritual mentioned towards the end of this Upanishad. It was a ritual called Mundaka Vratham or Shirovratham in which fire in a container was carried on the head to the accompaniment of Mantrachanting by the

prospective student of Vedas. Any ritual is meant for 10 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji qualification, so that religious life will give the necessary mental make up to study the Upanishad. This Upanishadhas more than sixty Mantrasand three Chapters. Each chapter is divided into two sections. Each chapter is called a Mundaka and each section is called a Shaka. Why is Mundakachosen to be taught first, though Isais mentioned as the first in the list? It is because it is relatively smaller and comprehensive. That is, all the important aspects of Vedantaare dealt with in that. In others, all ideas are not there. For example, in Kena, Srishti Vicharais not there. All Upanishadsbegin with a prayer called Shanthi Patha. This prayer differs depending on the Veda of origin of the Upanishad. Purpose of the Shanthi Patha Shanthimeans removal of obstacles. Just like we do Ganesha Poojabefore every endeavor, Shanthi Pathais chanted before Upanishadstudy. 11 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Patahameans recitation. So the prayer is recited by both student and teacher. For any endeavor to succeed, individual effort and the Lords

grace have to go hand in hand. But then even grace is not freely distributed. We have to make ourselves deserving of grace with sincere effort on our part and prayer to the Lord for grace. It is like solar energy. Though solar energy is free, I need to use my effort to tap it. Similarly we need prayer to tap Ishwara Anugraha. So let us chant the Shanthi Mantra.

Om ! Bhadram Karnebhih: Shrunuyaama Devaah: Bhadram Pashyemaakshabhir Yajathraah: | Sthirairangai Sthushthuvaagum Sastanoobhih: Yashema Devahitham Yadhaayuh: | 12 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Svasthi Na Indhro Vriddhashravaah: Svasthi Nah Pooshaa Vishva Vedaah: |

Svasthi Nasthaakshyo Arishtanemih: Om Shanthi Shanthi Shanthihi This prayer can be chanted by Vedanticstudents and others as well. It is addressed to various Devataswho preside over our organs. One Lord controls the creation through various cosmic forces. They derive their strength and authority from Ishwara. The first prayer is with regard to our ears. Let me hear what is being said well. Secondly let me hear good things from the world. It is only when I dont hear bad things that my mind is reasonably peaceful and receptive to Vedanticteaching. In Vedanticcontext good things also can mean Upanishad, which of course is the best thing one can happen to hear. Let me hear this again and again. The one ultimate Mangalamis Atmatattvam and let me hear that alone. The next prayer is with regard to eyes. First let me see well. Secondly let me see auspicious things (Bhadram). In case of Vedanticstudent, the most auspicious thing is Sarvatra Brahma Darshanam. 13 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji He yajathraha O protectors of worshippers. Stirairangaihi Stushtuvagam Sasthanoobhihi This is a general prayer which says Let us all be endowed with firm limbs in order to be able to worship you ( Sthyavanam Kurvathaha) which means to serve the Universe. Many times we do not even know how to pray properly.

Scriptures therefore teach us through such beautiful prayers which are called Sooktas. Tanuhu here means Vedicprayers or Sooktas. Devahitam Yadhayuhu Vyashema: Let us enjoy the full life allotted to us by the Lord. Let me be fit enough till my last breath. Let me not have Apamruthyu Indraha Naha Swasthi: Indra represents strength (Balam). So let him bless me with strength both physical and mental. This is very important as I will have to face the ups and downs of life and still be able to study Scriptures. If all my limited strength is gone in caring about family problems alone, where is the question of study? So I need time and strength to withstand the onslaughts of life and still be able to set aside all that for the purpose of study. 14 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Vruddha Shravahameans the most famous one or Brihat Keerthihi. Pooshameans Sun. Pushnati iti Poosha, one who energises and nourishes the whole creation here. Poosha Naha Swasthi: Let Suryashower his grace. Let him give me Pranic energy in addition to physical and mental energy. This is invoked in the Gayathri Mantraalso (Dheeyo Yonaha Prachodayat). This Suryais Vishwa Veda , the Omniscient one or Sarvajnaha. Tarkshya Naha Swasthi : Tarakshyameans Garuda Deva. Naha means to us. He is Arishtanemihi.

Arishtameans unobstructed, Nemihimeans flight. He whose flight is unobstructed, let him bless me with a similar quality in my spiritual journey. Swami Dayanandajiused to say, Garudabeing Vishnus vahanais like a presidents car which is not obstructed by any traffic lights, jams etc! So even if you want to be a driver, be the driver of the presidents car! Next is the prayer to Brihaspati, Lord of speech. Let him bless me with proper speech. Speech involves both my speaking and proper understanding of others speech as well. After all Vedantais a series of dialogues. 15 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji The prayer is concluded with Shanthihirepeated three times. This repetition three times is significant because all obstacles can be said to come from three sources. 1. Adhyatmika those that originate from myself like aches, pains, unnecessary worries and thoughts can disturb me during Shravanam. So I pray for the Adhyatmic Shanthi. 2. Adhiboutika disturbances from my surroundings like loud noise, insects, mosquitos, TV nearby can be obstacles to my study. So the prayer for Adhiboutika Shanthi. 3. Adhidaivika the forces of nature over which I have no control like rain, earthquake etc. can also disturb my pursuit. So let all these obstacles be removed. So with this prayer, now let us get into the text proper.

I Chapter, I Section The first section has three topics. 1. The glorification of Atma Vidya (Vidya Mahima), Guru Lakshanam(qualifications of a Guru) and Shishya Lakshanam(qualification of a student). 16 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 1. brahm devnm prathama sambabhva vivasya kart bhuvanasya gopt, sa brahma-vidy sarva-vidy-pratiham arthavya jyeha-putrya prha. This teaching is coming in the form of Guru Shishya Parampara. So it is an ancient teaching coming from time immemorial. Brahmahimself was the first Guru. He was the first being born from Vishnu and all Vedicknowledge was given to him. Vivasya Kart Bhuvanasya Gopt Brahmacreated the whole world and not only that protects it too (gopayathi). He is not a mere creator but the initiator of the greatest Vidya (Brahma Vidya) Parampara. He taught this Vidyato his son Atharva. This method, studying Vedasfrom ones own father is called Niyamadhyayanam and is said to be most auspicious. Pratihamhere means Parisamapthior culmination of. This is another glory of Brahma Vidya. It is the culmination of all other branches of science. Physics should lead a person to metaphysics. Otherwise those sciences are worthless. All the other sciences get validated only when they help you understand Vedanticteachings. This applies not only to modern sciences; even traditional sciences like Tarka, Mimansa,

Grammar also find their fulfillment only when used as stepping stones to study Vedanta. 17 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 2. artharvae ym pravadeta brahmtharv tm purovcgire brahma-vidyam, sa bhradvjaya satyavhya prha bhradvjongirase parvarm. Atharva gave this knowledge to the next generation Angir. This happened long long ago. Angirtaught this to Bharadwaja, also called Satyavaha or Satyvaahawhich means a person who speaks truth alone. So here we also know about a qualification of the student being truthful. The famous statement Sathyamevajayathe is from Mundaka alone. Bharadwajataught this to Angira(in Sanskrit Angiras). Every generation was truthful to the teachings. Every student has a debt to the teacher. That is to share this knowledge with at least one disciple. Otherwise they said, you will become a Brahma Rakshasa. All these methods were used to preserve the teaching. That is why we are still able to study it today. The first three Mantrasare an introduction which extol the glory of the Brahma Vidyaas the most ancient, time tested, used by our forefathers who derived benefit. The Guru Shishya Paramparaof six generations is given. 18 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji This teaching is called Paravara, that which has come

down through Guru Shishya Parampara. Para = Guru, Avara = Shishya. Parasmath Parasmath Guroho Avarena Avarena Prapthya Ya Vidha Sa paravara Isyuchyathe It is that teaching flowing from a higher level ( Guru) to a lower lever (Shishya) just like Ganga Deviflows down from the head of Shivato bless humanity. That is why in our culture Ganga Deviis compared to Self knowledge ( Gnana Ganga). Both Ganga and Brahma Vidyaoriginate from the Lords head and flow down. Gangais perennial, so also is Self knowledge. Gangapurifies and elevates a person, so does Self knowledge. 3. aunako ha vai mahalogirasa vidhivad upasanna papraccha, kasmin nu bhagavo vijte sarvam ida vijtam bhavati iti. Now the sixth generation from Angirasto Shounakais introduced. The way Shounakaapproached Angirasis 19 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji described. Shounakawas a Mahashalawhich means he was a Grihastawith a huge Yagashalaand a huge Pakashala. This indirectly indicates that he had performed lots of Yagas and Yajnas, i.e., rituals. No ritual is complete without feeding people; he had a huge Pakashala, so he had done lot of Annadanam also. He was a person who led a religious life of Karmayoga. Because of this alone, he developed interest in Vedanta. The indirect lesson here is that before a person comes to Vedanta, he should

have led a life of religion and made his mind mature. Without religion, Vedantais a big zero; an irreligious philosophy has no role in our culture. So Shraddha, Bhakthiand Ishwara Vishwasa are all a must before one goes to Vedanta. So Shounaka was a religious person who had also done a lot of Annadanam/charities (Yajnamand Danampurify the mind. In Gitaalso it is there Yajna Dana Tapa Karyam, No Thyajyam). The word Mahashalaindicates all this. So they were Grihastas who had done all this and brought up many children thereby getting Vairagyam. Guru Upasadanam he approached the Guru(student should approach the Guru). Haand Vaisuggest that it is an ancient incident but still happened and not fiction. 20 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Vidhivat according to Shastricrules/injunctions. Rikthapanena Nagachethu Raja Guru Devam one should not go to see the Guruwith empty hands. Atleast we must take some fruits, flowers or Thulasi leaves. Having given the offering, should do Sashtanga Namaskaram. Namaskarais the physical expression of humility. So Shounakafollowed all these Shastric protocol. Main qualification of the Guruis that he should have been a student first. Without being a Shishya, a person cannot be a Guru. Such a one is called Sampradayavit Guruhu. Now Upanishadenters into the topic. The Shishyarequests the

Guruand questions him. They also indicate that one should not teach Vedantawithout being asked. Naprushtaha Kasyachid Bruyat Never force this teaching on an uninterested person. Hey Bhagavaha Oh glorious one. This indicates reverence for the teacher. Shishya should show respect. Gurushould not demand it. Kasmin Nu Bhagavo Vijte sarvam Ida Vijtam Bhavati Iti I want to know the basic substance of this creation (Truth, reality of the creation) by knowing which everything becomes known essentially. The principle behind this is, in this creation 21 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji we experience many products born out of one particular cause, just like many ornaments out of one material that is gold, different types of furniture from one wood. If you anlayse ornaments and gold, the words bangle, chain, ring are names but there is no new substance other than gold in them. When we say bangle is created, there is no increase in the weight of gold as nothing new has been added. Then what has happened? Creation is only a word; the gold which is already there has been given a form and a name. Gold alone has weight. In Sanskrit, it is called Nama Rupaaddition. Chain = gold + Nama Rupa. Vedantasays, similarly all the products we see are names and forms alone; and the substance is one cause alone. By knowing

that one cause, you have indirectly known all the effects which are nothing but the cause itself in different Vesham (guises). Eka Karana Jnanena Aneka Karyajnanam Bhavathi Student wants to know the basic cause (or stuff) of the whole creation. Let us call it Mula Karanam. The advantage of that is, he can easily say, everything in creation is that Karanamalone in different names and forms. Space, air, fire, water, earth everything in God alone in names and forms. This principle alone is highlighted in the Puranicstory. Naradaconducts a 22 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji competition for Ganesha and Muruga. Whoever goes round the whole creation and comes back first will get a special mango. Murugagoes off on his peacock fast. Ganeshabeing chubby, is slow to move but quick to think! He does Pradakshinato his parents and wins! Here Shiva & Parvathisymbolize the whole creation (Ekam Karanam). Subramanyaapproached by exploring every product (Karyam), Vinayakainstead went to the root of everything. If you know the one God, you have understood everything essentially. In Vedantathis Karanamis called Brahman. The entire Mundaka Upanishadis an answer to this question. All sciences are also aiming at this same basic truth of creation from their own sides. With the third Mantrathe introduction is over. So Guru Angirasnow gives the teaching. He introduces two branches of knowledge. One called Para

Vidyaor higher knowledge and the other Apara Vidya, a lower knowledge. Brahma Vidyais the superior knowledge and all other material sciences are inferior knowledge. Why is it so? 23 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji The first reason is Apara Vidyais a study of effects and by knowing the effect of one product, another one is not known. Para Vidyaon the other hand is study of cause and by knowing the cuase, all effects are known. All other sciences are effects of one cause only. 4. tasami sa hovca: dve vidye veditavye iti ha sma yad brahmavido vadanti, par caivpar ca. Dve Vidye Veditavye:here note that Angirasdoes not take any credit to himself, but attributes it all to his Purva Acharyasand Brahma Jnanis. Brahman,the cause, even though one pervades all the effects, therefore it is everywhere. Atheists wrote God is nowhere. A person made a slight change and wrote God is now here! Keeping the effect, how can we negate the cause? A brief commentary on Aparavidya:traditionally ten branches are there, four Vedasand six Vedangas. In Apara Vidya, the word Vedameans Veda Purva. 24 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji

5. tatrpar g-vedo yajur-veda sma-vedotharva-veda ik kalpo vykaraa nirukta chando jyotiamiti. atha par yay tad akaram adhigamyate Vedangasmean auxiliary sciences. They are Angabecause by studying them Vedasare understood better (just like physics, maths and chemistry). They are the six steps to be crossed over to reach Vedantha. Shikshameans science of prononciation how to pronounce the Veda Mantras. This is important as 1. Vedaswere never written but learnt by heart and taught orally. So pronunciation was very important as mistakes could increase exponentially over generations. This subject analyses which letter originates from which part of body, which is the Devathaand all such details. That is why, even after ten thousand years Vedasare preserved. 2. Mimamsais analysis of meanings of Vedicwords. The meanings of Vedic words differ depending on where the word is placed (beginning, middle, and end) in the Veda. 25 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Upakramana Nyaya, Upasamhara Nyaya and Abhyasa Nyayaare all the rules to decipher the meaning of words in Vedas. If I should know the position of Mantras,it is possible only if I know the whole thing by heart. So immediately after Upanayanam, Vedadhyayana andSwadhyaya were compulsory for Vaidikas. Even now in North India, if you want to study either logic or grammer, they are asked to get

the whole text by heart before actual teaching starts. 3. Veda Mantrashave Swarasand the meanings are determined not only by letters but by Swaraalso. So a science of pronounciation is very necessary. Eg., in the Shanthi Mantra (Krishna Yajurveda) Aum saha naavavatu, saha nau bhunaktu, saha viryang karavaavahai, tejasvina vadhiitamastu, maa vidvishaavahaii, Aum shaanti, shaanti, shaantihi ends on a lower note. Shiksha Shastradeals with these. 26 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Kalpa: Book on rituals (codifying the rituals). Vedashave Mantras strewn all over. We should know which Mantra to chant when. All priests should make use of Kalpa. Vyakaranam:(Grammar) it can be a problem if it is not understood. For example, in Tat Tvam Asi, Asiis in present tense. If I dont understand this point, I think I am doing Sadhanato become Brahmanin future! Whole Upanishad presents Moksha as present tense. Niruktham:This is the science of etymology or derivation of the word. In Sanskritevery word is derived form a root. For example, the word Brahmanis derived from the root Bhruhu which means big, this plus suffix Manu = Brahman. Similarly Atma is derived from four different roots. Based on which root, the meaning differs. Where there is a controversy

with respect to meaning this reasoning (as to from which Dhatuit is derived) will also have to be adopted to arrive at the correct meaning. For example, in Taittareya Upanishad, Shankara says, the word Jnanamis derived from four different ways. Jnameans to know (Karana Vyutpathi, Bhava Vyutpathi). Our tradition is so rigorous with each science having its own authoritative texts (Paninis Shiksha and Vyakarana, Yaskas Nirukta) 27 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Chandas: Metre in which Mantras are written. For example, Gayathri Mantra is in Nishrud Gayathri Chandaha. Gayathri Chandas has three lines with eight letters (begins with Bhargo Devasya Dheemahi Astakshara Tripada Gayathri). Tasvavithurvarenyam becomes 23 letters, that is why it is Nishrad Gayathri Chandaha. Tasyavithurvarenyam 24 letters The science of metres is called Chandas Shastra. Pingala Rishi has written a book. Jyothisham is Astrology. As Vedanga, it is used to determine appropriate time to perform rituals. Veda does not encourage predictive astrology. Let us learn to accept whatever comes. Jyothisha should be used to perform noble Karmas alone. Literally it means study of the luminaries like the Sun, Moon and Stars. Jyothihi means luminous body. All these Vedangas come under Apara Vidya.

Para Vidya: Yaya Aksharamadhigamyathe, that by which the imperishable is known. Etymology of Aksharam: Na Ksharathi Ithi Aksharam, that which does not perish. The word Aksharam can also be understood as Karanam or cause. Just like in the case of clay and pots or gold and ornaments, the cause is imperishable. It exists before the effect comes (i.e. pot/ornaments), while the 28 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji effect exists and after the effect perishes also. General Law is therefore cause (Karanam) is imperishable whereas effect (Karyam) perishes. So Karanam is called Aksharam. The creation comes from the Karanam, remains in Karanam and resolves in Karanam. Adhigamyathe: known. Alphabet in Sanskrit is called Aksharamala. So this next Mantra six gives the definition of Brahman. 6. yat tad adreyam, agrhyam, agotram, avaram, acaku-rotra tad api-padam, nityam vibhum sarva-gata suskma tad avyayam yad bhta-yonim paripayanti dhr. The truth alone is called Bhagawan in Puranas. In the beginning, the mind is not evolved enough to appreciate the formless Bhagawan. So the infinite truth is itself worshipped as God in different names, Krishna, Rama, Shiva etc. So all these are symbols of this imperishable truth. The real Aksharam is formless, because whatever has form is subject to deformation also. Therefore no formed thing is eternal and therefore 29

MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Aksharam Aroopam. Forms are all at LKG level! Abstract ideas are concretized in the symbols. Adreshyam: invisible. Why? Because it is formless as formless alone can be eternal. Shankara says if it is not available to eyes, you can extrapolate it to other senses too Sarva Indriya Agocharam and Sarva Jnanendriya Agocharam. Agrahyam: it cannot be grasped. Apply to all Karemndriyas. So it is Pancha Karanendriya Agocharam. Agothram: one who has no family. Only one who is born has parentage and therefore Gothram. Brahman is not born, therefore has no Gothram. Avarnam: the word Varna has three meanings. 1. Caste 2. Colour 3. Property in the sense of physical or chemical etc of a substance. 30 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Shankara has taken it in this third sense when he says Avarnammeans it has no properties or attributes. However it is also time that Brahman has no caste or colour. Jathi Neethi Kula Gotra Duragam Nama Rupa Guna Dosha Varjitham Desha Kala Vishayathi Vathiryata

Brahmatatvamasi Bhavayatmani Achakshu Shrotram: free from all sense organs of knowledge, free from all Karmendriyas or organs of action. Brahman is Niravayavam: organs give a shape to the individual. So Brahman has no shape. Nityam: Brahman is eternal, has no destruction being the Karanam of everything. Puranas talk about Pralayam where Krishna on a leaf floating in water. This is a symbolic representation of the Parabrahma Tatvam which survives when the whole creation is resolved; the leaf represents the Maya, a mysterious principle on which Parabrahma is floating. Vibhum (Vividham Bhavathi Iti Vibhuhu). Brahman, the Karanam alone becomes the creation with Nama and Rupa. It is all pervading. The effect is because of the cause alone. Will there be a chain without wood or ornament without gold? 31 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Similarly without Brahman, creation cannot be there. The very existence is lent by Brahman. When some body asked what is God? The answer as, what is, is God. The very is ness in every product is God alone. Susukshman: extremely subtle means difficult to comprehend, Pranena Agocharam, because we cannot see or perceive in any way. How to conceive Brahman in that case? Dont conceive it because if you conceive, you will have to deliver it later!! Brahman is not an object of conception. It is beyond

comprehension, it is to be known only. Tat Avyayam: without decay, declention, disintegration without old age. This is very important. Otherwise I will be afraid of old age, I am the decayless Brahman. Bhutayonim: most important word in this context. Bhuta means all things and beings. Yoni: the direct meaning is womb of mother. But here it means cause of everything (similar to concept of Big Bang from a singularity). Why is this most important? In third Mantra, it was said, once you know the root cause of anything, you know generally all effects. Root cause alone appears as effects. One Brahman 32 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji alone appears as the Manifold Universe. Therefore Brahma Jnanena Sarva Jnanam Bhavathi Scientists are also hunting for Advaitham only. Matter is manifestation of energy. Now there are four types of energies (nuclear force, strong force, weak force and gravitation). They are trying to find one thing explaining everything TOE (theory of everything). Once that is found, everything macro and micro can be explained. Who can know this Brahman? Very very few because it is very very subtle. Dheeraha: qualified, prepared people, Adhikari. Tatvabodha gives qualifications: Viveka: value for Brahma Jnanam, Vyragya: all other things are secondary,

Shamadi Shatka Sampathi: a well integrated personality with a disciplined and well aligned body, speech, Indriyas, mind and senses complex. Mumukshatvam: desire for Moksha or freedom. There is a practical benefit for the wisdom i.e. freedom from mental turmoil. I enjoy a light mind. Otherwise the mind is a weight we bear. Such people who have all these qualifications clearly 33 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji recognize this, Samantat pashyanthi, means they perceive Brahman everywhere (they see gold alone, not ornaments). This sixth Mantra is the most important Mantra in this section. 7. yathora-nbhi sjate ghate ca, yath pthivaym oadhayas sambhavanti, yath sata purut kealomni tathkart sambhavatha vivam. The 7 th ,8 th and 9 th Verses are a commentary on the 6 th Mantra. This is elaborated through three examples to show the relationship of cause and effect. 1. Spider spinning the web

2. Varieties of plants growing from the earth 3. Hairs growing from the body 1. Here the beauty is, the spider initially very intelligently selects the appropriate spot and visualizes its web. So it is the intelligent cause of the web. Raw material is also produced by the spider itself (normally any raw material is different from the maker). So here spider is the intelligent as well as the material cause of the web. In many cases like furniture, ornaments etc, the 34 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji carpenter is different from wood, goldsmith is different from gold. Intelligent cause is called Nimitha Karanam. Material cause is called Upadhana Karanam. So spider is Abhinna Nimitha Upadhana Karanam. So is Brahman. He alone visualizes the creation; he alone is also the material. So he is the cosmic architect. Other than him there is nothing; no time, no space, so there is no question of searching for material cause. 2. Earth produces varieties of plants. Though earth is one, it is capable of producing different varieties. So is Brahman who is one but can produce many effects Eka Karanath Aneka Vidha Karyani 3. Our body is live and sensient. But hair and nails are insensient. So the body which is of Chetana nature produces something of a different nature (Vilakshana Srishti which means cause producing an effect of a different nature).

Normally we experience Salakshana Srishti like mangoes in mango tree, humans begetting humans. But in Brahman, this Vilakshana Srishti is possible. Brahman Creation Adreshyam (invisible) Drishyam 35 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Agrahyam (cannot grasp) Grahyam Avarnam (no properties) Properties Avyayam (indestructible) Vyayam So it shows Brahman can produce creation of totally different nature. In spider example, the spider not only designs and creates the web by itself but is its Laya Karanam also (it swallows/resolves its web into itself), whereas a pot maker does not swallow the pot! Brahman also creates and resolves the creation into himself/itself (Srujate, Gruhnate) Kesha Loma Kesha is scalp hair, Loma is body hair. Sat Purushat from live body Like these three examples Brahman also creates the whole cosmos and finally resolves in himself. 36

MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 8. tapas cyate brahma, tatonnam abhijyate, annt pro mana satya lok karmasu cmtam. How does creation originate from Brahman? This is Vedic Cosmology! The world has evolved from Brahman gradually in three stages. Shankara gives the example of a seed which is sowed. 1. It is swollen just before sprouting. 2. Plant just emerges from the seed but is not fully grown, neither totally unmanifest nor totally manifest. 3. Fully grown tree stage. Brahman also goes through three stages. In Vedanta, there are two important Laws. 1. Nothing can be created out of nothing, 2. Matter can never be created or destroyed (This is so both in science and Vedanta). Then what is creation? 37 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji There is no creation. It is a myth. That is why we can never find answers to basic questions about the universe, like why is the creation there? Creation is just a figurative expression. If so, what is the meaning of creation? When we create a desk what happens? Before and after creation of desk, some amount of matter exists.

Even before creation of desk, it is already there in the wood potentially. It has been only conversion of form of raw material from one to another and we rename it as desk. So every product exists in the cause in potential form. So creation is only from the unmanifest to the manifest from. So universe was never created at any time according to the Law of Conservation of Matter. But it might have been there in potential form like the tree in a seed. That is why a tree can come from a seed but nothing comes out of a stone though both a seed and a small stone may look similar outwardly. So everything exists in Brahman in potential form which we may call Shakthi and Brahman can be called Shiva. 38 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Brahman containing unmanifest universe is itself expressed as Shiva Shakthi principle. It is also called Maya (potential). So before creation, Brahman + Maya was there, but they were inseparable like my walking principle or talking principle cannot be there without me. The unmanifest universe goes through various stages of manifestations. Long before creation, the unmanifest creation is in passive form. Just before creation, it is in activated form, just like a seed is swollen with water just before it sprouts. We can also

compare it with the preparedness of athletes just before the start of a race. Maya has two Avasthas passive and activated just like activated carbon (four jumping electrons ready for chemical reaction). This prepared stage is called activated Brahman (stage 2). 3. Potentiality has become partially manifest, similar to a young plant. In Sanskrit, it is called Suskhma Prapancha. It is there, but cannot be seen. 39 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 4. This subtle universe or Sukshma Prapancha is transformed into gross universe. Sukshma Prapanch to Sthoola Prapancha. Brahma Tapasa Cheeyathe stage one to two. Brahman expands as it were because real expansion is not possible as Brahman is Sarvagatam (fills everything) or is infinite. So where can it expand? This is through Tapas which means by preparedness. Tatah Annam Abhijayathe Annam here means Brahman in prepared condition. In this Mantra, everything has a peculiar meaning. That is why Upanishads are called mystic literature. Annat Pranaha, Manaha, Pranaha. Manaha mean cosmic mind. So cosmic mind evolves from prepared condition of Brahman (Ichha Shakthi, Jnana Shakthi, Kriya Shakthi). Satyam Lokaha represent the final stage of visible

universe. Here Satyam means five Sthoola Pancha Bhootas. All these meanings are explained with rational and logical support in Brahma Sutras by Shankaracharya. Lokaha means fourteen Lokas. Once all these are created, the other things come into being like Karmas, human beings etc. 40 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Amritham once actions are done, Karma Phalas either Punyam or Papam are bound to be there. Here Amritham means Karma Phala. Brahma alone has become all this (it is like I create the whole world in my dream myself). The same idea is continued in the next Shlokam. 9. ya sarvaja sarva-vid yasya jnamaya tapa; tasmd etad brahma nma-rpam anna ca jyate. Sarvajnaha means omniscient in Para Vidya. Sarvavit means omniscient in Apara Vidya. It is omniscient with Maya Shakthi (Icha, Jnana and Kriya Shakthi). Yasya Jnamaya Tapaa visualize the whole creation before actually it is created. The whole creation must fulfil the Karmaphala of all the beings. So everything is based on cosmic law of creation. This Srishti is based on Karmaphala of previous Srushti. It is a cyclic process, so there is no beginning or end. 41 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji

Here Tapas means visualization with the help of Maya. From that Tapas is born. Brahma here means Suskshma Prapancha, not Karma Brahman. Then names, form, food etc are born which means Brahman has become all this. The first section of Mundaka is introductory in nature. Student and teacher are introduced the branches of knowledge, namely Apara and Para Vidya are mentioned briefly. Brahman is also briefly introduced as the root cause of the Universe. The rest of the five sections will be elaboration of two Vidyas. The second section has a magnified version of Apara Vidya. Now we will enter into the second section. First Mundaka: Second Khanda 1. tad etat satyam: mantreu karmi kavayo yny apayams tni trety bahudh santatni, tny caratha niyatam, satyakm, ea va panth suktasya loke. 42 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Apara Vidya literally means lower branch of knowledge. All the secular sciences come under this category including the Poorva Bhaga of Vedas. Only Vedanta comes under Para Vidya. Here we are not going to deal with secular sciences like physics etc but only Veda Purva. The Veda Purva itself has two portions. 1. Ritualistic portion, and

2. Meditations Ritualistic portion is Karma Pradhana and Meditation is Upasana Pradhana. Ritualistic portion: These are again of two types. 1. Artha Kama Pradhana Karma meant for material well being including money and sense pleasures. They are also called Kamya Karmas or Rajasa Karmani. 2. Moksha Pradhana Karma they are Nishkama or Satvika Karmas which take me towards the Lord. What should be the life style of a human being? Initially people are naturally interested in wealth and entertainment. So Artha, Kama Karmas are done mostly with a bit of Nishkama Karma like Sandhya Vandanam which is supposed to be the best Nishkama Karma. 43 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Gradually our priorities should shift. Karmas meant for Chittashuddhi should be more and more and Kamya Karmas less and less. Temple visit need not be dropped, but ask for Jnana and Vairagya and a desire for Moksha. Even after we get a desire for Moksha, ask for Sadhana Chatushtaya Sampathi, a proper Guru, opportunity to study Scriptures and remove obstacles in that direction. So Apara Vidya has this important role. Kamya Karmas are talked about initially as that is what people are inclined towards first. When Krishna talks about four types of Bhaktas in Gita, Jignasu comes only after

Aartha and Artharthi. Satyakama: The word Satyam has four or five meanings. In the first section it meant Pancha Bhootas. In this Mantra, in the third line, it means Karma Phalam, various benefits of Karma. Kamaha means seekers. So it means, oh people, interested in worldly things. Mantreshu Karmani: in the Mantras of Veda Purva, Kamya Karmas are mentioned. Kavayaha: Vedic Rishis have discovered these Mantras. They havent invented them. They are already there 44 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji created by the Lord. These ritualistic Mantras are mainly contained in Rig, Yaju and Sama Vedas. Thani Niyatam Acharata: take to them and fulfil your desires. Here one important thing is to be noted. Veda does not condemn worldly desires. It knows that we are still children in spiritual sense. So desires are not a sin. If a man wants name, fame, money, children etc, Veda allows them and infact has Mantras for their fulfillment. Illegitimate fulfillment alone is wrong. But we should gradually grow and grow out of them eventually. All kamya Karmas have to be performed strictly according to the rules to get the appropriate results. Just like in growing a plant, so many preconditions like soil, light, water and manure have to be applied appropriately to

make it grow well; Karmas have to be properly done. This is meant by Niyatam: Niyama Anusarena Kartavyam. Sukrutasya Loke means for accomplishing various karma Phalas. How do we know weather the rituals will produce results or not? In science, the mechanism of action in any process is explained, but in Vedas, between rituals and their results, the explanation is not given, but Veda gives guarantee 45 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji that the results will come if Karma is performed properly. There is only Shraddha. Here again the word Satyam is used Tad Etat Satyam: here it means, it is valid, trustworthy, Avitatham. 2 yath lelyate hy arcis samiddhe havya-vhane, tad jya-bhvv antarehuti pratipdayec chraddhay-hutam. Here Upanishad wants to present the plus and minus points of rituals. So you can decide either to use them or not. On the plus side, results are guaranteed if done properly. On the minus side, you have to fulfil so many conditions; if not, it will not produce results and may even be counterproductive. Ahutih Pratipadayet: here the ritual Agnihotram is taken as a standard example of a Karma. It is supposed to be done by Grihastas twice daily. Here oblations with the fire are offered. Where? Within the Homa Kunda, person facing the east, the oblation should be offered between north and

south. This is called Ajya Bhaga. Havyavahane Samiddhe: means the fire in the Homa Kunda should be burning brightly when the oblations are offered. It should not be a smoldering fire but a well kindled one with 46 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji flames shooting up. Flames are considered tongues of fire. Agni serves as a courier reaching the oblations to the respective Devathas. Yada Lelayathe Hyarehihi: means when fire is well kindled and flames are shooting up and they lap up the oblations as it were. 3. yasygnihotram adaram apauramsam acturmsyam angrayaam atithivarjitam ca ahutam avaivadevam avidhin hutam -saptams tasya lokn hinasti. Any ritual has many supportive or Anga Karmani. Agnihotra must be supported by these rituals. Darsham: to be done the day after Amavasya (Padya). Pournamasa: to be done the day after Pournima (Padya). Chaturmasyam: to be done once in four months (different from Chaturmasyam of Sanyasis). Agrayanam: ritual done with freshly harvested grains. 47 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Atithi Pooja: feeding at least one person other than family every day. Vysvadevam: offering food to animals everyday. Agnihotram

has to be supported by all these without which its results will not come. Ahutam: done at an improper time (will not give results). So proper timing of ritual is highlighted. Avidhinahutam: done without observing rules. For example, in Sandhyavandanam, morning Devatas should be invoked in the morning and evening Devatas should be invoked in the evening. The order of invoking should be followed too. Karma involves physical body and mind whereas Upasana is a purely mental occupation. Karmas are of two types. 1. meant for material ends (Sakama) and 2. those meant for purity of mind or spiritual preparation. The Upanishad first deals with Sakama Karma. They are valid and reliable if done properly and results are bound to come. The catch is: they have to be done properly which means all preconditions should be fulfilled. So the ritual Agnihotra is efficacious only if accompanied by the six 48 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Anga Karmas already delineated. If not, it will destroy all positive results. Here it is to be noted that Agnihotra is taken as a representative of all Sakama Karmas and the positive results are the attainments of higher Lokas (Bhuvarloka, Suvarloka, Maharloka, etc till Brahmaloka). Shankara says, it should be taken as; it will not produce any results. (Ayasa Matram Nishprayojanam Bhavathi)

4. kl karal ca mano-jav ca sulhoit y ca sudhmravar, sphuligin viva-rpi ca dev lelyamn iti sapta-jiv. Agni has seven types of flames delineated in the abolve Shloka and is therefore also called Sapta Jihva (one with seven tongues). An utterly useless ritual is called Bhasma Ahuti in Vedic parlance because if Ahuti is offered when there is only smoke and there are no flames, it is useless. In Homa/Yagas, one should not blow air directly to the fire to kindle it as saliva should not fall on fire as fire is sacred and considered a Devata. Why should there be flames? Because they are considered tongues of Agni Devata and they lap up the offerings that are offered in the fire. Here varieties of flames are described. Kali: is a black or dark coloured flame. 49 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Karali: fierce, extremely hot, scorching flame. Manojava: fast moving flame like the speed of mind. Sulohita: deep red flame (described in labs when testing for calcium). Sudhumravarna: dark grey coloured smoky flame. Sphulingini: with many sparkles. Devi Vishvaruchi: bright and multicoloured flame. Lelayamanaha: all these move about in the Homa Kunda. 5. eteu ya carate bhrjamneu yath-kla c hutayo hy dadyan, ta nayanty ets sryasya ramayo yatra devnm patir ekodhivsa. This Mantra describes the results that one gets when rituals

(Sakama) are performed properly. There are Ihaloka Phalas like prosperity, health, wealth etc. Paraloka Phalas one enjoys Swargaloka, where all comforts are provided. Swarga Prapti was considered a great thing. Many religions still consider heaven going as the ultimate goal. Even within the Vedic fold, some branches consider a 50 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji higher Loka as the highest destination. Only in Advaita, going to a Loka is not ultimate but gaining Moksha here and now is considered ultimate. Here how one is taken to higher Lokas is described. When a person offers oblations into the fire observing all the dos and donts, then the very oblation will lead him to higher Lokas. Oblations represent various Devatas, who are invoked, and they guide him in the form of rays of Sun as it were, not exactly, but the example is given to show that the Devatas are so bright and they very warmly welcome and lead the ritualist. In heaven the Lord of Devatas (Indra) presides (he is the most powerful (unrivalled) ruler of Devas). 6. ehy ehti tam hutayas suvarcasa sryasya ramibhir yajamna vahanti, priy vcam abhivadantyorcayantya, ea va puyas sukto brahma-loka. How will he be treated in heaven? Will be he treated as a second class citizen? No, he will be a first class citizen. Oblations invoke bright Devatas who welcome him with pleasant words like Achi, Achi, means please come.

