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Chemistry 130

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Section 1.2 experiment: observation of nat ra! phenomena carrie" o t in contro!!e" manner so res !ts can be " p!icate" an" rationa! conc! sions can be ma"e !a#: concise statement of f n"amenta! re!ationship or re$ !arity of nat re hypothesis: tentative exp!anation of some re$ !arity of nat re theory: teste" exp!anation of basic nat re phenomenon o cannot be comp!ete!y proven scientific metho": $enera! process of a"vancin$ scientific %no#!e"$e Section 1.3 mass: & antity of matter matter: #hatever occ pies space an" is perceivab!e by senses !a# of conservation of mass: 'the tota! mass remains constant " rin$ a chemica! chan$e( #ei$ht: force of $ravity exerte" on ob)ect Section 1.4 t#o princip!e #ays of c!assifyin$ matter o physica! state *$as+ !i& i"+ so!i", o chemica! constit tion *e!ement+ compo n"+ mixt re, compressibi!ity/expansibi!ity "efine states vapor: $aseo s form of matter that norma!!y exists as !i& i" or so!i" physica! chan$e: chan$e in form of matter+ b t not chemica! i"entity o "isso!vin$

o "isti!!ation chemica! chan$e/reaction: chan$e in #hich one or more forms of matter are chan$e" in one or more ne# %in"s of matter o r stin$ physica! property: characteristic that can be observe" #/o chan$in$ chemica! i"entity chemica! property: characteristic invo!vin$ chemica! chan$e s bstance: matter that cannot be separate" f rther by physica! process o a!#ays has same characteristic properties mixt re: materia! that can be separate" f rther by physica! process o most materia!s o has variab!e composition o t#o types hetero$eneo s mixt re: mixt re #/ physica!!y "istinct parts+ each #ith "istinct properties homo$eneo s mixt re *so! tion,: mixt re niform in properties thro $ho t $iven samp!es

Section 1. nit: fixe" stan"ar" of meas rement precision: c!oseness of set va! es obtaine" from simi!ar meas rements of i"entica! & antity acc racy: c!oseness of sin$!e meas rement to tr e va! e si$nificant fi$ res: "i$its in meas rement or ca!c !ation that inc! "e a!! certain "i$its an" fina! "i$it #/ some ncertainty n mber of si$nificant fi$ res: n mber of "i$its reporte" for meas rement or ca!c !ation+ in"icatin$ precision o r !es for co ntin$ on p. 16 o r !es for ca!c !ations on p. 16

scientific notation: representation of n mber in ./100n exact n mber: n mber that arises #hen co ntin$ items or "efinin$ nits ro n"in$: proce" re of "roppin$ insi$nificant "i$its in ca!c !ation Section 1.8 "imensiona! ana!ysis *factor1!abe! metho",: metho" of ca!c !ation #hich carries a!on$ nits of & antities conversion factor: factor e& a! to 1 that converts to & antity expresse" in nit to & antity expresse" in another nit

Chemistry 130

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Section 2.1 atomic theory: 2a!ton3s exp!anation of str ct re of matter as "ifferent combinations of very sma!! partic!es o a!! matter is compose" of in"ivisib!e atoms atom: extreme!y sma!! partic!e of matter that retains its i"entity " rin$ chemica! reaction o an e!ement is compose" of on!y one type of atom+ #/ each atom havin$ simi!ar properties o a compo n" is compose" of t#o or more e!ements chemica!!y combine" in fixe" proportions o a chemica! reaction is rearran$ement of atoms in reactin$ s bstances to pro" ce ne# combinations in forme" s bstances atomic symbo!: one or t#o !etter notation se" to "esi$nate a partic !ar e!ement !a# of m !tip!e proportions: statement that #hen t#o e!ements form more than one compo n"+ then masses of one e!ement for fixe" mass of other e!ement are in ratios of sma!! n mbers Section 2.2 n c!e s: atom3s centra! core+ #hich is positive!y char$e" an" constit te most mass e!ectron: very !i$ht+ ne$ative!y char$e" partic!e o tsi"e the n c!e s 4homson catho"e experiment o sho#e" atoms #ere not in"ivisib!e o bent beams 5 therfor" $o!" foi! experiment o some of the a!pha partic!es "ef!ecte" bac% o n c!e s is very sma!!+ so most partic!es #ent thro $h Section 2.3 n c!e s consists of both protons an" ne trons atomic n mber: n mber of protons in atom

proton: n c!ear partic!e that has positive char$e e& a! in ma$nit "e to e!ectron+ b t has 1800 times more mass e!ement: s bstance #hose atoms a!! have same atomic n mber ne tron: n c!ear partic!e #/ no char$e+ b t mass e& a! to proton mass n mber: tota! n mber of protons an" ne trons in atom n c!i"e: atom characteri6e" by atomic n mber an" mass isotopes: atoms #hose n c!ei have same atomic n mber+ b t varyin$ masses Section 2.4 2a!ton act a!!y co nte" avera$e atomic mass+ b/c of isotopes o !imite" #/o mass spectrometer atomic mass nit *am ,: mass nit e& a! to 1/12 mass of carbon1 12 atom atomic mass: avera$e atomic mass fractiona! ab n"ance: fraction of tota! n mber of atoms of partic !ar isotope o can "etermine atomic mass of e!ement Section 2. 7en"e!eev an" 7eyer fo n" in"epen"ent!y that e!ements co !" be or$ani6e" by atomic mass 89 not comp!ete!y tr e perio"ic tab!e: tab !ar arran$ement of e!ements in ro#s an" co! mns+ #hich "emonstrates repetition of properties o or$ani6e" by atomic n mber perio": hori6onta! ro# on perio"ic tab!e $ro p: vertica! ro# on perio"ic tab!e o main1$ro p/representative o transition

o inner1transition !anthani"es actini"es e!ements in same $ro p have simi!ar properties meta!: s bstance that has characteristic ! ster an" acts #e!! as con" ctor of heat an" e!ectricity nonmeta!: e!ement that "oes not exhibit meta! characteristics meta!!oi"/semimeta!: e!ement #/ both meta! an" nonmeta! properties Section 2.6 chemica! form !a: notation sin$ atomic symbo!s #/ n meric s bscripts to convey proportion of e!ements in s bstance mo!ec !e: "efinite $ro p of chemica!!y bon"e" atoms o mo!ec !ar s bstance: s bstance consistin$ of a!i%e mo!ec !es mo!ec !ar form !a: exact n mber of e!ement in mo!ec !e mo!ec !es are not pi!e" ran"om!y 89 str ct ra! form !a po!ymer: very !ar$e mo!ec !e ma"e of sma!!er mo!ec !es !in%e" to$ether monomer: sma!! mo!ec !e !in%e" to$ether to form po!ymer po!ymers are important+ as they are se" "ai!y ion: e!ectronica!!y char$e" partic!e obtaine" from atom or $ro p of atoms by a""in$/removin$ e!ectrons o anion 89 ne$ative!y char$e" o cation 89 positive!y char$e" ionic compo n": compo n" compose" of cations an" anions form !a nit: $ro p of atoms or ions exp!icit!y symbo!i6e"

