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Brenda Hoddinott

G-03 BEGINNER: SHADING FORMS


In this project, you draw a silly cartoon face that looks like a big fat nose! This project is divided into the following four sections: INTRODUCTION: Drawings often appear more three-dimensional when you use a full range of values. In addition, your drawings can appear flat if you use too little contrast in values. So, a word to the wise - unless you are trying to achieve a specific mood or want the subject to look flat, always use a full range of values. OUTLINING CIRCULAR SHAPES: Find your drawing supplies and draw along with me as I take you step-by-step through the process of sketching three circular shapes. Dont worry if your circles look more like kidneys! TRANSFORMING CIRCLES INTO SPHERES: You use contour hatching to add shading to the three spheres that define Smellys three-dimensional facial forms. By drawing your light values first, you can then layer your dark shading on top of your light shading. This layering creates a nice smooth transition between different values, called graduations. ADDING TWO EYES AND A MOUTH TO A NOSE: After a review of the names of the parts of an eye, you draw the two eyes above the nose and add a mouth below. Suggested drawing supplies include drawing paper, various grades of graphite pencils, kneaded and vinyl erasers, a pencil sharpener, and a sandpaper block. This article is recommended for both experienced and aspiring artists of all ages, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators.

11 PAGES 27 ILLUSTRATIONS

Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada, 2003 (Revised 2006)

INTRODUCTION
Drawings appear more three-dimensional when you use a full range of values. Values are the different shades of gray created in a drawing, by various means, such as varying both the density of the shading lines, and the pressure used in holding your pencils. In addition, your drawings can appear flat if you use too little contrast in values. Contrast measures the degree of difference between the light and dark values within shading. Shading refers to the various shades of gray (values) in a drawing that make the subjects appear three-dimensional. So, a word to the wise - unless you are trying to achieve a specific mood or want the subject to look flat, always use a full range of values.
ILLUSTRATION 03-01

Examine this illustration of the final drawing and note the following: The light source is from the upper right. Light source refers to the direction from which a dominant light originates. From the highlight (which is usually left the white of the paper), the shading begins with very light values and then gets darker. A highlight is the brightest area of an object; usually, the section that is closest to the light source. Medium and dark values are used in those areas that receive less light, such as those surfaces that are closer to or in the shadowed areas.

OUTLINING CIRCULAR SHAPES


Find your drawing supplies and draw along with me as I take you step-by-step through the process of sketching three circular shapes.
ILLUSTRATION 03-02

1.

With an HB pencil, lightly sketch a circle in the middle section of your drawing space. Dont worry if your circle looks more like a kidney! The bad news is: no lesson can teach how to draw a circle. The good news is: practice is a fantastic teacher. As you sketch, try rotating your paper and looking at your drawing from different perspectives. This little trick often allows you insight into the problem areas. Looking at the reflection of your circle in a mirror will also help you to see areas in need of fixing.

Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

ILLUSTRATION 03-03

2.

Draw two smaller circles slightly below and on either side of the big circle. Observe that a portion of each of the smaller circles is drawn inside the big circle.

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3.

Use your vinyl eraser to erase the sections of the small circles that are inside the big circle. Observe that the big circle now appears to be in front of (overlaps) the smaller circles.

4.

Pat all your lines with your kneader eraser until you can barely see them.

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5.

Add neat crisp lines to redefine your circle shapes. Use an HB or 2B pencil. You can draw these circles (or kidney shapes if you wish) freehand. However, its perfectly ok to use a compass or some other tool to help you draw circles.

6.

Use your kneaded eraser to lighten the two curved lines that separate the three circles.

Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

ILLUSTRATION 03-06

7.

Draw a curved line in the lower inside section of each of the smaller circles. If this was a nose (grin) these would be the openings of the nostrils.

TRANSFORMING CIRCLES INTO SPHERES


In this section, you use contour hatching to create three dimensional spheres on a two dimensional drawing surface! Many artists prefer to work from light to dark. By drawing your light values first (with your HB pencil), you can then layer your dark shading on top of your light shading (with your 4B). This layering creates a nice smooth transition between different values, called graduations. A graduation, also called graduated shading or graduated values, is a continuous progression of values, from dark to light or light to dark. The goal of graduated shading is to keep the transitions between the different values flowing smoothly into one another, as in this illustration. 8. Use various pencils and curved hatching lines, to add light, medium, and dark values (the shadow areas) to the large sphere.
ILLUSTRATION 03-07

The curved hatching lines follow the curves of the circle shape. Hatching is a series of lines (called a set) drawn closely together to give the illusion of values. Note that the highlight is left the white of the paper. The shading graduates down from the highlight towards the lower right of the sphere. The values begin light (close to the highlight) and become dark and then light again close to the lower right edge of the sphere.

Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

ILLUSTRATION 03-08

The tiny rim of light at the bottom edge is called reflected light. Remember to let your pencils from light (HB) to dark (4B) do a lot of the work in drawing values. You only need to decide where to place all your values.
ILLUSTRATION 03-09

9.

Use the same shading technique you used for the large sphere, to shade in the smaller sphere on the right.
ILLUSTRATION 03-10

Pay close attention to the shading on the lower left, which indicates the nostril. 10. Shade in the small circle on the left, in the same way as the one on the right. Refer to the two illustrations on the following page. The overall values of this circle are much darker than the other.
Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

ILLUSTRATION 03-11

11.

Draw the cast shadow on the sphere on the left. Keep in mind, that a full range of values gives contrast between the light and shadow areas. The cast shadow is on the upper right surface of this small sphere. The shading in the cast shadow is darker closer to the largest sphere and becomes gradually lighter as it moves outward.

ILLUSTRATION 03-12

Before you continue on to the next section, step back from your drawing and have a look at the overall values. You may need to make some areas lighter (by patting with your kneaded eraser) and others darker (by drawing more hatching lines).

Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

ADDING TWO EYES AND A MOUTH TO A NOSE


In this section you draw the two eyes above the nose and add a mouth below. Before you continue, take a couple of minutes to make sure you are familiar with these terms: 1. Upper eyelid is a movable fold of skin that opens and closes to protect the eyeball. 2. Pupil is the dark circle inside the iris, which adjusts its size to different lighting conditions.
ILLUSTRATION 03-13

3. Eyelashes are fine hairs that grow from the outer edges of the upper and lower eyelids. 4. Highlight is a bright spot that defines where light bounces off the surface of the eye. 5. Iris is the colored circular shape (surrounding the pupil) of the eye. 6. White of the eye (sometimes called the eyeball) is the largest spherical section of the eye that is light in value (but not really white).
ILLUSTRATION 03-14

12.

Draw two oval-shapes on top of the large circle. These circular shapes represent the outlines of the eyes. Take note that the bottom edge of each oval seems to be behind the large circle.
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13.

Draw a curved line above each eye to represent the eyelids.


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14.

Use a curved line to complete the outline of the iris in the top section of each eye.

Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

15. 16.

Add the outline of a small circle inside each iris to represent the pupils of the eyes. Draw a tiny circle inside the upper right section of each pupil (as highlights).
ILLUSTRATION 03-17 ILLUSTRATION 03-18

17. 18.

Fill in the pupil of each eye with your 6B pencil. Add shading to the irises. Use your HB pencil to completely fill in the iris with a middle value. Then use the point of your kneaded eraser to gently pat the shading on the side of the circle opposite the highlight until it becomes a light value. Shade in the dark areas of the irises with your 4B pencil. The darkest areas of irises are usually on the same side as the highlight.
ILLUSTRATION 03-19 ILLUSTRATION 03-20

ILLUSTRATION 03-21

19.

Add shading to the eyelids (HB pencil) and the whites of the eyes (2H pencil). Take note that the shading is darker on the left.

Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

ILLUSTRATION 03-22

20.

Draw three eyelashes on each eye. Each eyelash curves downward from the outer edges of the eyelids, and then curls slightly upward.

21.

Add a mouth, centered below the large circle and in between and below the two smaller circles.

The longest curved line outlines the lower section of the upper lip, and has a smaller curved line on each end. The opening of the mouth, the curved line below the upper lip is a U-shape. The short curved line below the opening of the mouth is the bottom edge of the lower lip.
ILLUSTRATION 03-23 ILLUSTRATION 03-24

ILLUSTRATION 03-25

22.

Use a 6B pencil to shade in the opening of the mouth.


ILLUSTRATION 03-26

23.

Shade in the lower lip with an HB pencil. Leave a tiny white section (called a highlight) on the right side of the lower lip.

Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

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24.

Add final touches to your drawing, if needed. Pat sections that are too dark with your kneaded eraser to lighten. To make a section darker, simply draw more hatching lines in between others.
ILLUSTRATION 03-27

Use your vinyl eraser to clean up any smudges or fingerprints on your drawing paper. Put todays date on the page, sign your name and pat yourself on the back!

Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

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BRENDA HODDINOTT
As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist (retired), and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including her favorites: graphite and paint. Brenda is the author of Drawing for Dummies (2003, Wiley Publishing, Inc., New York, NY) and The Complete Idiots Guide to Drawing People (Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN). She is currently writing two books on classical drawing.

My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable.
>Brenda Hoddinott<

Born in St. Johns, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong drawing and painting skills through self-directed learning. During her twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, various criminal investigation departments have employed Brendas skills, including the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from Forensic Artists International. In 2003, Brenda retired from her careers as a forensic artist and teacher to work full time writing books and developing her website (Drawspace.com). This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world.

Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com