51 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Archayantaha: he is worshipped. Here Brahmaloka means heaven. All this is the result of Karma Rupa (Sakama) Apara Vidya! Until now positive aspects of Sakama Karma were talked about. Next, Upanishads point out the negative aspects. 1. Most important is, that the result is finite (Anityam, Ashashvatam, perishable, fleeting). Everyday in Swarga is a count down! Just like every birthday, we move closer and closer to Yamaraja coming down is anything but happy. Pain will be proportional to pleasure. So Veda says, if you are prepared to face that also, then persist with Sakama Karmas. Be prepared mentally for the limitations. The whole topic is presented by the Upanishads in three stages. Any Karma can be performed only with the help of all accessories which include things and human beings. Rituals involve priests. Wife is required especially when Dakshina is to be offered (symbolic of husband requiring permission from wife to give anything). In a medium sized ritual, sixteen priests are required: four for each Veda. Hotruganaha (Rig), Adhvaryu (Yajur), 52 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji

Udgatru (Sama), and Brahmagaha (Atharvana). This is what is described in the following Mantra. 7. plav hy ete adh yaja-rp adaoktam avaram yeu karm: etac chreyo yebhinandanti mh jar-mtyu te punar evpiyanti. Yajnarupa means all these eighteen accessories (sixteen priests, Yajamana and wife) (Ashtadasha). Avaram means Karma. On these accessories is dependent the whole ritual. Rituals are of two types. Those which do not involve any Upasana or meditation, called Upasanarahita Karma and those that include Upasana is Upasanasahita Karma. For example, chanting Vishnu Sahasranama by heart without meditation becomes just a Karma. If supported by Dhyanam (visualize the meaning of the verses) becomes Karma + Upasana. The ephemeral nature of both Karma and its Phalas are being discussed. 53 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji For this, we need to know that any action is born out of important accessories called Karakam in Sanskrit. It means, for action to take place, some essential factors are necessary. 1. Karta: performer of the action or subject of action (nominative case). 2. Object of action (what is eaten for example. Accusative

case). 3. With what instrument do you perform (instrumental case) (Karana Karakam). 4. For whose/what benefit (dative case) (Sampradana Karana) 5. Location of action (ablative case) (Adhikarana Karakam). 6. Place from where resources are got (locative case) (Apadhana Karakam). Even if one Karakam is not there, action cannot take place. So all these together cause action. Karaka Janya: kriya. Next once action is produced, it invariably produces a result. Kriya Janyam is Phala. Karaka > Kriya > Phala. This law is applicable to all actions in life. As the cause is, so the effect is. Any action has proportional result. If cause is finite, result is also finite. This 54 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji is a Law too. Therefore, if all the Karakas are finite like all people are finite, all oblations are finite, Homas are finite, the results will necessarily have to be finite. Karakani Anitya: Karaka Janya Kriya Anityaha Kriya Janya Phalam Api Anityam Plavaha means fragile boats like catamaran on the Pacific Ocean. As these are fragile and perishable, so are the results of all Punya Karmas (Anityam). Avaram Karma: Karma which is Dhyana Rahitam, considered

to be slightly of lower quality. So with such Karmas, no one can hope for eternal security. Mudaha Etat Shreyaha Abhinandanti: only fools think they can get eternal security out of them. Naturally they will lose the perishable benefits in time and go from one death to another. Even Swarga is not eternal. One may say he is not afraid of death, but what about old age which is inevitable too? 7. avidyym antare vartamn svaya dhr paitam manyamn, janghanyamn pariyanti mh, andhenaiva nyamn yathndh. 55 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji So even the most sacred Karma cannot give Moksha. Whoever holds on to Karma are therefore to be criticized strongly. They are steeped in ignorance of two kinds. One is self ignorance and the second is the misconception that Moksha is got through Karmas (the widely held opinions that Karma, Bhakti, Jnana, Rajayoga and social service), all paths to Moksha are wrong. Unfortunately the people who say these also say that Vedas teach this. No! Vedas are very specific about this Na Karmana, Na Prajaya, Na Dhanena, Thyage Nike Amrutatvamanashuhu. They are all misconceptions. He who knows not and does not know that he does not know is a fool; shun him. He who knows not, knows he knows not, he is ignorant, teach him. He will be humble.

He who knows, knows not, he knows (like Anjaneya) he is asleep, wake him and learn from him. He who knows, knows he knows, he is wise. Follow him. Here Upanishad talks of a fifth type. 56 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji He who does not know, but claims that he is wise and knows (Swayam Dheeraha, Panditham Manyamanaha). Unfortunately most of the Vedic translations are non-traditional and misleading. Wherever four paths to Moksha are mentioned, take it as Avaidika Margaha. Janghanya Manaha: afflicted by varieties of problems in life because they are misguided due to unintelligent expectations in life. Pariyanti: ramble about and not reaching anywhere. Such people when they face problem in one aspect, they leave that and do something else, replace one Anityam with another and hence do not reach anywhere. They are Nitya Anitya Vastu Viveka Rahitaha. Such people seek advice from similar ones. So the whole world is like this. 9. avidyym bahudh vartamn vaya ktrth ity abhi-manyanti blh: yat karmio na pravedayanti rgt tentur kalok cyavante. Avidyayam Bahuda Vartamanahavayam Kritharthaha Upanishad continues criticism of rituals. Here we should be 57

MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji careful. Here note that only Sakama Karmas are criticized, not Nishkama Karmas as they produce Chitta Shuddhi and therby lead to Jnana and Moksha. So do your Karmas, only change your Sankalpa. Samastha Duritha Kshaya Dvara Shree Parameshwara Preethyartham Jnana Vairagya Sampadanartham Vedanta Shravna Manana Nidhidhyasanartham Rituals are important, but motive should be for Shreyas. People are confused. Truth is one but misconceptions can be many. For example, a rope (truth) can be mistaken for snake, garland, pipeline etc. So here Bahuda Avidhyam means with regard to Jeeva, (misconceptions like I am a finite, mortal), world (world will make me happy if I make some adjustments here and there), we have been thinking like this from our childhood days. The same is true with our concept of God (he is sitting in Vaikunta or Kailasa and after death; I have to travel and travel to reach him). So going to reach Bhagawan is an error (Bahuda Varthamanaha). Vayam Krithartha Iti Manyante: in the midst of this Anityam world, we think we are happy which is most surprising. So people of the world think they are happy and not in need of Vedanta. We cannot push Vedanta down their throats, until 58 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji they discover the necessity. So dont impose it on them. In

that sense, they are Balaha, childish people, they still have not discovered the goal of life and the problem of Samsara. So only bless them and wish them all the best. The day they discover the problem of Samsara and they come, then welcome and teach them. Why is this so? Karminaha: because of their excessive attachment to worldly things and beings, their mind is always pre-occupied with yoga (acquiring something which I do not have now) and Kshema (safeguarding what I have already acquired); there is no time to think the fundamental question of life. What did I achieve out of this life? Dukhaturaha: because of attachment, they are always miserable being always under the hold of one of the Arishadvargas. If I do not make use of this wonderful human birth, once my Punya is exhausted, my next birth may not be human. Upanishad continues criticism of Sakama Karmas. However the same rituals if done with a Sankalpa, praying the Lord for Chitta Shuddhi become Nishkama Karmas and lead one to Moksha Marga. So one who does Nishkama Karma is intelligent. 59 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Tena Aturaha: unintelligent people aspiring for heaven etc which are lesser goals. Chyavante means they fall. Once Punyas are exhausted, they fall from heaven and again return to either human or

even lower births. 10. iaprtam manyamn variha nnyac chreyo vedayante pramh, nksaya phe te suktenubhtvema loka hnatara v vianti. This conveys almost the same idea as the previous Mantra. Pramudhaha: extremely foolish people. Ishta: are Vedic rituals done in presence of Agni also called Shroutha Karmas. Purta: these are also called Smartha Karmas and involves help to society like digging wells, temple building, Annadanam, constructing rest houses for people etc. All these again can be done with two motives. 1. Material motive: limited benefit. 2. Spiritual motive: gives Chitta Shuddhi. 60 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji The word Ishtam can be derived from two roots and two meanings. 1. Ichhati: to desire (priyam) 2. from Yaj, Yajati: religious worship. Better continue with your religious practices even if you have started study of Vedanta, as they help you to grasp Vedanta better. Only do Sankalpa properly. Even a purified person cannot drop religious rituals unless he takes formal Sanyasa. He has to serve as a model to younger generation. Anyat Shreyaha Na Vedayante: many people do not know about Moksha Sadhanam at all. For them, all religious

practices are only for material benefit. They are unaware about Shreyas. According to Scriptures, Scriptural study is most important among all religious practices. The others can be abbreviated but not study. Religious people however accumulate Punyam and go to higher Lokas. Nakam: Akam means pain, Nakam means no pain. Therefore Nakam means heaven i.e. painless pleasure (this is relative too as it ends). Bhuvarloka, Suvarloka, Maharloka, Tapoloka, Satyaloka and Brahmaloka are the higher Lokas. 61 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Anubhutva means they enjoy a gala time. However it is a count down every minute. So here the Anityatvam of all Sakama Karmas and their Phalams is emphasized. 11. tapa raddhe ye hy upavasanty araye nt vidvso bhaikcarya caranta, srya-dvrea te viraj praynti yatrmta sa puruo hy avyaytm. Till the tenth Mantra, Upanishad talked about rituals and their Phalams. Rituals are mainly Kayika (body, physical) Pradhanam. Now we came to Upasana Pradhana (Manah) Apara Vidya. They are also called meditations or Saguna Ishwara Dhyana. These are also Karmas only, but only mind is involved. Devathayaha Ape Sameepe Aasanam means dwelling near God mentally. The word Upavas also has the same

meaning, Ishwar Sameep Varthanam, Upavas. 62 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Fasting is only incidental, to save time from the routine cooking etc, in order to spend more time to meditate upon God. In the four Ashramas described, one Sadhana is highlighted in each Ashrama. 1. Brahmachari: Veda Adhyayana is important, rituals and Upasana are minimal with only Sandhyavandanam. 2. Grihasta: Karma Pradhana, social and family responsibilities to be shouldered. 3. Vanaprastha: Upasana Pradhanam. Other things are subsidiary. Try to live a secluded life and give importance to Saguna Ishwara Dhyanam. 4. Sanyasa: both Karma and Upasanas are minimal. Whole Apara vidya is subsidiary. It is entirely devoted to Vedanta Chintana. Chinthana Aasupthehe Aamruthehe Kalam Nayed Vedanta Chinthaya Even to take that concentrated dose of Vedanta one has to get that mental maturity. Not all can take it. Vidwansaha means Upasakaha. Karmas involve a certain extrovertedness of mind in order to organize everything required to perform the Karma. So meditation/Upasana is 63 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji

for withdrawing the mind inside. In Vanaprasthashrama, gradually hand over the responsibility to the next generation. Bhykshacharyam Charantaha: life style of Bhiksha. Shanthaha: due to reduction of Karmas, restlessness is less. Aranye Upavasanthi: they live in forest, in secluded place. Tapaha, Upasanaha: practice meditation with minimum Karmas. In Grihastashrama also both Karma and Upasana are there, but proportion is different (more Karma, less Upasanas) Shraddha here means Upasana predominantly. In Upasanas also two types, Sakama and Nishkama distinguished. Te Virajaha: means Sakama Upasana. The practitioners of this become Punyavanthaha, their Papas are neutralized, and after death, Surya Dwarena Prayanti: they travel by a special route called Shukla Gati which is an unseen route traveled by the Jeevatma (Sukshma Karana Sharira Complex). By this 64 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji route, he reaches Brahmaloka presided over by Chaturmukha Brahma with a relatively eternal life span (2000 Chaturyugas are Brahmas one year and his life span is 100 such years).

Avyayatma: free from old age. There are also pleasures. There are also Vedanta classes conducted by Brahmaji. Those who attend classes there get Krama Mukthi. If there also they dont attend classes and watch TV, they will come back! So Anityam is there too. The 11 th Mantra hinted at Upasana Kanda. It is to be noted that the Upasana referred to here is Saguna Brahma Dhyanam and not Atma Dhyanam. Both positive and negative aspects of Karmas and Upasanas were delineated. The most important negative aspect is that Karma and Upasanas cannot produce knowledge/Moksha. So Karma keeps a person within the hold of Samsara. Same is true with Upasana too. Even miraculours powers or Siddhis which are Upasana Phalas also are material ends. Upasanas are more powerful than Karmas. On the positive side, Upasanas can integrate, organize the minds, remove extrovertedness, increase the focusing power of mind but can never produce Jnana/Moksha. Therefore it also comes under Apara Vidya. So what produces Moksha? It is only Para Vidya or Jnana. So what should one do? Not totally reject Apara Vidya, follow it, purify and integrate 65 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji the mind. Then intelligently graduate to Para Vidya. How does the shift take place? This is indicated in this next

Mantra. It is the most important Mantra of Mundaka and whole Upanishad literature. 12. parkya lokn karmancitn brhmao nirvedam yn nsty aktah ktena, tad vijnrtha sa gurum evbhigacchet samit-pi rotriyam brahma-niham. The entire Vedic life design is beautifully given here. Brahmanaha Karmachitan Lokan Parikshya Every person, in the beginning is interested in Artha and Kama only. Dharma comes only later as it is invisible. When this is so, what to talk of Moksha? So initially only Sakama Karma will appeal to people. Vedas say, doesnt matter, acquire everything, only as and when you enjoy, also learn (Parikshya). Once in a while do introspection (having acquired all this, am I secure?). Without this introspection, we repeat the same mistakes. Intelligence is not avoiding 66 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji mistakes, but by learning from them, not repeat them. So learn from life. Lokan means achievements, accomplishments here. We generally are very objective about others, but not with ourselves. This is futile as we cannot change others. So what is needed is to be objective about myself and change myself. This is called Karma Phala Pariksha. Brahmanaha here means one who wants to follow Vedic teaching, not Brahmana by birth. Only if he follows Vedic life style (Vaidika Achara Sampannaha), can he learn from life.

We generally dont learn because, when there are problems in life, our mind is disturbed, a disturbed mind is unable to learn. In pleasant experiences we do not learn at all. In unpleasant ones, mind is not available for learning. So I need a technique by which I can keep my mind calm. Veda prescribes Samatvam. How? 1. Devotion to God. Take unpleasant experiences as a gift from God to teach me lessons in life. This is prasada Buddhi. God brings us under water often as it were to purify us just like Ganga Snana. Brahmana is one who has this appropriate attitude. 67 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Brahmanaha Karmayogi Ishwararpana Budhiman. So he will study thoroughly all the Artha, Kama Phalani. We can also learn from others experience if we are sensitive enough. Shankara says Pratyaksha, Anumana and Agama Pramana can teach us; that money does not promise happiness. At most it can make life more comfortable (Amruthathvam Nashasti Vittena in Brihadaranyaka) not peaceful. They are not synonymous. What is the lesson learnt? All Karma Phalas have intrinsic defects. 1. Dukha Mishritatvam: this is because there is effort required in acquiring, preserving and losing is painful. This is so with money, power and relationships and

situations. 2. Athrupthikaratvam: There is no contentment. Always look to next higher one. I am always aware of what I dont have. 3. Bhandakatvam: I become a slave of things, situations and relationships I have acquired. So I lean on them and when the support is removed, it is painful. So they are dependence causing and the struggle continues. So the three Purusharthas namely, Artha, Kama and Dharma make Samsara continue. 68 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Moksha is the only goal free from these defects. It puts an end to this struggle. Here this Brahmanaha discovers the Anitya of Samsara and that Moksha alone is Nitya. He gets Nitya Anitya Vastu Viveka. Disappointments come to a person who has appointments with the future. Nirveda Mayat develops Vairagyam towards all Karmaphalaha and Upasana Phalaha. Vairagyam does not mean hatred. It is neither attachment nor hatred but transcending both. Example: there is nicely decorated card board chair. It can be used for decoration, ie. To see and enjoy, can be displayed in an exhibition etc. but cannot be used to sit! Similarly dont lean on external factors but use them when they are available. This attitude is Nirvedanam. For real

support lean on Bhagawan alone. Kritena Akritaha Nasti: Kritam means Karma and Upasana (literally doing). Akritaha means Moksha. Through Kritaha, Akritaha cannot be accomplished as Krithaha can only produce defective results. Krithaha is useful for purification, for Jnana Yogyatha and are important there. After getting purification and 69 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji integration, they become useless for me just like after any degree, college is no longer useful to me. At that time Jnana Kanda calls me and asks what do you want? If the person says I am not interested in finite goals, then Vedanta says, there is a defectless goal Brahma, Moksha, if you are interested. If a person is addicted to material goals and is willing to pay the price, there is nothing Vedanta can do for him. Vedanta is useful only if someone does not want to have the acquire, lose cycle. So how to acquire Brahman? If it is acquired by any way, then it becomes a Karma Phala and therefore limited and it will go away. So there is no Karma/Upasana to acquire Brahman. A person will have to come to Para Vidya to get Moksha. However, to acquire the necessary qualifications to get Moksha one has to follow Apara Vidya initially. He needs to live a Dharmic life, do certain compulsory duties (Pancha Yagnas). The advantage of these Nikshkama

Karmas is, the person will have a Satvic mind; because of this bent of mind he will learn from the experiences of life and know their limitations. This is what is meant by Parikshya Lokan Karmachitan. All the Sadhyams (Phalas) accomplished are limited in time. 70 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji The goal of Moksha can never be accomplished in time through effort. So Moksha is not an event. If so, it becomes the end product of a process. So the very question how to accomplish Moksha/defectless goal? is wrong. Here Veda says, you have to come to Jnana Kanda. This is only for a person who wants a defectless goal. If someone does not want this and is happy with worldly things, Veda says wish you all the best, but know that whatever you achieve is all going to end. If you gain, you will lose also, and then dont complain. So be ready for shocks and problems. Vedanta is relevant only for those who want a defectless goal. Veda says this Brahman or defectless goal you are. So what should I do now? If it is me alone, I need not do anything to accomplish it. When Veda says you are Brahman, it is in the present tense. So it is not something to become by effort. At least should I do something to know Brahman? It is not an object of knowledge, an object of discovery or object of experience.

Brahman is you who is ever known to you always. Knowing is only with respect to unknown. So what is the 71 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji problem? Veda is talking about the most familiar thing to me. Problem is Veda says I am defect free goal, i.e. no Dukha Mishritatvam, no Atriptikaratvam, etc. Brahma means pure Ananda, total satisfaction, infinite and Veda says I am that. But before coming to Veda, I have an opinion about myself that I am finite. So which opinion about myself is correct? So what is required is self enquiry to see if Vedic revelation about myself is correct. The whole Sadhana is geared towards this. I am finite is a wrong conclusion because I have never seriously enquired about this. So now I have to make a proper conclusion (Atmanaha Brahmatva Vicharaha). Example: In Mahabharata, Karna had a self conclusion that he was an Akshatriya. Kunti told him that she had six children. So he asks, who is the sixth child and he would like to meet him. So what will Kunti say? Saha Tvam Asi! So that is a Mahavakyam! 72 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Now does Karna have to travel to reach the sixth child?

Should he do any Sadhana and have any experience to know that? No. He only needs to own up the truth, that is all. So in the important 12 th Mantra Upanishad talks about transition from Karma Kanda to Janana Kanda. When Upanishad says you are Brahman which is present tense and not imperative mood or future tense, I need not experience it, as it is not anything new but most familiar to me. My problem is whether I am able to accept this. Upanishad says I am Brahman, but I had thought that I am mortal, perishable, limited and Samsari. So there are two opinions about me. 1. I am Samsari 2. I am Asamsari I am located in my conclusion, locationless as per Upanishad. So I require an enquiry into myself to find the truth. As all our senses are outward looking, to look at myself I need a mirror. So Shastra is the mirror to know my real nature. Shastrajnanam (Vedanta) is itself Brahmajnanam. The two are not separate. Brahman is not a theory, not an idea, not a hypothesis. Language has the problem of objectification. So it needs to be 73 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji communicated by an expert. Upanishad uses a special

methodology. Therefore independent study is not recommended. Shankara in Mundaka Bhashya says Shastragnapi Swatantrena Brahmanveshanam Na Kuryanthu The one who systematically communicates the truth of the listener is a Guru. This is different from Mantra Diksha. There the Guru just gives the Mantra after a short ritual and the process is over. There is no question of enquiry. No thinking is involved. It is meant for repetition, so that my mind becomes pure; there is no question of knowledge. In enquiry, it is a consistent, painstaking long standing Shravanam. Many questions arise, so the teaching has to go on until all doubts are gone. So one has to go to a teacher, a preceptor (Sa Gurumeva Abhigachhet) means only one who has definitely got Sadhana Chatushtaya Samapathi. Secondly, he must necessarily go to a Guru. There is no question of whether Guru is necessary etc. World and Atma being Guru is all incorrect World cannot teach me because I will interpret the world along my own preconceived notions. If at all a few people have gained Jnana without a Guru, it is only an exception. What sort of Guru should I approach? Who is a Guru? 74 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Upanishad answers this. Shrotriyam: one who knows to handle the scriptures through

which he has to communicate to a disciple; one who has the methodology of communication (Sampradayaha). So he is also called Sampradayavit: one who has the key to open the scriptures and give me the teaching! How did the Guru get the key? Guru was previously a Shishya! Who was the first Guru? Sadashiva Samarambham Shankaracharya Madhyamam. So Lord is the first Guru. How did he get the key? He did not get, he ever has the key. How do you know? He is a Guruless Guru. So the most important thing to know about a Guru is whether he was a Shishya first! Brahmanishtam: one who is spontaneously established in his true nature. Shastras talk about three types of Gurus. 1. The best one. 2. The so so one. 3. The worst one. 1. Uttama Guru: He is both a Shrotriya and Brahmanishta. He has both received and assimilataed the teaching and owned up the teaching. 75 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 2. Madhyama Guru : one who was a Shishya, has received the teaching, but due to some lack in his qualification, defective Sadhana Chatushtaya Sampathi, the teaching could not be assimilated. Here, teaching remains purely academic information just like oil in water. There is a disparity between his life and his teaching; there is a

split in his personality. He is Kevala Shrotriyaha. However, he will never mislead, but tell whatever his Guru told him. His teaching will not be defective but it may not be very effective! He may not be very bold in declaring Tat Tvam Asi. 3. Adhama Guru: he is Kevala Brahmanishta somehow he has gained Brahma Jnana; he is a spiritual genious who got knowledge without scriptures and without Guru. So he is a Jnani, a great person, but he can never be an ideal Guru. This is because he himself has not tread the path in this life, so he cannot show the path properly to others. Such people can be called mystics. They are Jnanis, their statements are punchy, but they are not understood by people. If you ask what do you mean? he cannot explain because he himself never came that way. He is adorable, can be worshipped, his blessings sought. But if you see his teachings, they are full of discrepancies between then and the Shastras. 76 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji This Mantra talks about the first type of Guru. Approach him with Shraddha and Bhakthi. Krishna emphasizes Shraddha very much in Bhagavad Gita. Shraddha means if I cannot understand the teaching, I only question my understanding but not the teaching or the teacher. I gently ask the Guru to teach again as I have not understood properly. In clear understanding, there is no

logical contradiction i.e. no Shruthi Virodha, no Yukti Virodha, no Anubhava Virodha. The most scientific and rational intellect will be totally satisfied if it studies the scriptures properly. Even the present century science cannot shake Vedantic teaching. Questions are not meant to test the teacher. Be humble; express your humility physically to the teacher. This is indicated by Namaskara in our culture. An arrogant person will be stiff backed, stiff necked. The expression Samitpanihi means, take some offering to the Guru to show your humility. Agnihotram, Griha Kshetram (temple), Garbhini, Bala, Vrudha, Raja, Guru, Daivam Rithamhastena Na Peyathu dont go with empty hand. Samit: dry twigs. They symbolize readiness of mind as they catch fire readily. Wet twigs never burn! So Samit indicates Sadhana Chatushtaya Sampannaha. So upto this is transition from Apara to Para Vidya. 77 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 13. tasmai sa vidvn upasannya samyak pranta-cittya amnvitya, yenkaram purua veda satyam provca t tattvato brahma-vidyam. Iti Mundakopanishad prathama Mundako Dwithiyaha Khandaha An ideal student and ideal teacher have come together. Prashanthachittaya: One with mastery over the mind, Manonigrahaha Shamanvithaya: in this context, it means Dama or

Indriya Nigrahaha. These two describe all qualities like discrimination, dispassion, disciplined, desire for Moksha. So he is an Adhikari. Samyak Upasannaya: has approached the teacher in the proper way with Shraddha and Bhakthi and also asks for knowledge. This is important because, without asking, it is never to be given. 78 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Na Prushtethu Kasyachit Bhrooyath Na Cha Never give if improperly asked also. Teacher is Vidwan: wise, Pandithaha, Atmajnani. Brahmavidyam Provacha: so he gave the knowledge of Brahma. How? Tattvataha: correctly stepwise -> nature of individual, nature of macrocosm, nature of Tvam, nature of Tat and their relation (Asi). By this the student will come to know the truth, Aksharam, the ultimate cause of the universe. Poorayathi Sarvam Iti Purushaha (because cause pervades all effects). In this Mundaka Upanishad, each chapter is known as one Mundaka. So we have completed two Khandas of first Mundaka at the end of which it is pointed out that an ideal student and an ideal teacher have come together. The student is well qualified, so is the teacher (not only does he know Brahman; he also has the method of communicating

this to other people). The first Mundaka was an introductory one and the second gives the essence of Brahman Vidya, and here is the main teaching. The third concluding Mundaka concentrates on Sadhanas. Second Mundaka: First Khanda 79 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 1. tad etat satyam: yath sudptt pvakd visphulig sahasraa prabhavante sarp, tathkard vividh, saumya, bhv prajyante tatra caivpi yanti. Here Upanishad is going to reveal Brahman or Aksharam. It is an elaboration of the definition already given in first chapter. Here the popular method (Brahman as the cause of the universe/Jagat Karanam Brahma) is used to reveal Brahman. So Brahman and world have a cause effect or Karya, Karana Sambandha as it is known in Sanskrit, Brahman being the cause or Karanam and the world being the effect or Karyam. When Brahman is said to be the cause of universe, what type of cause is Brahman? A cuase (Karana) is of two types. 1. Intelligent cause (Nimittha) and 2. Material cause (Upadhana). 80 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji This has been analysed before. Brahman happens to be both the material and intelligent cause of universe (Abhinna

Nimittha, Upadana Karanam Brahman). So Brahman has not only made the world, but has also become the world. In the worldly examples like pot, ornaments, cloth etc. the two causes are different. In case of Brahman, both are same. So the example of spider was given. Thirdly, if both causes are one, which aspect is highlighted here? (Suppose you are an officer at office, father at home, student in the class, which role is highlighted?) Once this is understood, many corollaries can be derived. They are very important in understanding Brahman clearly. Only if Brahman is understood clearly, world can also be understood clearly. To derive these, let us take the example of a pot made of clay. Pot is made by the potter (Nimittha) using clay (material). There can be many pots made of clay. First corollary: clay the Karanam is Nithyam (it was there before the pot, in present and will also be there after pot is broken). So clay is Nithyam and pot is Anithyam. Therefore Karanam is Nithyam, Karyam is Anithyam. Brahman being Karanam is Nithyam, Prapanchaha being Karyam is Anithyam. 81 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 1. If there are ten pots and they are located here and there with a jug in between, every product is located in a particular place but the clay (material) is everywhere the pots are. So clay is said to pervade all pots.

Mrid Sarvagataha, Ghataha Alpagataha. Similarly gold is in all ornaments, and Brahman is in all creation. 2. Pots and jugs are many (Aneka Karyani) but behind the pluralistic products, the cause is only one (clay). Therefore, Karanam Eakm, Karyani Anekam. 3. Karanam, clay has an existence of its own; that is why it exists before, during and after pots existence. Its existence does not depend on the products; whereas pot cannot exist independent of the cause- Karyam, Karanat Pruthak Nasti. You cannot have a pot without clay or only ornaments without gold! So, the very existence part of the pot does not belong to the pot, but is borrowed from the clay. When you say pot is the isness is borrowed from the clay temporarily gifted to the pot! How is that? Because, if clay is removed, how can a pot be there? So they are not two separate entities independent of each other. Pot is a dependent, non substantial entity. Therefore clay is Satyam, pot is Mithyam. Even though two words are used, there is 82 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji actually only one substance (ther are no two corresponding substances; similarly with wood and furniture, water and ocean, thread and cloth, two names are there but only one substance). So Karanam Sathyam, Karyam Mithyam (only verbal existence), Vacharambham Vikaronamadheyam Mrithika Eva Satyam. There is no

substance called desk (wood only), ocean (water only), and ornament (gold only). Brahman being Karanam, it is the only substantial entity. Brahma Satyam, Jagan Mithya. So the entire cosmos consisting of the elements, elementals, animate, inanimate objects, everything included exists only in name, i.e. Mithya. The substance behind is Brahman alone. The isness of Brahman belongs to isness which in Sanskrit is called Sat. That is why when somebody asked what is God? The answer is What is is God Then our final analysis will be, suppose you have Karyam, keeping Karyam in hand, how will you recognize the Karanam? An unthinking person can do these things wrongly; if he is given an ornament and asked to realize gold; he will throw away the ornament, close his eyes and meditate on gold! Will he get gold? Another has furniture, has to find wood, and closes his eyes to realize wood, what do we call him? Fool! So dont dismiss the ocean to realize water. Similarly, we have the world; we should 83 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji know how to discern the Karanam Brahman. This is called the analysis of Srushti. With this background, we will go the first Mantra. The Mantra begins with a bang. Tad Etat Satyam- that Brahman which I want to reveal is Satyam (karanam) independently existing, Swatantra Siddham. So from that Aksharam Brahma, the whole world

has come. Aksharam means eternal, Nithyam, imperishable (Na Ksharathi Iti Aksharam). Vividha Bhavaha Prajayante: varieties of things are born. Any product born out of a material will go back to the material cause (pot breaks and goes back to clay status). Therefore creation also goes back to Brahman when it resolves. Brahman is therefore Srushti and Laya Karanam. If so, it is also Stithi Karanam (cause of survival). So Brahman is Srishti Sthithi Laya Karanam. That is what is beautifully said Taittereya, Yatheva Imani Bhootani Jayanthe Ena Jathani Jeevanthi This same Brahman word is replaced by the word Ishwara, Narayana in Puranic literature and Itihasas, Smruthis and also in Brahma Sutras. This is the way Brahman/God is defined; Jagatkaranam. Here Upanishad gives an example which is often repeated and popular. 84 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Fire (a huge bonfire or conflagration) is compared to Brahman. From such a fire, many sparks come out. So fire becomes Karanam and sparks; Visphulingaha become Karyam. The word Visphulingaha is plural indicating Karyams are many whereas the word Pavakam = Agni is singular, indicating one Karanam which is the cause. All the sparks resolve back into Agin Tatvam. The idea to be conveyed with this example is this; what is the essential nature of fire; heat and light (Ushtna and

Prakashaha). Sparks even though superficially may appear to be different from fire, have the essential features of heat and light. The differences between Karanam and Karyam are only superficial and aparant whereas their essential nature is identical. The same example can be extended to ocean and waves. Both are H2O or HHO (Sat Chit Anandanha!). Therefore Vasthuthaha Bedhaha Nasti. Similarly, between you and Brahman, if you take the non essential features, lots of differences are there, but essential features are one and the same. So essentially you are Brahman. Here Upanishad is laying the foundation for Tat Tvam Asi. Sarupaha means the same essential nature i.e. Brahman. So Srushti and Brahman are one the same. How many Jeevathmas are there? Innumerable. 85 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji The Guru addresses the student here as Soumya which means oh, pleasant one, oh, beautiful one, an expression by which he shows that he cares for the Shishya and the Shishya is dear to him. It helps to make Shishya feel relaxed and tension free. This attitude of being serious about the study yet being relaxed (not afraid of the teacher) is very necessary because only then (such a mind) can receive the teaching. This is the aspect highlighted here. An angry teacher can create tension. Attention without tension is ideal!

The first part of the second chapter deals with Paramathma Swaroopam and the second part deals with Paramathma Jeevathma Aikyam. In this section, the Upadana Karanam aspect of Brahman is going to be highlighted. If Brahman is the cause and world is the product, the relation between the two is a cause effect relationship; the examples being clay and pots, gold and ornaments, water and ocean etc. Upanishad took the example of fire and sparks. The corollary of this is that every product (Karyam) is a non-substantial entity (Mithya), Karanam alone is substantial. Similarly Brahman is Satya and world is Mithya. 86 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 2. divyo hy amrta puruah sa bhybhyantaro hy aja, apro hy aman ubhro akart paratah para. This is a very important Mantra quoted often by Shankaracharya. It gives the definition of Brahman. Brahma Lakshanam is presented here. In 1.1.6 also a definition was given where it was pointed out that Brahman is the material cause of the universe and to convey this idea, the example of clay, spider and wood were given. Sometimes these can give rise to certain doubts and misconceptions. Therefore Upanishad takes care of these possibilities. 1. Brahman could be imagined to be like a spider sitting somewhere and creating the universe. An example should not be stretched too much. It has a

limited scope only. For example, when we say he is the pillar of the organisation, it should not be taken literally. 2. In our experience every material cause happens to be a material like clay, gold, wood etc which are inert in nature (Achethana Karanani Upadanani). When Brahman is said to be a cause, we tend to think in terms of an Achethana Vastu. In fact scientists also think like this. Any cause they predict happens to be 87 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji either matter or energy. From many types to one type of matter, then energy, four types, electro magnetic, weak nuclear force, strong nuclear force and gravitation. They are now looking for one basic force/energy but all are inert only as both matter and energy are inert only. When Brahman is presented as a basic cause, it is sometimes similarly conceived as an Achethana Vastu. This Mantra has come to remove that misconception. That is why it is called Swaroopa Lakshana Mantra. Previous Mantra was Thatastha Lakshana Mantra (indirect definition). Swaroopa is direct definition. Divyaha: Swayamprakasha Chaithanya Swaroopaha. The inner essence of universe is consciousness. This is a very important idea we have to note, because it shows the difference between Vedanta and all other material sciences. In all material sciences, matter is the

fundamental principle out of which, creation is made of and consciousness is only a later product. That is why they are called material sciences. In Vedanta the whole approach is reversed. Here consciousness is the basic stuff and matter is only appearing and disappearing. Brahman is of the nature of consciousness (Divya). So what is the nature of consciousness? 88 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Whenever we talk of materials like gold, wood, clay etc we can imagine some form and we tend to think the same way with consciousness. That is why Upanishad here gives the word Amruthaha, formless consciousness is the nature of Brahman. In another Upanishad it is called Asthulam, Ahaswam, Adeergham. Purushaha: Brahman is locationless (Sarvam Poorayathi iti Purushaha). When we say clay is the Karanam of pot, it has a location, potter makes a pot. Similarly, if Brahman is the stuff of creation, where was it located before creation (space is also part of creation!). So it cannot be located because you require space. Therefore Brahman is not located in space; on the other hand Brahman being the cause of everything, it is the cause of space also. So Brahman is unlocated and the words here and there are meaningless. One neuroscientist has said that consciousness is locationless, that it is not located in brain. But when we

say Brahman is unlocated, it is unimaginable, the mind cannot conceive. So we say, it is all pervading which is actually a compromised word. The real word is no location. So Purushaha means all pervading/no location, essence, content of everything. 89 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Sabhahyabhyantharaha: within and without, just like gold is essence of all ornaments. With reference to creation within means, within the body and outside as well. Though words such as look within, dive deep within, search within are used, the wave need not look within to see water. So it is the substratum of the world within and the world outside. Ajaha: When we say clay, wood etc are material cause, we know that clay itself has a beginning. When Brahman is said to be Ajaha, it means Brahman has no beginning. So Brahman is the causeless cause of everything. Hijaha = Hi + Ajaha. Hi is for emphasis to mean it is indeed birthless. Arpanaha: Prana means the five Pranas which stands for the Sukshma Sharira. Brahman has no Sukshma Shariraha; it is organless, mindless, intellectless, it free from them all because they are all later, incidental products generated, not the intrinsic nature of Brahman (wave is not the intrinsic

nature of water). Amanaha: Brahman is free from mind also because mind is an incidental, later, product of consciousness 90 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji which comes and goes; so not an intrinsic feature of Brahman. Shubraha: means Shudhaha, eternally ever pure because all impurities belong to mind and body. Brahman being free from mind and body, it is Shuddhaha. Finally it is the technical, very important definition Aksharath Paraha: Varieties of pots (products) are created from the material cause clay. When I say pot is created, I know nothing new is created. Previously clay was there, afterwards also clay is there. So same amount of clay was, is, will be there. On analysis, what is it that is created? So this creation is the biggest myth! What is meant by creation then? Only a particular form is given to a material which is already there. In Sanskrit, this addition of form is called Rupam. Does form have weight? No. If so, product would have weighed more than raw material. When form is added, in keeping with it, we also give a name. In gold, we call it bangle, chain etc. In Sanskrit this is called Namam. Thirdly, every Nama Rupa can do a particular function.