Section 2.: or$anic compo n": s bstance containin$ carbon #/ other e!ement hy"rocarbon: compo n"s containin$ on!y hy"ro$en an" carbon f nctiona! $ro p: reactive portion of mo!ec !e that n"er$oes pre"ictab!e reactions Section 2.8 chemica! nomenc!at re: systematic namin$ of chemica! compo n"s inor$anic compo n"s: compo n"s #/o carbon monatomic ion: ion forme" from sin$!e atom po!yatomic ion: ion consistin$ of t#o or more atoms chemica!!y bon"e" to$ether an" carryin$ e!ectric char$e oxoaci": aci" containin$ hy"ro$en+ oxy$en+ an" another e!ement hy"rate: compo n" that contains #ater bo n" as crysta!s Section 2.9 chemica! e& ation: symbo!ic representation of chemica! reaction in terms of chemica! form !as o reactant/pro" ct

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Section 3.1 mo!ec !ar #ei$ht *7;,: s m of atomic #ei$hts of a!! atoms in mo!ec !e of s bstance 89 mo!ec !ar compo n" o ex. #ater 89 2*1,<16 89 18 am o can be "etermine" #/ mass spectrometer form !a #ei$ht *=;,: s m of atomic #ei$hts of a!! atoms in form !a nit of compo n" 89 ionic compo n" Section 3.2 mo!e *mo!,: & antity of $iven s bstance that contains as many mo!ec !es or form !a nits as n mbers of atoms in 12 $ of C112 o #o !" ta%e far too !on$ to co nt mo!ec !es o .vo$a"ro3s n mber *>.,: n mber of atoms in 12 $ samp!e of C112+ #hich is 6.02x1023 simi!ar to ho# "o6en is 12 an" $ross is 144 mo!ar mass: mass of one mo!e of s bstance+ #hich is e& a! to form !a #ei$ht o ex. C112 has mo!ar mass of 12 $/mo! percenta$e composition: mass percenta$es of each e!ement in compo n" o can "etermine mo!ec !ar form !a thro $h mo!ec !ar #ei$ht Section 3.3 mass percenta$e: parts of . per h n"re" parts of tota!+ by mass o mass ? . 8 *mass of .,/*mass of #ho!e, x 100? o ex. 1 mo! of C@2A has mass of 30 $ C@2A has 1 mo!e of C+ 2 mo!es of @+ an" 1 mo!e of A mass ? C 8 12/30 x 100? 8 40? mass ? @ 8 2/30 x 100? 8 6.:3?

mass ? A 8 16/30 x 100? 8 -3.3? if $iven mass of compo n"+ can ca!c !ate mass of parts Section 3. empirica! form !a *simp!est form !a,: form !a of s bstance #ritten #ith sma!!est inte$er s bscripts o same as form !a of compo n" for ionic compo n"s o "ifferent from form !a of compo n" for mo!ec !ar compo n"s @2A2 89 @A o may have "ifferent str ct res+ b t same percenta$e composition o n 8 *mo!ec !ar #ei$ht,/*empirica! form !a #ei$ht, stoichiometry: ca!c !ation of & antities of reactants an" pro" cts invo!ve" in chemica! reaction Section 3.8 !imitin$ reactant *!imitin$ rea$ent,: reactant entire!y cons me" #hen reaction $oes to comp!etion o excess reactant 89 not comp!ete!y cons me" o mo!es of pro" ct "etermine" by mo!es of !imitin$ reactant theoretica! yie!": maxim m amo nt of pro" ct obtainab!e from reaction b/c of $iven amo nts of reactants o act a! yie!" may be m ch !ess some pro" ct may be !ost " rin$ process of separatin$ from reaction mixt re other competin$ reactions may occ r many reactions stop before comp!etion percenta$e yie!": act a! yie!" expresse" as percenta$e of theoretica! yie!" o percenta$e yie!" 8 *act a! yie!",/*theoretica! yie!", x 100?

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Section 4.1 ionic theory of so! tions 89 certain s bstances pro" ce free!y movin$ ions #hen "isso!ve" in #ater+ an" these ions con" ct e!ectricity in so! tion o e!ectro!yte: s bstance that "isso!ves in #ater as e!ectrica!!y con" ctin$ so! tion ionic so!i"s that "isso!ve in #ater 89 >aC! not a!! ionic+ some mo!ec !ar 89 @C! o noe!ectro!yte: s bstance that "isso!ve" in #ater to $ive noncon" ctin$ or very poor!y con" ctin$ so! tion ex. C12@22A11 con" ction of e!ectro!yte o stron$ e!ectro!yte: e!ectro!yte that exists in so! tion a!most entire!y as ions 89 more ions to con" ct most!y ionic so!i"s o #ea% e!ectro!yte: e!ectro!yte that "isso!ves in #ater to $ive re!ative!y sma!! percenta$e of ions most!y mo!ec !ar s bstances so! bi!ity: abi!ity to "isso!ve in #ater o so! b!e: "isso!ve rea"i!y in #ater o inso! b!e: !imite" so! bi!ities Section 4.2 mo!ec !ar e& ation: chemica! e& ation in #hich reactants an" pro" cts are #ritten as mo!ec !ar s bstances+ even tho $h they may exist in so! tion o exp!icit abo t reactant so! tions an" pro" cts ionic e& ation 89 "etai!s #hat3s happenin$ at !eve! of ions comp!ete ionic e& ation: chemica! e& ation in #hich stron$ e!ectro!ytes are #ritten as separate ions in so! tion o represents s bstances in pre"ominant forms in reaction

Section

spectator ion: ion in ionic e& ation that "oes not ta%e part in reaction net ionic e& ation: ionic e& ation from #hich spectator ions have been cance!e" 4.3 types of reactions o precipitation reactions o aci"1base reactions o oxi"ation1re" ction reactions precipitate: inso! b!e so!i" compo n" forme" " rin$ chemica! reaction in so! tion o nee" so! bi!ity r !es to "etermine

exchan$e *metathesis, reaction: reaction b/# compo n"s that+ #hen #ritten as mo!ec !ar e& ation+ appears to invo!ve exchan$e of parts b/# t#o reactants Section 4.4 aci"s an" bases are e!ectro!ytes aci"1base in"icator: "ye se" to "istin$ ish b/# aci"ic an" basic so! tions by means of co!or chan$es they n"er$o in so! tions .rreheni s "efinitions o aci": s bstance that pro" ces @< #hen "isso!ve" in #ater o base: s bstance that pro" ces A@1 #hen "isso!ve" in #ater Bronste"/Co#ry "efinitions o proton1transfer reactions aci": species that "onates proton to another species in proton1transfer reaction base: species that accepts proton in proton1transfer reaction aci"/base stren$th

o stron$ aci": aci" that ioni6es comp!ete!y in #ater an" is stron$ e!ectro!yte @C!A4 @2SA4 @D @Br @C! @>A3 o #ea% aci": aci" that part!y ioni6es in #ater an" is #ea% e!ectro!yte @C> @= o stron$ base: base that present in so! tion entire!y as ions an" is stron$ e!ectro!yte CiA@ >aA@ EA@ Ca*A@, 2 Sr*A@, 2 Ba*A@, 2 o #ea% base: base part!y ioni6e" in #ater an" is #ea% e!ectro!yte ne tra!i6ation reaction: reaction of aci" an" base that res !ts in ionic compo n" an" possib!y #ater o pro" ct 89 sa!t monoprotic aci"s: aci"s #/ on!y one aci"ic @ per mo!ec !e

po!yprotic aci": aci" that yie!" t#o or more aci" @ per mo!ec !e aci" sa!ts: sa!ts #/ aci"ic @ an" can n"er$o ne tra!i6ation Section 4. oxi"ation n mber *oxi"ation state,: act a! char$e of atom as monatomic or hypothetica! char$e assi$ne" to atom by simp!e r !es oxi"ation1re" ction reaction *re"ox reaction,: reaction in #hich e!ectrons are transferre" b/# species or atoms chan$e oxi"ation n mber o oxi"i6ation 89 increase" oxi"ation n mber o re" ction 89 "ecease" oxi"ation n mber ha!f1reaction: one of t#o parts of oxi"ation1re" ction reaction+ one part !osin$ e!ectrons an" other $ainin$ e!ections o oxi"ation 89 !osin$ e!ectrons o re" ction 89 $ainin$ e!ectrons oxi"i6in$ a$ent: species that oxi"i6es another species an" is re" ce" re" cin$ a$ent: species that re" ces another species an" is oxi"i6e" combination reaction: reaction in #hich t#o s bstances combine to form thir" s bstance types of reactions o "ecomposition reaction: reaction in #hich sin$!e compo n" reacts to $ive t#o or more s bstances o "isp!acement reaction *sin$!e1rep!acement reaction,: reaction in #hich e!ement reacts #/ compo n"+ "isp!acin$ another e!ement from it o comb stion reaction: reaction in #hich s bstance reacts #/ oxy$en+ s a!!y #/ rapi" re!ease of heat as f!ame Section 4.: so! te: s bstance bein$ "isso!ve" so!vent: !i& i" that s bstance is bein$ "isso!ve" in concentration: & antity of so! te in stan"ar" & antity of so! tion

o "i! te 89 !o# o concentrate" 89 hi$h mo!ar concentration/mo!arity *7,: mo!es of so! te "isso!ve" in one !iter *c bic "ecimeter, of so! tion o mo!arity *7, 8 *mo!es of so! te,/*!iters of so! tion, Section 4.8 & antitative ana!ysis: "etermination of amo nt of s bstance or species present in materia! Section 4.9 $ravimetric ana!ysis: type of & antitative ana!ysis in #hich amo nt of species in materia! is "etermine" by convertin$ species to pro" ct that can be iso!ate" an" #ei$he" Section 4.10 titration: proce" re for "eterminin$ amo nt of s bstance by a""in$ caref !!y meas re" vo! me of so! tion #/ %no#n concentration nti! reaction is comp!ete vo! metric ana!ysis: metho" of ana!ysis base" on titration

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Section -.1 press re: force exerte" per nit area of s rface o force 8 mass x constant acce!eration of $ravity 8 mass x *9.81 m/s2, o press re 8 force/area 8 Fmass x *9.81 m/s2,G/area o scientific nit is %$/*m/s2, or pasca! re!ative!y sma!! nit acce!eration: chan$e of spee" per nit time barometer: "evice for meas rin$ press re of atmosphere o manometer: "evice meas rin$ press re of $as or !i& i" in vesse! o mi!!imeters of merc ry *mm@$,/torr: nit of press re e& a! to that exerte" by co! mn of merc ry 1 mm hi$h at 0 "e$rees C o atmosphere *atm,: nit of press re e& a! to :60 mm@$ o $enera! re!ationship b/# H an" h 89 H8$"h Section -.2 compressibi!ity: abi!ity to be s& ee6e" into sma!! vo! me by press re o Boy!e3s !a#: vo! me of samp!e of $as at $iven temperat re varies inverse!y #/ press re HI8constant 89 HfIf8HiIi #or%s for !o# to mo"erate press res o Char!es3 !a#: vo! me occ pie" by samp!e of $as at constant press re is "irect!y proportiona! to abso! te temperat re H/48constant 89 If/4f8Ii/4i

#or%s for mo"erate temperat res !a#s can be combine" into sin$!e statement 89 vo! me occ pie" by $iven amo nt of $as is proportiona! to abso! te temperat re "ivi"e" by press re o HfIf/4f8 HiIi/4i .vo$a"ro3s !a#: e& a! vo! mes of any t#o $ases at same temperat re an" press re contain same n mber of mo!ec !es o mo!ar $as vo! me *Im,: vo! me of one mo!e of $as often 22.4 C/mo! at stan"ar" temperat re an" press re *S4H, 89 0 "e$rees C an" 1 atm Section -.3 mo!ar $as constant *5,: constant of proportiona!ity re!atin$ mo!ar vo! me of $as to 4/H i"ea! $as !a#: HI8n54 o #or%s at !o# to mo"erate press res o #or%s for not too !o# temperat res H7m8"54 Section -. 2a!ton3s !a# of partia! press res: s m of partia! press res of a!! "ifferent $ases in mixt re is e& a! to tota! press re of mixt re o partia! press re: press re exerte" by partic !ar $as in mixt re o H8H1<H2<H3J mo!e fraction: fraction of mo!es of component in tota! mo!es of mixt re o mo!e fraction of .8n./n8H./H %inetic1mo!ec !ar theory *%inetic theory,: $as consists of mo!ec !es in constant ran"om motion o K%81/2m/*spee",2 Section -.:

root1mean1s& are *rms, mo!ec !ar spee": + is a type of avera$e mo!ec !ar spee"+ e& a! to spee" of mo!ec !e havin$ avera$e mo!ec !ar %inetic ener$y o 8F*354,/7mG0*1/2, ta%e care to se consistent nits "iff sion: process #hereby $as sprea"s o t thro $h another $as to occ py space niform!y Lraham3s !a# of eff sion: rate of eff sion of $as from partic !ar ho!e is inverse!y proportiona! to s& are root of mo!ec !ar #ei$ht of $as at constant temperat re an" press re o eff sion: process in #hich $as f!o#s thro $h sma!! ho!e in

container "epen"s on area of ho!e+ n mber of mo!ec !es per nit vo! me+ an" avera$e mo!ec !ar spee" Section -.8 van "er ;aa!s e& ation: e& ation simi!ar to i"ea! $as !a#+ b t inc! "es t#o constants+ a an" b+ to acco nt for "eviations from i"ea! behavior o *H<n2a/I2,*I1nb,8n54

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Section 6.1 thermo"ynamics: science of re!ationships b/# heat an" other forms of ener$y thermochemistry: st "y of & antity of heat absorbe" or $iven off by chemica! reaction o one area of thermo"ynamics o ex. b rnin$ of f e! ener$y: potentia! or capacity to move matter o property of matter o many convertib!e forms %inetic ener$y: ener$y of motion o K%81/2mv2 o SD nit is )o !e *M or %$/m2/s2, ca!orie *ca!,: non1SD nit of ener$y common!y se" by chemists+ ori$ina!!y "efine" as amo nt of ener$y re& ire" to raise temperat re of one $ram of #ater by 1 "e$ree C o 1 ca! 8 4.184 M potentia! ener$y: ener$y an ob)ect has by virt e of position in fie!" of force o Kp8m$h interna! ener$y *N,: s m of %inetic an" potentia! ener$ies of partic!es ma%in$ p s bstance o Ktot8K%<Kp<N !a# of conservation of ener$y 89 ener$y may be converte" from one form to another+ b t tota! & antity of ener$y remains constant Section 6.2 thermo"ynamic system *system,: s bstance or mixt re of s bstances n"er st "y in #hich chan$e occ rs s rro n"in$s: everythin$ in vicinity of thermo"ynamic system

heat: ener$y that f!o#s into or o t of system b/c of "ifference in temperat re b/# thermo"ynamic system an" s rro n"in$s therma! e& i!ibri m: temperat re e& a!ity o ener$y f!o#s nti! e& i!ibri m b/# system an" s rro n"in$s is estab!ishe" o f!o#s from hi$her temperat re system to !o#er temperat re system heat of reaction: va! e of & re& ire" to ret rn system to $iven temperat re after comp!etion of reaction types of chemica! reactions or physica! chan$es o exothermic process: chemica! reaction or physica! chan$e in