Desk Nama Rupa can function as desk. Similarly chain, 91 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji bangle etc. This function is called Karma. Therefore what is creation? Weightless Nama Rupa Karma! Otherwise we can call it non-substantial name, form and function. Upanishad extends this to the whole universe. It says the whole universe is only name, form and function and is therefore a myth, non-substantial. That is why Bhagavad Gita says, never depend on this, you will be in trouble. It is like a cardboard/thermocol chair which is good to decorate and keep dolls but not to sit! If you want to lean, lean on the substance (Paramathma) behind the non-substantial universe. If varieties of forms can be added to clay or gold to produce many products, Vedanta says it is possible only if the forms (products) are potentially there in the substance (clay, gold etc) like ghee/butter in milk. Lump of clay potentially contains all other forms. That is why when different wax/gold shapes are melted, they resolve into one lump. So in the material, all the Nama Rupa Karma are potential. Similarly in Brahman, the whole universe of Nama Rupa Karma is there potentially. This is called Shakthihi Shivaha Shakthayukthaha Yadi Bhavathi Prabhavitham. 92

MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji They are there even before creation. It is called Shakthi, prakruthi, Avyaktham, Avyakrutham, Maya. It is Mrs. Brahman, so must be there! It is called Nama Rupa Beejam. In this Mantra, the word used for this Aksharam. Here Aksharam means potential name and form. Here it is said that Brahman is superior to potential Nama Rupa (Aksharath Paraha) because all the Nama Rupa are non-substantial, only Brahman is substantial. This same fact is said in religious literature as Mayatheetham Brahma; this Maya is given another description, Parathaha. It is an adjective to potential Nama Rupa. It means the cause. Brahman is superior to potential Nama Rupa which is the cause of manifest Nama Rupa. From that Brahman, the whole creation came out. The second chapter of Mundaka Upanishad is an important one consisting of two sections. In the first section, the nature of Paramatma (Tat Padartha) is highlighted and in the second section the nature of Jeevatma (Tvam Padartha) is highlighted. The revelation of the identity of Jeevatma and paramatma is indicated by the word Asihi. The essence of macro and microcosm are one and the same. This is going to be the development. This revelation is done by two methods. 93

MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 1. Indirect method called Thatastha Brahma Lakshanam. 2. Direct method called Swarupa Lakshanam. First Mantra (Tadetat Sathyam) says Brahman is Upadana Karanam, the material cause of the universe. In second Mantra Brahman is revealed as Satyam, Jnanam and Anantham. Both the definitions are important because when Brahman is said to be the material cause of the universe, we can have certain misconception. Through the examples of clay & pot, water & waves, gold & ornaments, Shruthi wants to convey that Brahman is the material cause and world is the effect. It wants to point out that there is no world separate from Brahman (product is not separate from material); world is only a word. It also wants to say, that this wonderful universe is non-substantial. The corollary is I learn never to depend on a non-substantial world. If at all, depend on the substantial Brahman and enjoy the non-substantial world, but dont learn on it for emotional support. We should also know what Shruthi does not want to convey. We should never extend an example too much. The wrong extensions we could make are, 94 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 1. Generally material cause is inert, but Brahman unlike all other materials is not inert but conscious.

2. Material cause is generally tangible like clay, wood, gold, water etc. We should not take this to be the case with Brahman! Swami Dayanandaji jokes like Chappathi dough which can be rolled into varieties of shapes! Brahman is an intangible material cause which is conscious. Scientist point out that this tangible universe is made up of energy which is intangible. If non-tangible energy can give rise to this tangible universe, then we can extend it to say, that the non-tanglible formless consciousness that is Brahman is the stuff of the universe. 3. Generally, when a material cause produces an effect, the material undergoes modification. Therefore generally material cause is changing (Parinami). But Brahman does not undergo any change but is Nirvikara Upadana Karanam. So the creation is not separate from the changeless, formless, consciousness that is Brahman. This is the most unique aspect of Vedanta which is not there in any material science or any other system of philosophy. In all other systems, matter is the material cause; only in 95 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Vedanta we consider that matter is not the stuff of the universe, but consciousness is the stuff of the universe. An Indian scientist who is very much interested in Vedanta and is a great scientist who tried to reconcile the Vedantic

teachings and some of the observations of modern science wrote a book called Self aware universe. The essence of that work is that consciousness is the stuff of the universe. That is why we call Vedanta a spiritual science. In Sanskrit, spiritual science is called Chethana Upadana Karana Vadaha. Having thus revealed Brahman thus in the first two Mantras, Upanishad now talks about evolution of the universe. We know from science and Shastra that nothing in this creation can be either created or destroyed according to the Law of conservation of energy and matter.The world therefore cannot be created from nothing but it must already be existing in potential form. If I can take out butter from milk, it is only because potentially it is already there in milk. So Vedanta says the whole creation of name and form must be already existing in unmanifest potential form in Brahman. When there is a lump of clay, in that, all other forms (like pot, jugs etc) are hidden (as possibilities). In Brahman, the whole non-substantial Nama 96 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Rupa exists. We call this potentiality or unmanifest state as Shakthi, Prakruthi, Maya, Avyaktham, all indicating the world potentially in Brahma. This at the appropriate time determined by Kala and prarabdha evolves into Nama Rupa.

This generally is presented in four stages. 1. Five Sukshma pancha Bhutas (five elements) 2. Five elements combine in different proportion to produce subtle bodies and subtle universe (Sukshma Bhoutika Prapancha of five elements). Just like bricks arranged in different patterns can produce different patterns of rooms, five elements combine in different permutations and combinations to produce mind, senses etc. Being subtle, they are not visible to our senses. We cannot see the mind, but can it be doubted? 3. From subtle elements, five gross elements are born (Stoola Bhootha Srushtihi). 4. Five gross elements combined in different proportions give rise to the gross universe. Ideal example for this is our own physical body. It is made up of combination of the five Sthoola elements, Akasa, Vayu, Agni, Aapaha, prithvi. Different people have these in different proportions. That is why in Ayurveda, it is said, ideally 97 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji the five should be in balance. The three main principles Vata, Pitha and Kapha should be in balance. Vata stands for Vayu Tatvam and its imbalance causes joint pains, muscle pains etc. Pitha stands for Agni Tatvam and its imbalance can manifest as migraine, vomiting and digestive problems. Kapha stands for Apaha and Prithvi Tatvam and can

cause respiratory problems. Through the imbalance of these three, Yama has a hold on our body! As long as we are young, the inequilibrium will not affect us much, but as grow older, Vata, Pitha and Kapha will all go awry! The evolution here means manifestation, not Darwins theory of evolution. So the world is non-tangible, non-substantial name and form only! (Vacharambhanam Vikaro Namadheyam). Shankara says this in Atmabodhani, whatever you are experiencing is Brahman alone with different name and form. So what is the benefit of this teaching? It is Sarvathra Brahma Darshanam. From Mantra three to nine, we are going to see the evolution of the cosmos. In the tenth Mantra, it will say, 98 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji since the entire creation is Brahman + Nama Rupa, learn to see Brahman everywhere. Sarvathra Brahma Darshanam is Moksha and Sarvathra Jagath Darshanam is Samsaraha. See the cause, you are free, see the effect, you are bound. This is because effect is subject to arrival and departure and hence constant fear of loss is there. I can never enjoy it. If vision is of the cause, I know it is there, no matter what happens to the effect. This is going to be the development.

So we will go to the third Mantra now. 3. etasmj jyate pro mana sarvendriyi ca, kha vyur jyotir pa pthiv vivasya dhri. Generally an order is given for Srushtihi. But the Upanishad does not adhere to the order (Akrama Srushtihi). So we need to rearrange it for explanation. Let us take the second line first. It talks about Pancha Sthoola Bhoota Srushti, namely, Kham (Akasha), Vayuhu, Jyothihi, Aapaha, Prithvi; which is glorified as Vishwasya 99 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Dharini which means supporter of all the living things both directly by giving the terra firma to stand on, but also indirectly by providing us with all other requirements. This line indicates both subtle and gross elements. First line talks about the elementals that are Sookshma Srushti namely the five Pranas, Manaha (four components of Manaha, Buddhi, Chitta and Ahankara, Pancha Jnanendriyani and pancha Karmendriyani). In short the whole Sookshma Sharira, all from the basic substance called Brahman (Avyakrutha Nama Rupena Jagadasithu, Thasya Vyakaranam Thamabhavathu, Vyakaranam means manifestation. 4. aginr mrdh, caku candra-sryau, dia rotre, vg vivt ca ved, vyu pro hdaya vivam, asaya padbhym pthiv hy ea sarva-bhtntartm. Next, the gross elements and elementals consisting of the entire gross universe are talked about. When I drink water,

when I breathe air, it is gross elements. Our body is an example of gross elemental (combination of gross elements). Our Shastras look upon the whole universe as the body of the Lord, 100 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji the universal person or Vishwa Rupa Ishwara or Virat Ishwara. (In Tamil it is called Perumal, perum means big, Al = person) Let us look at the logic behind the concept. When I look at my body, it is a conglomeration of many organs. Even so, we see it as one unit and not as a group. That is because all organs are functioning in harmony as though they are one unit, just like the departments in an industry. Similarly every organ is interconnected to the other. If one is diseased, it affects other organs and systems also. So it is an organized whole. The same holds good for the cosmos also. When we analyse scientifically also, the universe functions as one unit. That is why it is called a universe and not a multiverse. With advancing science, we are better able to appreciate this truth. So every thing can affect everything else. As somebody said you cannot pluck a flower without affecting a stem. It is a beautiful statement. Superficially all things may look separate, but ultimately everything is related to everything else. A few decades before, we did not know this, but now we know that. All our scriptures including Purusha Suktha (Sahasra Sheersha Purushaha) convey this very idea. In this section, Upanishad is revealing Brahman as the Jagat Karanam, both material and intelligent cause. In first and

second verses, the nature of Brahman was pointed out by using 101 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji the word Aksharam. Somebody asked for a clarification.This word Aksharam occurs in both first and second Mantra. What is the difference? It is this. In first, it means Brahman itself which is Satyam, Jananam and Anantham. In the second, the word means all the Nama Rupas in potential condition (Maya). Aksharam1 and Aksharam2 together is the universe which we are seeing from third verse onwards. Now, the gross creation is called Virat. It works as one unit or system which is interconnected. A few degree centigrade temperature variations in South America Pacific Ocean, then it can create weather changes, all over the world like droughts, cyclones, forest fires, famine etc. We have been reading this el mino phenomenon. Therefore universe can be looked upon as the body of the Lord and every part as a limb of the Lord. This is Vishwa Rupa Ishwara. All Upanishad describe this very beautifully. This alone is borrowed in the Vishnu Sahasranama Dhyana Shloka; Bhoohu Paadou Yasya Nabhirvidasuranisschndrasooryacha Nele Tribhuvana Vapusham Vishnumeesham Namami In Rudra also there is the Dhyana Shloka 102 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Peetam Yasya Dharithri Jaladhara Kalasham Lingamakara Murthim

Nakshatram Pushpamalyam Mrahagana Kusumam Chandravanhakra Netrem Krishihi Saptha Samudram Himagirithanayam Saptha Pathala Padam Vedam Vaktharam Shadadgaha kashadishivadanam Divya Lingam Namami Describing Shiva. We have a cosmic Linga which is the very Akasha itself; all the planets are diamonds. I dont know how many of you saw the Leonid showers recently. I was watching on the terrace and was disappointed as there was no shower but a few meteorites were seen in the sky. All these are like jewels on body of Shiva. This similar description of Vishwa Rupa Ishwara is in this fourth Mantra. Agni Moordha Bhavathi: here Agni means Swargaloka. This upper Loka is like head of Virat Ishwara. Chakshushi Chandra Soorya: Sun and moon are the eyes of the Lord. This itself is invoked in the famous Mantra. Thryambakam yajamahe Sughandhim Pushti Vardhanam Urvaru Kamiva Bhandanath Mruthyormuksheeyamamruthath 103 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Thryambakam means Lord with three eyes namely Sun, Moon and Fire (Soma Soorya Agni Lochanaha) Ambaka means eyes. Dishaha Kshetre: ten directions (space) are his ears. From Tatvabodha we know that individual ears are born from space principle alone. Same thing in Vishnu Sahasranama Karnou

Aasha where Aasha means Dishaha. Vagirvruthascha Vedaha: Vedaha means scriptures; Vivrutaha means elaborate scriptures and it also means popular or well known (olden days!) because now they are not that popular! We have to encourage the Vedas. They are the organ of speech of Lord. Lord does not come and speak to us directly but through scriptures. Whenever there is a conflict and I want Bhagawans opinion, refer to scriptures, they are Lords mouth piece. Vayuhu pranaha: life breath of Lord is Vayuhu. Entire Vayu Tatvam or atmosphere is the breath of the lord. If air is polluted, the Virat will have lung disease! We also will naturally be affected as we exist within the Virat! Hridayam Vishwam: entire universe is like the heart (or mind) of the lord. How can you say that? If I compare to my dream world, I can understand this. The entire dream world of Shabda, 104 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Rupa, Rasa, Sparsha, Gandha exist in my mind alone. It is all your own mental projection, so everything is a thought and it is not separate from the wakers mind. In fact it is born in the wakers mind, exists in wakers mind and resolves into wakers mind alone. Even though, we dont recognize this in the dream but after waking up, Vedanta says this world also does not exist separate from the Lords mind. The Lords mind is called Maya. Asya Padabhyam Prithvi: if the heaven is the head, naturally the earth is the feet of the Lord.

Esha Sarva Bhoothasyarathma: This Ishwara is in and through everything, the inner essence of everything. Virat being the totality, it must be inherent in everything. Suppose somebody asks the question, where are you in your body? The answer will be I am behind the finger, also, similarly in the head simultaneously (this we recognize when bitten by mosquitoes!). Similarly Virat Ishwara is behind the entire cosmos! You have to add a sentence. This Virat Ishwara is also born out of Ishwara. He is also subject to arrival and departure from Brahman. Continuing, next Mantra, 105 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 5. tasmd agnis samidho yasa srya somt parjanya oadhaya pthivym, putmn retas sicati yoitym bahv praj purut samprast. In this, further Srushti is discussed. Many Jeevas are born out of Brahman (Prajaha Samprasuthaha). Shastra talks about procedure of human birth. This and Puanarjanma process is talked about in detail in Chandogya Upanishad. This is one of the methods by which human beings are born. It is known as Panchagni Vidya. This is not the case of all the living beings not even all human beings, only some of them. This Mundaka Mantra does not give details but some dots and dashes. The Chandogya and Brihadaranyaka give details. We have to start from the time of death of a Jeeva. At that time, the Jeeva goes through the final ceremonies or Antyesti Karma. In this final ritual, the physical body is

offered to the fire. A vaidika must go through forty one Samskaras, of which this is the last where I offer my body to the fire God. Shastra says at the moment this body is offered to Agni, next physical body is prepared, but not in full fledged form but in very very fine form and handed over to Jeeva. So this physical body has to evolve to become full fledged body. This evolves in five stages. It requires five fields to evolve. Each field is figuratively called Agnihi. 106 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Initially clled Soma Shariram, so the minute the body goes to Swarga Loka straightaway and there evolves to some extent (Vrishtikarana). Mega: then it goes through cloud (evolution 2) Prithvi (Anna): then it goes through earth (evolution 3) Retaha Shariram: then through body of man (evolution 4) Purusha Shariram: then through body of woman (evolution 5) After all these, a full fledged baby is born. Here Upanishad mentions some items. Tasmadagnihi: Swarga Agnihi or first stage (Swarga). It is called Agni because Agni has the capacity to refine, purify, modify anything (it cooks food, even pots are baked, even in body digestive fire metabolized, raw fruit requires heat to ripen, even prmature baby is kept in an incubator). Everything has to go through a fire either in a gross or subtle form. Even when we have to think hard to come with some

idea, we say heated thinking or the expression what is cooking up in your head in English. Agnihi here means Swarga Loka. For the Swarga loka the illumining principle is Surya Tatvam. 107 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Parjanyaha : cloud or second Agni Puthivyaha : early Pumanu: male Every body before coming to mother, has to recide in the body of the male. At conception it is transferred to the mothers body (yoshithayam). That is why in our tradition, abortion is not accepted at any time and is called Bhruna Hathyam and is a big Papam. Soma: first stage of evolution. Second stage i.e. Vrushti Shariram is not mentioned here but has to be supplied by us. Oshadayaha: 3 rd stage Rethaha: in the male, 4 th stage Prajaha: Purusha Shariram; human beings Vanhi: many, countless Remember, this is only one of the methods, not universally

applicable. Panchagni Vidya cannot be applied here. 108 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Ultimate source of all these beings is Purushaha meaning Brahman alone. Continuing, 6. tasmd ca sma yaji dk yaja ca sarve kratavo daki ca, savatsara ca yajamna ca lok somo yatra pavate yara srya. There is a difference between human beings and other living beings in that human beings have a free will whereas other living beings come programmed and act only by instinct. One good thing is animals will not tamper with universal harmony. Only human beings can cause damage. Free will can be abused. Freedom is that which is available for abuse. We know that knowledge is power. That is how a human being though physically weak, due to his intellect has invented a gun and can kill even a tiger. Bhagawan therefore has created rules and regularions for human beings. These are contained in Vedas. They teach how not to abuse my freewill and how to be a responsible 109 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji citizen of the world. My way of life should be in harmony with creation. This type of life is called Yajnaha. So Yajna means, responsible way of living. So here Veda talks about Yajnas which we will see. Here Upanishad is revealing Brahman as Jagat Karanam.

Hruchaha Sama Yajumshi: the three Vedas. Atharva is not mentioned as it is not primarily concerned with rituals. When Brahman is talked about as the cause of creation, then he is known as Ishwara. The idea of saying Vedas came from Ishwara is, the Vedas came to humanity (revealed) through the medium of Rishis. Rishis did not invent them. They are Mantra Drashtaraha (just as in invention and discovery in English). Deeksha: Any religious discipline which means observance of certain rules. For example, any person going to a hospital has to abide by some rules like change of clothes, remove chappals in OT etc. Similarly performance of any Vedic ritual also entails observance of certain dos and donts. All these come under Diksha like wearing sacred thread, wearing tuft, similar moral disciplines also need to be observed. In Ramayana, Vishwamitra takes the help of Rama to destroy Asuras. Some one may ask when Vishwamitra himself has so much Tapobalam, why did he need Rama? The reason is this; 110 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji to destroy Asuras, he had to get angry. In the Yagashala, Krodha is forbidden. Therefore Rama had to go. Even if we do pooja, telling lie, getting angry etc should not be indulged in. One who has taken Diksha is a Dikshita. Nowadays people name themselves Dikshit, Dwivedi, Vajapayee etc based on this Parampara. Vajapayee: Vajam means Annam, a kind of ganji

(Vajashchame.. in Chamakam). Peyam: in liquid form. Cooked food in liquid form is offered with Annadanam which were part of a big Yaga. Yagnaha: Small Yagas without sacrifices. Krathavaha: means big Yagas like Ashwameda Yaga etc. Dakshinashcha: cow was given as Dakshina. This was because cow was considered sacred as all the products of cow, milk and curds for Abhishekams, even urine and dung were used as Panchgavyam. Therefore cow was offered as Dakshina to priests and Brahmins. Even now Godanam is given in Kumbhabhishekams. Similarly gold was a Dakshina as part of ritual. Shankara writes Karmanga Bhuthani Sarvani ; whatever was useful in rituals was Dakshina! Samvatsaraha: literally means year, time. Here Shankara defines; time as integral part of Vedic activity; because 111 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji before any Vedic activity, Sankalpa is done which starts with mention of time. Time is called Pancha Anga (Masa, paksha, Tithi, Yoga, and Karana). Therefore even Kala or time is looked upon as Karmanga Bhootaha. Yajamanaha: most important factor, i.e. the Vaidika who performs the Vedic ritual. The secondary meaning of master came from this (Yajathe Iti Yajamanaha or Yagam Karothi Iti Yajamanaha). The basic meaning is Vedic ritualist. All these rituals produce results which are called Karma

Phalas. This is only in case of human beings because they do all these with their free will and not instinctively. These Phalas can be Punya or Papa. Lokaha: All fourteen Lokas or fourteen fields of experience (Veda looks upon the world as Karma Phalam only) which are the result of action or Karma Phalam. All these Lokas are here classified into two (four elsewhere) here. 1. Higher non returnable Loka (once gone there, he will attain Atma Jnana, Brahmaloka) 2. Higher returnable Loka: beautiful pleasure filled one but one has to come back. 3. Neither higher nor lower: Manushya Loka 112 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 4. Lower Loka. 14 th Loka is Brahma Loka. 13 th to 9 are higher. 8 th is Manushya Loka (Bhuloka, Bhuvarloka, Suvarloka, Maharloka, Satyaloka, Tapoloka, Brahma Loka six higher Lokas + one our world)

Atala, Vithala, Suthala, Mahathala, Rasathala, Talatala, Patala Here only two sets are talked about. Somaha Yathra Pavathe: heavens illumined by moon (returnable) Yatra Surya: Brahmaloka illumined by Surya, non returnable. Incidentally, higher and lower are figurative and not special. Each is supposed to have a different time space series. Therefore one Loka cannot be described in terms of another Loka (just like dream world can never be located in terms of wakers world, they belong to different realms). 113 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Similarly, heaven need not be above, but here and now in a different medium. All these are born out of Brahman, this should always be remembered. 7. tasmc ca dev bhaudh samprast sdhy manuy paavo vaysi, prpnau vrhi-yavau tapa ca raddh satyam brahma-carya vidhi ca. Upanishad talks about sacred creation first and secular creation next. Tasmach cha Deva Bahudah Samprasuthaha: the worlds that were talked about in last Shloka were created as Karma Phalam and therefore they need to be inhabited.

So Devatas were created. An inert thing has no use unless a sensient thing makes use of. Achetana vastu is made use of by Chetana vastu and only then it makes sense. 114 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Devatas are Jeevas, because of whose Punyam they are there. Bahudha: manifold, even though manushya loka is one, all human beings are not the same. All features vary. Body, environment etc are all graded. Similarly in heaven also all Devatas are not the same (LIG, MIG, HIG!). That is why even in heaven, jealousy cannot be avoided! Sadhya: another set of celestials called Pithrudevathaha. Manushya: we people Pashavaha: animals Vayamsi: birds Pranapanou: breathing and (life breath) breathing out (atmosphere). We take these things for granted! Once life has come: we need 3 times food! Vrhi-Yavau: wheat & barley (Lord assumes we are vegetarians!) Tapas cha: once food and mouth are there, it is difficult to stop! Therefore moderation in everything, control, restraint with regard to all senses, karma. 115 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Shraddha: faith and devotion in Scriptures and

Bhagawan. This is most difficult. What can be scientifically shown, faith is not necessary. Once topics which are beyond the realm of science and logic come, beyond field of observation, Veda alone is the means of knowledge (Apourusheya Vishaya). If I want to know suprasensuous things I should not be adamant or fanatic. It is like saying, to see the color; I want to use my ears for a change! That is called foolishness. Intelligence is use of appropriate means of knowledge for the appropriate field of knowledge. If I refuse to use the eye, to know the color, I am the loser, nobody else. Similarly, if I refuse to use the Scriptures for the relevant information, Veda is not going to lose but I am the loser. This is called Pramanya Buddhi. The Pramanya Buddhi towards Veda is called Shraddha. Looking at the Vedas as a means of knowledge in its particular field is called Shraddha. This, we have to gather, we have to imbibe from childhood. If we do not develop faith from childhood, it is extremely difficult to accept it in adulthood. That is why even when child is 116 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji born, they chant Vedas into its ears. They say Vedosi because they know that in life we have to know higher things for which Vedas are the only Pramana and we need Shraddha. This is a unique faculty of mind, which is also

Bhagawans creation. Satyam: truthfulness as a value Brahmacharya: discipline of a Vedic student. One who leads the disciplined life of Vedic study; only study, study, study. No other pre-occupations. Vidhis Cha: all dos & donts like Satyam Vada, Dharmam Chara, Swadhyanna Pramaditavyam etc. All were born out of Brahman also. 8. sapta-pr prabhavanti tasmt saptrcias samidhas sapta-hom, sapta ime lok yeu caranti pr guhay nihits sapta sapta. Here Upanishad talks about all the accessories necessary for sensory experiences. In fact our entire life is a series of 117 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji sensory experiences alone. Four factors are required for sensory experiences. 1. Sensory organs which are the subtle instruments withing the body which belong to Sukshma Sharira. 2. They can function only when they have their physical accessories which as known as Golakam (sense organs in Stoola Sharira). 3. Range of sense organs which are comparable to radiance of light. Even though ears are here, the scope of hearing goes upto a particular distance, similarly, range of sight goes to a particular distance. So we can compare the ears, eyes to a lamp and the distance illumined as the range. Whatever falls within the range

is perceived by us (within earshot). This range is known as Prabha or scope. 4. The sense objects: Normally we talk about five senses, but here seven as it were is talked about. It means seven holes in the head (two eyes, two ears, two nostrils, one tongue). Tasmat Prabhavanti: from that Brahman are born Saptha Pranaha: Seven sense organs (do not refer to Pancha Pranas but Indriyani) 118 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Saptha Achirshaha: seven flames extending to various distances (range of each indriya). Whatever falls within that range, I perceive. Saptha Samidhaha: sevenfold sense objects; all objects falling under these seven sense organs. Even among objects those that fall within the scope of right eye, right ear etc and those that fall within scope of left sided organs. The beauty is Upanishad imagines the sensory perception also to be a type of Yaga. The eyes are like flames, sense objects are like offering. Golaka is Homa Kunda. Indriyas are like fire, sense objects are like ghee, the more you offer, the more the fire goes up and ask for more. This is so true; the more we satisfy our sense pleasures, the more they ask for and we get addicted. Saptha Ime Lokaha: Here Loka means the Golakam or

physical part of the sense organs. The invisible part is the Indriyam. Thus we have seven Golakas. With these four factors, Saptha Homaha: constant Yagas are taking place. First in the morning is coffee Yaga! Taste is the oblation, mouth is the Homa Kunda, and taste is the 119 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji fire! You switch on TV; forms and colours are the oblation, physical eyes are the Homa Kunda, Chakshu or sight Indriya is the fire and another Homa. Similarly with ears, nose, skin etc. Through out the day, innumerable Yagas (seven Yagas here) are taking place. Does this go on permanently? We will go crazy because each one produces either Sukha or Dukha Phalam through emotions like Raga, Dwesha, Kama, Krodha through out. So a person gets tired by evening. Therefore Bagawan has decided on rest (Sushupti) when Yagas are not there. All the Kundas are emptied, and the Indriyas are withdrawn. So the Golakas are only the office room of the Indriyas where they operate when person is awake and go back when person goes to sleep so that office/counter is closed as it were! Their residence (Indriyas) is the heart which is here called Guhasaya (Guhayam Shorate Iti, where Indriyas take rest) until next waking state. Saptha Saptha Nihitaha: these sense organs are seven

each in every human being. All these are born out of Brahman. 120 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 9. ata samudr giraya ca sarve asmt syandante sindhavas sarva-rp, atas ca sarv oadhayo rasa ca yenaia bhtais tihate hy antar-tm. Not only the subjective world or Adhyatmam is born out of Brahman, even the objective world or Adhibhootam is also born out of Brahman. A few examples are given. Ataha Syandante: from that Brahman alone, come forth or emanate Samudra: seas Girayaha: mountains Sindhavaha, Sarvaroopaha: the two together mean all types of rivers, with pure water, having different ingredients. For example, Tamraparni means it has copper. Religiously also they are different. Some are very sacred like Ganga, Yamuna. All are born out of Brahman. Atascha Sarva Oshadayaha: all the plants, trees, shrubs, herbs, creepers, all vegetation also are born out of Brahman. The nourishing power of the plant is also (the Rasaha or essence) Rasascha is also born out of Brahman. 121 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji What is the glory of the Rasaha; because of that Rasa

alone, every human being survives. (Anna Rasenaiva Bhootva, Annarsenaiva Vrudhim Prapya). This physical body is nourished only by the Rasa of plants. The Upanishad puts the survival of human being in a technical language. What is meant by surviving? This physical and subtle body are together, death is when they separate. The nourishment of plant alone keeps Antaratma means Sukshma Shariram, Bhutou means along with Sthoola Shariram, Tistathe means remains. 10. purua eveda viva karma tapo brahma parmtam, etad yo veda nihita guhy sovidy-granthi vikiratha, saumya. In the last Mantra, the topic of creation is concluded. This is a very important Mantra as it gives the philosophical lesson that is to be learnt from the whole of this Srishti Prakaranam. 122 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji The topic goes on telling everything is born out of Brahman. What is the Tatparyam, the main corollary? That is brought out here. Shankaracharya quotes this Mantra very often and so much study is done on this Mantra. First lesson is this; Brahman is the material cause, world is the effect. Therefore Brahman alone appears in the form of the effect, world.

I need not do anything special to experience the Brahman; whenever I experience the world, it is Brahman alone manifesting as world. The very experience of effect is the experience of the cause in effectual form. Nobody can say I have not experienced Brahman. In fact you have not experienced anything other than Brahman. This is lesson number one. Second lesson; Brahman is cause, world is effect. Therefore there is no substance called world other than Brahman. Therefore the world is only verbal, non substantial existence (Vacharambhanam Vikaro Namadheyam). World is only a word, Nama Matra 123 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Satta, this is called Mithya. The only Satta is Brahman. Upanishad presents this in the first two lines. Purushaha Poorayathi Sarva Iti Purushaha: Brahman, that which is all pervading, infinite. Idam Sarvam: all this Karma: all action Tapaha: all meditation, We have to add Teshaam Phalam: all the Phalas (Lokas etc of Karma & Upasana) This is a technical way of presentation. The Scriptures look upon the whole world as Karma Phalam only. It looks upon the body as the result of your previous

action. If it is healthy, result of good action and unhealthy, result of bad action. The good thing here is you dont blame Bhagawan. Similar is the case of environment. So whole creation is Karma, Upasana Phalam which is also Brahman. This is called Brahma Satyam, Jagan Mithya. Paraamrutham: Param means ultimate reality, ultimate stuff of the creation. It is also the eternal truth. 124 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji What is the practical lesson here? As long as you hold on to anything substantial,your life is safe. When you hold on to anything non substantial, your life is in danger (sitting on a hollow card board chair!). Whole world is non substantial, so dont lean on it. If you do that, you have to blame your own non discrimination. So if you want security, peace, happiness, hold on to Brahman alone. Second part of Upanishad deals with how to know that Brahman? This is very important because people ask how to realize Brahman? It was said Brahman was Karanam, world is Karyam. The relationship is Karya Karana Sambhandha. What are the differences between Karya and Karana? Four main differences were talked about. Sno Karanam Karyam 1 One Many

2 Sarvagatam; Pervades all effects. Alpagatam (where there is ring, no bangles, but gold is behind both 3 Nithyam; exists in all three periods of time Anithyam; Subject to destruction (birth & death) 125 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 4 Has independent existence Karanam Satyam Has only dependent existence. The isness of effect is borrowed from cause. Karanam Mithya The search for Brahman, your investigation should start by looking for these four conditions. If I take any one physical body, or anything in creation does not fulfil these conditions. Upanishad gives the quiz. What is there that is everywhere, all the time and one? Whenever you experience anything, you say; there is a

man, there is a woman, there is a table etc. What is that which is common to all these? The appreciation of the existence Is is common (Satta) everywhere. Do I appreciate anything as non existent? In the first nine verses, creation was talked about, Brahman being the material cause and everything being born out of Brahman. 126 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji In the tenth verse, the conclusion is drawn which is the central essence of this entire section. Since world is an effect and Brahman is the cause, really speaking there is no world other than Brahman, just as there are no ornaments other than gold. What we call world is Brahman alone; so we should change our perspective of the world. I no more look upon the world as world but as world (Ishavaasyamidagam Sarvam). I train myself to look like this. This is Sarvathra Brahma Darshanam. This is a cognitive change and is the benefit of the knowledge. A cognitive change should bring about a change in perspective which in turn should bring about an attitudinal change. This brings about a change in your very life itself. That change is from Samsara to Moksha. The transformation has taken place only because I have displaced world vision by Brahman vision. When I see world, pot, ornaments, furniture, wave etc, I see immortality.

Therefore the displacement of world vision by Brahman vision is displacement of mortality vision by immortality vision. This is what is meant by Asatoma Sadgamaya, Tamasoma Jyothirgamaya, Mruthyorma Amrithangamaya. Moksha is not going to some Loka. Moksha is not accomplishement of any new thing; in 127 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji fact Moksha is nothing but a change in my vision born out of knowledge. This Srishti Prakaranam is used for this change in vision. This has a technical name (the method) in Shastra; Adhyaropa Apavada method by which I gradually displace world vision by Brahman vision. This is the basic method of Vedanta teaching. Adyaropa Apavadabhyam Nishprapancham Prapadyathe Rishyanam Sukha Bodhartha Thathvagnaihi Kalpitha Kramaha. This method was invented and used by our Acharyas from time immemorial. Since the method is very important, we should see how it works. This Adhyaropa Apavada method is done in four stages. Our mind is totally transformed, just as in computers gradually I phase changes to next. Let us take the example of this wooden desk. All of you see this desk. You say here is the wooden desk. So to convert you cognitively (ideal teaching is where you do

not even realize that you have changed or that you are made to change!). 128 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji First stage: Present the desk as an effect or product, in Sanskrit Karyam. You accept that. Second stage: If desk is an effect, any effect should have a cause. Here cause is wood (introduction of wood as cause). Third stage: Once you have learnt to look at the wood, I ask you, is there a desk other than wood? Tell me how many kgs of desk is there and how many kgs of wood are there? You know that the whole weight is wood alone, there is no such substance called desk! I say in fact ther is no desk other than wood. Desk is only a word with only a verbal existence (negation of desk/Karyam). Fourth stage: Once you negate the desk (Karyam), wood cannot be called a Karanam because the word is relevant only with reference to the other one namely desk or Karyam! Only as long as you accept the Karyam, the word Karanam is relevant. The word Karya, Karana is relevant only when two things are there. Now in third stage, Karyam was negated. So with only one thing, how can any relationship be there? Suppose I ask you, what is your relationship, you will immediately ask, to whom? Or with Whom/what?