#hich heat is evo!ve" *1&, o en"othermic process: chemica! reaction or physica! chan$e in #hich heat is absorbe" *<&, Section 6.3 entha!py *@,: extensive property of s bstance se" to obtain heat absorbe" or evo!ve" in chemica! reaction state f nction: property of system that "epen"s on present state "etermine" by variab!es s ch as temperat re an" press re an" in"epen"ent of history of system entha!py of reaction: chan$e in entha!py for reaction at $iven temperat re an" press re o obtaine" by s btractin$ entha!py of reactants from entha!py of pro" cts 89 O@ 8 @*pro" cts, 1 @*reactants, o entha!py of reaction e& a!s heat of reaction at constant press re 89 O@ 8 &p press re1vo! me #or%: ener$y re& ire" by system to chan$e vo! me a$ainst constant Section 6.4 thermochemica! e& ation: chemica! e& ation for reaction *inc! "in$ phase !abe!s, in #hich e& ation is $iven mo!ar interpretation an" entha!py of reaction for mo!ar amo nts is #ritten after e& ation Section 6.6 heat capacity: heat re& ire" to raise temperat re of s bstance by one "e$ree C or E 89 & 8 COt o mo!ar heat capacity: heat capacity for one mo!e of s bstance

o specific heat capacity *specific heat,: & antity of heat re& ire" to raise temperat re of one $ram of s bstance by one "e$ree C or E at constant press re &8s/m/Ot ca!orimeter: "evice se" to meas re eat absorbe" or evo!ve" " rin$ physica! or chemica! chan$e bomb ca!orimeter: ca!orimeter for reactions invo!vin$ $ases Section 6.: @ess3 !a# of heat s mmation 89 for chemica! e& ation #ritten as s m of t#o or more steps+ entha!py chan$e for overa!! e& ation e& a!s s m of entha!py char$es for in"ivi" a! steps Section 6.8 stan"ar" state: stan"ar" thermo"ynamic con"itions chosen for s bstance #hen !istin$ or comparin$ thermo"ynamic "ata a!!otrope: one of t#o or more "istinct forms of e!ement in same physica! state stan"ar" entha!py of formation *stan"ar" heat of formation,: entha!py chan$e for formation of one more of s bstance in its stan"ar" state from its e!ements in reference form an" stan"ar" states Section 6.9 f e!: s bstance b rne" or reacte" to provi"e heat an" other forms of ener$y

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Section :.1 #ave: contin o s!y repeatin$ chan$e or osci!!ation in matter or physica! fie!" ex. !i$ht e!ectroma$netic ra"iation 89 !i$ht+ x1rays+ ra"io #aves #ave!en$th: "istance b/# any t#o a")acent i"entica! points #ave o meas re" in meters fre& ency: n mber of #ave!en$ths of #ave that pass fixe" point in one nit of time o meas re" in hert6 c8vP 89 tota! !en$th of #ave passin$ point in 1s 89 spee" o spee" 89 3.00 Q 108 m/s e!ectroma$netic spectr m: ran$e of fre& encies or #ave!en$ths of e!ectroma$netic ra"iation o vio!et *300 nm, 89 re" *800 nm, o not visib!e 9 300 nm or 9 800 nm Section :.2 "iffraction: property of #aves in #hich #aves sprea" o t #hen obstr ction or sma!! ho!e abo t si6e of #ave!en$th is enco ntere" photoe!ectric effect: phenomenon base" on fo n"ation that !i$ht has both #ave an" partic!e properties K 8 nhv o n can on!y be positive inte$ers o h is H!an%3s constant 89 physica! constant #/ va! e 6.63 Q 10134 M/s photons: partic!es of e!ectroma$netic ener$y+ #/ ener$y K proportiona! to observe" fre& ency of !i$ht o K 8 hv

photoe!ectric effect: e)ection of e!ectrons from s rface of meta! or other materia! !i$ht shines on #ave1partic!e " a!ity 89 #ave an" partic!e pict res of !i$ht sho !" be re$ar"e" as comp!ementary vie#s of same physica! entity Section :.3 contin o s spectr m: spectr m sho#in$ on!y certain co!ors or specific #ave!en$ths of !i$ht Bohr3s Host !ates o ener$y1!eve! post !ate 89 e!ectrons have ener$y !eve!s ener$y !eve!s: specific ener$y va! es in atom K 8 15@/n2 5@ is constant of 2.1:9 Q 10118 M o transitions b/# ener$y !eve!s 89 e!ectron can on!y chan$e ener$y by $oin$ from one !eve! to another !eve! ener$y of emitte" photon 8 hv 8 1OK 8 1*Kf1Ki, emission of !i$ht occ rs #hen e!ectron n"er$oes transition from pper to !o#er ener$y !eve! absorption of !i$ht occ rs #hen e!ectron is excite" or $ains ener$y to move to hi$her ener$y !eve! Section :.4 & ant m mechanics: theory app!yin$ to s bmicroscopic partic!es of matter+ s ch as e!ectrons "e Bro$!ie re!ation 89 matter exhibit characteristics of #aves n"er proper circ mstances o P 8 h/mv & ant m mechanics *#ave mechanics,: branch of physics that mathematica!!y "escribes #ave properties of s bmicroscopic partic!es ncertainty princip!e: re!ation statin$ pro" ct of ncertainty in position an" ncertainty in moment m of partic!e is no sma!!er than H!an%3s constant "ivi"e" by 4R o the more precise the position+ the !ess precise the moment m o on!y si$nificant for partic!es of very sma!! mass

#ave f nction: mathematica! expression containin$ information abo t partic!e in $iven ener$y !eve! Section :. atomic orbita!: #ave f nction for e!ectron in atom

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Section 8.1 e!ectron confi$ ration: partic !ar "istrib tion of e!ectrons amon$ avai!ab!e s bshe!!s orbita! "ia$ram: "ia$ram to sho# ho# orbita!s of s bshe!! are occ pie" by e!ectron Ha !i exc! sion princip!e 89 no t#o e!ectrons in atom can have same fo r & ant m n mbers o not a!! conceivab!e arran$ements of e!ectrons are possib!e o orbita! can ho!" at most t#o e!ectrons+ on!y if they have opposite spins Section 8.2 $ro n" state: & ant m mechanica! state correspon"in$ #ith !o#est ener$y !eve! of atom excite" state: confi$ ration associate" #/ ener$y !eve!s other than !o#est b i!"in$1 p princip!e *. fba princip!e,: scheme se" to repro" ce e!ectron confi$ rations of $ro n" states of atoms by s ccessive!y fi!!in$ s bshe!!s #/ e!ectrons in specific or"er o correspon"s to increasin$ ener$y of s bshe!!s ener$y "epen"s on & ant m n mber n an" ! nob!e $ases 89 fi!!e" s/p s bshe!! 89 re!ative nreactivity a!%a!ine earth meta!s 89 fi!!e" s s bshe!! 89 mo"erate reactivity o nob!e1$as core: inner1she!! confi$ ration correspon"in$ to one of nob!e $ases 89 p! s t#o o ter e!ectrons #/ ns2 confi$ ration pse "o1nob!e1$as1core: nob!e1$as core to$ether #/ *n11," 10 e!ectrons va!ence e!ectron: e!ectron in atom o tsi"e nob!e1$as or pse "o1 nob!e $as core o primari!y invo!ve" in chemica! reactions o acco nt for simi!arities of chemica! properties exceptions to b i!"in$ p r !e o chromi m