129 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Relationship is a concept which can exist only in the field of duality. Once Karyam is gone, Karanam status of wood is also negated (very careful, I dont negate wood, only Karanam status!) To give Karanam state is to accept duality, because Karanam entails relationship which can exist only in the field of duality. So fourth stage is negation of Karana status of wood. That done, what is left behind? There is only one wood which is beyond cause and effect. Wood alone was, wood alone is and wood alone will be! Wood being non dual, no question of Karya, Karana. This is the ultimate vision of Vedanta, derived through Adyaropa Apavada method. The first two stages are Adhyaropa stage and next two stages are Apavada stages. Once these stages are gone through, Karya Karana Vilakshana Brahma Eva Asti, Shankaracharya beautifully presents this in Aparokshanubhuthi Karyaha Karanam pashyethu, Paschath Karyam Visarjayeth, Karanatvam Tato Nashyeth, Avarishtam Bhavenmunihi. Extend this to the world. 130 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 1. Presentation of world as an effect,

2. Introduce Brahman as the cause, 3. Negation of world as non different from Brahman, 4. Negation of causal status of Brahman. There is only Brahman which is neither cause nor effect. The words Cause, effect cannot be used because in Advaitham, there are no two things. There was Brahman, there is Brahman, and there will be Brahman. There is no question of creating anything, no destroying. Previously Brahman had one type of Nama Rupa; no Brahman is with another type of Nama Rupa. This is the transformed vision. Now, where do we commit the mistake? This also we should know where do we stray away from Shastra. In a chess game, after the game they analyse the game to see where the defeatd person went wrong, what would have been a better move, so the same mistake is not committed again! Similarly, look at the example. First there were planks of wood alone. Later they were converted into furniture. I know all of them are wood. I know that if I retain the word wood for all the furniture (desk is wood, chair is wood!), what will be the problem? Suppose there is a table, desk and a chair and I am a wise man! I tell that please bring that wood! (Sarvathra wood Darshanam, that is called wooden headedness!). 131 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Poor fellow, he brings the chair, then I say no, not this wood, the other wood! So there will be communication problem! So

to overcome the communication problem, I introduced a word chair, desk, table etc. Then I started using that word and after sometime, I concluded that table is a substance! It is a wooden table! This is the height of delusion. What is a noun and what is an adjective? Name is noun, qualifying word is adjective. Here table is noun, wooden is adjective. Really speaking, wood is substantial and table is non substantial! When I say, he is a tall man, man is noun, tall is adjective. Here man noun is substantial, tall is non substantial. We all know from our experience that noun is substantial and adjective is non substantial. In wooden table, these are reversed! So the misconception is, we tend to think of the noun (table here) as substantial and the adjective (wood here) as non substantial.This misconception occur in my Buddhi. I have reversed them! This is delusion. Really speaking we should be saying tably wood! This reversal of noun and adjective though appears as a simple language problem, is a serious one, because your language reveals your thinking. Language problem is thinking problem, thinking problem is perspectival problem, perspectival problem is attitudinal problem and attitudinal problem is Samsara! 132 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Let us retain the language, but let us think problem and have the wisdom to know which is substantial and which is

Nama Rupa alone! Remember world is non substantial and Brahman alone is substantial and everything we see is Nama Rupa alone, tell me what is the nature of Brahman? Whatever was, is, will be, is Brahman. When I look at the creation, I want to find out what is the enduring thing in the creation which belongs to Brahman and whatever is changing, belongs to Nama Rupa. What do I discover? There is only one thing which is inherent in all objects and which is eternal in all products. That is, the common, enduring, eternal factor is Is ness or existence. In Sanskrit it is called Satta. Suppose you destroy desk and convert into planks. Do you destroy the Is ness of desk? No, it shifts from desk to plank. Similarly if plank is made into saw dust, Existence shifts to saw dust. If burnt, it shifts to ashes? So Is, Is continues. Therefore what is creation? Brahman + Nama Rupa. What is Brahman? Existence. Therefore what is world? 133 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Existence + Nama Rupa. So when do I experience Brahman? I am experiencing Brahman all the time in the form of existence. Now next question. Ok. I experience Brahman as

existence. But my problem is I dont experience the Pure Brahman but along with Nama Rupa! (Nama Rupa Sahita Satta Anubhavaha). For this do I need any Sadhana? No! I might have a desire to experience unadulterated with Nama Rupa Brahman (Nama Rupa Rahita Satta Anubhavaha). For this the answer is given in the next two lines of this Mantra. Now I have Nama Rupa Sahita Brahma. But I want to experience Nama Rupa Rahita Brahma. So what should I do? Destroy all Nama Rupa. Very simple! But the question is how can I do that? How can I eliminate the world and experience pure existence? So we have a shorter method. Suppose I want to know how this room will be when it is dark. There are two methods. One is to close all doors, windows, switch off all lights and see. The other simpler method is to close my eyes! 134 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Similarly when my sense organs are all open, the whole world is there (Shabda, Sparsha, Rupa, Rasa, Gandha + Existence). So to remove the five senses, imagine you have closed your eyes. Imagine you have gone to a quiet place, not operating your nose or tongue. In short, suspend sensory functions. Then all Nama Rupas get eliminated. You should not mentally project also. In short you are meditating. Then Nama Rupa are suspended. What is left

behind? That is Satta or Existence alone is left behind. Now the question is how do I know the pure Existence? If I open my eye it becomes Existence + form etc. As long as I operate sensorily, it is impure Existenc alone. Upanishad here puts a bomb shell. It says Pure Existence can never be experienced. Because the very word experience entails operating senses which makes Existence impure! Then comes next question. If pure experience can never be experienced, how do I know it is there? Then Upanishad says, when you suspend sensory perception and when entire world is negated, tell me what is left behind? Then you start searching. You ask Swamiji, there 135 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji is only blankness. That is why Buddhists came up with Shunya Vada. Upanishad asks, when you say ther is nothing, how do you know? That there is nothing, you are aware, which means there is a witness of nothingness which is left behind. This alone, this awareness, witness consciousness is pure Existence. Satta = Chaitanya = You You are the experience, so it is never the experience. You should own up the Pure Existence as I the Consciousness who am the witness of every thought. That is what

Upanishad says Yetado Veda Nihitam Guhayam; you have to recognize in your mind as the consciousness withness of every thought and also the absence of thoughts. Therefore where is Brahman? Tat Tvam Asi. In the tenth concluding Mantra of Srishti Prakaranam, Upanishad gives the Tatparya of the whold of Vedanta, that is Brahma Satyam, Jagan Mithya, Jeevo Brahmaiva Na Paraha. One Brahman manifests as the whole 136 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji universe. With this idea, teacher answers the basic question asked by the student Kasmin Bhagavo Vijnate Sarvamidam Vijnatham Bhavati. Every Upanishad has an initial question like this and the entire Upanishad is an answer to that. So the question also should be always remembered (Eka Vijnanena Sarva Vijnanam Katham Bhavathi?). The answer is under one condition Eka Karana Vijnanena Aneka Karya Vijnanam Bhavati. By knowing one material cause, all effects are as good as known, as they are not separate from the cause. So here Shounakas question has been beautifully answered (by knowing Brahman, everything else is known). The next question is, if that is so, how am I to discern the Karanam Brahman in everything? The answer is,

understand the features of Karanam and look for them in the Karyam. Features of Karanam are: Something, which is eternal, one and inherent everywhere. When we see, we know that Isness or Satta fits this description. 137 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Existence is the only thing which is Ekam, Nityam, Sarvagatam. For example, when you destroy a pot, Isness shifts to shred of pot, then clay, then to earth and so on. Similarly with table, Isness shifts to planks, saw dust, ashes. That is why ash is an ideal representative of Brahman. It remains when everything is burnt down. So apply that to remind yourself of Brahman. We also know that world cannot exist separate from Existence (Satta). Therefore Brahma Jnanam is only in the form of Satta Jnanam. Brahma Jnanam is also experienced along with object, but not appreciated with these. Once all the Nama Rupas are removed, logically what should be left out? Satta + Nama Rupa Nama Rupa = Satta or pure Existence. But when I suspend all Nama Rupas, we find, we are not able to experience anything, but as though everything is blank. So do you say Existence is Shunyam? Here Upanishad says, you cannot experience the pure existence because that pure Existence happens to be the I, the Conscious principle. We can experience anything only when something is

separate from me! So, if I have to know it, it is only in one way in the form of pure Consciousness. I alone am the witness of everything and the blankness also. Where do you experience that Consciousness? Upanishad says you can never experience that Consciousness outside, even though 138 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji you are a conscious person. I cannot experience the counsciousness in your body though I can see your Nama Rupa. I can experience it in myself alone. (Means, I recognize it as the witness of thoughts as well as the silence in the mind). Therefore Upanishad says, Yaha Veda, one should know the pure Existence. Etat = Karanam Brahma Guhayaam Nihitam: Antahkarana is called Guha or cave. Nihitam means located. One should know Brahman in the form of consciousness in the mind. Here every word is significant and deep. Nihitam literally means located. Once you say, Brahman is located in mind, the problem is, it becomes limited. But Brahman by definition is unlimited. So, here it should be understood as being available in the mind as consciousness. It is located everywhere, but recognizable in your mind alone as consciousness like, when you want to know whether electricity is there or not, you test it at some points like a fan, light etc, though it flows in all the wires. Similarly though consciousness is every where, I can recognize it in your

Antahakarana. So Brahman is everywhere but recognized in the plug point of my mind. So Nihitam menas recognizable. How is it recognizable in the mind? 139 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji This is also important because people think we have to meditate! This craze is there. So they sit, suspend all thoughts and look for that pure Existence. An aside here: One person came and told I am able to remove all thoughts after practicing 12 years Swamiji. But I dont know what to do next? I am expecting something to happen, nothing happens. How do I explain? Generally, I tell Please attend the classes. He says Swamiji, I dont want all these intellectual drills and all that, (it is a waste of time!). You just tell me in two mintues just give me some clue! What I am teaching day after day, he wants in one sentence. He is looking for something which is never going to come. Having wasted twelve years, what a tragedy! What he is looking for is the consciousness which was there before the thoughts, during the thoughts and after suspending the thoughts. Tha consciousness which is there all the time has been taken for granted and he is looking for that! That is why mind is called Guha. Though Brahman is there as consciousness, because of ignorance, this fact is not recognized.

Cave is that in which things are not recognized due to darkness. Mind is compared to a cave because, though 140 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Brahman is there all the time as the witness consciousness of thoughts and thoughtless state also. So if someone asks if I have that experience, I cannot say I have experienced, I cannot say I have not experienced Brahman! All I can say is Dont look for a new experience; all old and new experiences are illumined by the consciousness; that alone is ever evident. This fact is lost sight of by sheer ignorance. So it is available in Nirvikalpaka Samadhi? No, it is available right now, because of which alone, every word forms a thought in your mind, the thought is illumined by the consciousness. If the mind is blank, the blank mind is illumined by the same consciousness. Dayananda Swamiji makes a very beautiful statement: in the case of all our worldly transactions, normally knowledge comes first, experience later. Suppose I want to go to UK or USA, I gather all necessary information first including formalities and then have the actual experience. Unfortunately, we extend this tendency to Brahman also; first know Brahman by attending classes, then do Sadhana to get Brahman experience later! This is the greatest misconception in Vedantic field. People always say, they have knowledge, no experience.

Note this very clearly; Brahman experience does not come later because Brahman is the consciousness evident all the time because of which all the experiences are possible. This 141 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Brahman is with Nama Rupa and without Nama Rupa also. In Jagrat and Swapna Avastha, Brahman is with Nama Rupa and is Sushupthi (deep sleep), Samadhi and Coma states Brahman is without Nama Rupa. If you are not sure, when you get hit strongly and are stunned for a while, that is Nirvikalpaka Samadhi. So Chaitanyam experience is never lacking for any one. What is missing is however, is the fact or knowledge, that, that consciousness which is every where is my nature. It is not Brahma Anubhava but Brahma Jnanam which is required. This requires teaching. In which Avasta can teaching take pace? Naturally in Jagrat Avasta alone when teacher is there, then alone Jnanam can take place. Now you can understand the importance of Shastra Vichara. Yaha Veda: Shankara writes, I should not say I have consciousness, but that I should own up that existence is in the form of consciousness and that consciousness is myself. Aham Brahma Asmi Iti Veda or simply Aparokshathaya Veda. It is not, I have consciousnesss in the mind, but I am consciousness who is pervading and illumining the body, I lend existence to the whole creation. So now I say I am the Jagat Karanam, in me, the whole creation is born, in me the whole creation exists and in me it

resolves. Initially, it sounds mind boggling. Does not matter, this is the first Upanishad; as you go on, you will appreciate. 142 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji I lend existence to this creation. Whenever you feel diffident, take this example. The whole dream world is born, exists and resolves in me. But it is unbelievable when you are actually in dream, but you realize the falsity only when you get up. Similarly due to ignorance, I have lost my creatorhood and have become a creature and look for creature comforts! So what should I do now? Uthishtata Jagrata Prapyavaranna Bodita. Upanishad says all of you please wake up. Saksha Kurute Prabodha Samaye Atmaname Vadvayam. Now the next line; what is the benefit of this knowledge? I thought I was Karyam, now I know I am Karanam. Upanishad says, Saha: that Jnani Nikirati means destroys Avidyam Granthim: the knot of ignorance Why is ignorance called a knot? 1. A knot especially an old one is very difficult to disentangle. Our ignorance being Anadi, (in fact time itself is born out of ignorance), it is like a knot. 2. When you join two things either physically or symbolically (wedding is called tying the knot), a knot is formed. Similarly, self ignorance combines two things, 143

MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji even though I am pure consciousness, because of ignorance, I associate myself with the body (Sthoola, Sookshma and Karana Shariras). I get attached to these, have Abhimana with the body. The birth date of the body becomes my birthday. The physical and mental conditions of the body become my conditions. So this Atma Anatma mixing up is caused by the ignorance knot; through knowledge, this knot is removed and this mixing up does not take place anymore. So, I really have no biodata. That does not mean, you should not use name in Vyavahara. In Vyavahara, be as you were; only know the facts in your mind. As long as Dehabhimana is there, Samsara is there. Once ignorance is gone, Dehabhimana goes, only working Dehabhimana is there. This is what they call roasted seed. When seed is roasted, it is not destroyed, in fact, it is tastier; but it has lost its capacity to germinate. Similarly working Dehabhimana is called Badhita Ahankara or functional ego. You have sufficient ego for transactions to fulfil your duties, but it is not toxic or poisonous Ahankara which germinates into Samsara. Like the two types of cholesterol, HDL & LDL, one is good and the other is bad! Jnanis Ahankara is functional. 144

MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Some people talk; this comes; this goes etc to refer to themselves. Swami Dayanandaji calls this spiritual snobbery! This is nothing but change in language but continuance in Samsara. Instead, change your vision. Aham Brahma Iti Jnanena Jeevanmukthaha Bhavathi To make the student a bit relaxed as the subject is tough, he is addressed as Soma, which means, oh! Pleasant one. The first section ends here. In the first section of second chapter, Brahman was revealed primarily as Jagat Karanam. The corollary is, universe being, Karyam cannot exist separate from Brahman. Brahman alone IS, there is nothing other than Brahman and whatever is experienced by us is nothing but the very Brahman with different Nama Rupa. Technically this is presented as Brahma Sathyam Jagan Mithya. It was also pointed out that the nature of Brahman is Pure Existence (Sadrupa Brahma). At the end, Upanishad made the important revelation that the all pervading existence in its pure form can be recognized in only one way. That is as the Chidrupa Atma. 145 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji In Vedantic terminology, Sadrupa Brahma is called Tat and Chidrupa Atma is called Tvan.

Tat = essence of creation and Tvam = essence of yourself (Consciousness), both are one and the same. The essence of Macrocosm is existence and the essence of microcosm is consciousness and the essence of both is one and same (Sadeva Chit Chideva Sat). Once I know that I am the Cit or Consciousness, I can boldly claim that I, the pure Consciousness alone, am in the form of creation. I alone lend existence to the whole creation. Blessed by me the creation is born. Blessed by me the creation exists. Not blessed by me, the creation resolves. I, the Chit lend Sat to the creation. Initially, it is difficult to swallow this idea. How can I, the observer, the Chit lend existence to the whole world? It is unbelievable. So Vedanta here gives an example to see how it is true. The example is Swapna Prapancha, blessed by me, it rises; the beauty is I myself enter it, I am afraid of the dream world I have created. The dream world enjoys existence borrowed from the waker alone, 146 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji and when I wake up, the entire dream world resolves in me alone. Extend this to the real world also. From me, the Satchidatma, this world comes. Shankaracharya beautifully says this in Manisha

Panchakam Brahmhaiva Ahamidam.Chinmatra Vistaritam. I am the Satchidatma into which it resolves. The one who has recognized this is the best person whether he is a Dvija or a Chandala. Jati does not matter at all, and to that person, I offer my prostrations. This revelation is called Mahavakyam. A Mahavakyam is one which says that the individual self and the essence of the world is one and the same. The second section of second chapter which we will see elaborates on this aspect. It is the central section of Mundaka. Almost every Mantra is a Mahvakya here. Mhavakyam is a technical word. Jeevatma Paramatma Eikya Bodhaka Vakyam Mahavakyam. Chidrupa = Jeevatma 147 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Sadrupa = Paramatma Though there are several Mahavakyas in the Upanishads, traditionally, one from each Veda is taken as a sample. 1. Rig Veda: Aitareya Upanishad: Prajnanam Brahma. 2. Yajur Veda: Brihadaranyaka Upanishad: Aham Brahmasmi. 3. Sama Veda: Chandogya Upanishad: Tatvamasi. 4. Atharvana Veda: Ayamatma Brahma.

These are but four samples, but Vedas have more than 4000 Mahavakyas. Incidentally, with regard to the Mahavakya, Tatvamasi, there is a mis-conception. In Sanskrit, the word Tatvam can be looked at from two angles. 1. Combination of Tat (Brahma) and Tvam (Jeevatma) 2. Tat word to which a suffix Tvam is there. For example: Purushatvam, Streetvam, where Tvam gives an abstract quality to the noun (suffix is something added to a noun to make an abstract noun). Example: manness, womanness (ness is a suffix). 148 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Tat = real, Tvam = ness. So Tvam = realness/reality. In Tatvamasi, we should take the first meaning. In Tatvabodha, Tatvam means reality. The second section concentrates on Jeevatma Paramatma Eikyam. So it is the most important section. With this background, let us enter into the section. Second Mundaka: Second Khanda 1. vi sanihita guhcara nma mahat padam atraitat samarpitam, ejat praan nimiac ca yad eat jnatha sad asad vareyam param vijnd

yad variham prajnm. 149 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji To reveal the oneness of Jeevatma and Paramatma, the Upanishad mixes up the features of Jeevatma and paramatma. It is one Shloka where, in some words to describe Jeevatma, Upanishad uses the features of Paramatma as though indiscriminately, to indicate that they are mutually exchangeable as they are one. So first, we will see Jeevatma description in first line. Avihi: literally means light/Prakasham/Jyothihi, Swayam Prakasha Chaitanyam, self evident consciousness. Note the style of Upanishad. Often the word light is used to indicate consciousness (Atmajyothihi). It is used purely in a technical sense. This should be known very clearly, as it has lead to misconceptions very widely. Because of misconception, people expect to see a light or lights in the heart etc during meditation. Nothing of the sort happens except probably ones own auto suggestion and mental projection. If at all any such experience happens know that it has nothing to do with Atma which is the experience, observer which was there before the light, during and after the light. So kindly dont commit the mistake of looking for lights in meditation or be carried away by 150

MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji such experiences or their reports. In Vedanta, light is defined as that in whose presence, things are known. Going by that definition, any sense organ can be called a light. Colours are known by the presence of the eye, so eye can also be a light. Similarly, a particular sound can be appreciated by the ear. In a dark room where nothing can be seen, somebodys verbal directions help us avoid obstacles and find our way. This is because in the presence of words/ear, things are known and can be called light. So sense organs can be called light. The example of words being in a sense light is explained in the Swayamjyothi Brahmana of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. It is called Vagjyothihi (words either heard or read leading to knowledge). Similarly in the presence of mind also things are known. In the absence of mind, one is absent minded, inspite of eyes and ears, we fail to know. Sun, moon, stars, electricity and fire are external lights. The five sense organs are the internal lights. Mind and words are also light. But Upanishad says the final light is the Atma Chaitanyam or Consciousness, in the presence of which alone, mind can function. So Atma lends light to the mind, mind to the sense organs and they lend light to my words. Therefore, the ultimate light is Consciousness alone. Minus the consciousness the other lights are meaningless. Even if the sun is there, but without eye,

151 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji it is not seen. If mind is not backed by consciousness all other factors present will not enable me to see. So I the consciousness is the primary source. Thet is why Atma is called Shrotrasya Shrotram etc. So consciousness is given the name Avihi meaning self evident light. So, where is it available? Sannihitam: it is very well placed, very well evident. Why do we say, consciousness is very well evident? Because everything else is evident because of consciousness. I say, I see a clock because of consciousness. Similarly, Shabda is evident because of consciousness alone. Everything is evident because of consciousness alone. When Shabda comes, Sparsha may go, when Sparsha comes, Shabda may go, but what does not go is Jnanam, which alone is always there. One sense may be displaced by another sense, but consciousness can never be displaced by anything; it is very evident in every experience as that particular Jnanam. Suppose you close all your senses and look inside. Raga Dwesha may be there. Even they may be pushed off with total blankness. But still, the awareness of the 152 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji blankness is there. That is why it is called Bhavabhava

Sakshihi. It is the witness of things presence as well as the absence of things. That itself will never become absent. Therefore, to recognize the consciousness, what time do you want? Pratibodha Viditam Matam. Brahma Jnanam is not through a particular experience, but discerning the awareness in every particular experience, like the knowledge of the light in the room. I dont have to stare at the light, to know it is there. Because of that alone, I can see everything else. The perception of awareness/consciousness is in and though all experiences. Jagratswapna Sushuptish Sphutataraya Samvida Vijrumbhate. So you need not go to Turiya or Turiyatita Avastas. I am not saying they are there or not there. I say ther is no need to go to four, five or sixth Avastas to recognize this fact. We can happily discern this here and now. That is why it is called Sannihitam. It is also well known as Guhacharam, that which moves about in the mind literally. Consciousness is in mind as witness of every thought. Sarvavrutti Sakshiroopena Huhayam Charati Iti Guhacharam and illuminator of thought. 153 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Some one asks, what is the proof that there is light in the room (without looking directly at the tube). The

very fact that I am able to read every line in the book is proof that there is light. The fact that every thought or its absence is known shows that the consciousness is there. Here I make an aside point, as it may be misleading. When I say, Atma is the witness of every thought in the mind; again we want to come face to face with witness, by removing all thoughts (like remove all things in the room to see the tube light!). That is why such people are tube lights!! And Atma tube light will be there, which I come across. This never can happen because I am the witness. Therefore even if you remove your thoughts, do not look for the Sakshi, but recognize I am the Sakshi who is the illuminator of thoughtful and thoughtless states. That is what is meant by Guhacharam. Charam means to move. Does Consciousness move? Shankaracharya says No, No, seemingly moving (Guhacharam Eva) because it is like space. Movement is always from a place where you are to a place you are not. Since consciousness is locationless, there is no question of movement. It is only that when thoughts move, it appears as though the consciousness which is 154 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji intimately associated with the thoughts moves. It is a transferred epithet; just like we say, it is a gloomy day,

happy day, walking man, running nose, drinking water etc. (we drink water, not water which drinks!) So consciousness Acharam Api Guhacharam Eva Varthate, seemingly moving in the minds of men. Consciousness reflected in thought appears as if consciousness moves. In a comatose person what is absent is not consciousness but thought. In this section, the teacher brings out the main teaching i.e. JeevatmaParamatma Aikya and all Mantras are Mahavakyas. Definition of Avihi: Sva Isvara Sarva Prakashakatve Sati Sva Itara Sarva Aprakashayatvam Svayam Prakashatvam which means, while it illumines everything else, itself is not or need not be illumined by anything. Sannihitam means intimately available along with every object (In Kena Upanishad, Pratibodha Viditam). Here Nama (Guhachara Nama) means Prasiddam, not name. The word Nama is used in two ways. 1. Indeclinable: it does not have any diclention, gender, case, number etc. (Sadrusham Thrishu Lingeshu Sarvasuch Vibhakthishu, Vachaneshu cha Sarveshu 155 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Yatravyeti Avyayam). It has different meanings according to context. Here it means Prasiddham or well known. 2. Declinable word: Nakaranthaha Napumsaka Lingaha

Naman Shabdhaha Nama Namni Namani Namati Nanma Namabhyam Namabhihi. Here it is in the first (indeclinable) sense which means well known. Jeevatma is well known as Guhacharam; moving in the cave of mind (cave = ignorance), as though moving. People talk of higher and lower states of consciousness. Do you know how these words came? Really speaking, consciousness does not have states because states indicate change. Since consciousness is Nirvikaram, it cannot have states though such things are written in books. They only refer to the kind of thoughts. Mahatmas have qualitatively higher thoughts like generosity, compassion, friendship etc. That is all. Till now in the first line Tvam or Chit Pada Lakshyartha was talked about. In second line, Tat or Sat or Paramatma Swaroopam is talked about. 156 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji This Chaitanyam (Chit) is also the Mahat the Jagatkaranam, Ekam Sat Brahma. Mahat = infinite = Paramatma is also Guahacharam. So Chit Eva Sat. If Jeevatma and Paramatma are one, hereafterwards we can use one common name Atma for both. Padam = Aadharam, Aaspadam, Adhistanam or

substratum of everything. Why? Because it is the Karanam of all the Karyas. So Sachidatma is the Padam (see how Aadharam is used in Shanthakaram Bhujagashayanam Padmanabham Suresham Vishwadharam Gaganasadrusham). Atra Samarpitam: Atra Sachidatmani Eva Etatsarvam Samarpitam. In it only is supported, based, located all the following things. So what are they? Ejat: all moving or flying things (Anejat: plants, non-moving) Praanat: breathing ones 157 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Nimishat: blinking ones, in general all living things as based on Sachidatma alone. We will see, Yadetad Janaya and Sadsat later. Varenyam: the goal to be sought after by all people. Varaneeyam means Shreshtam as in Tasvaviturvarenyam. By saying that Atma is worthy goal, Upanishad means that all other goals like, Dharma, Artha and Kama are not real goals at all. They are fake, seeming, deceiving goals! They are seeming deceiving goals! Atma or Moksha is the only real goal. In the Gayathri Mantra Bhargo Devasya Dheemahe Dheeyoyona Prachodaya Atu, Bharga means Avihi,

meaning self evident light. Here Avihi is Varenyam, there Bharga is Varenyam. Varishtam: the greatest thing in creation. Varaha: superior Variyan: more superior and Varishtam: most superior, greatest both qualitatively (time and spacewise also) simply by dimension and qualitatively. In fact we should not say most superior 158 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji because it is the only thing that really exists and all else is Mithya. Prajanam Vijnanath Param. Param: beyond the scope of/range of. Generally beyond all worldly knowledge of people i.e, the knowledge gained by our instruments of knowledge. Pourusheya Pramana Janya Vijnanam = Prajanam Vignanam like Pratyaksha, Anumana etc. including scientific instruments, material knowledge or Apara Vidya. So Brahman is Param. That is why we are sure; science can never discover the reality, because it is the observer who is the reality. Scientists are improving their observing capacity by which they can observe the observed/observable, but not the observer! This is said in Brihadaranyaka, Vijnataram Are Kena Vijaneeyat, Kenava Idagam Sarvam Vijanati Tam Kena Vijaniyat?

So how to know it? There is only one method. Have a mirror, the Shastras. There is a book also called Shastra Darpanam. So Guru wields the Shastra Darpana! 159 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Now we go back to third line. Sat Asat: this Atma alone is in the form of both gross and subtle universe. Sat is Murtha Prapancha. Asat is Amurtha Prapancha. This is significant. Until now, Upanishad said Atma supports universe (Atra Evat Sarvam Samarpitham). Now it imagines a problem. When it is said it supports the notion of duality is there, like Atma is a stand on which universe stands! So to clear this doubt, it says, in fact Atma is not supporting but itself manifests as world (water itself appearing as wave, they are not two distinct entities). Etat Janat: know this Atma. That is the goal of your life. This Atma which is in the form of Sat outside, which is in the fom of Chit in your mind which is your real nature. Knowing that alone is the goal of your life. Uthistatha Jagrata Prapya Varannabodhita 160 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 2. yad arcimad yad aubhyou ca, yasmin lok nihit lokinas ca,

tad etad akaram brahma sa pras tad u v mana, tad etat satyam, tad amtam, tad veddhavyam, saumya, viddhi. The teacher Shounaka brings out the oneness and advises the student to know this. Archimat = same as Avihi. Literally Avihi means a beam of light (Archishman Architaha Kumbhaha), self evident consciousness. Anubhyaha Anuhu: subtler than an atom. Subtle means that which is not easily comprehensible. Atom is known for its subtility. Gross means easily knowable. Upanishad says Jeevatma is subtler than the subtlest. An atom, though subtle, probably with improving our observation techniques, we may be able to comprehend it some day, but Atma is not only not perceptible now but will eternally be imperceptible (because it is on this side of the instrument as it were!). Swami Chinmayananda used to give a nice example: A person 161 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji had a torch light. He wanted to see what is there inside, which makes the torch so bright. So what did he do? He dismantled the torch and took out the batteries, but as now it was dark without the torch light, he could not see anything in the dark! Because, the batteries are what the torch is all about and they cannot be seen by the torch light. Drumeva Jatu Drushyate, ever the objectifier, never

the object. That is why it is Anoraneeyam. Now the Upanishad brings out the Mahavakyam Tadetad Aksharam Brahma. Tadetad Brahma: This Jeevatma, witness, consciousness alone is Brahman, the very existence pervading everywhere. That all pervading existence itself is consciousness. It is Aksharam, imperishable. The alphabets are also called Akshara because according to Shastra, the alphabets can never be created or destroyed. When I talk, I dont manufacture the letters. I only manifest whatever letters are already there in the creation. Sound is the property of Akasha and as long as it is there, sound will also be there. There is an article called sound of silence. So sound is already there in Avyakta Roopa. 162 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Here Aksharam means the imperishable Brahma. Yasminlokaha Lokinashcha Nihita: upon this Brahman everything is based. It is almost the same as the previous Shloka. In the previous one Samarpitam was used here. Nihita is used to say based. What are based? All the fourteen worlds and their occupants or inhabitants. So both Chetana and Achetana Prapancha is based on Brahman alone. Again, the duality problem comes. So Upanishad says, Atma is the very world consisting of everything, the Pancha Pranas, Vayuhu,

Vak, Manaha, and there is no Dvaitam. Tadetat Satyam: so the Atma alone is the reality, every thing else is false, Mithya. Tad Amrutham: so what is real is eternal. Tad Veddhavyam: that alone is worthy of knowing. By other things, there is no transformation in life. Shankaracharya says, Apara Vidya Hi Avidya. So all material sciences are ignorance alone! So may you know that Atma. The teacher then addresses the student Soumya, to encourage him as it is a tough subject. 163 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji This last line also has a second meaning based on the following verses. So here is a hint of the next few Mantras. There, our spiritual Sadhana is going to be compared to archery where Jeevatma is compared to the arrow and Paramatma to the target. Now, before the arrow is released, the arrow and target are different, separate, there is Bhedaha or division. After shooting they are no more separate, there is no more any distance or gap between them. Similarly before our Sadhana, I and paramatma are different. They play snakes and ladder on Vaikunta Ekadashi which is a beautiful analogy. Jeeva travels, throws the dice and some number comes, he goes up the ladder (Manushya Janma), confronts a snake and comes down

to lower Janmas, then again becomes human being. Rarely he gets a good human birth, Guru is there, Shastra is there, interest in Vedanta has come, and all favourable conditions are there. That means he has reached 94 in the game. But there is a big snake in 95 and again in 97 which comes to 33 and one in 99 which comes to 11 or so! So you have to put Tatvamasi sixer to reach Paramapadam! Archery analogy (Dhanurvidya) is a well known analogy of Mundaka. 164 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Keeping that in mind, the teacher here says Tad Veddhavyam, as an arrow, you should pierce, hit. In Sanskrit, Veddhavyam can be derived from two different roots. 1. Vid: to know 2. Vyadh: to pierce, Viddhyathi So let us go to the third Mantra. 3. dhanur ghvt aupaniadam mahstra ara hy ups-niita sadadhta, yamya tad-bhvagatena cetas lakya tad evkara, saumya viddhi. Here three comparisons are there. Paramatma is compared to the target to be hit, pierced. Jeevatma is compared to the arrow. In Sanskrit, target is called Lakshyam, arrow is Sharaha. 165

MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji But the arrow to hit needs some trigger. It will not hit by itself. So bow is required. Here Upanishad Shastram is the bow. So indirectly Upanishad here wants to say Jeevatma Paramatma Aikyam is impossible without Shastram, i.e, teaching in any language, in any part of the world. Any literature which conveys the idea that You are the Whole is Upanishad. Without this Aikyam is impossible. Here what is not mentioned is the archer. Who is the archer? You can say, you are the archer, or Guru is the archer as he is helping the Shishya like the launching silos. Comparing the pursuit of spiritual Vidya to archery is one of the well known analogies or metaphors given in Shastra. Parambrahma is compared to the target (Lakshyam) which has to be hit by the arrow (Jeevatma is the Sharam, he is not the archer). Why this analogy? 1. Before the actual strike of the arrow to the target, the arrow and target are different and ther is a distance between them. After the hit, the distance between them becomes zero. Similarly before Atma Jnana, there is a distance between Jeevatma and 166 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Paramatma, which will not be there once knowledge,

is gained. What removes the distance between them? The bow removes the distance Shastra Pramana or Vedanta Vichara is the bow which is instrumental in removing the distance between the two. The significance of the metaphor is this: In case of arrow and target, the distance is a physical one. So arrow will have to travel to hit the target. But there is no physical distance involved in case of Jeevatma and Pramatma for two reasons. One is that Paramatma being all pervading cannot be away (to be physically away is to be spatially limited). 2. Jeevatma and Paramatma are one only. So there is no space wise or time wise distance between the two. Time wise distance can be explained this way. If I am young now, there is a distance time wise between me and sixty years. Similarly, when I ask Should I do any Sadhana to become Paramatma? I put time wise distance between me and Paramatma. Upanishad says, No as you are already Paramatma. So there is no question of becoming. So as far 167 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji as Paramatma is concerned, I need not reach, I need not become, I already am. If so, what distance is there? Upanishad says it is the distance caused by ignorance, the notion that I have to reach, become Paramatma like the

distance between dreamer and waker! So what should you do to remove this notional distance? The only way is to remove the ignorance. How? Gain knowledge. Example: Karna meets Kunti. Kunti says she has six sons. Five are of course the well known Pandavas. Karna asks who is the sixth one? Kunti answers that Karna himself is the sixth son and that he is not a Radheya. So here, what distance did Karna travel to become a Kounteya? None at all. He only gained knowledge. That is all. Here the Pramana is Shastra alone. The bow referred to in the analogy is Shastra which helps to eradicate the distance between the arrow and the target. Shastra uses several methods of enquiry to remove Jeevatma Paramatma 168 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji distance. One is Drig Drishya Viveka, another is Panchakosha Viveka and the thirdly, Avastha Tryaya Viveka. The result of each is Jeevatma arrow and Paramatma target becoming one. One method among these is Omkara Vichara similar to Avastha Traya Vichara which is discussed in Mandukya. Omkara is divided into three letters A, U and M. A corresponds to Jagruthavastha, U corresponds to

Swapnavastha and M corresponds to Sushuptavastha and between two Omkara chants, there is silence which is equated to Avastha Traya Sakshi. Therefore Upanishad compares Omkara to the bow. Omkara here denotes Shastra. Even in Kaivalya Upanishad, it is said, Atmanamarani Krutva Pranavasya Uttararani By using Omkara, we generate knowledge by which the distance between Jeevatma and Paramatma is removed. Through this metaphor, some important Sadhanas are indicated. If you have to use the arrow to hit the target, the arrow has to be in a proper condition. 169 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 1. First, it must be straight and not crooked! If so, it will fall here only. In the same way, one should have Aarjavam or straight forwardness. He should have values. 2. Secondly, it should be sharp. Only then, it will travel briskly and when it hits, it remains there. Similarly, the Jeevatma once it hits Paramatma should remain there, not return! (People say Swamiji, I am Paramatma here, but once I put on my chappals, the feeling goes away!) If arrow is blunt, it may not hit, or even it hits, may not stay here. So, the personality should be sharp (Drushyate Tu

Agrayabuddha Suksmaya Sookshmadarabhi). So Chitta Ekagrata or (Samadhanam) is indicated; which means a sharp intellect is needed. How to sharpen your intellect? Upasana Abhyasa, meditation, helps to sharpen our intellect. All our Japa, Pooja, Sandhya Vandana are meant for this alone. So Sharamupasa Nikhitam, means the intellect sharpened by Upasana, must be applied to understand this knowledge. 170 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Thirdly, the arrow must be fixed to the bow. So the Jeeva (Sadhaka) must commit himself to the Shastra without Shastra Vichara, there is no question of Moksha. 3. Sadhana: before striking (shooting), the arrow is withdrawn. Similarly, an attitude of Nivruthihi or withdrawal (Antarmukhatvam) is required. The more the distance to be travelled, the more the withdrawal required of the bow string. Similar is the case with our Sadhana. The extroverted mind has to withdraw. Unless we withdraw from our Vyhvaharas, we cannot understand this Vichara. In this connection, king Janaka was an example to all others, and that is why his teacher had a high regard for him. Janaka was a family man and a kind. But still, he was so concentrated in his Sravanam and withdrawn from all else during his studies, he did not wince even once, when an

illusory fire was created by his teacher. All other students who were Sanyasis with only a thatched hut and Kamandalu were worried about their possessions being burnt down and ran away to safeguard them. Aayamya means to withdraw from worldly Vyavahara. Until the target is struck, the archer must keep the target 171 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji constantly in focus. Similarly, though so many Vyavaharas are done by us throughout life, this focus that my goal is self knowledge must never be lost sight of. Mahastradhanuhu Oupanishadam: the great bow used by the seeker is the Upanishad Shastra. Sharasambhadhit: the Jeeva arrow must be connected to the Shastra Vichara bow. The arrow must be sharpened by practice of meditation. Here Upansana refers to Saguna Dhyanam, not Nirguna Upasana, as we still havent studied Shastras comprehensively. Nishitam means sharpened. Aayamya: just like arrow is drawn inwards, drop the extrovertedness of the mind. Tadbhavagatena Chetasa means Paramatma Chintana Bhavana or absorbed mind. Mind should be withdrawn from Anatma and turned towards Atma like damming a river. In damming, two processes are involved. 1. Water is collected thereby preventing wastage.

2. This collected water is channelized usefully for irrigation, electricity etc. 172 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Similarly, mind should be withdrawn from useless extraneous things. The available mind should then be turned towards Atma Vichara. Having done all this, Aksharam Lakshyamviddhi: may you strike the target the imperishable Brahman. Strike the target means here, drop the notional distance between Jeeva or Paramatma or Bedabuddhi Tyaja Hey Soumya, oh! Pleasant student. 4. praavo dhanu, aro hy tm, brahma tal lakyam ucyate, apramattena veddhavyam, aravat tanmayo bhavet. The metaphor of the previous verse is explained here. Pranavaha Dhanuhu: here Omkara is compared to the bow. One clarification here, mere chanting of Omkara will not give knowledge. In fact, chanting of mere Omkara is not prescribed for non-sanyasis. This is just an aside point. When a person is introduced to Gayathri, that Mantra itself is 173 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji supposed to be his protector. A person who has Gayathri does not require any other Mantra. Leaving the Gayathri for other Mantras is not required. If Gayathri initiation has not been done, then any other equivalent Mantra like Om Namah Shivaya, Sri Ram Jairam is good for protection and

Chittashuddhi. When a person takes Sanyasa, he renounces the sacred thread and Gayathri. So then, he requires something in place of Gayathri because taking Sanyasa per se does not give Jnanam. He has to do Shastra Vichara and get Jnanam. Therefore Omkara is given to him. Gayathri is merged into Omkara. The three Padas of Gayathri are merged into three Mantras of Omkara. Om Tatsavituvirenyam Akare Praveshayami Bhargo Devasya Dhimahi Ukare Praveshayami Dhiyo Yonaha Prachodayat Makare Praveshayami So Omkara becomes a Sanyasis Mantra. Even when he does Parishanchana, he chants Om Om Om. Others have to chant something like Namah Shivaya or Namah Narayanaya along with Om, never Om alone. Whether Om alone (Sanyasi) or with other Mantra is chanted, Chitta Shuddhi is got. 174 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Vichara about Omkara like in Mandukya can give Jnana. Pranavo Dhanuhu: Omkara Vichara which requires a Guru. Sharahi Atma: Jeevatma is the arrow. Tat Brahma Lakshya Uchyate: Brahman is the target. There is no mention of an archer. If you want an archer, Guru is the Archer. Apramattena Veddavyam: should strike the target by being very alert and without any distraction. It is not enough

merely to hit the target. Sharavat Tanmayo Bhavet: just as arrow becomes inseperable from the target, Jeevatma must become one with Paramatma. Dvaita Bhava must be replaced by Advaitam. 5. yasmin dyau pthiv cntrikam otam mana saha prai ca sarvai, tam evaika jnatha tmnam, anya vco vimucatha, amtasyaia setu. 175 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Now the main topic of Aikyam is discussed. Yasmin Otam: In the Paramatma, the entire creation is based or interwoven. Creation means Dyauh, Prthivi and Antariksha. Dyauh means higher Lokas like Suvaha and above. Prthivi is our Marthya Loka or Bhuhu. Antariksha means intermediary world. So all these are based on Brahman. Not only this external world but also the internal world. Manouhu Pranouhu Saha: the mind along with Karanas and the Pancha Pranas are also based on Brahman. Both macrocosm and microcosm, Samashti and Vyashti, both Adhidaivam and Adhyatmam are basd on (Otam) Paramatma. This word Otam is a very significant one. It is very difficult to translate but can be roughly translated as based. Here again watch that there is scope for the mistake that two things are there, world and Brahman and should be avoided.

The example of waves based on water, ornaments based on gold should be taken. They are not two different things but essentially one. 176 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Wave is nothing but water, ornament is gold alone, world is similarly Brahman alone. There is no world without Brahman. This is indicated by the word Otam which is a commonly used verb. It indicates that there is no duality at all. Oh! Student, Tam Atmanam Janat: know that alone, that Brahman is none other than Jeevatma. It was called Sat principle behind the world, which is identical with the Chit principle behind the Jeevatma, and both are identical. That is the witness principle, consciousness. May you know, realize that Aikyam. It is a non dual principle. This is important to understand because, many other systems like Sankhya, say that there are many Atmas. The benefit of this knowledge is said in the last line. Each Mantra in this section is a Mahavakya Mantra. Paramatma is defined and then that Paramatma is identified with Jeevatma. Paramatma is defined as the very stuff or Sat of the universe. If you take the whole universe and put it into a bit mixie and turn it, (Vedanta Vichara), what trickles down is Brahman (Sat Sat Sat). Brahman diluted with Nama Raupa water is the world! Remove Nama Rupa, what is left is Brahman.

177 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Bhuloka, Bhuvarloka and Suvarloka is interwoven in Brahman just like a cloth woven in silk (there is no cloth other than silk thread). Similarly, the inner world of mind, Prana and senses is also woven in Brahman only. Tam Atmanam Janata: may you know that Brahman. Here Upanishad quietly uses the word Atma to indicate that Paramatma. Brahman alone is the Jeevatma. May you know that Sat. Brahman is Chit Atma. How many Atmas? Ekam Janata: may you rrecognize this fact. This makes all the difference between a Samsari and a Mukta. It is a small shift of vision, but makes a very big difference, Asatoma Sadgamaya, Tamasoma Jyothirgamaya, Mruthyorma Amruthangamaya. Is it enough if you know it? The teacher says that it is not enough; it should be assimilated well and it should become part and parcel of your personality. You should be soaked in that knowledge. It should bot be there in one corner of your intellect available only at the time of the lecture. Knowledge and I should not be different. Sugar merely added to coffee does not make the coffee sweet, but only when the added sugar is stirred well, which makes it sweet. The stirring process is called 178 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji

Nidhidhyasanam, being in the atmosphere of Vedanta as often as possible. Just as pickle has to remain in the atmosphere of its juice to season, Vedanta must surround you, Kathanam, Chintanam, Ananyam Tadprabhodanam. Ekameva Paradbhamya Brahmabhyasam Vidurbudhaha: either reading, sharing with friends or deciphering your notes! In one way or other, mind should be in that atomosphere. To do that more and more, the worldly transactions to that extent will have to be reduced. Anyaha Vachaha Vimuchyata: reduce other matters of talk, reduce talk, be more antarmukhi and dwell over Vedanta Vichara more and more. Extrovertedness/Rajoguna manifests in two ways, action and talk. So reduce talking. Start quantity control, then quality control. What is quality control? Anyaha Vachaha: non Vedantic talk, gossip, criticism. If I dont do that what happens? Many problems are caused by talking. Mounam is the virtue. Without reduced transactions, Nidhidhyasanam does not 179 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji take place. Without Nidhidhyasanam, transformation does not take place, and Jeevanmukthi is out of question. Amruthasya Esha Setuhu: Nidhidhyasanam which presupposes reduction of Anyavachaha is the only method of

immortality or Mukti. Therefore Jnana Nishta or assimilation alone is the bridge to cross the ocean of Samsara or mortality and gain immortality. 6. ar iva ratha-nbhau sahat yatra nya sa eonta carate bahudh jyamna, aum iti eve dhyyathtmnam, svasti va prya tamasa parastt. Here also, Atma Jnanam as a means of Moksha is highlighted. Atma is again defined. Atma is that witness/consciousness in the mind which illumines every thought. This consciousness is there when there are thoughts and also when there are no thoughts. 180 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Therefore consciousness itself is not a thought. If that were so, in a thoughtless state, consciousness should not be there, but it is not so. In that case, I would not be aware of a thoughtless mind. It illumines the arrival of thoughts, it illumines the presence of thoughts and it also illumines the departure of thoughts. Now mind is defined. Mind is that which is located in the heart. During waking, it travels all over, in sleep, it withdraws into the heart. The heart is that central point from which Nadis emerge and reach all over the body. (The word Nadi is difficult to translate, some say they are blood vessels, some say they are nerves. So we will use the word Nadi only).

Nadyaha Samhata: all the Nadis are based upon or converge on the Yatra = heart. Rath Nathou Araha: just like all the spokes of a chariot wheel converge upon the central hub, similarly all the Nadis are supported by the heart. Tatra Antaha Eshaha Charate: within that heart is present the Atma Chaitanyam. 181 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Within heart means in Sthoola Sharira, is mind means Sookshma Sharira and within mind is the Atma, the witness of mind. How does Upanishad say, Atma is within the mind? Is it not a contradiction as in some places it says, Atma is all pervading and sometimes within the mind? When it says, all pervading, it includes the mind also. Then why specify within the heart? Sada Sarvagatopyatmana Sarvatravabhasate If electricity is there through out, why go to plug point to check for power? Because it is contactable, tappable there. Similarly though Atma Chaitanyam is everywhere, it can be recognized only in a certain point called Upalabdhi Sthanam. That is the Hridayam or mind. So Atma is recognizably present in the heart; unrecognizably present everywhere. (Hrudaye Sakshichaitanya Rupena Vyakyam). Bahudha Jayamanene: seemingly born in manifold ways, means, even though consciousness is present all the time,

we recognize it only when thoughts are present. When thoughts are resolved, when thought transactions are absent, consciousness appears to be absent, but truly it is present, but only thoughts are absent. This is transference of 182 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji attributes like running nose, walking man etc. Pot space is born, pot space is gone etc. Here actually pot is born and gone, not space. Similarly consciousness appears to be seemingly born and gone. This consciousness which is always there is Atma. Evam Atmanam Dhyayate: May you meditate upon that consciousness. Therefore in meditation also, you should not look for arrival of Atma because Atma is not subject to arrival and departure. Dwell upon the non arriving, non departing consciousness. Dont be carried away by any experience. This is Vedantic meditation. We will see it in more detail later. Omiti Dyayate: you can make use of the Mantra Om. It has sound and silence part. Making use of Omkara, we arrive at the silence in between two Omkaras. First you concentrate on the sound aspect and gradually you shift to the silence aspect. Anganam Anganam Antaraha Madhavaha: In the Rasa Krida of Bhagavata, Krishna with a Gopi on either side is described symbolically. The Omkaras are the Gopis and the silence in between is Krishna. How does this silence help? Once you come to silence, you understand that it is not a blank state. If

so, I would not be aware of it, the very fact that I am aware of it indicates that the silence is pervaded by awareness. 183 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Dayanandaji nicely puts it as Silence Awareness. So own up that fact. This is Vedantic meditation. The teacher then says Wish you all the best. Though we want to do well on the silence, we are unknowingly carried away by our powerful thoughts. So it is not so easy. That is why the teacher says it requires the grace of Ishwara, grace of Shastra, grace of Acharya. Hence his wishing all the best to the student. Vaha Swasti: may there be auspiciousness in your grand spiritual pursuit. Tamaha Paraya: To reach the shore of Samsara and attain Moksha. Tamasaha Parastat: which is beyond Tamas. The distance between me and Brahman is only ignorance not spatial or temporal. 7. yah sarvaja sarva-vid yasyaia mahim bhuvi, divye brahma-pure hy ea vyomny tm pratihita. 184 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 8. mano-maya pra-arra-net pratihitonne hdaya sannidhya tad vijnena paripayanti dhr nanda-rpam amta yad vibhti. First line defines Brahman. Yaha Sarvajnaha Sarvavit: Brahman is the omniscient

principle of consciousness. Sarvajnaha: omniscient Sarvavit: also means omniscient Why the repetition? Here we have to take from two stand points. Sarvajna is from the point of Para Vidya. Sarvavitu is from the point of view of Apara Vidya. Yasya Esha Mahima Bhuvi: all the glories of creation belong to him alone. We can write books and books on the glory. All 185 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji glories belong to Brahman as he alone is appearing as this creation. This one Mantra is the basis for the entire tenth chapter of Gita called Vibhuti Yoga. The teacher Shounaka continues the topic of Jeevatma Paramatma Aikyam and student Angiras had asked for knowledge of Paramatma. The plurality we experience in this creation does not belong to Brahman but to Nama & Rupa stuff is Brahman alone. How to recognize this basic stuff Brahman? Upanishad says it is in you also. From the stand point of the world, it is called Sat and from stand point of the individual it is called Chit or consciousness. It is therefore available to you in the form of consciousness because of which you exist. The revelation of this fact in words is called a Mahavakya; all the Mantras here are Mahavakya Mantras including the

present one. Brahman is the omniscient cause of this creation. The word omniscient is used from both Para Vidya and Apara Vidya stand points. Not only that, Yasousha Mahima Buvi: Brahman is the very material cause of the creation; creation is verily Brahmans manifestation. 186 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji So what? If Brahman has become world, whatever glory is found here, belongs to him alone from the smallest atom to the biggest star, from the unicellular organism to humans, all glories are his. In the second line, that very same Brahman is also the Jeevatma or consciousness. Eshaha Atma: that very lord whom you thought was elsewhere, outside, is very much inside you too. Eshaha means the one (the Jeevatma) is located in Divye Brahmapure, in your heart. Why is it called Brahma Puram? Pura means residence. Brahma Pura means abode of Brahman. Heart is the abode of Brahman. Divye means sacred. Why is it sacred? Residence by itself is not sacred, but it is made sacred by the presence of the Lord. In this sacred residence, Paramatma is installed. Why do we say Paramatma is installed in the heart? According to Shastra, the physical heart is the location of the mind in a Jeeva. Science is still not conclusive about the

location and nature of mind (brain? Heart?) But Shastra says it is in the heart. That is why during sleep, the mind is withdrawn from the body and goes home to the heart. It is 187 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji like a travelling salesman, which goes all over the body during waking state and returns home to rest. Within mind, thoughts are there and behind the thoughts, consciousness is there illumining the thoughts as well as their absence. Physical body is the temple, Pancha Koshas are like the Prakaras, heart and mind is the Sanctum Sanctorum where consciousness, the Lord is installed. That is why, Divye Brahmapure Vyomani: in the space of the heart called Daharakasha, where this Atma is installed as the Sakshi Chaitanya. How do you say Paramatma is in the heart, when he is omniscient? Isnt that, limiting the Paramatma? It is like this. To worship the Lord, we go to the temple. Why do you go, when God is everywhere? In fact, one Mantra is Ananthaya Namaha. There can be only one answer. Evern though God is all pervading, his manifestation is not uniform. Why? The reason is manifesting medium is not uniform. Just like one electricity passes through all bulbs, one may be 50 watts, one 100 and one 150 watts etc, brightness differs according to the bulb. So Lord is there in our house and temple uniformly, in the temple, where devotees constantly worship and chant

188 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Mantras, the place acquires sanctity. In the house, if bad language and gossip are indulged in and bad deeds are done, it will not be that sacred. Is it possible to make the house sacred? Yes, by our good and noble conduct, and good atmosphere, house can be very sacred too. Simple example: if I keep a pot of water on fire, the water becomes hot, which means it imbibes and manifests one aspect of fire principle that is heat. Suppose I keep an iron piece over the fire. The iron becomes hot and then when it becomes redhot, it also emits light. So here it is manifesting both the aspects of fire, namely heat and light. This is how different media can lead to more or less manifestation. Similarly, Brahman is everywhere. The external world is only capable of manifesting the Sat aspect of Brahman, where as in a human being (mind) both Sat and Chit aspects are manifested. So mind is a better location for manifestation of Brahman. Similarly, we say, a temple has more Sannidhyam. So Hrudayam is the Sanctum for Chit aspect of the Lord. Here we get the important idea that the body is a temple (Manomaya Prana Shariraneta .) Dehe Devalayaha Prokthaha: heart is the Garbha Griha, witness consciousness is the Lord. Aradhayami Manisannibhamatma Lingam 189 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji

Mayapuri Hrudaya Pankaja Sannivishtam Shraddhanadi Vimalachitra Jalabhishekaha Nityam Samadhi Kusumouhu Apunarthavaya Shraddha is the river, Vimala Citta, flow of noble thoughts is Jalabhisheka to the Lord, the very meditations that I practice are the flowers. What for Apunarbhavaya i.e, to get Moksha, to get out of birth death Samsara (Videha Mukthi). Similar is the Mantra, Atmatvam Girijamathihi.. Oh Lord, you are the very Atma Chaitanyam. Girija is my mind, body is your temple, all my Indriyas are Shivaganas, all that I consume is your Naivedyam, my sleep is Samadhi. Wherever I walk is Pradakshinam, all my speech is your Stutihi, my whole life (all Karmas) are your worship alone. This is the higher form of worship. Lower form is going to temple for a limited time. This however has to be continued until we graduate to the higher form of worship. The source of these Mantras is this present Upanishad Mantra. Anne Pratishtithaha: Lord in Annamaya Kosha or physical body. 190 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Hridayam Sannidhaya: in the heart, Lord is installed in the mind in the form of consciousness. Manomayaha: name of Paramatma. Normally it refers to Manomaya Kosha, but here it does not mean a Kosha. But it is Atma.

Here Paramatma is called Manomaya because he is as if conditioned or enclosed by the mind. Just like the all pervading space is enclosed in a pot or within the four walls of a room, Paramatma is in the mind space. An aside point here. Any enclosed space alone is useful for transaction. When we have a plot of land, it is not useful, but by enclosing the space within a house (by building a house) the same space becomes useful for transaction. Here also the interesting thing is it is the space alone we use, not the walls! So Sarvagat Chaitanyam is not useful for transactional purposes, but the same Chaitanya enclosed in the mind becomes useful for Vyavahara. This itself is called Jeevatma. Prana Sharira Neta: because of the blessing of the consciousness alone, the mind and all other organs become sentient. Mind by itself is insentient. Similarly Prana. They are alive because of Atma alone which obtains within this Sukshma Shariram. This live Sukshma Sharira lends consciousness to physical body till death. At death, Atma 191 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji does not leave the body, but Sukshma Sharira leaves the body, so body becomes dead. How does inert mind get the capacity to travel from one body to another? Who blesses or activates it? Upanishad says it is activated by Atma. Atma alone leads the mind from one body to another, hence the title Prana Sharira Neta, Neta means carrier.

The teacher now says the aim of a spiritual seeker is the recognition of the Atma alone. In the seventh Mantra, teacher pointed out that the Paramatma is installed in every body in the form of Jivatma itself. In the eighth Mantra, this is elaborated. Manomayaha means one who is manifest in the mind, the witness consciousness. It is not a kosha here. Prana here refers to Sukshma Sharira as it is the most important part of the Sukshma Sharira. So here Sukshma Sharira is referred to as Prana Sharira. Atma is Prana Sharira Neta because it blesses the Sukshma Sharira, enlivens it and this enlivens the Sthoola sharira and enables the Sukshma Sharira to travel from one body to another. However the direction of travel is determined by the Karma of the Sukshma Sharira (like the petrol enables the car 192 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji to move, is in fact essential, however petrol does not determine the direction of movement of the car). This Atma is also installed in the body. Sanctum is the heart where Atma is witness consciousness. In third line, it says, one has to know that Atma! Atma Jnanam is a must for all the people. But to attain this, qualifications are necessary. So Dheeraha means qualified person, a Sadhana Chatushtaya Sampannaha or Jnana Yogyaha. They recognize the Atma. How?

Tadvijnanena: by gaining the Atma Jnanam, through eye of wisdom (Jnana Chakshusha), which means you clearly understand a concept, you do not see it with your physical eye. (This is symbolically represented as the third eye of Shiva). Concepts are abstract principles which are understood through wisdom. Paripashyanti: they see the witness consciousness every where. The same witness consciousness which illumines my thought also illumines everybodys thoughts; just like one sun illumines the whole earth. 193 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Ananda Rupam: this is the nature of Atma. Ananda means fullness, free from limitation. Amritam: which is eternal, Nityam. Here note that Ananda should bot be taken at experiential pleasure because Upanishad uses the word Nitya Ananda Swarupam. So this precludes experiential pleasures, however extraordinary or mystic it may be, because any experiential pleasure is limited or finite where as here Ananda is also Amrutham which means eternal. Whoever says, I had infinite bliss in that place, note that it is in the past tense! How can it be infinite??? Experience is now past and I am now tense! How do you get that Nitya Ananda? In the question itself, there is a logical loophole, you say how can I get because anything got means it was not there before, so it is not Nitya.

So owning up that I am Poornaha, this knowledge once gained, is never lost in terms of time. So this is only by gaining Jnana Tadvijnanena means the knowledge only. So dropping the notional limitation is the attainment of Ananda. Yadvibhati: always evident. Chaitanya Rupena: as consciousness principle. Continuing, 194 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 9. bhidyate hdaya-granthi chidyante sarva-saay, kyante csya karmi tasmin de parvare. Here teacher talks about Jnana Phalam. This is an often quoted important Mantra. Three benefits are highlighted here. Hridyagranthabedhaha: knot of heart getting cut. What is meant by this knot of the heart? The word heart here means mind. Knot means ignorance. So it is ignorance in the mind (Ajnana). That is why Upanishad is mysterious and teacher is essential. Why ignorance is compared to a knot? 1. Because any knot that is old cannot be easily disentagled. Avidya knot is Janmas old, so difficult to remove. (Granthihi Eva Drudibhuta in Bhashya) 2. A knot joins two ropes. Here the knot of ignorance mixes up Atma and Anatma, hence the comparison. So I the observer and body the matter are mixed up. I should be 195

MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji saying I am the consciousness, and the body is my object. Instead I say I am 20 years old etc! Swami Chinmayananda calls this unholy marriage. So here separation is holy! I should say Talaq Talaq Talaq to get this divorce three times because I have to separate myself from Sthoola, Sookshma and Karana Shariras. So I am free from Sharira Trayam and have had Ajnana Nashaha. Sarva Samshayaha Chidyante: Destruction of all doubts. This is very important because we are talking about something to be known, not believed! For believing teaching is not required. Example, there is heaven, you either believe it or not, there is no teaching there. Teaching comes where there is knowledge and understanding. Preaching comes where there is faith. Understanding means doubts should not be there. Therefore in Vedanta, student is encouraged to raise doubts. Teacher trains him in asking questions. Teaching involves lot of doubts because teaching seems contradictory to my experience. All the basic features of Vedanta are difficult to swallow. First, it says you are infinite which is difficult to accept, as I feel I am limited, every experience proves it too. I have assumed, Ishwara has created everything, he is all powerful and I have to 196 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji

merge with him as a humble devotee one day. This is our convention. Vedanta tells you are that Ishwara. This is also unswallowable. Scriptures then say there is no world; if at all you need a concession, it is unreal. The eternally invisible Brahman is the only reality! The eternally visible world is unreal! So I find it difficult to accept Vedantic teachings in these matters. Clear knowledge is my conviction about the truth of these teachings. I must be convinced. Convincing the world is not the issue here at all! All questions regarding the three basic tenets namely, 1. Brahma Satyam 2. Jaganmithya 3. Jeevobrahmouvanaparaha must be cleared. Then ignorance is totally gone. Ajnana Nashaha: Swmi Chinmayananda tells a story. A person mistook himself for a worm. So he saw a doctor, a psychiatrist who through many sessions and many dollars later convinced him with the help of a mirror and a worm etc. that he is a human being and not a worm. Then after all these sessions, the man returned and went out. He saw 197 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji a crow. Immediately he was scared and went back to the doctor and told him that here is a crow outside who may eat me! Doctor said you now know you are not a worm,

so the crow wont eat you. The man said I know that doctor, but does the crow know that I am not the worm? The crow has not attended your sessions! So why should others know you are a Jnani? You should know, that is it. Karma Nashaha: We have seen that Karma is of three types, Sanchita (accumulated), Prarabdha (presently fructifying) and Aagami (generated by our past actions). Scriptures say Sanchita are totally destroyed like radiation destroys cancer. Aagami: Jnani does not acquire Aagami Karma due to absence of Karma. Prarabdha: cannot be destroyed as it has already started fructification, as it already has momentum (just like vehicle moves a bit after applying brakes depending on the momentum that was there). So Prarabdha will continue to give favourable and unfavourable situations like bodily sicknesses at physical level, mana and apamana at mental level. If so, how can one become a liberated person if everything is the same, what is the benefit? 198 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Vedantic answer is, your peace of mind does not depend on favourable and unfavourable conditions. But it is your attitude towards conditions which determines your peace of mind. This Atma Jnanam gives him a healthy attitude, a kind of insulation or raincoat. Raincoat does not stop the

rain and cannot stop the rain, but I wont get wet. Similarly Jnanam gives protection. Dukheshu Anudvigneshu Manaha Sukheshu Vigatashruhaha. Through out Gita, Krishna tells this. Because of this change in attitude, his peace of mind is not disturbed. Swami Dayanandaji says nicely. Like a defanged cobra, once Jnana is there, Samsara is a defanged cobra which is worn like an ornament by Shiva. So similarly Prarabdha becomes an ornament for a Jnani. That is why he is a Jeevanmuktaha. For him, body, mind and intellect are ornaments; very life is a Lila, a beauty. So all the three Karmas do not cause any harm. Tasmin Paravare Drushte: all these benefits accrue when Atma is clearly recognized. Therefore Jnanena Samsara Nashaha. 199 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Paravara here means Para = Karanam and Avaram = Karya. Therefore Paravara means that which is both in the form of Karma and Karya. Lump of clay is cause, pot is also clay, but lump is cause, pot is effect. Similarly ocean (cause) and effectual wave (effect) are both water. One with Avyakta Nama Rupa is cause and one with Vyakta Nama Rupa is effect. Everything is Brahman only. Therefore he is called Karya Karana Rupam or Para Avara Rupam.

Continuing, 10. hiramaye pare koe viraja brahma nikaram tac chubhra jyoti jyoti tad yad tma-vido vidu. This is also a Mahavakya Mantra. First, the Paramatma who is Virajam means free from impurities. Nishkalam = Kala means division, so Nishkala means partless, divisionless. Water and air are divisible because 200 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji we can put them in a container where as space is indivisible. Similarly Brahman is indivisible. This is a very significant character of Brahman and has many important corollaries. We will see that in the next classes. Here Jeevatma Paramatma Aikyam is further analysed and emphasized. Aikyam does not mean union between two things or a merger. We should take it as Ekasya Bhavaha Aikyam. Jeevatma and Paramatma are two words which reveal the same Vastu. This is called Samanadhikaranyam. In Vishnu Sahasranama, 1000 names are there, but though names are 1000, name is one only. There is no union of 1000 members. Here also Jeevatma = Paramatma and Paramatma = Jeevatma. That is both are one and the same. This is Aikyam, not even similarity. Virajam means free from all impurities including ignorance, maya. Brahman is not tainted by Maya though he is permanently associated with it (just like a movie screen

may be intimately associated with a water fall projected on it without getting wet). Nishkalam: very important. Kala means a part or digit (example: Chandrakala. When 15 Kalas get together it is Purna Chandra). 201 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Nishkalam means partless, divisionless. This is a very important word because there is an entire system of philosophy which is based on the concept that all Jivas are part of one Brahman (Vishishtadvaita) or Jiva is a part of divinity (which is a big fire as it were). It appears as though Brahman has many parts. The word Nishkalam negates this. Can you say Jeevatma is outside Paramatma? No, because in that case, each one will be limited by the other. Paramatma will be limited by Jivatma. But the definition of Brahman is that it is infinite, limitless. So the third option is Jivatma is Paramatma. So Nishkala negates this whole philosophy. Shubhram: pure. When it was said Virajam, it was a negative way of saying, Shubhram is positively put. Is it necessary to express it both negatively and positively? Yes. Because there are some things which are without impurity now but in future may become impure. For example, our clothes and our body are pure immediately after a wash,

but subject to impurities later. So Brahman is not only free from impurity but also not subject to impurity so that in Shubhram, it is unsullied, Nitya Shuddham. 202 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Jyothisham Jyothihi: Illuminator of all illuminators, light of all lights. In Vedanta, light means that in whose presence, things are known and in whose absence, things are not known. In this definition, all lights are qualified to be called light. Similarly, sense organs and mind are also called lights. Even words are qualified to be called light (example: please throw some light on that particular topic). Ultimately, consciousness is also called light, because in its presence only, things are known and in its absence, things are not known. Consciousness cannot be absent, it is only hypothetical. The speciality of consciousness is it is the light of all other lights. All the others are able to function as lights because of the presence of consciousness alone. It lends light to mind first, so that it becomes the knowing instrument. This borrowed light alone we call Chidabhasa. Just like sun lends light to a mirror so that it becomes a secondary source of light. The mind lends light to the sense organs. Atmannatmana Abhuvam Adarsham: The Brihadaranyaka says, if mind is elsewhere, I cannot see, if mind is elsewhere, I cannot hear, meaning only if mind is behind the sense organs, they can function.

So the ultimate source of light is consciousness, hence the expression Jyothisham Jyothihi. 203 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji So this Paramathma is where? Hiranmayem Pare Koshe: within your own Vijnanamaya Kosha. It is also called Hiranmayam meaning bright, brilliant, and effulgent. Why? Because it is capable of reflecting the Atma Chaitanyam. Bright means sensient, because it acts like a reflector (like reflectors in roads where thy shine from light borrowed by vehicle lights!). Mind is alive due to consciousness and appears bright. That is why Buddhists made the mistake of taking the mind as Atma. This is like taking the reflector itself as light source. In that Kosha, Brahman is there. Pare means sacred, highest. Why? Because it is the dwelling place of Brahman. Temple is sacred because of the deity within (original sacredness). The Prakarams have borrowed sacredness. Similarly, mind is like a temple as it is the abode of Brahman. It is like Sanctum Sanctorum. Parabrahmanaha upalabdhi Sthanatvat Vijnanamaya Koshastapi Paratvam Oupacharikataya Uchyate. 204 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji

So in that Vijnanamaya Kosham, Brahman is present as Sakshi Chaitanyam. It is present illumining both good and bad thoughts. Brahman is neither good nor bad. Goodness belongs to Satva Guna of Maya and badness to Rajo and Tamo Gunas of Maya (Anyatra Dharmat Anyatra Adharmat). It is Guna Atitaha. It does not even produce good or bad thoughts. Absence of thoughts is also illumined by Brahman. Atmavidaha: whoever knows the Jivatma clearly. Tad Brahmaviduhu: knows Brahman clearly. It means Jivatma and paramatma are one. That is why self realization and God realization are one and the same. 11. na tatra sryo bhti, na candra-trakam, nem vidyuto bhnti, kutoyam agni, tam eva bhntam anubhti sarvam, tasya bhs sarvam, ida vibhti. 205 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji This is a very important Mantra used at Aarthi also. The essence of this Mantra is Atma is knower of everything; Atma can never become the object of knowledge. If so then, how will I know if it is there? To prove the existence of something, I need to know. If it is unknowable, how to prove its existence? Vedanta says there is only one thing which need not be proved at all, but definitely existent. The prover, who wants to prove everything, need not be proved. Prover is already proved by his attempt to prove.

Even before the attempt to prove starts, the prover is already there. So, this is the prover/consciousness. Consciousness is ever evident. So you never attempt to know consciousness. This is very interesting when you try to prove something, what is it you do? You try to make something which is not evident, evident by a process of knowledge. But consciousness is ever evident (Prathibodha Viditam). How? Are you conscious of my sound? That means two things are evident. Consciousness is evident, because of it, sound is evident. This Mantra says, consciousness illumines everything, nothing need illumine consciousness, and nothing can illumine consciousness. 206 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Upanishad takes five illumining principles. Surya, Chandra, Stars, lightening (electricity) and fire. All these five cannot illumine consciousness. Tatra Na Bhati = all these are incapable of illumining Atma. When Sun and Moon cannot illumine, what to talk of ordinary fire or the camphor fire which we wave in Aarthi? By extension, we have to take other lights like sense organs, words, and mind also. Vachamagocharamaneka Guna Swarupam, Vagisha Vishnu Sura Sevitha Padapeetam, Vagena Vigrahavarena Vachamagocharam. If words cannot illumine, how is it that we take classes for

so many years? If all these cannot illumine Atma, how do I know it exists? The Upanishad says, Tam Evam Bhantam: none of them can reveal the Atma; none of them need reveal the Atma because it is self revealed, self evident. Sarva Anubhati: everything else is revealed, only after the self evident Atma. 207 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji That is why we can talk about second person and third person in English grammer only after the first person. I, second person, you, third person, he, she, it, they, are all possible only when I is there (first person). Without I, there is neigher you or he. Therefore, I shine; the others shine (Aham Bhami Sarvam Anubhati). Tasya Bhasa: only because of borrowed light from the consciousness, mind, sense organs and their objects shine. In a way, our world can be said to be what is perceived by our sense organs. If a person is blind, one fifth of his world (colour, form) is darkened. Suppose ears are gone, another 1/5 is gone. Similarly if other three are gone, ehere is no world as for as I am concerned. World is alive and available, because of five sense organs. They work because of mind; mind is illumined by the

consciousness. Therefore Idaam Sarvam Atma Chaitanyena Nibhati. Therefore do not, attempt to know consciousness. Vedantic teacher tells, Consciousness need not be revealed! The very teaching is illumined by 208 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji consciousness. So, the first part of teaching is Atma is self evident. Second part: when I am self evident, borrowing the consciousness from Atma, the body also is evident. The two things are evident. Atma, the consciousness and body. So it is ideal for committing a mistake like putting chilli in beans, you cannot distinguish one from the other easily until you bite and feel the pungency! Chilli beans Viveka is difficult. Similarly body is chilli, Atma is beans! Similarly, in I the consciousness, we are transferring the properties of the body, mind, intellect etc. The teacher says, you have no property, you are Atma. The body alone has properties. I am propertyless Brahman. Including my thoughts, everthing is illumined by consciousness. So, the Mantra is a commentary on the word Jyothisham Jyothihi of the previous Mantra. Once I know this (that I am consciousness alone, the light of all lights), life itself will become light! 209 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji

12. brahmaivedam amtam purastd brahma, pacad brahma, dakinata cottarea, adhacordhva ca prastam brahmaiveda vivam ida variham. Iti Mundakopanishadi Dvitiyamundake Dvithiyakandaha. This is the concluding and also a very important Mantra. The illuminator is Atma; the illumined is Anatma (mind, sense organs, world etc). This is what is said in Dakshinamurthy Stotram. Nanachidram Ghatodara Sthitam Deepa Prabha Bhasvaram. The consciousness alone comes out as it were and pervading the whole place, illumines the whole world around. I am Drik and the world is Drishya. I am Chetanam and everything else is Achetanam. There is one problem. Why? When I say, I am the illuminator consciousness and everything else is illumined, there are two things! Once a second entity comes, Atma Anatma duality comes and Dwitiyadvou Bhayam Bavati! Therefore this is only the forst stage of learning. Second stage is there is no observed world different from the observer/Atma. Brahman alone appears as the world too. 210 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji To understand that, we should go back to the first section where Brahman was said to be Karanam and the world Karyam.

Recall the last Mantra of first section. Purusha Evedam Sarva Tapo Brahma Paramrutham Meaningwise, the same is repeated here. What is the meaning here? Brahman being Karanam, world being Karyam, there is no Karyam separate from Karanam. Purastat Amritam Brahma: whatever in front is Brahman. Pashchat Brahma: everything behind is Brahman. Dakshinath: southern side Uttarena: northside Adhashchordvam: down and up is Brahman alone. In short, the entire inert universe is Varishta Brahmaiva. There is no matter separate from consciousness, no Anatma separate from Atma. How to believe this? When the whole world is so overwhelming right from the mosquito! 211 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Dayananda Swami used to say, Man puts all animals in the cage, but with the mosquito. He himself gets into a cage (net) to escape from it! It is so powerful and you say there is no world! For that, the Vedantic answer is Swapnavat. You experience Swapna solidly, but on waking your realize that the dream was not separate from you. Similarly, when I own up my nature, there is no world separate from me. Jagrat prapanchaha Na Bhinnaha Drishyavat Swapna

Prapanchavat. So the world is not different from you, the consciousness. We have finished two chapters of Mundaka Upanishad and entering 3 rd chapter. Here the teacher reveals the main teaching, namely Jeevatma paramatma Aikyam, which was elaborately discussed in second chapter and then Sadhanas or preparatory disciplines without which self knowledge cannot be acquired or even if acquired it cannot be internalized. For both acquisition and assimilation of self knowledge, certain preparatory disciplines are necessary and are discussed here. Thirdly, Aikya Jnana Phalam is also discussed. Phalam means benefits. Benefits are freedom while living called technically Jeevanmukti and freedom after 212 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji death called Videha Mukti (Aikya Jnanam Aikya Jnana Sadhanani Aikya Jnana Phalam cha). Like the previous two sections, this chapter also has two sections. We will enter into the third Mundaka, first section. 1. dv supar sayuj sakhy samna vkam pariasvajte tayor anya pippala svdv attyananann anyobhicakati. Starts with the main topic of this Upanishad namely Jeevatma Paramatma Aikyam, the identity in the essential nature of the individual and total (Mahavakya Mantra). This Mantra is important and well known, often quoted by Shankaracharya

and other Acharyas. The teacher analyses the nature of individual (Jeevatma) and says, every individual is a mixture of two principles known as Sakshi Chaitanyam and Ahankara Chaitanyam. 213 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Now we have to understand what are these. Sakshi Chaitanyam is the consciousness which pervades everywhere and therefore pervades the body also. All pervading consciousness which obtains in the body also is the Sakshi Chaitanyam (original consciousness or OC). Here it is worthwhile to recollect what the scriptures say about consciousness. 1. Consciousness is not a part, a product or property of the body. 2. Consciousness is an independent entity which pervades and enlivens the body. 3. Consciousness is not limited by the boundaries of the body. 4. Consciousness survives the death of the body. 5. The surviving consciousness cannot transact with the world because of absence of transacting medium namely the body. These five points should always be remembered because it is you. This original consciousness, like the light illuminating the whole place is called Sakshi Chaitanyam. This Sakshi

Chaitanyam is reflected in the special medium called the mind. According to Scriptures, mind is inert matter made 214 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji up of five elements. Still it is so fine and subtle; it is capable of receiving and reflecting the consciousness. So mind enjoys a borrowed consciousness called Chidabhasa, Chit Pratibimba, pratibimba Chaitanya, all synonymous terms for the reflected consciousness or RC. So in every individual, two consciousnesses are there as it were; one the original consciousness and the second, the reflected consciousness just as a mirror (which by itself is not luminous but unlike a table or chain is still capable of reflecting due to its fine surface where as a table or chain cannot do so. Similarly mind due to its Sookshamata or Swachata reflects consciousness and this is called Ahankara. So Sakshi and Ahankara are there in every living being. Why do I say every living being? Because in non-living things, mind is absent. Therefore there is no reflected consciousness or Ahankara. Only Sakshi Chaitanya is there. These two are inseperable. Sakshi Chaitanya being all pervading is present wherever reflected consciousness is, and even if mind travels from one place to another, the reflection also travels. Reflected consciousness can travel because it is located. When death and rebirth happen, it is

215 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji not the original Consciousness which travels because original consciousness being all pervading cannot travel. It is the reflected consciousness which travels from one body to another. The differences between Original Consciousness and Reflected Consciousness should also be known. Sn o Original Consciousness/ Sakshi Chaitanya Reflected Consciousness/ Ahankara 1 Unlocated and therefore all pervading Located 2 Is one Innumerable Reflected Consciousnesses are possible. 3 Cannot undergo any change, that is, it is Nirvikara Is subject to modification depending on the reflecting medium. When medium is

bright, reflection is also bright. If medium is dull, reflection is also dull. That is why we say in Satva pradhana mind, reflection is very bright. In plants, due to grossness of the medium, the reflection is dull. In animals, Satva being a little more, reflection is brighter. In human beings, Satva being even more, reflection is even more brighter. Among humans also, it varies and even in the same 216 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji person, at different times, it may vary. Vikaras therefore belong to the Reflected Consciousness. In Scriptures, the word Jeevatma is used for the individual and according to context, it can either mean Ahankara or Sakshi, because individual is a mixture of both. Example: when I point a finger at you and say you are fat, I mean your physical body. When I say you are intelligent, I mean your intellect. Though both times, the word you is used,

meaning changes (body, intellect) according to context. Similarly Jeevatma word can mean both Ahankara or Sakshi when I say, Jeevatma travels from Bhuloka to Swargaloka, Ahankara Chaitanya is meant Reflected Consciousness as only Reflected Consciousness can travel. If I say, you are all pervading Brahman; it can never refer to the body and Ahankara, but only to Sakshi. So when you take the meaning of Ahankara, it is Vachyartha and when the meaning of Sakshi is taken it is called Lakshyartha. So you have to know the context to know Vedanta. When this is clearly understood, as even you listen to the statement you are the all pervading Brahman you take the Sakshi and not the body, mind etc. 217 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji So, for the teaching to be efficacious, we should know the composition of the individual (Ahankara Sakshi Mishraha Jeevatma). To convey this idea, Upanishad uses an analogy or example. Here body mind complex is compared to a tree. Why? Because tree was also seed once, because plant, then tree, will whither and die one day just like our body. Upanishad then says, upon this tree are perched two birds. They are Ahankara and Sakshi. Then, Upanishad says, of these, only one bird is eating the fruits of the tree; what type of fruit? Sometimes sweet, sometimes bitter! Both types of

fruits come out of the tree itself. Ahankara bird eats the fruits of Sukham and Dhukham, pleasure and pain, generated out of the actions of physical body. Sukha Dukha Phalam Ahankaraha Anubhavati, Sukhi Bhavati Dukhis Cha Bhavati, Kadachid Mishri (a cricketer hits his first century, but his side loses the match. How does he feel, both Sukha at the century and Dukha at the teams defeat!) mixture of pleasure and pain! 218 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Ahankara is Kartha and Bhokta. Sakshi bird does not eat any fruits; it just watches the other bird jumping and falling. This Sakshi is Akarta Abhokta. Na Datte Kasyachit Papam Na Chaiva Sukrutam Phalatheetaha Vibhuhu Ajnanenavrutam Jnanam Tena Muhyanti Cha Jantavam Sarva Karmani Manasa Sanyasa Naiva Kurvan Na Karayatu So this is the essence of this Mantra. To put in two sentences, Jeevatma is a mixture of Ahankara and Sakshi. Ahankara is Kartha, Bhokta. Sakshi is Akarta, Abhokta. Now let us look at the Mantra. Dwa Suparna: two birds are there referring to Ahankara and Sakshi. Sayuja: always together, non separable. Why? Because Sakshi is all pervading, wherever Reflected Consciousness is there, Original Consciousness is there too.