o copper Section 8.4 "ifferent arran$ements of e!ectron confi$ rations sho# "ifferent states 89 "ifferent ener$y an" ma$netic characteristics @ n"3s r !e 89 !o#est1ener$y arran$ement of e!ectrons in s bshe!! is obtaine" by p ttin$ e!ectrons into separate orbita!s of s bshe!! #/ same spin before pairin$ e!ectrons ma$netic attractions from e!ectrons in opposite spin cance! each o t o so+ on!y atoms #/ npaire" e!ectrons exhibit net ma$netism parama$netic s bstance: s bstance #ea%!y attracte" by ma$netic fie!" $enera!!y res !tin$ from npaire" e!ectrons "iama$netic s bstance: s bstance not attracte" by ma$netic fie!" or s!i$ht!y repe!!e" by fie!"+ res !tin$ from paire" e!ectrons 8.6 e!ectron confi$ rations "isp!ay perio"ic variation in atomic n mbers+ #hich res !ts in perio"ic variation in e!ements3 physica! an" chemica! behaviors perio"ic !a# 89 #hen e!ements are arran$e" by atomic n mber+ their physica! an" chemica! properties vary perio"ica!!y o atomic ra"i s o ioni6ation ener$y o e!ectron affinity atomic ra"i s o a!on$ perio"s+ "ecreases #/ increasin$ atomic n mber *Lro p D. 9 nob!e $as, o a!on$ $ro ps+ increases #/ increasin$ perio" n mber effective n c!ear char$e: positive char$e that e!ectron experiences from n c!e s+ e& a! to n c!ear char$e+ b t re" ce" by shie!"in$ or screenin$ from intervenin$ e!ectron "istrib tion o increasin$ char$e p !!s e!ectrons in#ar" ioni6ation ener$y *first1ioni6ation potentia!,: minim m ener$y nee"e" to remove hi$hest1ener$y *o termost, e!ectron from ne tra! atom in $aseo s state o a!on$ perio"s+ increases #/ increasin$ atomic n mber

Section

o a!on$ $ro ps+ "ecreases #/ increasin$ atomic n mber o m !tip!e ioni6ation ener$ies 89 increase #/ each s ccessive remova! !ar$e "iff. b/# 2n" an" 3r" ioni6ation ener$ies e!ectron affinity: ener$y chan$e for process of a""in$ e!ectron to ne tra! atom in $aseo s state to form ne$ative ion o !ar$e ne$ative n mbers in"icate formation of very stab!e ne$ative ions o sma!! ne$ative n mbers in"icate formation of !ess stab!e ne$ative ions o $enera! tren" is to#ar"s more ne$ative e!ectron affinities

from !eft to ri$ht in any perio" Section 8.: !o#/hi$h ioni6ation ener$y 89 meta!!ic/nonmeta!!ic basic1aci"ic behavior of oxi"es 89 in"icator of meta!!ic1nonmeta!!ic character o basic oxi"e: oxi"e that reacts #/ aci"s most meta! oxi"es o aci"ic oxi"e: oxi"e that reacts #/ bases most nonmeta! oxi"es o amphoteric oxi"e: oxi"e #/ both basic an" aci"ic properties hy"ro$en o $ro p by itse!f o co!or!ess $as compose" of @2 mo!ec !es Lro p D. *a!%a!i meta!s, o soft an" reactive o reactivities increasin$ "o#n $ro p

o react #/ #ater to pro" ce hy"ro$en Lro p DD. *a!%a!ine earth meta!s, o chemica!!y reactive *m ch !ess so than a!%a!i meta!s, o reactivities increasin$ "o#n $ro p o form basic oxi"es *5A, Lro p DDD. o si$nificant increase in meta!!ic character "o#n $ro p o form oxi"es *52A3, Lro p DI. o form oxi"es *5A2, o oxi"es pro$ress from aci"ic to amphoteric "o#n $ro p Lro p I. o transition from nonmeta! to meta!!oi" to meta! o forms oxi"es *52A3 an" 52A-, some cases 89 mo!ec !ar form !as are t#ice of these form !as o oxi"es pro$ress from aci"ic to amphoteric to basic Lro p ID. o cha!co$ens o transition from nonmeta! to meta!!oi" to meta! o forms oxi"es *5A3 an" 5A3, o most!y aci"ic *4eA2 an" HoA2 is amphoteric+ tho $h HoA2 is more basic, Lro p IDD. o ha!o$ens o reactive+ co!orf ! nonmeta!s o basic form !a *Q2, Lro p IDD. o nob!e $ases o $ases consistin$ of ncombine" atoms

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ionic bon": chemica! bon" forme" b/# e!ectrostatic attraction b/# positive an" ne$ative ions o forms #hen e!ectrons are transferre" b/# va!ence she!!s of cation to anion o nei$hborin$ ions attract as many ions of opposite char$e as possib!e Ce#is e!ectron1"ot symbo!: symbo! in #hich e!ectrons in va!ence she!! of an atom or ion are represente" by "ots p!ace" aro n" !etter symbo! of e!ement bon"e" atoms 89 net "ecrease in ener$y b/c bon"e" state is more stab!e an" at !o#er ener$y !eve!

Co !omb3s !a# 89 ener$y K obtaine" brin$in$ t#o ions #/ e!ectric char$es S1 an" S2 from infinite separation to "istance r is K8*%S1S2,/r o % is 8.99x109 M/m/C2 o m !tip!y by .vo$a"ro3s n mber to express for one mo!e !attice ener$y: chan$e in ener$y that occ rs #hen ionic so!i" is separate" into iso!ate" ions in $as phase Born1@aber cyc!e o base" on @ess3 !a# o "etermines !attice ener$y+ #hich is "iffic !t thro $h "irect experimentation ionic s bstances are typica!!y hi$h1me!tin$ so!i"s o cations an" anions interact by stron$ bon"s o cations an" anions attract to opposite!y1char$e" nei$hbors Section 9.2 !oss of s ccessive e!ectrons from atom re& ires increasin$!y more ener$y ten"ency to form ions is $reater "o#n any $ro p of perio"ic tab!e b/# of "ecreasin$ ioni6ation ener$y r !es for common monatomic ions of main $ro p e!ements

o cations of Lro ps D. to DDD. #/ nob!e1$as or pse "o1nob!e1 $as confi$ rations 89 char$es e& a! to $ro p n mbers o cations of Lro ps DDD. to I. #/ nob!e ns2 e!ectron confi$ rations 89 char$es e& a! to $ro p n mbers min s t#o o anions of Lro ps I. to IDD. #/ nob!e1$as or pse "o1nob!e $as confi$ rations 89 char$es e& a! $ro p n mbers min s ei$ht po!yatomic ions 89 he!" by cova!ent bon"s transition e!ements 89 form severa! cations of "ifferent char$es o many are co!ore" b/c of " e!ectrons transitions Section 9.3 ionic ra"i s: meas re of si6e of spherica! re$ion aro n" n c!e s of ion #ithin #hich e!ectrons are most !i%e!y to be fo n" o arbitrary 89 never abr pt!y en"s o cation T atom T anion o fo!!o#s re$ !ar pattern 89 ionic ra"ii increase "o#n any $ro p b/c of a""ition of e!ectron she!!s isoe!ectronic 89 refers to "ifferent species havin$ same n mber an" confi$ ration of e!ectrons o in $enera!+ cations "ecrease in ra"i s across perio" o abr pt increase in ra"i s #hen anions are reache"+ an" then ra"i s "ecreases a$ain Section 9.4 cova!ent bon": chemica! bon" forme" by sharin$ of pair of e!ectrons b/# atoms o attraction arises from opposite!y char$e" n c!ei an" e!ectrons bon" !en$th: "istance b/# n c!ei at minim m ener$y o potentia! ener$y reaches minim m va! e #hen rep !sion of positive char$es becomes !ar$er than attraction of e!ectrons an" then increases bon" "issociation ener$y: ener$y nee"e" to separate atoms in mo!ec !e Ce#is e!ectron "ot form !a: form !a sin$ "ots to represent va!ence e!ectrons