Sakhaya: they are friends having common features. Two individuals become friends only because of common interests (Samana Aravyanou or Samana Ravyanou). Both are Chaitanya, one is Bimba Chaitanyam, bright; the other is Pratibimba Chaitanyam, also bright. Sun is bright, so is the reflection of Sun which can also illuminate a room. 219 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Parishaswajate: literally means looks on. Tayo: of these two birds Anyaha Swadu Atti: one eats constantly with relish and involvement. Pippalam: fruit, here Karma Phalam. We are constantly eating our Karma Phalam at all times except in deep sleep. Even in Swapna, we continue to eat Karma Phalam. In fact some of our Prarabdha Karmas are exhausted during Swapna also. When your will is not involved, whatever happens is Karma. Anashnan: Sakshi Chaitanyam (with respect to bird) does not eat anything, and does not undergo any modification either and does not perform any action. Therefore, it does not travel to any Loka, Swarga or Naraka. Swarga and Naraka are in that Sakshi Chaitanya, but then conditions do not affect Sakshi Chaitanya. In the case of Sakshi Anashnan means without experiencing anything. It remains Abhichakashiti, witnessing the whole process or illumining the whole process without involvement. Both these together, we call Jeevatma. According to context,

we have to take. The next Mantra talks more about the Sakshi. 220 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 2. samne vke puruo nimagnonay ocati muhyamna, juam yad payaty anyam am asya mahimnam iti, vta-okah. Now that in Samsara and what is Moksha are talked about. Samsara and Moksha do not depend upon any action at all, any process at all. They depend upon which part of Jeevatma I own up. In previous Mantra I said Jeevatma has Sakshi and Ahankara. I can claim either of them as myself. I can say that I am Ahankara backed by Sakshi or Iam the Sakshi functioning through Ahankara. Once I claim myself as Ahankara, I am located, I am a Kartha, Bhokta, Punyam, Papam, Agami, Sanchita, Prarabdha, Punarjanma, Swarga everything is there; whether children will perform Shraddham or not! So I am a Samsari. When I shift my identification from Ahankara to Sakshi, there is a shift in my vision. I am not the Ahankara, but I am the Sakshi functioning through Ahankara, then Ahankara is like the specs that I use to see the world. I use my Ahankara during my waking and dream state to transact. In deep sleep, 221 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji my Ahankara medium may be resolved, but am I there or not? I am there. So I am the Sakshi using the Ahankara sometimes and not

using it sometimes. I use Ahankara during waking state. You use your Ahankara to listen to my talk. When you doze off, your Ahankara is set aside and my poor talk is no longer heard by you! Using Ahankara in Jagrut and Swapna, not using it in Sushupti like using and removing spectacles whether I claim Ahankara or Sakshi as myself, Upanishad says is your choice! Claim yourself as Ahankara and suffer or claim yourself as Sakshi and be free. So it is entirely in your hands and not in husbands, wifes or governments hands. Upanishad first talks about ignorant people who claim themselves as Ahankara and suffer. Purushaha: ignorant Jeevatma. Samane Vrikshe: which is in the same tree as Paramatma. Nimagnaha: immersed in Ahankara (reflection), though the reflection connected with the reflected medium, the mind and mind connected to the body. So I am immersed in body mind complex and therefore all the time thinking about the body and how to immortalize the body, which is impossible. 222 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Through the body, I am also involved in various relationships and identify with all of them. Shankara writes elaborate Bhashyam about how this is: Putro Nashte Aham Nashtaha, Putre Pushte Aham Pushtaha. This is called Nimagnaha or immersed (Tadatmyam). Muhyamanaha: I am deluded, I am confused. I am subjective, I lose my objectivity. Expectation of physical immortality is

delusion, expectation of physical immortality is delusion, expectation of physical security is delusion. The body is the most insecure thing in the creation. For the sake of body, we get money, but still dont feel secure; same with power, in fact the more we have of these, the more insecure we feel. Anishaya: helpless. As body mind complex, my life itself is dependent on umpteen numbers of factors, basic being food, clothing and shelter, then so many people with all attendant problems. Sarvam Paravasham Dukham. The more the dependence, the more unpredictable our life. That is helplessness. Karpanya Doshoyahataha. Sochati: consequence of above factors is grieving, all the time Shoka and Moha. Ashochyan Anvashochastam Prajnavadamchya Bhashase, Arjuna Vishada Yoga is the result! As babies, we smiled always not requiring any joke or reason to smile. Now even for a joke, I cannot smile! Humour 223 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji is gone; we cannot enjoy Laurel Hardy or Charlie Chaplin! What is the use of life if it is not enjoyed? Jnani is one who is always happy; he does not need a reason. Everything is a joke for him! So Shoka is the lot of Ajnani Jeevatma. What about Jnani Jeevatma? (OM biography!) Yada Anyam Pashyati: when a Sadhana Chatushyaya Sampanna Adhikari after doing sufficient Atma Anatma Viveka, Chidabhasa Chit Viveka, Ahankara Sakshi Viveka,

Vachyartha Lakshyartha Viveka recognizes Sakshi as his original nature and Ahankara as incidental. How do you know what is my intrinsic and what is my incidental nature (what is Agantukam and what is Swabhavikam). For example, hot water is there. Here heat is the incidental nature of water (if heat was intrinsic nature of water, it should have been hot always like fire which is not the case). What is incidental comes and goes. What is intrinsic is always there. Therefore Ahankara as it comes and goes (in deep sleep) is incidental. In Sushupthi, Deshaha Nasti, Kalaha Nasti, Tatra Pita Apita Bhavati, Mata Amata Bhavati, Chandalaha Achandalaha Bhavati, Poulkyasaha Apoulkyasaha Bhavati, Shravanaha 224 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Ashravanaha Bhavati, Tapasaha Atapasaha Bhavati, Brihadaranyaka says. Because Ahankara is not intrinsic, all these are not there in Sushupti. Pure consciousness unlocated you are in deep sleep. Because Sushupti is illumined, awared by that Sakshi alone. This becomes clear only by Vicharaha. Justam: the noble adorable one, the great one. Nitya Shuddha Buddha Mukta Swabhavaha (recollect Yatradaddyeshyam Agrahyam Agotram Avarnam. From first chapter first section) Pujyam: that consciousness alone. This you have to compare

with the previous Ahankaraha. Ishaha: master of the universe. Consciousness is the original substratum of everything in which bodies arise and resolve. Pure consciousness he recognizes. Asya Mahimanam: recognizes that pure consciousness as the I (Satyam Jnanam Anantam Brahma) Wise Jeevatma says Aham Brahma Asmi. Unwise Jeevatma says Aham Bhrama Asmi. 225 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji A small difference! This glory he recognizes and is therefore Vita Shokaha, free from Shokaha. Everything is ok. Even after recognizing the Sakshi, the Ahankara will continue but be limited, from the point of Sakshi Swarupam. Ahankaras limitations appear insignificant like a pin prick. In this third chapter, teacher is going to summarise the main teaching. That is Brahmatma Jeevatma Aikyam. Then he will discuss Jnana Sadhanani, the preparatory disciplines and then Jnana Phalam, the benefit of Jnanam, namely Jeevanmukti and Videha Mukti. In first three Shlokas summary of Jeevatma Paramatma Aikya Jnanam through a beautiful analogy of two birds seated on a tree was presented. This is a well known analogy. The two birds represent the Chidabhasa or Pratibimba Chaitanyam and the Chit or Bimba Chaitanyam, the original consciousness.

Chidabhasa is the reflected consciousness in the mind. Wherever the mind is there, Chidabhasa is there. It can travel when mind travels. Therefore it is Kartha Bhokta Amshaha. We can say this is one of inferior nature. The same Jeevatma also has a higher nature, which is all pervading, not confined to the mind alone. This original consciousness does not travel 226 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji at all, even when mind travels. There is no modification. Therefore I am Akartha, Abhokta. One bird represents my inferior nature (Vyavaharika), while another bird represents my higher Paramarthika nature. Jeevatma is a mixture of both these, I can own up any one of these. Upanishad says unintelligent people own up the inferior nature and suffers whereas wise ones own up the superior nature and revel. When I indentify with inferior nature, I own up my body, mind and all other things, relations related to it and thus become Samsari. Once there are associations, my life is not under my control. The other Justam who owns up the higher Sakshi Swarupam (Nitya Satya Asangatva Sarvagatatvam), he transcends sorrow. 3. yad paya payate rukma-vara kartram am puruam brahma-yonim, tad vidvn puya-ppe vidhya nirajana parama smyam upaiti. 227 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji

Here first two lines deal with Jnanam and second two lines deal with Jnana Phalam. Pashyaha: a discriminative person. To distinguish between Chidabhasa and Chit requires an extremely subtle intellect. It cannot be physically done. In the waking state, I am the located consciousness and in the sleep state, I am the unlocated consciousness. I should not own up the located consciousness as myself but the unlocated one as myself. Location belongs to mind and body and not to consciousness. Location is a sense I develop in the waking state. So the unlocated I is my original nature, the located I is my incidental nature only. We generally make the mistake of taking the located. I as my intrinsic and the unlocated I as my incidental nature. We say Vedanta is upside down, really speaking, we are upside down! This discrimination requires a sharp intellect (Sukshma Buddhihi) such a one is called Pashyaha, a seer, a man of discernment, a Viveki, Sadhana Chatustaya Samapannaha. Pashyate: he clearly recognizes his higher nature, the Sakshi Swarupam, the original consciousness. What is the nature of that Sakshi? The description is Rukma Varnam, which is self evident, does not require a special experience at all. It is evident in and through all my experiences like the light in the 228 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji room; everything is seen in its presence, even the empty room (Pratibodha Viditam Matam). Literal meaning is shining

like gold. Gold is well known as that which is ever shining. Atma is also ever evident and shining. Kartaramisham Kartaram: this Sakshi is the creator of the whole world (the other meaning of Kartha, one who is the doer or Samsari should not be taken here). Another meaning is creator of universe (Jagat Srusti Stithi Laya Karta). Then a doubt may arise. The Scriptures say Brahman alone is Karanam. Here you say Sakshi is Karanam. Tell me which is correct? The answer is Sakshi Eva Brahma. The two are one. From the stand point of individual, what is called Sakshi is itself from the stand point of Jagat, Brahman. (Dristi Bhavet Namabhedaha Natu Vastubhedaha), just like the same person is father, son, husband etc. The technical term used for such a one is Samanadhikaranam, two words for the same object. Dristi Bhedat or Pravruthi Nimitta Bhedat Namabhedaha Natu Vastu Bhedaha. Ishaha: the sustainer or the ruler also (Ishwaraha). When we say Brahman is the creator, ruler etc. it is always with Shakthi called Maya (whatever we say Brahman the creator, it automatically means Shivaha Shaktyamuktaha 229 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Yadi Bhavati Shaktaha Prabhavitum). We dont enumerate Maya separately as Maya is non separate from Brahman. Purushaha: two meanings are there. 1. Sarvam Purayati Iti Purushaha: all pervading.

2. Puri means Shariraha, Sarva Sharira Vasi, Sarva Sharirastaha Sarva Antaryami is also called Purushaha, one who is the indweller of every living being. All these are descriptions of Sakshi. So the intelligent person always sees the Sakshi which is the creator, the effulgent, the ruler, indweller. Brahmayonim: one which is the cause of even Brahmaji, the creator (Chaturmukha Brahma). In Sanskrit, Brahman refers to the Nirguna Brahma Tatva and Brahma refers to the Saguna Brahma or Chaturmukha Brahma. Yoni means cause. The Sakshi Chaitanyam is the cause of even Chaturmukha Brahma. Such a Sakshi, he recognizes as Aham. So I am the creator, I am the sustainer. It looks unassimilable! Remember the dream example. Here as an aside point, when dream example is given, it should be carefully noted, when dreamer wakes up to higher nature, we tend to think, when I get Jnanam, suddenly one day, 230 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji the world disappears! No, this world does not physically disappear, but is falsified or recognized as Nama Rupa, in my understanding. For a Jnani, in his wisdom, there is substance Brahman but other things are Nama Rupa only. When will physical dissolution take place? Only in Videha Mukti when you dont have body or mind and for you, there is no world, that is all.

Tada: then (Atma Jnane Prapte Sati), this wise person. Vidhuya: destroy or wipes off. Punyapape: both Punya and Papa. He throws away both Punyam and Papam. So Punyam also falls within the ambit of Samsara or bondage (like iron and gold chains, both are chains or Shackles). So Moksha is going beyond not only Papam but Punyam also (that is what is meant by Sarva Dharman Parityajya of Bhagawad Gita). How to go beyond Punaym? To remove Papam, we do Punyam. How to destroy Punyam? We cannot do Papam again? Shankara writes giving up of Punya Papa is not an action. It is not a physical process. Tada Vidvan, knowledge is the only method which takes you beyond Punyam and Papam. So 231 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji this Jnani wipes off Punyam and Papam and becomes Niranjanaha, means pure, blemishless. What are the impurities? Punyam, Papam and one more which is the cause of both, ignorance or Avidya, that is the basic original sin! What they call original sin in other religions, Vedanta says your basic sin is ignorance. It is not actually a sin because you did not commit it, but born with it! Having ignorance is not a sin, but perpetuating it is. The only method by which we can overcome that is by Jnanam. Other Sadhanas will only

purify the mind, but somehow, somewhere you have to acquire knowledge. So Niranjanaha means he bcomes spotless, immaculate. Pashyam Samyam Upaiti: attains total oneness in Brahman, merges with Brahman without motion. No physical merger because there is no physical distance involved, it is only notional, so only dropping the notion of division, Bedha Buddhi Nashaha Eva Ekasyam. 232 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 4. pro hy ea ya sarva-bhtair vibhti vijnan vidvn bhavate ntivd, tma-kra tma-rati kriyvn ea brahma-vid virihah. Again Jnanam and Jnana Phalam are given in this Mantra. Vidvan Vijanan: the wise person recognizes, knows. Here carefully note Pranaha means Brahman, the Karanam, that because of which everything is alive. Here it does not mean Pancha Pranas. Atma blesses Prana and Prana in turn lends Chetanam to the body, thereby it is the enlivener but ultimately Brahman alone is the Prana. Sarvabhootevirbhati: Jnani recognizes the Brahman which alone appears in the form of creation. Why? We saw before how Brahman alone is Jagatkaranam and also how Brahman alone has become everything (Purusha Evedam Vishvam Tapo Brahma Paramrutham in first section, again Brahmaivamidamamrutam Purastat

Paschdbrahma.), so cause alone appears as every effect. Whatever I see is Brahman alone in different Nama Rupa, like they sing that Bhajan, Har Desh me tu, har vesh me tu, tera nam anek tu ek hi ho. 233 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji So where should I turn to see Brahman? Everywhere, both in and out, Brahman alone is shining. The wise person knows this, recognizes this through the third eye of wisdom. So what happens? Na Ativadi Bhavati: the more wisdom one gains, the more silent he becomes. One of the signs of Samsara is talkativeness. It is a sign of incompleteness, the more heart becomes full, the less the need to talk. He is not a talkative person, feels full and complete, Mouni Bhavati. Does not mean, he becomes totally silent. If that is the case, how to teach? Some people quote, teaching in silence etc! Dayananda Swamiji says, Dont take the silent teaching in a literal sense (Mouna Vyakta Prakatid..). No teaching can take place in Mounam. Even showing a Mudra does not mean anything until its symbolism is explained with words. One person seeing the Mudra of Dakshinamurthy concluded that Dakshinamurthy takes snuff! So without explanation, no Mudra makes sense. I have to give one hour explanation about Chinmudra, that is Angustam Tarjani Yoga Mudra Vyojana

Dehinam, Shrutyartha Brahma Jeevaikyam Darshayannaha Avatat Shivaha. 234 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji So I have to talk and explain that Mudra and only then it becomes meaningful. If a person remains in silence, it can be interpreted by the other person in many ways. So that expression of silent teaching has some other significance. Here Mouni means talking only as and when required. Therefore he does not talk Anatma Vishaya too much because they do not interest him. They lose their significance. Ativadi menas Ati Dvitavadi Na Bhavati, Advaita Vadi Bhavati. Atma Kreedaha: how will he get happiness? He does not depend on the world (in Bhagawad Gita, Atmanyeva Atmana Tushtaha.). He is satisfied with himself as he is, not missing, not wanting anything, self fulfilled. That does not mean he throws away everything but whatever he has, takes it as bonus or luxury. Luxury is a thing which you enjoy with thanks when it is available, but dont miss when you dont have. It is like when you get a drop in somebodys car once in a way when you are prepared to travel by bus! Need is something which you have and have taken for granted, and miss it when it is not there; for example, 235

MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji ones hand and legs when they are ok. For Jnani whole life is a luxury. Atmaratihi: he enjoys himself, revels in himself. Kriyavan: he is engaged in Loka Sangraha Kamani. He has nothing to accomplish as he has already accomplished the best possible thing, that is, Moksha, his whole life is available to him for the sake of society (Loka Sangraha Mevapi Sampashyan Karthrumarhasi). He is engaged in Loka Sangraha, his very presence is a blessing to the society. So if you ask about some Jnanis who did not engage in Loka Sangraha by travelling all over, but remained in one place, what Loka Sangraha did they do? Their very presence and existence is an inspiration to society. That Ramana Maharshi could be so full and happy owning nothing with only Koupinam. It is an inspiration and teaching to all of us. As Swamiji beautifully puts, to be happy you require only yourself. Therefore he need not go from place to place, establish Ashramas and give talks. His very presence is Loka Sangraha. Esham Brahmavidam Varishtaha: this person is the greatest Jnani. When I say greatest, naturally the question comes, is there a gradation in Jnanis, great, greater, greatest? People may say one who goes to Samadhi now 236 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji and then is greater and one who is always in Samadhi is

greatest! Here is the idea. When a person does Shravanam consistently and properly, Atma Jnana can happily take place. But the problem is that Jnanam is obstructed by two things, one is doubt (Samshaya) and the other is the habit of Samasara called Viparyaya (I am limited, I am useless etc, thinking). Suppose he goes through Mananam, he is constantly analyzing and removing his doubts until there are no doubts at all with the teaching. So now only one obstacle, that is, the force of habit is there. Through Nidhidhyasanam, he has to remove habits like jealousy, comparing with other people, inferiority complex etc. By this even the obstacle of Viparyaya can be removed and when that is also gone, he is called Varishtaha (Jnana Nishta, Stitapragnaha, Brahmi Stitihi). In the first four Mantras, teacher condenses self knowledge. It is shifting our vision from lower self to higher self. Lower self is identifying with body mind complex with Ahankara, the limited Samsari I. Behind this is the original consciousness, which is not limited by the size of body mind complex, it is called Sakshi. The two are always mixed together, cont be physically separated. Whenever I say I, it is uttered by the mixture of Ahankara and Sakshi. Neither the pure Ahankara nor pure Sakshi by themselves utter the word I. I can claim either of them as I. Upanishad 237 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji says dont claim Ahankara as myself but calim Sakshi as

myself. The reason being, Ahankara being only my incidental nature is not permanent. In fact, it is not available even in sleep; where as Sakshi alone is my permanent self. The benefit of claiming myself as Sakshi is Atma Kreedaha, Atma Ratihi, Kriyavan. Claiming the Ahankara, I will eternally find myself lacking, finite, eternally missing one thing or other. As Ahankara I can never be complete in life. This feeling of incompleteness is Samsara. 5. satyena labhyas tapas hy ea tm samyag-jnena brahmacharyea nityam, anta-arre jyotir-mayo hi ubhro yam payanti yataya kado. Suppose a person wants to calim Sakshi as myself or who wants to pursue spiritual knowledge, what are the disciplines he should pursue? 238 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji They are given in these two Mantras (Atmajnana Sadhanani). Here four disciplines are going to be highlighted. 1. Satyam 2. Tapas 3. Samyakajnanam 4. Brahmacharyam We will see them. Satyam: In Scriptures, this word has two meanings. One is Parambrahma itself the reality or Truth with

capital T. It is not a means but an end in itself. Second meaning is in the context of ethics and morality. Here it means, it is not an end but means to an end. It means avoidance of verbal untruth, not telling a lie. In English truth with a small t! It is a Sadhana and not Sadhya. Shankara does not translate Satyam as speaking the truth but as avoidance of untruth. He says, you may speak truth or you may observe silence. Speaking truth, if it harms others, you may avoid speaking, but never speak untruth (Anrutha Varjanam). Tapaha: This also has two meanings. 239 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji One meaning is austerities like Upavasa etc. where I willfully forego certain physical comforts to establish my mastery over my own body. When it is not willful, it is not a Sadhana but a torture. In both fasting and starving, I go without food, but in starvation, it is imposed where as in fasting, it is a deliberate action on my part. So one meaning of Tapaha is self imposed deprivation. Second meaning is concentration of mind and sense organs. Manasascha Indiriyanascha Ekagrayam Tapaha. In this context, (Jnanakanda of Vedas), the second meaning is valid, where as in the Karma Kanda; Tapaha will have the first meaning of austerities. Brahmacharyena: chastity or sexual purity. This is an

important discipline for a Vedic student. Chastity should be in body, mind and thought. Samyakajnanam: proper enquiry into the nature of Self or Vedanta Vichara. Why the term proper? When a detective is trying to investigate a crime, he studies the place of the crime, uses appropriate instruments or equipments to aid in his search, and requires proper instruments for the enquiry. If he just sits in his room and keeps asking who is the criminal? 240 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Who is the criminal? what will he get? Nothing. So enquiry involves use of appropriate instrument. Instrumentless enquiry leads only to speculation. Speculation can never be knowledge. Similarly, to know the Atma, if I dont employ any instrument, but simply go on asking who am I? Who am I? it will only lead to some speculative conclusions, none of them can be knowledge. Therefore knowledge requires appropriate instrument, in this case, Vedanta Pramanam. Self enquiry therefore means Scriptural enquiry. There is no Atma Vichara without Vedanta Vichara. Samyak means in the right direction. So when Vedanta comes into the picture, Guru also automatically comes into the picture, because the two are complementary. Without one the other is inefficient. A Guru without

Vedanta cannot help and Vedanta without Guru is also of no use. Both are necessary like the bulb and electricity. Each alone is of no use, only when both are there, there is light. Shastra is like bulb, without the Guru, electricity to touch, it cannot be put to use! That is why in Guru Stotram, Guru is given a beautiful analogy Vedantambuja Suryaha. If Vedanta is like a lotus bud, Guru is like the Surya, in whose presence, the 241 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji lotus bud opens up and blooms into a beautiful flower, a fully blown lotus! Vedanta is like a bud and it can blossom and bless the seeker only when it opens up. So when self enquiry is made with the help of Guru and Shastram, it is called Samyak Jnanam. All these four conditions are important. When should I tell the truth? Nityam, always. The Nityam should be added to all the four disciplines. Nityam Tapasa, Nityam Samyak Jnanena, Nityam Brahmacharyena. Pasyanti Yatayaha: seekers, those who have direction in life. Until we choose Moksha, there is no real direction to life. Life is like a rudderless boat. Even though something appears like a goal, it will not turn out to be the real goal and then we switch to another one and so on. If Moksha is not the goal, our goal keep on receding and at any point of life, we will not have satisfaction. We

keep feeling that something is missing but do not know what it is. So this struggle goes on until one discovers Moksha as the real goal. A person who has discovered that is called Yatihi. Once the goal is there, then whatever you do, falls into place. It is not that after discovering the goal as Moksha, everyone has to take Sanyasa. Even if he enters Gruhastashram, it becomes 242 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji very very meaningful, if Moksha is the goal, in fact only if Moksha is the goal! So getting married, having children and even starting industry becomes meaningful, only when Moksha is discovered as the goal of life. Because all of them cumulatively contribute to my spiritual progress alone. With Bhagawad Gita, Krishna calls such a person as one with Vyayasatmika Buddhihi. So Yati is one who has direction. Those Yatayaha and Ksheenadoshaha, people whose mental impurities (Raga Dwesha) have weakened. When I say, world is a source of joy, it is Raga and when I say world is s source of sorrow, it is Dwesha. If some one asks whether world is a source of joy or sorrow, Vedanta says it is neither, world is world. I am the source of joy or sorrow. Unknown I is Dukhahetuhu; know I is Sukha Hetuhu and therefore life is full of Pravrutti and Nivritti. Raga leads me to run towards things and Dwesha makes me run away from some other things, getting or

getting rid! So these mature people or seekers, Pashyanti: discover the Atma by following the above four Sadhanas. What type of Atma do they discover? 243 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Jyothirmayaha Shubhraha: consciousness is Jyotirmayaha Shubhraha because it is pure. Where do they discover? Antahsharire: within their own body, within their own mind, in the form of witness consciousness (Vruttinam Tadabhanascham Sakshi Rupena) as the witness of presence of thoughts as well as the absence of thoughts. How do they discover? Not as an object, but as I myself (Aparokshataya Pashyanti, Aham Sakshi Iti Pashyanti, Aham Brahma Asmi Iti Pashyanti). So what is the lesson? These four lessons are extremely important. 6. satyam eva jayate nntam, satyena panth vitato deva-yna, yenkramanty ayo hy pta-km yatra tat satyasya parama nidhnam. 244 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Among the four disciplines enumerated in the previous Mantra, the teacher emphasizes the first Sadhanam,

namely, Satyam. Though all disciplines are equally important, in a particular context, a particular discipline is highlighted. In the entire Scriptures, you will find the value of telling the truth is repeated again and again so that we know very very clearly that speaking untruth brings me down spiritually. That is why in Mhabharatha also, they say Dharmaputras chariot was not touching the ground, but when he uttered untruth (with regard to Ashwathama), it touched the ground, symbolic of ones spiritual fall. If this awareness is very much there, we will watch our lies, study them statistically and bring them down. If we really see, most of them are avoidable. Only when we minimize, we can think of Prayaschittam. Otherwise we will have no time for anything other than Prayaschittam! That means at whatever stage of spiritual journey you are, be it Karma Yoga, Upasana Yoga or Jnana Yoga, Satyam is important. Here remember certain points you have to know about Upasakas. Upasaka means one who meditates upon the Lord (Saguna Ishwara Dhyanam). He cannot get Moksha 245 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji directly because any amount of Upasana cannot give Moksha. Therefore, Upanishads recommend after following Upasana, you should come to Jnanam (just like you cannot sit in high school permanently). Therefore

from Upasana one is supposed to come to Jnanam. But for some reason, he may not be able to come to Jnanam like he did not develop full qualifications, or there was Guru, but he did not get opportunity for Shravana, Manana, Nidhidhyasanam or his health did not permit this etc. Then what? Upanishad points out, that he can continue to be an Upasaka for his whole life, but he should maintain his desire for Moksha. When he dies with this desire alone, Scriptures point out that, he will go through a special Marga called Shukla Gati (or Surya Dwara) here called Devayanaha. So, after death, Upasaka will take this Devayanaha, an invisible path, and go to Brahmaloka. There, he will get opportunity for Atma Jnanam. The Guru is Brahma himself who can teach excellently. Devayana is also possible only when one is truthful. So Upasaka also requires truthfulness, Jnani requires truthfulness and Jeevanmukthi also requires truthfulness. 246 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Margaha Saptena Vitayaha: the Devayana Marga is paved with truthfulness. If there is no truthfulness that Marga itself is not there. So Vitayaha menas laid with Atmakamaha Rishayaha Ena Akramanti, Rishayaha are Upasakas, Aptakamaha are those who have no worldly

desires, so those Mumukshu Upasakas Yena Akramanti, they go to Brahmaloka by Devayana Marga (in English, translated as the bright path). Yatra: in that Brahmaloka What will they get? Satyasya Paramam Nidhanam Asti: Paramam Nidhanam means the greatest benefit of truthfulness or Brahman, namely, that ultimate benefit or Param Brahma is attainable in Brahmaloka. Such a Loka Satyavan will go to. So whether you want Moksha here or later, tell the truth. So it is an extremely important value. In the last two sections, teacher is concentrating on Jnana Sadhanani and Jnana Phalam, namely, spiritual disciplines necessary for Jnanam and the benefits of Jnanam namely Jeevanmuktihi and Videhamukti. In the previous two Mantras, four spiritual disciplines were emphasized, namely, Satyam, Tapas, Brahmacharya and Samyak Jnana. After this, teacher wants to 247 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji reemphasise the discipline of Satyam. The idea is without Satyam the Vyavaharika value; one can never attain Brahma the absolute truth. Therefore he said Satyameva Jayati Jayati, means, truthfulness alone wins Moksha. Untruthfulness may win in local courts etc, but it can never win Moksha Phalam. Teacher also wants to say that not only Jeevanmukti, even for Kramamukti,

the value of Satyam is important. Kramamukti is the Mukti attained by Upasakas who do Nishkama Upasana, and who does not attain knowledge in this Janma but after death, go by Shuklagati or Devayana and reach Brahmaloka and there attain Jnanam or Brahma. Here it is said, the Devayana Marga is paved with Satyam. Every truth is the brick with which, Devayana is made as it were, so if someone does not speak truth, there are no bricks for Devayana! Aptakamaha Rishayaha: normally the term Aptakama and Rishihi refers to Jnanis, but in this context it means Upasakas. They are Atmakamaha because they have no Ichha other than Moksha. In Brahmaloka, they attain the ultimate benefit of their truthfulness, that is Brahman. 248 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji The essence of these two Mantras is, whether you want Mukti here (Sadhomukthihi) or Krama Mukti, truthfulness is important. 7. bhac ca tad divyam acintya-rpa skmc ca tat skma-tara vibhati, drt sudre tad ihntike ca payatsv ihaiva nihitam guhym. The next discipline that is going to be emphasized is a subtle intellect to know the Atma. One requires a subtle intellect to know the Atma. Why do we say we require a subtle intellect?

Generally, the nature of the tool required depends on the nature of operation, the work. To cut a gross tree, the axe required is also huge. Suppose a person who wants to shave his face, if he uses the same axe, what will happen? Not only the hair, the head itself will go! So a finer operation requires a 249 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji finer instrument. A micro surgery in the eye requires a very fine instrument like laser, not local blade. Now teacher wants to say that Atma is Ati Suskhmam. The Self is extremely fine and subtle. The instrument with which I want to know it, that instrument of knowledge also must be well sharpened. Do you remember the example of bow and arrow? One has to sharpen the intellect by Upasana. So in this seventh Mantra, Sukshmata of Atma is pointed out, in the next eighth Mantra, the importance of a sharp intellect is emphasized (Buddheha Sukshmatvam Apeksha). In Kathopanishad we will see, Drushyate Tu Agraya Buddhaya Sukshmaya Sukshmadashibhihi. One needs an extremely subtle intellect to know Atma because Atma is extremely subtle. So what is the nature of Atma? Tat Bruhat: the Atma or Brahman is limitless and infinite, the more pervading an object is, the more subtle it becomes. So subtility is directly proportional to

the pervasiveness of an object. To understand this, we take the Pancha Bhutas as the example. Each element which is more pervasive than the other is subtler too. So Prithvi, Jalam, Agni, Vayu, Akasha, there is a gradation in pervasion and subtility. Prithvi is least pervasive; therefore least subtle where as Akasha is most 250 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji pervasive and therefore most subtle. The other elements come inbetween. Atma is supposed to be even more subtle than space; in fact it is the subtlest. It is very difficult to conceive even! Padosya Vishva Bhutani Tripadasyam.. So Brahman is beyond even time and space. In fact Brahman is located in space, that is what is meant in Atyatishtaddashangulam, ten inches. The above meaning is Brahman is beyond space! So Brahman is more pervasive than space. Therefore Tadbruhat Akashadihi Api Bruhat, Tasmad Akashadehi Api Sookshmataram. Then, Divyam: it is self effulgent, self evident, Chaitanya Rupam. Being self evident and therefore ever a subject, never an object of knowledge. Every object of knowledge is Jada; Yat Drishyam Tad Jadam. This is the law. Anything you experience is Jada meaning inert. You experience the world, it is inert material. Body is

Drishyam, therefore Jadam; mind is Drishyam, therefore Jadam. Therefore whatever is Drishyam is Jadam. Whatever is Akhandam is Adrishyam. Whatever is inert is an object of knowledge, whatever is non inert is not 251 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji an object of knowledge. So how will you know something that is not an object of knowledge? It is going to be extremely difficult. Therefore it must be very Sookshmam. Every word indicates the Sookshamata. So Anantatvam Sookshmam, Swayamprakashatvat Aprameyatvat Sookshmam. Achintya Rupam: it means inconceivable. Mind can conceive only an object of experience. Space itself, we find extremely difficult to conceive. Even now, there is a controversy about the nature of space. Is it emptiness? Is it a positive entity? If so, what is it? Science is still inconclusive. So when space itself is inconceivable, what to talk of Atma which is even more subtle than space! Therefore it is inconceivable, incomprehensible, unobjectifiable. Sookshmat Sookshmataram: it is subtler than subtlest object in the world that is space. Shankara writes, Anonarapi Sookshmam Shyamakodaha Api Sookshmam, We can say, smaller than quartz. Vibhati means that Brahman itself appears as everything.