o bon"in$ pair: e!ectron pair share" b/# t#o atoms o !one *nonbon"in$, pair: e!ectron pair that remains on one atom an" is not share" coor"inate cova!ent bon": bon" forme" #hen both e!ectrons of bon" are "onate" by one atom octet r !e: ten"ency of atoms in mo!ec !es to have ei$ht e!ectrons in va!ence she!!s *t#o for hy"ro$en atoms, sin$!e bon": cova!ent bon" in #hich sin$!e pair of e!ectrons is share" by t#o atoms "o b!e bon": cova!ent bon" in #hich t#o pairs of e!ectrons are share" by t#o atoms

trip!e bon": cova!ent bon" in #hich three pairs of e!ectrons are share" by t#o atoms Section 9. po!ar cova!ent bon": cova!ent bon" in #hich bon"in$ e!ectrons spen" more time near one atom than other o occ rs #hen atoms are of "ifferent e!ements nonpo!ar cova!ent bon" 89 occ rs #hen atoms are a!i%e e!ectrone$ative!y: meas re of abi!ity of atom in mo!ec !e to "ra# bon"in$ e!ectrons to itse!f o atom that ten"s to pic% p e!ectrons easi!y 89 !ar$e e!ectrone$ativity o atom that ten"s to !ose e!ectrons rea"i!y 89 sma!! e!ectrone$ativity o in $enera!+ increase from !eft to ri$ht an" "ecreases from top to bottom meta!s 89 !east e!ectrone$ative *e!ectropositive, nonmeta!s 89 most e!ectrone$ative o abso! te va! e of "ifference in e!ectrone$ativity of t#o bon"e" atoms sma!! 89 nonpo!ar bon" !ar$e 89 po!ar bon" very !ar$e 89 ionic

Section 9.6 r !es for #ritin$ Ce#is e!ectron1"ot form !as o ca!c !ate tota! n mber of va!ance e!ectrons o #rite s%e!eton str ct re of mo!ec !e or ion o "istrib te e!ectrons to atoms s rro n"in$ centra! atom o "istrib te remainin$ e!ectrons as pairs to centra! atoms Section 9.: "e!oca!i6e" bon"in$: type of bon"in$ in #hich bon"in$ pair of e!ectrons is sprea" over n mber of atoms rather than !oca!i6e" b/# t#o o bro%en !ine in"icates bon"in$ pair of e!ectrons that spans more than t#o n c!ei resonance "escription: "escription of e!ectron str ct re of mo!ec !e havin$ "e!oca!i6e" bon"in$s by #ritin$ a!! possib!e e!ectron1"ot form !as o sin$!e e!ectron1"ot form !a cannot proper!y "escribe o "e!oca!i6e" bon"in$ 89 resonance form !as 9.8 some mo!ec !es have o"" n mber of e!ectrons an" cannot satisfy the octet r !e o ex. >A o can have fe#er or more than ei$ht va!ence e!ectrons 9.9 forma! char$e: hypothetica! char$e obtaine" by ass min$ that bon"in$ e!ectrons are e& a!!y share" b/# bon"e" atoms an" that e!ectrons of each !one pair be!on$ comp!ete!y to one atom o r !es for forma! char$e ha!f of e!ectrons of bon" are assi$ne" to each atom in bon" both e!ectrons of !one pair are assi$ne" to atom to #hich !one pair be!on$s

Section

Section

o forma! char$e 8 va!ence e!ectrons on free atom 1 n mber of e!ectrons assi$ne" by r !es Section 9.10 bon" !en$th *bon" "istance,: "istance b/# n c!ei in bon" o "etermine" experimenta!!y sin$ x1ray "iffraction or mo!ec !ar spectra ana!ysis o sometimes+ can be pre"icte" from cova!ent ra"ii *va! es assi$ne" to atoms s ch that s m of cova!ent ra"ii of atoms . an" B pre"icts approximate .1B bon" !en$th, bon" or"er: n mber of pairs of e!ectrons in bon" o as bon" or"er increases+ bon" stren$th increases an" bon" !en$th "ecreases Section 9.11 bon" "issociation ener$y: meas re of stren$th of partic !ar bon" o essentia!!y entha!py chan$e for $as1phase reaction in #hich bon" brea%s bon" ener$y: avera$e entha!py chan$e for brea%in$ of .1B bon" in mo!ec !e in $as phase in $enera!+ entha!py of reaction is approximate!y e& a! to s m of bon" ener$ies for bon"s bro%en min s s m of bon" ener$ies for bon"s forme"

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Section 10.1 mo!ec !ar $eometry: $enera! shape of mo!ec !e "etermine" by re!ative positions of atomic n c!ei va!ence1she!! e!ectron1pair rep !sion *ISHK5, mo"e! 89 pre"icts shapes of mo!ec !es an" ions by ass min$ va!ence1she!! e!ectron pairs are arran$e" abo t atoms that e!ectron pairs are %ept as far a#ay as possib!e from one another o !inear 89 t#o e!ectron pairs o tri$ona! p!anar 89 three e!ectron pairs o bent an$ !ar o tetrahe"ra! 89 a!! e!ectron pairs are bon"in$ o tri$ona! pyrami"a! 89 three bon"e" e!ectron pairs/one nonbon"in$ pair o trio$ona! bipryrami"a! 89 - e!ectron pairs o octahe"ra! 89 6 e!ectron pairs "irection in space of bon"in$ pairs 89 mo!ec !ar $eometry ISHK5 mo"e! 89 pre"icts bon" an$!es o !one pairs ten" to re& ire more space than correspon"in$ bon"in$ pair m !tip!e bon" re& ire more space than sin$!e bon"s b/c of $reater n mber of e!ectrons tri$ona! bipyrami"a! arran$ement o axia! "irections 89 t#o "irections that form axis thro $h centra! atom *180 "e$rees, o e& atoria! "irections 89 other three "irections *90 "e$rees to axia! "e$rees an" 120 "e$rees from each other, seesa# 89 "istorte" tetrahe"ra! Section 10.2 "ipo!e moment: & antitative meas re of "e$ree of char$e separation in mo!ec !e o net separation of char$e 89 "ipo!e moment

o meas re" in co !omb1meters *C/m, an" "ebyes *2, capacitance: capacity of p!ates to ho!" char$e vector & a!ity: ma$nit "e an" "irection nonpo!ar 89 6ero "ipo!e moments po!ar 89 can have non6ero "ipo!e moments intermo!ec !ar force 89 po!ar !i& i" mo!ec !es orient so positive en"s of mo!ec !es are attracte" to ne$ative en"s Section 10.3 va!ence bon" theory: approximate theory to exp!ain e!ectron pair or cova!ent bon" by & ant m mechanics o orbita! on one atom occ pies portion of same re$ion as orbita! on other atom 89 over!ap o tota! n mber of e!ectrons in both orbita!s 89 no more than 2 $reater over!ap 89 $reater bon" stren$th orbita!s bon" protr "e or point for maxim m over!ap promote" 89 e!ectron excite" from s to p orbita! hybri" orbita!s: orbita!s "escribin$ bon"in$ obtaine" by ta%in$ combinations of atomic orbita!s of iso!ate" atoms n mber of hybri" orbita!s forme" e& a!s n mber of atomic orbita!s se" o ex. s an" t#o p orbita!s 89 form three hybri" orbita!s Section 10.4 one hybri" orbita! nee"e" for each sin$!e/m !tip!e bon" an" !one pairs U *si$ma, bon" 89 cy!in"rica! shape abo t bon" axis R *pi, bon" 89 has e!ectron "istrib tion above an" be!o# bon" axis isomers: compo n"s of same mo!ec !ar form #/ "ifferent arran$ements of atoms

o cis/trans 89 "ifferent properties Section 10. mo!ec !ar orbita! theory: theory of e!ectronic str ct re of mo!ec !es in terms of mo!ec !ar orbita!s+ #hich may sprea" over atoms or mo!ec !e bon"in$ orbita!s: re$ions b/# n c!ei #here mo!ec !ar orbita!s are concentrate" antibon"in$ orbita!s: mo!ec !ar orbita!s havin$ 6ero va! es in re$ion b/# t#o n c!ei an" concentrate" in other re$ions bon" or"er: n mber of bon"s b/# t#o atoms o V*nb1na, stren$th of interaction b/# t#o atomic orbita!s to form mo!ec !ar orbita!s is "etermine" by o ener$y "ifference b/# interactin$ orbita!s o ma$nit "e of over!ap stron$ interaction 89 approximate!y e& a! ener$ies an" !ar$e over!ap Section 10.6 homon c!ear "iatomic mo!ec !es: mo!ec !es compose" of t#o !i%e n c!ei hetern c!ear "iatomic mo!ec !es: mo!ec !es compose" of t#o "ifferent n c!ei parama$netic 89 npaire" e!ectrons 89 ma$netic "iama$netic 89 paire" e!ectrons 89 not ma$netic

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Section 11.1 $ases 89 compose" of mo!ec !es in constant ran"om motion thro $h most!y empty space o compressib!e 89 can be p she" into sma!! space o f! i" 89 mo!ec !es move easi!y re!ative to each other !i& i"s 89 re!ative!y incompressib!e f! i"s o mo!ec !es are in constant motion+ b t more ti$ht!y pac%e" o mo!ec !es move easi!y re!ative to each other so!i"s 89 near!y incompressib!e an" ri$i" o partic!es are in c!ose contact an" "o not move abo t+ b t rather osci!!ate in fixe" positions Section 11.2 chan$e of sta$e/phase transition: chan$e of s bstance from one state to another o me!tin$ *f sion, 89 so!i" to !i& i" o free6in$ 89 !i& i" to so!i" o vapori6ation 89 !i& i"/so!i" to vapor s b!imation 89 so!i" to vapor o con"ensation 89 $as to !i& i"/so!i" "eposition 89 $as to so!i" !i& efaction 89 $as to !i& i" vapor press re: partia! press re of vapor over !i& i"+ meas re" at e& i!ibri m at $iven temperat re o "ynamic e& i!ibri m 89 rate of mo!ec !e con"ensation e& a!s rate of mo!ec !e vapori6ation+ tho $h mo!ec !es contin e to !eave an" come bac% to the !i& i" o "epen"s on temperat re

o vo!ati!e 89 hi$h vapor press re at norma! temperat res boi!in$ point: temperat re at #hich vapor press re of !i& i" e& a!s press re exerte" on !i& i" o "epen"s on press re 89 norma! boi!in$ point *at 1 atm, free6in$ point: temperat re at #hich p re !i& i" chan$es to crysta!!ine so!i" me!tin$ point: temperat re at #hich crysta!!ine so!i" chan$e to !i& i" me!tin$ an" free6in$ points occ r at same temperat re 89 "ynamic e& i!ibri m chan$es of state invo!ve a""ition/remova! of heat ener$y o heat of phase transition 89 proportiona! to !en$th of f!at

re$ion+ #hen heat is a""e" at constant rate o heat of f sion *entha!py of f sion,: heat nee"e" for me!tin$ of so!i" o heat of vapori6ation *entha!py of vapori6ation,: heat nee"e" for vapori6ation of !i& i" o m ch more ener$y re& ire" for vapori6ation than me!tin$ 89 ener$y m st be s pp!ie" to brea% intermo!ec !ar attractions C!a si s1C!apeyron e& ation o !n*H,81./4<b 89 !n*H,81 O@vap/54<B o . an" B are positive constants o 5 is mo!ar $as constant 89 8.31 M/*%/mo!, o constant . is proportiona! to O@vap o can be se" in t#o1point form !n*H2/H1,8 O@vap/5*1/4111/42, Section 11.3 phase "ia$ram: $raphica! #ay to s mmari6e con"itions n"er #hich "ifferent states of s bstance are stab!e o "ivi"es into re$ions 89 'so!i"(+ '!i& i"(+ an" '$as(

o trip!e point: point on phase "ia$ram representin$ temperat re an" press re at #hich three phases of s bstance coexist in e& i!ibri m s percritica! f! i" 89 !i& i" an" vapor have same "ensities an" "istinctions have "isappeare" o critica! temperat re: temperat re above #hich !i& i" state of s bstance no !on$er exists re$ar"!ess of press re o critica! press re: vapor press re at critica! temperat re Section 11. intermo!ec !ar forces: forces of interaction b/# mo!ec !es o norma!!y #ea%!y attractive van "er ;aa!s forces: $enera! term for intermo!ec !ar forces inc! "in$ "ipo!e1"ipo!e an" Con"on forces+ that res !t in mo!ec !e a!i$nment o "ipo!e1"ipo!e force: attractive intermo!ec !ar force res !tin$ from ten"ency of po!ar mo!ec !es to a!i$n themse!ves s ch that positive en" of one mo!ec !e is near ne$ative en" of another o Con"on *"ispersion, forces: #ea% attractive forces b/# a!! mo!ec !es res !tin$ from sma!!+ instantaneo s "ipo!es that occ r b/# varyin$ positions of e!ectrons " rin$ motion abo t n c!ei increase #/ mo!ec !ar #ei$ht 89 more e!ectrons an" !ar$er atoms 89 more po!ari6ab!e or easi!y "istorte" to $ive instantaneo s "ipo!es b/c e!ectrons are farther from n c!ei char$e niform!y "istrib te" over time+ b t neven at instant po!ari6ab!e/non1po!ari6ab!e 89 non1compact/compact strai$ht1chain/f!exib!e 89 more stab!e o stron$ intermo!ec !ar forces 89 !o# vapor press res o stron$ intermo!ec !ar forces 89 hi$h boi!in$ points o stron$ intermo!ec !ar forces 89 hi$h s rface tensions o stron$ intermo!ec !ar forces 89 !o# f! i"ities