252 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Vividham Bhati Iti Vibhati: even though it itself doent have any form, in the form of five elements, five elementals, it appears Pancha Bhautarupena, Pancha Bhoutika Rupena Vividham Bhati. Where is that Atma? Durat Sudure: it is farther than the farthest. Any amount of travel to anywhere, Vykunta, Swargaloka, Goloka, Brindavana, Brahurloka, anywhere you go, you cannot reach Brahman. Suppose you ask where is it? Tad Iha Antikecha: in fact, it is nearer than the nearest. It is all very peculiar. According to Shankara, for the ignorant, it is farther than the farthest, for the wise, it is nearer than the nearest. In fact the distance is zero, just like the distance between the dreamer and waker. How close is it? Guhayam Nihitam: it is present in ones own mind. I have explained the meaning of Guha. You have to recollect all those meanings in this context. Pashyatsvu: in the mind of every living being. Why living? 253 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Is Brahman not there in non-living also? But due to grossness of the medium, they can only manifest the sad aspect of Brahman, where as in living beings,

because of these finer medium, they can manifest both the sad and Chit aspect of Brahman. Nihitam: available as the very Sakshi of every thought as well as the absence of thoughts. So this is the nature of Paramatma. Any concept is not Brahman. The conceiver is Brahman. As long as we keep searching for Brahman as an object, we will not find it. Once we know Brahman as the subject, the search is over. However, the objectifying habit is there, this is natural. That is called grossness of the mind. Once you come to Vedanta, you need a subtle mind. A scientific mind per se is not a subtle mind. In Vedanta, sharpness means, dropping the objectivity tendency; the expectation of experiences, dropping the idea of meeting with Brahman. So when you drop your Brahma Anubhava expectation, you drop grossness of mind. Then when does Brahma Anubhava come? Brahma Anubhava is not an event. If at all it is an event, it is the moment you stop looking forward to Brahma Anubhava and how do you stop? 254 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji By knowing that Brahman is not known through a particular Anubhava. Brahman is the awareness which is in and through every Anubhava. So why should I look for Brahma Anubhava? Kena says Pratibhoda Viditam; recognition of

consciousness in every Anubhava is Brahma Anubhava. So looking for experiences is grossness of mind. 8. na caku ghyate npi vc nnyair devai tapas karma v, jna-prasdena viuddha-sattvas tatas tu ta pasyate nikala dhyyamna. In the previous Mantra, subtility of Brahman was pointed out. Now here Upanishad says what cannot reveal Brahman, then what can reveal it. So what cannot reveal Brahman? 255 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Na Chakshusha Grhyate: the eyes cannot grasp Brahman. That is why in Kena, it is said Nedam Yadidamupasate. Did you see that? Yes. Then it is not Brahman. Was it divine? Then it is not Brahman! Then what about words? Vacha Api Na Grhyate, words cannot reveal Brahman. Then why do you talk Swamiji? That is the joke. Words do not reveal Brahman. Words however reveal that Brahman need not be revealed! Not jugglery of words, please note. It is the consciousness because of which, you are

hearing these words. So words reveal the ever present Brahman by pointing out this fact. Therefore Vacha Api Na Grhyate. 256 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Na Anyihi Devaihi: here in this context, Devaihi means sense organs, not Gods. Even by other sense organs, it cannot be revealed. Suppose I do Tapas, without food, by torturing the body. That is what Buddha did and said I tortured my body; I came to know that torturing the body does not give any knowledge. But be very careful when teacher says, Tapas cannot reveal Brahman. You should not conclude that Tapas is useless. We should never take a wrong corollary. It means Tapas does not reveal Brahman. Tapas has a lot of use. Austerity brings self control, self mastery, Satvaguna Adhikyam. Without Tapas, Solid Tamoguna will never go. Similarly, Karmana Va: any amount of rituals or action cannot grasp Brahman. It again does not mean drop all rituals. No, all the rituals are required for Chitta Shuddhi. Chittasya Shuddhaye Karma Natu. Vastupalabdaye: all these are not going to reveal Brahman. Then what is required? Two things are required, one is Shastram and the other is Sookshma Buddhihi. Shastra Pramanam is required without which nothing

will happen. 257 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Navedavin Mamute Gam Bhruhantam. Without the support of the Scriptures, one can never know the Atma. So Shastram plus mind are required. Both are important. Here, the importance of mind is emphasized. Elsewhere, Shastram is emphasized (Vedanta Vijnana Sunishcitartarthyaha Yogad Yatayaha Shuddha Satvaha). Here mind is emphasized. There is a beautiful Shloka, Yasya Nasti Swayam Prajna Shastram Tasya Karoti Kim Lochanabhyam Vihinasya Darpanam Kim Karishyati? Suppose I want to look at my face. I cannot do that unless I have an external guidance in the form of a mirror. But is mirror alone sufficient? No, eyes are also necessary. Only when both of them are there I will be able to see myself. So even to see the false I, if I require a mirror and eyes (two things), to see the real I, I certainly require two things namely Shastram (special mirror) and a special eye called Jnana Chakshuhu or the subtle mind. In this Mantra mirror part is not said but is understood, Antahkarana is emphasized. Jnanaprasadena Vishuddhasatvam: one should have a pure mind (Satva means mind, Vishuddha means pure). 258 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji

What is purity of mind? To know that, we should know what are impurities of the mind? Raga and Dwesha, likes and dislikes are the main impurities. These can be overcome by Karma Yoga. That is understood. Here not only Shuddhi is said but also tranquility of mind which is indicated by the word. Prasadaha: which means a tranquil mind or Shamaha, a relaxed but disciplined mind. Jnanam here means Buddhihi. Buddhe Shamaha is Jnana Prasadaha, Antahkaranasya Shanthihi or Manahshanthihi. How will you get that? By Karma Yoga, you get Vishuddha Satvaha, by Upasana, Jnana Prasadam (either by Saguna Ishwara Dhyanam or Ashtanga Yogaha). By these, one gets a tranquil mind. Such a mind is called Sookshma Buddhihi. In fact, Vishuddha Satvaha can be equated to Vairagyam qualification. A person with these two qualifications (Vishuddha Satva or Vairagyam and Jnana Prasadam or Shamadi Shatka Sampathi) ultimately meaning Sadhana Chatushyaya Samapannaha only. Such a person Tam Nishkalam Paryate, he will recognize the Atma or Brahman. 259 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji What type of Brahman? Nishkalam which means partless, indivisible. This word, we have seen in the last section. That Shastram also is

important is hinted here. Dhyayamanaha means Jnanayogena. Jnana means Shravana Manana Nidhidhyasana. Therefore one should acquire Sadhana Chatushtaya and then acquire Jnanam. So, a person with a tranquil mind and a pure mind will recognize the partless and indivisible Brahman through Jnanayoga. Vedanta Shravana Manana Nidhidhyasanouhu Sadhana Chatushtaya Sampannaha Brahma Pashyate. Therefore one should acquire Sadhana Chatushtaya Sampanna Antahkaranaha. 9. eour tm cetas veditavyo yasmin pra pacadh savivea, ai citta sarva otam prajnm, yasmin viuddhe vibhavaty ea tm. 260 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji In the previous Mantra, Sookshma Buddhi as an essential prerequisite for recognizing Atma was emphasized. It is going to be emphasizes in this Mantra also. Without a subtle intellect, it is impossible to recognize Atma. Eshaha Atma: this Atma, self evident, intimately available Atma is Chetasa Veditavyaha is known through the mind alone. What type of mind? Subtle mind. To indicate that, Upanishad gives an adjective to Atma. Anuhu means Sookshmaha. So this subtle Atma can be

known through subtle intellect alone. So then the question comes. If the question does not come, we have to raise that question. In several other places in the Upanishad, it said, mind cannot know the Atma. Here it is said mind alone can know the Atma. Is it not a contradiction? How do you reconcile the contradiction? 261 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji For that there are different answers. I will give one simple answer now, later I will give another answer, still later another one. When Upanishad says mind cannot know, it should be understood as a gross mind cannot know. When Upanishad says mind alone has to know, you have to interpret as subtle mind alone can know. Yan Manasa Na Manute means Yat Stoola Manasa Na Manute, Yato Vacho Nivartante Aprapya Manasa Saha. In Gita also Yatyanto Yoginshchounam, Pashyantayatma Vyavastitam, yatantopyakrutatmanaha Nainam Pashyanya Chetasa Yoginaha Pashyanti with Samskrita Manaha. Those with unrefined mind cannot know. That is why so many refinements or disciplines of the mind are prescribed. If the mind cannot know Atma, why should we go on refining the mind? Viveka, Vairagya, Shama, Dama are all for the mind only. To throw away the mind, why should we clean it?

If we want to throw away something, do we clean it with soap and water? 262 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji The very fact that Scriptures prescribe varieties of Sadhanas for purifying the mind means mind has to be employed. Where should the Atma be recognized? Yasmin: here it means Asmin Sharire. One has to know the Atma in ones own body itself. Because I can recognize consciousness in my body alone. Even though in your body also consciousness is there, I cannot experience consciousness in your body. Sentiency, I can experience only in my body. That is why Upanishad says Asmin Sharire. What type of body? Alive or dead? Pranaha Panchada Samvivesha Vartate: in this physical body where Prana is available in five fold manner. In that live body (that in which Prana is there). Panchada: five fold Prana, Prana, Apana, Vyana, Udana and Samana. In the body also where do you recognize the consciousness? In the mind or in the Sookshma shariram to be precise. Why? 263 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji

Because Pranouhu Saha Sarvam Chittam Otam: the entire mind along with all sense organs is pervaded by the consciousness. Therefore, you can recognize consciousness. Where? In your own mind. Like when you have two cups of water, one cold and one hot water, you dip your finger in the hot water; you feel the heat, you do not see the fire principle, but you know that water which is pervaded by the fire principle, that water is now hot, and I know that heat does not intrinsically belong to water (because the water in the other cup is cold); therefore the experienced heat must be borrowed principle or intrinsic? Borrowed obviously. This borrowed principle I discern with my intellect. I dont perceive the fire principle, but I discern it. In the same way, when you touch the body; it is live, it is sentient, but I know sentiency is not the intrinsic nature of the body. If it were so, body would be permanently alive. Therefore body is not intrinsically alive, but is pervaded by some other Chaitanya Tatvam. How did body get that? Through mind. That is why it is said Sarvam Prajanam Chittam Otam, means pervaded by, inherited by, interpenetrated by the consciousness. 264 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Wherever you are experiencing the mind, you are

experiencing two things, thoughts of the mind and the consciousness. Vrittihi and Chaitanyam. Generally we are carried away by the dancing Vrittis. Anything moving draws our attention. Mind keeps on sparking as it were and is noticed. Atma which does not spark is not discerned. The teacher is talking about qualifications required for self knowledge and he pointed out that a very subtle intellect is required to gain this knowledge. Esha Anuhu Atma Chetasa Veditavyaha: all these words are important, because Upanishad clearly says; Self knowledge requires a very subtle intellect, in fact as subtle as Atma itself. Since the object of knowledge is very subtle, the instrument of knowledge also must be very subtle. Where should Atma be recognized? In a live physical body only! (That is why teacher says Yasmin Sharire Pranaha Panyadha Sanniveshaha). That body in which the five Pranas are functioning, meaning a live body. In the body where? 265 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji In a mind which is pervaded by the consciousness principle. (Sarvam Chittam Pranouhu Saha Chytanyena (this has to be added by us) Otam). Otam means pervaded, interpenetrated by. Here Prana

means Indriyas. Whenever I am experiencing the mind, I am simultaneously experiencing two things. One is the mind; the other is the pervading consciousness. I never experience the pure mind but one that is soaked in consciousness. The uniqueness here is that, the mind is evident because of consciousness but the consciousness is not evident because of the mind. It is self evident. Even so, when both are evident simultaneously, mind is all the time active. It doesnt keep quiet. It constantly entertains thoughts, whereas consciousness is Achalam Nishcalam Tishtruti. Wherever there is variety and change, our attention is attracted. In Chaitanyam, there is no variety, no change. Therefore it is always thaken for granted, whereas in the mind, ther is constant movement and variety, Dwesha Vritti and Kama Vritti etc etc are there. When someone asks what is there in your mind, we generally say anger, love, depression, etc etc, but never say, consciousness is there in my mind! Therefore to avoid distraction, Scriptures present a method. In a quiet mind, where there are no distractions, the consciousness appears to be more 266 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji evident not because it is not already evident, but because there are no distracting thoughts. That is why the example of a cinema screen is given. When is it more evident?

When movie is on or off? Naturally when movie is off. When movie is running also, screen is very much there, but I am distracted by what is going on, the hero, heroine etc. In the interval, when there is no movie, it is more obvious, that is all. Therefore initially to recognize the screen, I have to show the screen when there is no movie. There afterwards, I have to tell, even when the movie is on, the screen continues to be there, movie comes, movie goes, screen is there. Similarly Upanishad says Manasi Vishuddhe Sati, when the mind is temporarily relaxed and quiet, Atma Vibhavati: means it is more evident, as it were. Visheshena Bhavati: there are no distractions. One thing we should note here. We can use the quiet mind to identify the consciousness, but we should not expect a permanently quiet mind. It is not possible. To recognize the screen, initially we may need to see it without movie, but later, we should be able to appreciate it, 267 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji even though the movie is running. So now you understand that screen is pure whatever may happen in the movie. Screen is Adrishaha, Adashaha, Akoshaha etc Nityaha, Achalaha, Sthanuhu. Movie is there, screen is there, hero dies, screen continues, again next show hero appears, screen continues. Similarly a quiet mind is

useful to own up the Chaitanyam in the absence of thoughts and later in the presence of thoughts also. I am the pure consciousness, thoughts or no thoughts. Vishwam Darpana Dashyamana Nagari Tulyam Nijanthirgatam Pashyannatmati Mayaya Bahirivodbhootam Yatha Nidraya. If I dont understand this properly, there will be a problem. I will expect a permanent quietitude. So, Atma is not affected by the nature of my thoughts. Yasmin Vishuddhe: in a quiet mind Esham Atma Vibhavati: this Atma appears more evident, for a beginner. For a person who is aware of consciousness, it is always Nitya Siddhaha. 268 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 10. yam ya lokam manas savibhtiviuddha-sattva kmayate y ca kmn, ta ta loka jyate t ca kms tasmd tmaja hy arcayed bhti-kma. So a Jnani is glorified in this Mantra (Jnani Stuti), so indirectly Jnana Stuti also. In Scriptures Jnani is glorified from two angles or stand points. One is from the stand point of Atma which he has discovered; he has discovered his nature. Secondly from Anatma stand point also. When he says Aham Brahmasmi, it means Atma. When he says, this is my Guru, this is my Shishya, what does I mean? Anatma or relative Ahankara. Jnani

looks at himself both from Atma Drishti and Anatma Drishti. When we glorify him, we do it from both Drishtis. If you take Shankaracharya Ashtottara Namavali, you can do a nice home work. Which Namas glorify the Atma and which Namas glorify Anatma? Example, Satchitananda Vigrahaya Namaha, it is obviously Atma that is referred to. 269 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji When it says Dwisaptati Manograte Namaha, one who travelled all over and destroyed seventy two wrong systems of philosophy. Is it Atma or Anatma? Obviously Anatma. Therefore a Guru can be seen from both stand points. From Atma stand point, Jnani and Ishwara are totally identical, because both are Satchitananda Atma revealed by Tatvam Asi. From Anatma Drishtya, can a Jnani be equal to Ishwara? You know Jnani and Ishwara can never be identical because Jnani Shariram is Vyasti Shariram. Ishwaras body is Samashti Shariram. Jnanis body is finite in power; Ishwaras is omniscient and omnipotent. Can Jnanis mind be omniscient in the literal sense? No, a Jnani may be well versed in Vedanta but may not know astrophysics or something else. So Anatma Drishtya Jnani and Ishwara are not identical, but Scriptures say, because of his purity, Jnani is closer to

Ishwara than all other people. So, Jnani is like mini Ishwara. Because of his purity which is needed for his Sadhana Chatustaya Sampathi, Ishwaras manifestation in a Jnani is more. The Ishwara Pratibimba in a Jnani is brighter because the reflecting medium is brighter (like 270 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji two mirrors, one a dusty one and the other a bright one). So Jnani becomes like a temple. Why do you worship the Lord in a temple? It is because of the constant chanting etc, that place is more capable of manifesting Ishwara. Therefore Upanishad says, like worshipping the Lord in a temple, one can worship a Jnani also. He has less or no ego. That is why even when he is worshipped, he does not take it as worship to himself, but hands it over to the Lord. If someone says you are great, he says the greatness belongs to my Guru. If you say that to his Guru, he will similarly attribute it to his Guru. Ultimately it goes to the Lord. So all Gurus are like pipeline which is empty, so Lords glory can flow through, where as in the case of an Ajnani, it is like a blocked pipe, caused by thick layer of ego, Raga and Dwesha. Bhagawan is trying to express, but the pipeline is blocked. Krishna having a flute indicates this when flute is empty, without a block, nice music comes out of it. When it is blocked, Apashruthi comes. How many holes are there

in a flute? Nine (seven holes, and one at either end, just like human body). So we can also serve as a flute of the Lord. To serve as a flute, what is necessary is that, we must be empty, that is, without ego or Ahankara. Jnani 271 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji has removed the Ahankara block so Lords music flows through the Jnani. Therefore when you worship a Jnani, as he is without any block, your worship directly reaches the Lord, and the desires of the worshipper are fulfilled. Bhagawans blessings reach the worshipper. So a Jnani can fulfill both the material and spiritual desires of a disciple. This Mantra says Jnani can fulfill material desires; next Mantra says spiritual desires are fulfilled. Now look at the Shloka, Vishuddha Satvaha, Jnani who has a pure mind untainted by Ahankara. Tam Tam Lokam Jayate: he can accomplish for the devotee any Loka he wants. Not for his own sake as he does not want anything. In short, he is Satya Kamaha, Satya Sankalpaha. Tamscha Kaman: not only Lokas, but any or all worldly desires the devotee may have are fulfilled as well. Jnani allows God to fulfill through him, all the devotees desires. What Lokas and desires? Yam Yam Lokam Manasa Kamayate: whatever desires a devotee may entertain, a Jnani is capable of fulfilling. So a Jnani is a mini Ishwara, a temple, whom all people can

worship and fulfill their desires. Tasmat: therefore 272 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Bhutikamaha: Bhuti means Artha, Kama and Dharma or worldly desires. Those desirous of these. Atmajnam Archayed: they can worship a Jnani. Same thing is said in Guru Stotra, Bhukti Mukti Pradatacha, one who fulfills both material and spiritual desires. That is why, in our culture, we worship Jnanis as Guru Brahma, Guru Vishnu, Gururdevo Maheshwaraha, Guru Sakshath Parambrahma Tasmaishri Guruve Namaha. So with the glorification of Jnani as Bhukti Pradata is over. Now in the next secton, Jnanis glorification as Mukti pradata, a fulfiller of spiritual desires is highlighted. So now we enter the final part of the Upanishad, namely, second section of third chapter. Third Mundaka: Second Khanda 1. sa vedaitat paramam brahma dhma yatra viva nihitam bhti ubhram, upste puruam ye hy akms te ukram etad ativartanti dhr. 273 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji In the previous section, three topics, Jnana Sadhanam, Jnana Phalam and Jnana Swarupam were talked about. Here also same topics are discussed. Jnana Phalam was

talked about as Jeevanmukti and Videhamukti. Here also they are said. Glory of a Jeevanmukta is talked about as Mukti Pradata. So who is a Jnani? Saha Etat Paramam Brahma Ved: so this Jeevanmukta has recognized the Paramam Brahma, the infinite Brahman. What type of Brahma? Which is the the substratum, the abode of what? Yatra Vishwam Nihitam Bhati: which is the abode of the entire creation, in which alone, entire world is resting; not only it is Adharam, it is Shubram, which means, in supporting the world, it does not get tainted, by any impurities belonging to the world. Even though, it accommodates everything, just like space, but at the same time, it is untainted. So Yatra Vishwam Nihitam Bhati, Yatra Shubram Paramam Brahma Dhama Etat Brahma Saha Veda. How does he know? That is important. If you say Brahma is Sarva Adhara, the knowledge is incomplete because you will say Brahma is Sarva Adharam, Brahma 274 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji is great, Brahma is Shubram, but I am miserable. What is the use? Therefore the knowledge is complete only when you say that Brahman which is pure and Sarvadharam is I, the consciousness principle. Therefore,

Saham Ved = Atmatvena Veda, Aparokshataya Veda, one who knows as himself. Here the word Veda is a verb, not Scriptures, noun as in Vedanta. Such a Jnani, if people worship, what happens? Ye Purusham Upasate: suppose devotees worship Brahmatma Aikyam Jnani, how? Akamaha: without desiring material ends (Nishkama Pooja of a Jnani), then Te Dheeraha: they are the intelligent people because they are utilizing a Jnani in a proper way. All others are underutilizing or improperly utilizing a Jnani. Very rarely, people ask for Brahma Vidya. Jnanis have renounced everything for the sake of Brahma Vichara; still they have to join the Brahma Vichara of all the people. Therefore majority is interested in Bhutikamaha. So what will happen to Mukti Kamaha? 275 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Te Yetat Shukram Ativrtanti, Shukram literally means Manushya Beejam, human seed and in this context, it means Janma or rebirth. They transcend Punarjanma. They are out of the birth death cycle. When they are asking for Bhukti, Jnani has to help them by several methods. If they want money, he can get that by the Drishta method by asking someone to donate and give it to him or in an Adrishta manner, through success in his venture etc by blessing. But if a devotee is seeking

Moksha, Jnani can help in only one way by teaching systematically. That is the only method exemplified by the second chapter of Gita. Krishna told everything in a systematic way, but still Arjuna keeps asking the same questions till the eighteenth chapter. That is so with many students. But Guru has to teach without losing his patience, until the student understands. When Mukti is wanted, teaching is the only method just like in school or college. Spirituality needs the same systematic teaching that is required for physics, chemistry, economics or astrophysics, in fact even more systematic. Therefore Jnani blesses by teaching. 276 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 2. kmn yah kmayate manyamna sa kmabhir jyate tatra tatra, parypta-kmasya ktmanas tu ihaiva sarve pravilyanti km. In the previous Mantra, it was said, a Jnani blesses the disciple with Moksha by systematic teaching. It also means he will not have Punarjanma (Te Sukram Ativartanti). How can Jnanam destroy Punarjanma? What is the connection between Jnanm and freedom from Punarjanma? For this, different reasons can be given. Upanishad gives a particular reason here. In the Scriptures, it is said; our Punarjanma is determined by our intense desire. Because even in this Janma, our future is determined by

our intense desire. Because desire leads to action, action leads to results, results determine your future. That is why somebody said, watch your thoughts because your thoughts will become your actions, watch your actions as your actions will become your character, watch your character because they determine your personality. Wach your personality because it determines your future. So in this Janma itself if future 277 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji depends on my present desire, then by extending the same logic, our desire determines our next Jnama also. Krishna tells this very clearly in eighth chapter of Bhagawad Gita. Tasmat Sarveshu Kaleshu Mamanusmara Yudhyache So we have so many desires and gradually in life, some desires become strong and swallow all others, as we reach old age, one desire will be very strong, and that desire will be the fuel for my next Janma. In case of a Jnani, though this rule holds good, since he does not have any desires he merges into Brahman and hence there is no Punarjanma. The last section of this Upanishad begins with glorification of Jnani who can bless seekers with both material and spiritual ends; he is a Bukti Mukti Pradata. What he gives depends on the seeker. In first Mantra, it

was said; to Mumukshus he gives Moksha by teaching them and making them Jnanis too, not a lesser Jnani than himself! But as much a Jnani as himself! The example of one flame being used to light another flame is very apt here. The second flame once lit, is as bright as the first one, and if you have not actually seen the process of lighting, you can never make out which was 278 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji the original flame and which one was lighted later. Similarly in Guru Shishya Parampara also, we say Shankara is Guru and Sureshwara is Shishya, but when you look at their works, both are of such high quality, it is impossible to say one is Guru and other is Shishya. So thus, Jnani makes his disciples also Jnanis and thus releases them from rebirth. Then the question comes, how does the knowledge of Brahman protect a person from rebirth? For that, the second Mantra gives the answer. Rebirth is determined by the intense yearning of a person. The intense desire of a Jeeva determines the travel. This is not surprising. For example, why do we go out? It is either because I want to attend Upanishad class, or meet some one or buy something. So my desire determines my travel and also its direction. So Karma is backed by Kama. Extending the same principle, rebirth is also decided by Kama. In the case of a Jnani, as he is totally devoid of

Kama (prajahati Yada Kaman, Sarvan Partha Manogatan, Atmanyeva Atmana Tushtaha). He drops all desires, not as suppression, because suppressions is dangerous. In fact, desires, get dropped because he is so full. Just as a person who has eaten a sumptuous lunch refuses even an attractive dish like a jamun, because he simply cannot eat. Same way, a 279 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Jnani is so full, he cannot have any desires! That is said in this beautiful Mantra. Kaman Yaha Kamayate: suppose a person thinks of varieties of sense objects. We have many desires, but some become very dominant. How? By repeatedly thinking of them (Dhyayate Vishayanpumsaha) and feel, minus that object, I am incomplete. This kind of thinking gradually becomes very intense yearning for both positive and negative things. Even the intense desire for Moksha is no different. Manyamanaha: by this repeated dwelling on the same desire, it becomes a deep thirst. So what happens? Saha Tatra Tatra Jayate: so he takes birth in a situation where such desire can be fulfilled. Kamabhihi: when born with a new body, the desire of the previous Janma takes over. That is how different

people have different inclinations. As Krishna says in Bhagawad Gita, Tatra Tam Buddhisamyogam Labhate Pourva Dehikam. He may not know the details of the Purva Janma, but something forces him to pursue that. 280 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji That is how, some people are interested in Swamijis, philosophy etc at an early age! When many youngsters of the same age are after Rajnikanth and Tendulkar and all those people, for this one, Shankaracharya is the hero! So, as the desire, so the Janma, that is the law. One may argue, I will pursue all material ends in my early age and then desire Moksha in the end, and thereby have best of both the worlds! Here teacher indicates how it is not possible because, desire at the end of life will be a cumulative effect of the whole (type of) life he has led. That is why Krishna tells in Bhagawad Gita, Tasman Sarveshu Kaleshu Mamanusmarayudhya Cha. You cannot cheat me; only if you have noble thoughts and noble ambitions, your last wish will be noble. That is what is meant by Tatra Tatra Jayate. For Jnani therefore this law becomes irrelevant. How? Kritatmamastu: Kritatma means one who has fulfilled himself totally. Paramatmatvena Kruthaha Jivatmena Yasya Saha, meaning one who is with converted into Paramatma Jeevatma! (Compound Bahuvreehi).

How? Jnanena Krutaha, by knowledge. 281 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Paryaptakamasya: whose desires are all fulfilled, one who has already discovered completeness in himself, why should he, desire something? Here we have to know basic principle. Nobody desires any object in the world, though superficially, it appears as though people want this and that. Then what does every body desire? A person has a feeling of imcompleteness which is expressed as a desire for something. By getting that something I hope to become complete. I feel my life is not made without a Benz car! I keep thinking of that and feel my life will be complete with Benz! So that means what? I am not seeking the Benz car, but the feeling of completeness which I hope to get by acquiring the Benz. The same is the case with husband, wife, children, money, position, possessions etc etc. It is the feeling of completeness that I am after (Purnatvam). So the only desire of every one is Purnatvam. Without knowing this, we grope everywhere and struggle for fulfillment. When Jnani has found that fulfillment, why should he seek something! So he is fulfilled or Paryaptakamaha. In Taittereya, it says Saha Ashnute Sarvan Kaman Saha. He has fulfilled all his desires in life by knowledge.

Sarve Kamaha Ihaiva Praviliyante: all the desires will dissolve here itself. There afterwards, if at all he has 282 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji desires, they are not for fulfillment, but out of fulfillment. The desire to bless the world, help people, out of compassion. Fullness based activity is different from emptiness based activity. All Jnanis actitivities are fullness based activities. All Ajnanis activities are emptiness based activities. How do you know that? Krishna in Bhagawad Gita says Naiva Tasya Kritenarthaha Nakruteneh Kaschan. Fullness based activity means its success or failure does not matter to me. I enjoy the success, but am not weighed down by the failure. Both can neither increase nor decrease my Purnatvam (Na Karmana Vardhate No Kvaniyat). In emptiness activity, success takes me to the top of the world, and failure to the bottom. Therefore Jnani does not have emptiness backed desires or binding desires. They are non binding desires, that is Muktihi. 283 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 3. nyam tm pravacanena labhyo na medhay, na bahun rutena, yam evaia vute tena labhyas tasyaia tm vivute tan svm. In these next two Mantras, we get some Sadhanas or

disciplines required for a seeker, which alone give spiritual success. Here teacher talks about disqualifications. From them, positive things have to be inferred. Here teacher wants to say, one particular Sadhana is very important, in the presence of which only all other Sadhanas become valid. What is that one single Sadhana which validates all other Sadhanas? Teacher says that is intense desire for Moksha or Teevra Mumukshutvam. The example of a person under water struggling to breathe is given. If that is not there, all other Sadhanas will not give full benefit, though some benefit is there. Ayam Atma Pravachanena Na Labhyaha: the Atma cannot be attained by any amout of spiritual study alone. To be fruitful, the study must be backed by Teevra Mumukshatvam. Be careful. It is not said that study of Scriptures is useless. Only study without intense desire will not give full benefit, study is very important, but it should be backed by Teevra 284 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Mumukshatvam which is here called Atma Varanam, which means choosing Atma/Moksha as top priority in life. That the problem is not with the world, but with me. The weak I is Samsara and the strong I is Moksha. So what is required is converting the weak I to strong I.

This, I must be thoroughly convinced. Vedanta does not want to enforce this idea. It says if you are not convinced, go and experiment with the world, manipulating and changing everything. Nothing happens. From that you infer, something is wrong with me, because wherever I go, whatever I do, that noise is always there like a Tambura Shrithi that I am incomplete. In all different situations, the common factor is I. So that noise must be from myself (inner Santrupthihi). So that conviction must come. Let it take ten years or ten Janmas, but it has to come. If it has not come, Pravachanena Na Labhyaha: Atma is not attained by study. It becomes only an academic pursuit. Only ego fattens. Na Medhaya: mere memorization is also not useful. Memory is useful but mere memory, not backed by Mumukshatvam is not fruitful. Medha is Granthyartha Dharana Shakthihi. 285 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji What about repeated Shravanam? Na Bahuna Shrutena: mere Shravanam, listening to Scriptures through a Guru will not help without Mumukshatvam. To whom does it come then? Tasya Esha Atma Svam Tanum Vrupute: Paramatma

reveals its nature only to sincere seekers. Who is sincere? One who has chosen Paramatma as the only Purushartha in life. Dharma, Artha and Kama are all means but not an end. Moksha is the only Purushartha which is not a means but an end. Spiritual goal is the only goal. One who has chosen this, to him, Paramatma reveals itself. Tena Labhyaha: by him alone, it is known. Dayananda Swamiji used to say, Purushartha Nischaya is being clear about priorities in life. Shankara highlights one more factor here. Moksha is in our hands only. It is not Gods will etc. For this, other people blame Advaithis saying they dont believe in Lords grace for Moksha. So they are not Bhaktas. For that, the answer is, Advaithis are the greatest Bhaktas also. Shankara says, 286 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Lords grace is always there, just like the sun showers his light impartially over the whole earth whether it is river Ganga or a local drain, whether it is a rich area or a poor area. Similarly, Lords grace is always there. It is upto us to make the effort to tap the grace for Moksha. Udghareth Atmanatmanam: Moksha is determined by your free will. Lords grace is important. Shankara says, should we ask the sun to send us light? Sun cannot but give light, as he is the embodiment of light. Therefore

Bhagawans grace is always there. Then what is required? Our effort which is what is meant by Yamevaisha Vrunute. 4. nyam tm bala-hnena labhyo na ca pramdt tapso vpy aligt, etair upyair yatate yas tu vidvs tasyaia tm viate brahma-dhma. 287 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Here, teacher is going to talk about four qualifications without which one will not get Moksha. They are 1. Balam: strength, 2. Apramada: alertness, not being mechanical, 3. Tapaha: in this context Jnana, 4. Lingaha: in this context Vairagyaha or Sanyasaha as said by Shankara. 1. Strength is not physical but intellectual (Buddhi Balam) because the whole process is knowledge based and not emotion absed like Puranas etc. Vedanta is clear knowledge of a subject which is very subtle and contrary to our general knowledge. The basic tenets of Vedanta are Brahma Satyam Jaganmithya Jeevo Brahmaivanaparaha. It talks about Ishwara, world and I. I am God while I think I am a DOG. Guru says I am GOD. It says world is not real when it keeps creating problems for me! It says I am Brahman, whom I have never seen! Every basic dictum is contrary to my perception. It is not a matter

of belief, but knowing and assimilating. So teaching is involved, doubts galore will come, clearing them all is involved. At every step Buddhi is to be very active without a good thinking capacity, one cannot have this knowledge. 288 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 2. Apramadaha: alertness, not losing sight of the goal, even though there are sufficient distractions is our life. Therefore in and through all our pursuits, we should be alert about our goal of Moksha. Chittaekagrata or Citta Samadhanaha is called Apramadaha. 3. Tapaha: Jnanam or Vedanta Vichara, scriptural study under the guidance of a competent Guru. Never think it is a mere intellectual pursuit. When I look into a mirror, the more I look the more I see myself only. Only when I wipe the dust off the mirror, clearer is the vision of myself. The study is not an extrovert pursuit. The understanding of Scriptures is understanding of myself. Shastra Jnanam Eva Atma Jnanam. If I am doing some extra analysis to remove my doubts, it is also not mere intellectual gymnastics, but it is like dusting the mirror, so my knowledge of myself becomes clearer and clearer. So Scriptural enquiry is self enquiry. 4. Lingam: Sanyasa or Vairagyaha, Detachment. It does

not mean hatred. It is Raga Dwesha Atitatvam. I dont have Raga, I dont have Dwesha. Dayanandaji gives the example of marbles. I was attached to them as a child. During exams, mother says you should not play, so I go away to avoid temptation. The same child when he is 50, what is his attitude to marbles? 289 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Its presence does not pose a temptation and its absence does not pose a vacuum. So he has got maturity towards objects that is growing out of attachments, that is called Lingaha or Sanyasa here. All these four are important. Teacher wants to emphasize them by putting in double negative knowledge. Without these four, one cannot attain liberation. With these you can attain is positively putting it. Without these, you cannot attain is double negative and therefore more emphatic. Balaheenena Ayamatma Na Labhyaha: without Buddhi Balam or intellectual strength, this Paramatma cannot be attained. Na cha Pramadat Labhyaha: without alertness, Paramatma cannot be attained because he will be distracted all over. Alinganat Tapasaha Va: Paramatma cannot be attained by study without Vairagyaha or Sanyasa. Vairagya Rahita Jnanat Na Labhyate. Knowledge without

Vairagyam will only be a scholarly knowledge without assimilation. Etair Upayair Yatate Yas Tu Vidvan: that intelligent person who strives with these four qualifications, his 290 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Atma will merge into Paramatma, Tasyaisha Atma Vishate Brahmadhama. This is the concluding portion of Mundaka Upanishad. The main teaching has already been given in the form of answer to the question Kasmin Bhagavo Vijnate Sarvamidam Vijnatam Bhavati? posed by Shounaka to Guru Angiras. The answer is by knowing Brahman which alone is the truth or substance behind this manifold creation, everything is as good as known (Brahma Jnanena Sarva Vijnanam Bhavati); just like by knowing water, ocean, river, froth, wave are all known. Similarly, what we call elements, elementals etc etc are only names, the basic substance being Brahman alone. In this section, teacher wants to wind up the teaching by discussing three topics. 1. Summary of the teaching that is Brahma Vidya in brief. 2. Jnana Sadhanani, preparatory steps. 3. Jnanaphalam, the benefit of acquiring this knowledge. Of these, the first one, namely Brahma Vidya was

already discussed. The Jnana Sadhanani have also been talked about, Atma Varanam or deep thirst for the 291 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji knowledge being the most important. Three other Sadhanas were Balam or inner strength, alertness or Apramada and Sanyasa Sahita or Vairagya Sahita Jnana that is enquiry backed by detachment. Both should go hand in hand. Now teacher enters the topic of Jnana Phalamin the following Mantra. 5. samprpyainam ayo jna-tpt kttmno vta-rg prant, te sarvaga sarvata prpya dhr yukttmnas sarvam evvianti. Janan Phalam is going to be presented in two ways, Jeevanmukthihi and Videhamukthihi. Jeevanmukthihi is inner freedom even when person is alive without changing has Ashrama or profession, one can enjoy inner freedom from Kama, Krodha, Lobha, Moha, Mada, Matsarya etc, all the inner pains. (In 292 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Bhagawad Gita, Dukheshu Anudvigna Manaha Sukheshu Vigataspruhaha Veetaraga Bhaya Krodhaha Stitadhirmuniruchyate) Freedom from inner turmoil is not due to change in the outer set up which is determined by Prarabdha. Only Jnani has the raincoat of Jnanam, so any amount of rain, he does not get wet. That is Jeevanmukthi. That is one result.

Secondly, after death, the Jnani is not reborn because he merges with the Lord (Ishwara Aikyam or Brahma Aikyam) or Janma Abhavaha. In this Mantra Upanishad beautifully talks about the stages which the seeker goes through. It is a gradual growth the stages of which, the seeker goes through. Let us rearrange the words in the Mantra. First is Dheeraha. It means one who has recognized the fact that spiritual growth is the only real accomplishment in life. Material accomplishments are incidental, but they are not the main goal. That is called switching the priorities of life. Generally in the beginning stages of life, our priorities are in Artha Kama. A person has to convert from a materialistic to a spiritual person. Such a person is called Dhiraha or Viveki, one who knows that spirituality is more important than materialism. How to bring about this? That is not spelt out here. It is brought about by a religious life. Without a 293 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji religious life, a person cannot convert himself. Even religion in the early stage is used for money only. God is also made a partner in our ventures! But the beauty of religion is, unknowingly in course of time, one gets converted from materialistic religion to spiritual religion. Initially Veda does not forbid materialism, but the religions in due course, become religiously spiritual.

Once we grow mentally, the next stage is Vita Raga. Viveka will naturally lead to Vairagyam. What is Vairagya? All things other than Moksha become secondary. Money is also required for Moksha. How is that? Shankara says, only when money is there, you can do noble Karmas, rituals, Danam, social service etc. So money is used for Moksha. Similarly family life also. Wife is Saha Dharmacharini not Saha Arthacharini or Saha Kamacharini. So that is also for spiritual growth. So the attitude that Artha Kama as subservient to Dharma, Moksha, that is called Vairagya, growing out of petty things in life. Next is Prashanthaha, one with a non extrovert mind, a mind which is tranquil and turned inwards, no more restless and wandering (Shamadi Shatka Sampannaha). This again requires effort like Japa, Pooja, Ashtanga Yoga. 294 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Next is Rishayaha, means Jnaninaha. Once I have Viveka, Vairagya and Shamadi Shatka Sampathi, next is acquisition of knowledge. This is done by systematic and consistent study of Scriptures for a length of time under the guidance of a competent Guru. Each term is important here. If a person does that, he becomes a Rishihi. Rishu means to know, Rishati Janati Atmatatvam Iti

Rishihi, a Jnani, a knower, a seer. So how beautifully stages are talked about! First you become Dheeraha, Then Prashanthaha, Then Rishihi, Next is Krutatmanaha. Those who have converted Jeevatma into Paramatma (Paramatmatvena Kruthaha Jeevatma Yasya, compound Bahurvihi). Krutam means converted, Atma Jeevatma. What type of conversion? To paramatma. 295 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji How? Is it a physical conversion? Not at all, because Jeevatma has always been Paramatma. It is only changing my misconception (from wrongly understood Jeevatma to rightly understood Paramatma). So the conversion is at the level of understanding. Rightly understood Jeevatma is Paramatma. Like converting our snake into rope. Rope was mistaken as snake due to dim light. By gaining correct knowledge, smake is converted to rope. Similarly ignorance is converted to knowledge (Asatoma Sadgamaya, Tamasoma Jyothirgamaya, Mrityorma Amritangamaya). Therefore, they have become Paramatma. Next stage is,

Jnanatruptaha: as long as I am Jeevatma, I am Nitya Atruptaha. I can never be totally satisfied. There is no time in life when everything is all right and ideal like that ideal gas equation where PV=RT. Such a gas does not exist. Similarly, there will be always some complaint. So Jeevatma can never get total satisfaction. Only when I recognize my Paramatma nature, will I have total satisfaction as Paramatma, not because surroundings are fine but inspite of them. This is called Jnanena Truptihi. How is it possible? 296 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji When you look at a problem or anything from a particular angle, it looks very big. But when you look from a higher perspective (a tree looks big from the ground, but the same tree when looked at from a helicopter looks insignificant!). From the vision of knowledge, our problems become insignificant. This is Jeevanmuktihi. Jnanatrupta means Jeevanmuktaha. Next is Videha Muktihi. Te Yuktatmanaha: they (Jnanatruptaha) continue in this knowledge without slipping down. So Yukta Atmanaha means Jnana Nishtaha (they dont lose sight of the knowledge). They should be all the time in Shravanam, Mananam and Nidhidhyasanam, Patanam, Paatanam, all the time dwell in the knowledge. So what will happen to

such Jnana Nishtaha? Sarvataha Sarvagam Prapya: at the time of death, at the end of their Prarabdha, Sarvagam Prapya, merge into the all pervading Brahman. How? Sarvataha: totally without any distinction. Sarvameva Aavishanti: they pervade thus the whole creation having become one with Brahman, is all 297 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji pervading. In short, they will attain brahma Aikyam. Though it is said, they merge into Brahman, merger should not be taken as a physical event. Why? Because if Brahman is physically away, all pervading, there is no question of actual merging. Then, why use the word merging? That is why Shastra gives example of pot space and total space. When pot is broken the space inside the pot is said to merge into the total space; but actually what did the space do? Nothing. The pot when it eixisted, enclosed space, now it is unenclosed, that is all. So it is only a seeming individuality. When it is broken, theat seeming individuality is gone. Similarly, consciousness is like space, body is like the pot. This consciousness space in body pot had a name. When the body is gone, consciousness has no more

name, it is called Brahman. This is called Sarvarthaha Sarvagam Prapya. 298 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 6. vednt-vijna-sunicitrth sanysa-yogd yataya uddhasttv, te brahma-lokeu parntakle part parimucyanti sarve. In this popular Mantra also, Upanishad talks about Jeevanmukti and Videha Mukti Phalam as a result of Self knowledge. Here also stages through which seeker goes through are pointed out. For sake of convenience, we will rearrange words. Shuddhasatvaha: First stage in spirituality is a pure mind. Satva here means pure not Satva Guna, one whose Raga and Dwesha are subservient to ones mind. For a pure mind, two conditions are required. Raga Dweshas also have to be pure which means they are legitimate and not illegitimate. What is that? That I should be healthy, family should be healthy, children should grow up well; all these are legitimate desires, nothing wrong in them. Similarly legitimate Dweshas are like I dont want to be sick. Secondly, I 299 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji should not be the slave of Raga Dweshas, they are under manageable conditions. This is called Shuddha Satvaha (Krishan says Indriyassamindriyarthe

Ragadweshou Vyavastitou). Dont be a slave of Raga Dwesha. That is why I say; convert your needs into preferences. It should not be I need a cup of coffee, but I prefer a cup of coffee. If it is there, ok; if it is not there also ok. Similarly at every stage, convert your Raga Dweshas nto preferences. Calmness of mind is an indication of purity. An impure mind is restless, agitated, grumbling, criticizing, and always disturbed. A person with a calm mind is not only calm himself, but radiates his inner calmness, so that even another disturned person who comes near will become calmer. Kalidasa very beautifully describes this when Dushyantha comes to Kanva Ashrama. He says, my mind somehow has become very calm. I see evn traditional rivals among wild animals, are moving around without attacking each other. So there must be an Ashrama here (Shantamidam Ashrama Padam). So you can say, equanimity, balance of mind is the sign of purity. Purity alone can give equanimity not intelligence. Intelligence and academic education does not promise peace, purity alone gives peace. Once mind is pure, it is ready for knowledge. So what is the next stage? 300 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Yatataha: Yati means Sanyasi, literally meaning committed pursuit of knowledge. The very purpose of Sanyasa is this person is freed from all duties. Veda

gives him freedom from religious duties, family duties and also social and political duties. A Sanyasi cont even vote! He has a civil death. Why? So he can pursue Shravana Manana Nidhidhyasana all the time. Sanyasa means pure Jnana Yoga. So Yatayaha means committed seekers. Like an amateur person turning professional! Before, he used to play for fun, but once he turns pro, he has to commit totally. So what do Yatis practice? Sanyasa Yogaha: means Jnana Yogaha as that is the primary duty of a Sanyasi. So if he takes Sanyasa and does some other pursuit, Veda will not be happy. It is like, you send your child to college, and he instead of studying well, becomes a student union leader. Will you be happy? So by following Vedanta Vichara committedly, what will happen? Vedanta Vichara Sunischita Arthaha: means Jnaninam Bhavanti, they become wise people. Vedanta: Upanishad, Vichara: Shastra, Arthaha: central teaching of Scriptures namely Jeevatma Paramatma Aikyam, Sunischitaha: clearly doubtlessly known. That person to whom the central theme of Upanishad. 301 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Shastras namely, Jivatma Pramatma Aikyam is clearly known. So how does he get it? Shravanam: to get knowledge, Mananam: to remove intellectual problems (doubts),

and Nidhidhyasanam: to remove emotional problems. We all have deep complaints about ourselves and others. Whenever ideal conditions come, they show up; though we normally feel we have overcome them. These inner pains can surface at any time. So you have to accept things and enjoy what you have. These inner pains should be flushed out by Nidhidhyasanam. As long as they are there, on one side I say Brahmananda and another side I weep. So these things should not nag my mind. This requires special effort. We have to always own up Aham Brahmasmi, realize that all the pains I underwent are for my growth only and resolve all my conflicts with myself; no revenge either. Lokaha Samastha Sukhino Bhuvantu. Next is Paramrutha: as the result of this, Jnanis become one with the immortal Brahman (Param: Brahman, Amruta: immortal). Again become is within quotes like 302 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji dreamer and waker. This is Jeevanmuktihi. They live as long as Prarabdha allows. After that, Parantakale: at the time of their final death; Why final? Because till now, death was always associated with rebirth! Only after Jnanam, it is not so. Death of an ignorant person is only Antakala; where as Jnanis death

is Parantakala. Sarvai To Brahmaloke Parimuchyanti: so they merge into Brahman Chiatanya (not Brahma Loka here), like pot space merging into total space. So Jeevanmukti and Videhamukti are the Phalam of Jnanam. This is going to be clarified in the next Mantras with an example of how rivers, when they join ocean, lose their individuality and become one with ocean. They are no longer Ganga, Yamuna or Saraswathi, but only water of ocean. In this last section of Upanishad, teacher is giving Jnana Phalam in the form of Jeevanmuktihi and Videha Muktihi. Jeevanmuktihi: is enjoying inner freedom even while alive, inspite of various situations in life caused by 303 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Prarabdha. Videha Muktihi means, at the time of death, the liberated person gives up all the three bodies namely, Sthoola, Sookshma and Karana which make him into a limited Jiva and merges into the Paramatma, thus freeing him from any limitation. The example of a pot broken, which makes the pot space merge into the total space without any movement is apt. Merger without movement, losing individuality is Videha Muktihi. This was talked about in the following Mantras, where same idea is presented.

7. gat kal pacadaa pratih dev ca sarve prati-devatsu, karmi vijnamaya ca tm parevyaye sarve ek-bhavanti. So in this Mantra also, the merger of the individual with the total is pointed out. Prasnopanishad says that the individual personality is divided into sixteen facets known as Shodashakala. Here in this Mantra, it says, of these sixteen Kalas, fifteen merge into corresponding total aspect of creation. 304 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Panchadasha Kalaha: fifteen aspects of the personality. Pratishtaha: merge into the corresponding macro aspect of creation. Body has five elements which merge into corresponding total five elements, similarly elementals etc. The question is, when Prasna Upanishad talks of sixteen Kalas, why is it said fifteen Kalas merge? What about the sixteenth? Shankara writes in his commentary that the sixteenth Kala refers to the name, the Vyavahara Nama of a person which remains in the memory of other people even after the person is gone. A name makes a person unique among so may people. So except name, the other fifteen Kalas go back to the totality. Devascha Sarve Pratidevatasu Gataha: here Devas refer to sense organs. They merge into corresponding presiding deities, Chakshushaha, Surya Devatha, Shrotrasya Digdevatha etc. They will merge into

Adhistana Devatha. Shankara writes, in every sense organ there is a blessing given by the corresponding Devatha, which remains in that organ in the form of Shakthi, enabling the organ to function. So part of Surya Shakthi is in the eye; without this, the sense organs cannot function. That is why in 18 th chapter of Bhagawad Gita, Krishna says, Adhistanam Tatha Karta 305 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Karanam Cha Pruthagvidam, Vividha Cha Pruthkshesta Daivam Chaivathru Panyamam. Daivam: means power or blessing of the Devatha. This blessing which was in the sense organ will merge into the Devatha itself. Then what about Karmani? Karmas also (Sanchita and Agami) will not be retained as Prarabdha need not merge because only when it is exhausted, a person dies (we are now talking about Videha Mukti). Therefore at the time of death of a Jnani, Prarabdha is already exhausted, only the other two (Sanchita and Agami) will merge into Ishwara or totality. Vijnanamayaha Atma: In the first notion, which makes me a distinct individual, only a human being has a very strong I notion. Here the word Atma refers to Ahankara only and not Paramatma. So Vijnananmayaha Atma

means the strong sense of I. So this Vijnanamaya Atma also called Karta Pramata, Bhokta, Ahankaraha also merges into the total. Sarva Api Eki Bhavanti: all of them will merge in the case of a Jnani. In Ajnani, only physical body dissolves. The subtle body, causal body, the individuality, all 306 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji survive which also they call the sould and this takes rebirth. Where? Pare Avyaye: in the totality, in the infinite Brahman it merges. To convey this idea an example is going to be given in the next Mantra. 8. yath nadyas syandamns samudre astam gacchanti nma-rpe vihya, tath vidvn nma-rpd vimukta part-param puruam upaiti divyam. The example is the river merging into the ocean. So rivers are many in number and have all originated from the ocean only. Now imagine having originated from the ocean, they forget that fact and think they have originated from the mountains (immediate parents). That is why a river is called Adrija, though ultimately they come from the clouds which in turn originate from ocean only! But forgetting these, rivers if they feel they 307 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji are from mountains and forget the original source, the

ocean and have become many, and each has an individuality like Ganga, Yamuna, Saraswathi etc etc, their names and forms are different. Some of them may have lot of impurities, some may be pure, some may have some elements like copper in Tamraparni, some are sacred and some are not, all this as long as they retain their individuality. But knowingly or unknowingly, they are rushing towards their source the ocean. So how long are they going to retain their individuality? Only till they merge into the ocean. Once they merge, the Nama, Rupa, everything is gone, only the ocean is there. That is why bath in the ocean is considered sacred as it contains the water of all rivers. Similarly, we have all come from one Ishwara, and our essential nature is same as that of Ishawara just like both ocean and river have water and therefore both are essentially one. Just like the river, we have forgotten our source which is Brahman except the Jnani. He remembers through knowledge, merges into Brahman; Nama, Rupa and individuality, he drops. Going to God is a happy event, not a sorrowful event. So for a Jnani, it is merger into the Lord, Moksha. Syandamanaha Yata Nadhyaha: So all the rivers which are rushing towards the ocean, they merge into the 308 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji ocean, even though their individuality is gone like

Nama, Rupa and properties, the essential nature of water, continues to exist. So Namarupe Vihaya: leaving their name, form and individuality. Samudre Astam Gachanti: they merge into the ocean. Tatha: similarly, Vidvan Namarupad Vimuktaha: this wise person drops the name, form and individuality which are purely associated with the body. Essentially I cannot have a name. If at all, my name should be Chaitanyam, but then so would everybodys name which poses transactional problems. That is why in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, the Namakarana ceremony is talked about. There, parents name the child Veda as the first name always (Veda means Chaitanyam or Brahman) (Vedosi Atharath Nama Karoti). Veda tells us what is a fact. You are consciousness my child. Parent may not know what it is (Tadasya Tad Grihameva Nama Bhavati). That becomes the secret name of the child. Why secret? 309 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Because of transactional problems! If all rivers are called water, how to differentiate between one and the other? That is why secondary names are given. Jnani drops the secondary name which is of the body alone. It is the same thing with gender also; male and female is

only with respect to the body. Chaitanyam is neither male nor female. So having dropped Nama and Rupa, Vidwan: the wise one. Purusham Upaiti: merger into Purusha, the total consciousness without motion. What type of total consciousness? Paravaram: which is beyond the creation, beyond ignorance, beyond Maya, beyond matter, beyond space, the absolute. The first Para refers to Maya and second Para refers to beyond, Maya is matter, so beyond matter. What type of spirit is it? Divyam, Chaitanya Swaroopam, the sacred Brahman. Upaiti: merges. 310 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 9. sa yo ha vai tat paramam brahma veda brahmaiva bhavati, nsybrahma-vit kule bhavati, tarati oka tarati ppmna guh-granthibhyo vimuktomto bhavati. Once again Jeevanmuktihi and Videha Mukti are talked about. Sa Yo Vai Tat Paramam Brahma Veda: suppose a person knows the Parambrahma, the substratum of the universe, the benefit is he himself becomes the Brahman. This is very often quoted statement and basis of Advaitic teaching. Shankaracharya quotes this umpteen number of times. The one who knows

Brahman, himself becomes Brahman. It has a lot of significance. Normally when we know something, we do not become that thing. In fact, it can cause problems in our day to day life if it were so! Shankaracharya says elsewhere, that it is possible under only one condition that is that I am already Brahman, but I am ignorant of this fact. Therefore I have disowned my own Brahmanhood and seeking that outside. So here the 311 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji very knowledge itself is the accomplishment, just like Karna became Kshatriya merely by knowing! Knowledge makes me Brahman because I am already Brahman, but disowned this fact. That is why what we require is knowledge or owning up. Any other method you try will not work. If you are not Brahman already, whatever you do, you will never become Brahman. Do you know why? Brahman means infinite; if you are not Brahman already, you are finite in nature. If you want to become Brahman, a finite you have to become infinite Brahman, which is impossible. Logic is finite cannot become infinite, infinite need not become infinite; then what is required? The infinite which is not aware of its nature has to own up the fact that it is infinite. The whole Vedanta is not one of becoming but knowing and owning. That alone is the Sadhana. That is why

Upanishad says, Brahmavid Brahmaiva Bhavati. It says not only Jnani becomes Brahman; he converts everyone around him into Jnanis. Asya Kule Abrahmavit Na Bhavati: in his family or Ashram, depending on whether Jnani is Grihasta or Sanyasi, an Ajnani cannot be there because his 312 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji influence is so powerful; he will convert every one into Jnanis. Guha Grantibhyaha Vimuktaha Bhavati: he becomes free form the knot of the heart. The knot and Guha have already been discussed. Granthaha: means knot, self ignorance. I thought I was the shell called the body, but came to know I am the consciousness principle, so have grown out of attachment to the body. This itself is Grantibhyaha Vimuktaha. I use the shell temporarily as long as it is available. Tarati Papmanam: free from Papas. As papa belongs to the realm of Ahankaraha and since Jnani has freed himself from Ahankaraha, he is free from Papas. The example given is, suppose I commit some crime in a dream and am arrested. When I wake up, I know I am no longer the criminal and all that was a dream alone. Similarly, this Ahankara belongs to another field called Vyavaharika Swapna. When I wake up to my actual

nature, through knowledge, I grow out of Vyavaharika Swapna; I own up my Paramarthika Swarupa, all Papas are gone. Then, 313 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Tarati Shokam: sorrows caused by Papas, in short Samsara is gone for him. This is Jeevanmukti. How long will this be? As long as Prarabdha continues. When it is over, Amritam Bhavati: will get Videha Mukti also; that is becomes one with immortal Brahman. 10. tad etat cbhyuktam: kriyvantas rotriy brahmanihs svaya juhvata ekaim raddhayanta, team evaitm brahma-vidy vadeta irovrata vidhivad yais tu cram. So with previous Verse, Jnana Phalam topic is over. Now here, Upanishad wants to talk about preparatory qualifications required on the part of the student to gain this knowledge. Even the best seed can grow only when the ground is prepared. Similarly though teaching is good, Guru is sowing the seed of Jnanam, which should fructify into the Moksha tree and give Ananda Phalam. But sometimes, the teaching takes place, but Phalam 314 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji does not come. Generally we are very good at blaming others, so we blame Guru, Shastra, everything. Shastra

therefore asks Did you observe the conditions? The mind should have the necessary conditions namely Sadhana Chatustaya Sampathihi, Cittashuddhihi, Chitta Ekagrata, Chitta Vishalatha, and then Chitta Stairyam. Without these, Vedanta, if studied, it will just remain, but only when above conditions are fulfilled, it will begin to click. Here, this Atharvana Veda Upanishad is quoting a Mantra from Rig Veda. Tad Etat Ruchya Abhyuktam: here is what the Rig Mantra says, what is that? That the students must have the following qualifications. 1. Kriyavantaha: Scriptures prescribe certain practices for spiritual growth, Pancha Maha Yagnaha. Even while you fulfil your material desires, you have to allot time for these spiritual disciplines. Such people who practice Karma Yoga are Kriyavantaha. 2. Shrotriyaha: they must study Scriptures. No other Sadhana is valid without this. Without the 315 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji necessary theoretical background what Sadhana can I practice? Without Scriptural study, how will I know where I stand? Do I require Puja, Japa, Dhyana, pilgrimage? What Sadhana do I have to undertake, for how long, when to go to the next

step? Therefore Scriptural study is the first Sadhana, which is unfortunately not emphasized at all! To know the theory first is important in any field. Even in Yoga Shastra, Swadhyaya is prescribed (Shoucha, Santosha, Tapas, Swadhyaya, and Ishwara Pranidhana). First, but unfortunately it is never done. Yogasanas are done without preliminary disciplines. Why Scriptural study is emphasized so much? Because only Scriptures point out that Scriptural growth is as or even more important than material growth and accomplishments. No other book will say that. All others will tell about making money, having a gala time, all Artha, Kama Pradhana life. Dharma and Moksha are talked about only in Scriptures. Only when I study Scriptures, will it remind me, am I giving over importance to material accomplishments and not enough to spiritual accomplishments? So constantly 316 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji some one should remind you about this. This is done through Scriptural study. Brahmanishtaha: committed to the pursuit of Brahma Jnanam. In and through all our other pursuits, remembering that my ultimate goal is Brahman only. In other words, Mumukshavaha. Ekarsham Jahante Swayamshraddhavantaha: certain

special rituals are prescribed for Atharvana Veda students to study Atharvana Veda (like certain special entrance exams). Here is a ritual called Ekarshi ritual. That had to be practiced with faith in efficacy of the ritual. Yaihi Tu Shirovratam Cheernam: this Shirovratam was one other ritual which had to be properly performed. That is why this Upanishad is called Mundaka Upanishad (Mundaka means Shiraha). After the Vratham, this Upanishad had to be studied. Tesham Evam Brahmavida Vadet: only for such students this Upanishad could be taught. Now a days, as it is Kaliyuga, all concessions are given. So we compensate by our prayers Kalou Kalmasha Chittanam, Papa Dravyopajivinam Kriyavihinanam, Gatirgovinda Govinda Kirtanam said by Krisha not in Gita, elsewhere. If you 317 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji cannot perform rituals, at least chant the name of the Lord. It means only those who have purified their mind, to them alone, this teaching is to be given. Next is the concluding Mantra of of the Upanishad. 11. tad etat satyam ir agir purovca, naitad a-cra-vratodhte, nama parama-ibhyo nama parma-ribhya. Rishirangiraha Purovacha: given by the Rishi Angira to the Shishya Shounaka, long long ago. Even though it is the most ancient teaching, it has not become obsolete,

unlike other things. It never becomes outdated, but is ever valid. Tadetat Satyam: it is ever valid even in 21 st century; it can give you peace of mind. But one thing, to give results, one must follow disciplines prescribed. Achirnavratam Na Udhite: without proper preparation by following the necessary disciplines, one will not be able 318 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji to appreciate the teaching in the proper perspective. Instead of developing detachment to other things, one may develop detachment to Vedanta itself. Therefore better you qualify. Having given the required qualifications, Upanishad concludes by offering Namaskara to Rishi Parampara. Namaha Parama Rishibhyaha: our prostrations to our Rishi Parampara. Why? Because they have preserved and propagated this wisdom. You are able to hear because of me, I am able to teach because of my Guru, he because of his Guru and so on. Therefore this teaching survives because of Rishi Parampara only. That is why we say Sadashiva Samarambham Shankaracharya Madhyamam, Asmadacharya Paryantam Onde Guru Paramparam,our

gratitude to the Rishis. This is repeated once again to emphasise the point. Now we will conclude by chanting 319 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji

Om! Bhadram Karnebhih: Shrunuyaama Devaah: Bhadram Pashyemaakshabhir Yajathraah: | Sthirairangai Sthushthuvaagum Sastanoobhih: Yashema Devahitham Yadhaayuh: | Svasthi Na Indhro Vriddhashravaah: Svasthi Nah Pooshaa Vishva Vedaah: | Svasthi Nasthaakshyo Arishtanemih: Summary Today I will give you a summary of Mundaka Upanishad. The Upanishad belonging to Atharvana Veda has three

chapters. Each chapter has two sections, thus there are totally six sections. Each chapter is called a Mundaka and each section has two Khandas. We will see the gist of each section. 320 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji The first section begins with glorification of the teaching to be given. Teaching is going to be of Brahma Vidya, the knowledge of Brahman, and this is glorified by pointing out that this Vidya has been initiated by Brahmaji himself. Therefore it should be a great teaching undoubtedly. Not only that, this teaching started by Brahmaji, has been coming down through the Guru Shishya Parampara, a lineage which is available even now in 21 st century. So it is a most ancient and time tested wisdom. The initiator is great, the wisdom is ancient and it is this wisdom which makes all other knowledge meaningful or purposeful. Any other science is validated only when it ultimately leads to Brahma Vidya. It is one science which validates all other sciences. Without this science, the others are all useless; (Sarva Vidya Pratishta), just like any number of zeroes are validated only by a number preceding them. Similarly all your education, if it does not culminate in Brahman, is useless according to Scriptures. So thus in first three Verses, brahma Vidya is glorified. In

next part of the first section, teacher gives the whole teaching in a nut shell, an overview of the whole teaching that is going to come, just like in Bhagawad Gita, the second chapter gives the gist of the entire Gita, here, this section gives the entire teaching (4 th to 9 th Mantras). 321 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Teaching is given in the form of a dialogue between Shounaka, the disciple and Angiras, the Guru. Shounaka asks the question What is it, by knowing which; everything in the creation is understood? To this, the teacher answers by pointing out that, only by knowing the Mula Karanam of this creation, that is the absolute cause of the universe, everything is known. There is one basic principle. What is it? The one cause alone manifests in different forms of effects. Gold alone manifests in the form of different ornaments. Eka Karanameva Aneka Karya Rupena Bhati. Since Karanam alone appears as many Karyas, Eka Karana Vijnanena Aneka Karya Vijnanam Bhavati. Therefore, teacher wants to give the Karanam that is called Aksharam

here. Therefore Brahma Vijnanena Sarva Vijnanam Bhavati. Then teacher gives the definition of Brahman, yat tad adreyam, agrhyam, agotram, avaram, acaku-rotra tad api-padam, nityam vibhum sarva-gata suskma tad avyayam yad bhta-yonim paripayanti dhr 322 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji The nature of Brahman is brilliantly described by the teacher and says this Brahman is the cause of the universe, by knowing which, you have understood everything. He goes on to say that this Brahman is such a wonderful cause, that it is both the intelligent and material cause. Normally when an ornament is made, the intelligent cause namely gold smith is different from the material cause namely gold. Normally the material world of ours, this is the case. But Upanishad points out, in the case of universe, both the technically Abinna Nimitta Upadana Karanam is Brahma. By knowing this Brahman, Sarvam Vijanatam Bhavati. To convey this idea, the teacher gives the example of the spider. It happens to be a unique case where it is itself the maker and material for the web it creates. Similarly Bhagawan is comparable to that. The knowledge of this Brahman is called para Vidya or higher knowledge and all other knowledge comes under Apara Vidya or inferior knowledge. So both Para Vidya and Apara

Vidya are introduced. This is the essence of the first section. The following Mantras are worth noting and getting by heart. 323 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji aunako ha vai mahalogirasa vidhivad upasanna papraccha, kasmin nu bhagavo vijte sarvam ida vijtam bhavati iti. This is the first basic question which is the foundation of the whole Upanishad. yat tad adreyam, agrhyam, agotram, avaram, acaku-rotra tad api-padam, nityam vibhum sarva-gata suskma tad avyayam yad bhta-yonim paripayanti dhr. This is the definition of Brahman. 324 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji yathora-nbhi sjate ghate ca, yath pthivaym oadhayas sambhavanti, yath sata purut kealomni tathkart sambhavatha vivam. Second Section Here the teacher concentrates on Apara Vidya, all material sciences. All material sciences can be represented by two groups, Karmas, all actions including rituals and Upasanas which are all types of meditation. The teacher talks about both the positive and negative points of both Karmas and Upasanas. If they are practiced, they can give two types of results. Firstly, if practiced with material desires (Sakamataya), they give finite results by fulfilling material desires not only for this Janma but also future Janmas and

give different Lokas. Upasana can give the result of going to higher Lokas. If they are practiced without any material desire, but only as a service to others or Ishawara Preethyartham, they produce purification of mind and inner growth. Moral values get promoted, unhealthy mental traits will diminish, virtuous mind develops, and that is Chitta Shuddhihi. On the negative side, Karma and Upasana done whether with or without desires, can never produce knowledge or liberation. Upto a particular level, they help, but can never give Brahma Vidya. Therefore they are not the cause of 325 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Moksha. Even so, by producing purification of mind, they help me to come to Moksha. So naturally, the question is, if Karma and Upasana cannot produce knowledge, then what can produce knowledge? For that, the answer is, only Guru, Shastra Sravanam will produce knowledge. Systematic study of Scriptures, for a length of time, under the guidance of a competent Guru alone will give knowledge. This is called Jnana Yoga. Karma and Upasana can prepare one for Jnana Yoga, but cannot replace Jnana Yoga. Therefore, teacher elaborately talks about Karma and Upasanas upto eleventh Mantra. Then in twelth and thirteenth Mantras, teacher advises, all of you should practice Karmas and Upasanas, first with material desires,

nothing wrong; one need not feel guilty. Veda allows Sakama Karma and Upasana initially. When you go through them, sooner or later, you will discover the limitations of those material pleasures. The biggest limition is they are all subject to loss one day or other. When they are lost, they produce pain/sorrow directly proportional to the pleasure they gave. So they are all potential sources of sorrow. This you discover by getting enough kicks. Once you have understood this, 326 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji what will you do? Again continue Karma and Upasana, but instead of Sakama, switch to Nishkama. Continue going to temple, but instead of asking for money, possessions, pleasure etc, ask for Jnana and Vairagya. Then third phase is, drop or minimize both Karma and Upasana, and dedicate your life to Brahma Vichara. So this shifting of priorities in life is highlighted in the Mantra twelve which is the most important Mantra in the Upanishad. parkya lokn karmancitn brhmao nirvedam yn nsty aktah ktena, tad vijnrtha sa gurum evbhigacchet samit-pi rotriyam brahma-niham. So, go to a teacher, surrender to him, learn Brahma Vidya and get liberation. So these are the topics of the second section. Third Section 327

MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Teacher introduces Para Vidya, which alone is the central theme of the Upanishad. The whole third section deals with this main topic, and the fourth section also deals with it. In this section, as part of Para Vidya, teacher introduces Brahman as the cause of the universe. How the entire universe arises out of Brahman is elaborated in nine Mantras (Srushti Prakarana). How does creation come? First, five subtle elements come (invisible). From them, subtle universe is born which includes all our minds, senses, Pancha Pranas, Sukshma Sharira etc. Then gross elements and all gross bodies are born out of Brahman, not only that, both Chara and Achara, sensient and insentient, all are born out of Brahman. Even Scriptures originate from Brahman alone. They are not born out of human intellect. Thus in tenth Mantra, the conclusion is given which is the most important thing. That Brahman is Karana, Prapancha is Karyam, and if Brahman is Karanam and world is Karyam, the important corollary is, there is no world at all other than Brahman, like there is no ornament without 328 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji gold. There is no substance in the ornament or creation but only name and form. Substance is Brahman alone, gold

alone. So all products have only verbal existence (Sarvesham Karyanam Nama Matra Satta). Therefore teacher says, the whole world being a product is nothing but verbal. There is no substance called space, no substance called air, no substance called fire, water or earth. They are all words and forms only, substance being Brahman alone. But you say, Swamiji, you say they are not there, but they are so tangible! The tangibility does not belong to the effect; it always belongs to the cause! When I say desk is big or heavy, these characters belong to wood alone and not to the desk which is only name and form. The tangibility of the world belongs to Brahman, and there is and will be only Brahman. In between we introduce a word and we ourselves withdraw the word. Therefore the essence of the teaching is Sarvam Brahmamayam Jagat. This is conveyed in the tenth Mantra which is most important in this section. 329 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 11. purua eveda viva karma tapo brahma parmtam, etad yo veda nihita guhy sovidy-granthi vikiratha, saumya. By teaching this, the teacher has answered the students question also. So what was the students question? What is that, by knowing which, everything is known? The teacher has answered By knowing one Brahman, you

have known the whole creation. All this is Brahman with name and form only. This is the essence of the third section. Important Mantras are: 330 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 2. tad etat satyam: yath sudptt pvakd visphulig sahasraa prabhavante sarp, tathkard vividh, saumya, bhv prajyante tatra caivpi yanti. This point out that Brahman is Srishti Stithi Laya Karanam with an example of fire and sparks. 3. divyo hy amrta puruah sa bhybhyantaro hy aja, apro hy aman ubhro akart paratah para. This is a beautiful definition of Brahman very often quoted by Shankaracharya and even taken for analysis in Brahma Sutras. 331 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 12. purua eveda viva karma tapo brahma parmtam, etad yo veda nihita guhy sovidy-granthi vikiratha, saumya. This is also important because idea to be derived is given. Fourth Section The topic of para Vidya continues. How can one recognize that Brahman? How can one know the karana, when Karyas are there in front of me? Suppose ornaments are there in front of me. How to

discern gold? Very simple. Gold is that which is permanent even when ornaments are subject to arrival and departure. So you have to look for some permanent feature. Gold the Karanam is in which ornament? In every ornament gold is there. Look for that which is permanent. Look for that which is all pervading, in and through all ornaments and what do you find? Gold alone. Though ornaments are many, gold is one. 332 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji So if you have to discern the Karanam, these are to be noted. It is Ekam, Nityam and Sarvagatam where as names are Anekan, Anityam and Alpagatam. Discard the name and form and discern that which is Ekam Nityam Sarvagatam which is Karanam Brahma. In this creation, there is only one thing, which fits into these. When I see a wall, I say there is a wall, similarly there is a man, there is a table etc. IS is common to all. Everything IS. Therefore existence is Ekam, existence is Sarvagatam and existence is Nityam. Even if you break a pot, pieces are there, and then mud is there, and so on. Previously it was pot is, now it is mud is. So Brahman is Sat. So how to discern Brahman? In the form of Sat. Where?

Ask a counter question. Where is it not? So if it is everywhere, it has to be in me also. So, what is that, which is permanent in me? For sometime I said I was a boy, then a youth, then old. Body is changing, emotions are changing. What is there permanently in me? 333 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji Only one thing, the witness consciousness which is aware of all the changes, is the only permanent thing in me. That I am consciousness is always there. Therefore, Upanishad says, the Sat Brahmna is present in you as the witness or Atma. Therefore Brahmaiva Chit Atma. So know Brahman as the I, the consciousness principle. What I am conscious of is Karyam, the I is spiriti/consciousness or Karanam. This knowledge is called Jeevatma Paramatma Aikyam. So this is the central theme and most important part of this section. Teacher incidentally introduces one more topic, that is the type of mind required to know this knowledge. Whatever preparations an archer requires to shoot an arrow are required here too. They are: 1. Lakshya Nirnaya: target must be clear. 2. Until I strike the target, my mind should be focused on that. That is concentration or focusing. 3. Withdrawal from all other distractions. 4. Arrow must be sharp and fine. 5. Arrow must be straight.

Similarly for success in Vedanta, the goal in life must be clear. That Brahman is the goal, must be clear. One may marry, earn money, get children etc etc, 334 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji but in and through all that, the goal of Moksha must be very clear. Dont be distracted by worldly pursuits. Develop a sharp and subtle mind as the topic is subtle. Above all one must be honest and straightforward. One, who is not morally upright, will never succeed in Brahma Vidya. Most important is the bow which is compared to the Scriptures. Just as the bow helps the arrow in reaching the target, Scriptures help us to reach Brahman, the target. All this is brilliantly conveyed through the archery example. Fourth section has four important Mantras. praavo dhanu, aro hy tm, brahma tal lakyam ucyate, apramattena veddhavyam, aravat tanmayo bhavet. 335 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji hiramaye pare koe viraja brahma nikaram tac chubhra jyoti jyoti tad yad tma-vido vidu. This tells about the benefits of knowledge and is often quoted. na tatra sryo bhti, na candra-trakam, nem vidyuto bhnti, kutoyam agni,

tam eva bhntam anubhti sarvam, tasya bhs sarvam, ida vibhti. This is another popular Mantra. brahmaivedam amtam purastd brahma, pacad brahma, dakinata cottarea, adhacordhva ca prastam brahmaiveda vivam ida variham. 336 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji It says that there is nothing other than Brahman. An ignorant man says there are waves, whereas an intelligent one says there is water. Fifth Section Summarises Brahma Vidya and talks about Sadhanas. It highlights moral values. Without moral values, study of philosophy is uttely useless. The value of Satyam or truthfulness is emphasized. Brahma Vidya is also summarized through the example of two birds. One is the Jivatma bird and another is the Paramatma bird, the difference between them being ignorance when Jivatma bird recognizes the Paramatma bird, there is no difference between them. One bird eats the fruit; he is the Kartah Bhaktha because of Dehabhimana. Once Abhimana is given up, Jeevatma owns up his true nature, that is Paramatma. Brahma Vidya Saraha and Sdhanas are given. Important Mantras are: 337 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji dv supar sayuj sakhy samna vkam pariasvajte

tayor anya pippala svdv attyananann anyobhicakati. bhac ca tad divyam acintya-rpa skmc ca tat skma-tara vibhati, drt sudre tad ihntike ca payatsv ihaiva nihitam guhym. This gives definition of Brahma once again. Sixth Section Here preparatory disciplines are highlighted and the benefits of this knowledge are talked about. Highlighting of values continues in this section also, importance given to intense urge for freedom (Teevra Mumukshatvam). Casual approach is not of much benefit. Benefit is in the form of Jeevanmukthi, inner freedom even while alive. I am free from the tryrrany of my own mind like depression, anxiety etc. and Videha Mukti, one is free from Punarjanma. Important Mantras are: 338 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji vednt-vijna-sunicitrth sanysa-yogd yataya uddhasttv, te brahma-lokeu parntakle part parimucyanti sarve. This is chanted when a Sanyasi comes. yath nadyas syandamns samudre astam gacchanti nma-rpe vihya, tath vidvn nma-rpd vimukta part-param puruam upaiti divyam. Analogy of rivers merging into ocean given. 339 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 10. sa yo ha vai tat paramam brahma veda brahmaiva bhavati, nsybrahma-vit kule bhavati,

tarati oka tarati ppmna guh-granthibhyo vimuktomto bhavati. One who knows Brahman becomes Brahman. So this is a complete Upanishad, where the teaching, Sadhana and benefits are beautifully presented. The examples of spider, archery and two birds on a tree are unique to this Upanishad. It is called Mundaka because of a splendid Vratham called Shirovratham to be practiced by students of Atharvana Veda. 340 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 341 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 342 MUNDAKA UPANISHAD by Swami Paramarthanandaji 343