hy"ro$en bon"in$: #ea% to mo"erate attractive force that exists b/# hy"ro$en atom cova!ent!y bon"e" to very e!ectrone$ative atom an" !one pair of e!ectrons on another sma!!+ e!ectrone$ative atom Section 11.6 fo r "ifferent types of so!i"s 89 vary in chemica! bon"in$ o mo!ec !ar so!i": so!i" consistin$ of atoms or mo!ec !es he!" to$ether by intermo!ec !ar forces ex. so!i" neon+ ice+ "ry ice #ea% intermo!ec !ar attractions 89 !o# me!tin$ points re!ative!y soft britt!e 89 fract re easi!y a!on$ crysta! p!anes noncon" ctin$ o meta!!ic so!i": so!i" consistin$ of positive cores of atoms he!" to$ether by s rro n"in$ 'sea( of e!ectrons ex. iron+ copper+ si!ver $enera!!y have hi$h me!tin$ points 89 variabi!ity ma!!eab!e: can be shape" by hammerin$ con" ctin$ o ionic so!i": so!i" consistin$ of cations an" anions he!" to$ether by ionic bon"s ex. cesi m ch!ori"e+ so"i m ch!ori"e+ 6inc s !fi"e re!ative!y hi$h me!tin$ points 89 "ifferences arise b/c of !attice ener$y britt!e 89 fract re easi!y a!on$ crysta! p!anes noncon" ctin$ so!i"/con" ctin$ !i& i" o cova!ent net#or% so!i": so!i" consistin$ of atoms he!" to$ether in !ar$e net#or%s or chains by cova!ent bon"s ex. "iamon"+ $raphite+ asbestos hi$h me!tin$ points very har" most!y noncon" ctin$ me!tin$/boi!in$ points increase from mo!ec !ar to meta!!ic to ionic to cova!ent so!i"s meta!!ic+ ionic+ an" cova!ent so!i"s !i%e!y to be so!i"s at 2- C

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chemica! %inetics: st "y of reaction rates+ ho# reaction rates chan$e n"er varyin$ con"itions+ an" #hat mo!ec !ar events occ r " rin$ overa!! reaction o factors affectin$ reaction rate concentrations of reactants 89 reaction rates often increases #hen reactant concentrations are increase" concentration of cata!yst cata!yst: s bstance that increases rate of reaction #/o bein$ cons me" in overa!! reaction not cons me" 89 "oes not appear in ba!ance" chemica! e& ation temperat re at #hich reaction occ rs 89 reactions

s a!!y spee" p #hen temperat re increases s rface area of so!i" reactant or cata!yst 89 on!y #hen reaction invo!ves so!i" #/ $as or !i& i" rate increases #/ s rface area reaction rate: increase in mo!ar concentration of pro" ct of reaction per nit of time or "ecrease in mo!ar concentration of reactant per nit time o s a! nit 89 mo!/*C/s, o can be avera$e rate or instantaneo s rate 89 !on$/short instants of time Section 14.2 #ays of meas rin$ reaction rates o #ith"ra#/ana!y6e samp!es from reaction vesse! o manometer rea"in$s of reaction press re chan$es o spectrometer rea"in$s of co!or/absorption of !i$ht Section 14.3 rate !a#: e& ation that re!ates rate of reaction to concentrations of reactants *an" cata!yst, raise" to vario s po#ers o $enera! form 89 rate8%F.GmFBGnFCGp

o rate constant: %W proportiona!ity constant in re!ationship b/# rate an" concentrations fixe" va! e at $iven temperat re o exponents m+ n+ an" p fre& ent!y inte$ers 89 "etermine" experimenta!!y reaction or"er: exponent of concentration of species in rate !a#+ as "etermine" experimenta!!y overa!! or"er: s m of or"ers of reactant species in rate !a# isomeri6ation: reaction feat rin$ compo n"s that are isomers *"ifferent compo n"s #/ same mo!ec !ar form !a, initia! rate metho": #ay of obtainin$ reaction or"ers thro $h series

of experiments in #hich initia! concentrations of reactants are varie" Section 14.4 inte$rate" rate !a#: mathematica! re!ationship b/# concentration an" time o first1or"er rate !a# 89 !nF.Gt/F.G081%t o secon"1or"er rate !a# 89 1/F.Gt8%t<1/F.G0 o 6ero1or"er rate !a# 89 F.G81%t<F.G0 ha!f1!ife: t1/2W time it ta%es for reactant concentration to "ecrease to one1ha!f of initia! va! e o first1or"er 89 t1/28.693/% o secon"1or"er 89 t1/281/%F.G0 o 6ero1or"er 89 t1/28F.G0/2% $raphin$ of %inetic "ata o first1or"er 89 !nF.Gt $ives strai$ht !ine o secon"1or"er 89 1/!nF.Gt $ives strai$ht !ine Section 14. co!!ision theory: theory that ass mes that+ for reaction to occ r+ reactant mo!ec !es m st co!!i"e #/ ener$y $reater than some minim m va! e an" #/ proper orientation

activation ener$y: KaW minim m ener$y of co!!ision re& ire" for t#o mo!ec !es to react rate constant pro" ct of three factors 89 %8Xfp o X: co!!ision fre& ency chan$es s!o#!y #/ temperat re o f: fraction of co!!isions havin$ ener$y $reater than activation ener$y chan$es rapi"!y #/ temperat re 89 responsib!e for reaction rate o p: fraction of co!!isions that occ r #/ reactant mo!ec !es proper!y oriente" in"epen"ent of temperat re

transition1state theory: exp!anation of reaction res !tin$ from co!!ision of t#o mo!ec !es in terms of activate" comp!ex o activate" comp!ex *transition state,: nstab!e $ro pin$ of atoms that can brea% p to form pro" cts Section 14.6 .rrheni s e& ation: mathematica! e& ation %8.e 1K/54 #hich expresses "epen"ence of rate constant on temperat re o fre& ency factor: symbo! . in .rrheni s e& ation ass me" to be constant re!at" to fre& ency of co!!isions #/ proper orientation !n % 8 !n . 1 Ka/54 89 !n %2/%1 8 Ka/5 *1/4111/4, Section 14.: e!ementary reaction: sin$!e mo!ec !ar event+ s ch as co!!ision of mo!ec !es+ res !tin$ in reaction reaction mechanism: set of e!ementary reactions #hose overa!! effect is $iven by net chemica! e& ation reaction interme"iate: species pro" ce" " rin$ reaction that "oes not appear in net e& ation b/c it reacts in s bse& ent step in mechanism mo!ec !arity: n mber of mo!ec !es on reactant si"e of e!ementary reaction nimo!ec !ar reaction: e!ementary reaction that invo!ves one reactant mo!ec !e

biomo!ec !ar reaction: e!ementary reaction that invo!ves t#o reactant mo!ec !es termo!ec !ar reaction: e!ementary reaction that invo!ves three reactant mo!ec !es Section 14.8 rate1"etermin$ step: s!o#est step in reaction mechanism Section 14.9 homo$eneo s cata!ysis: se of cata!yst in same phase as reactin$ species hetero$eneo s cata!ysis: se of cata!yst that exists in "ifferent phase from reactin$ species+ s a!!y so!i" cata!yst in contact #/ $aseo s or !i& i" so! tion of reactants chemisorption: bin"in$ of species to s rface to chemica! bon"in$ forces cata!ytic hy"ro$enation: hetero$eneo s cata!ysis invo!vin$ chemisorption s bstrate: s bstance #hose reaction the en6yme cata!y6es

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Section 1-.1 "ynamic e& i!ibri m: for#ar" Y reverse reactions that occ r at same rate to form mixt re of reactants an" pro" cts chemica! e& i!ibri m: state reache" by reaction mixt re #hen rates of for#ar" an" reverse reactions have become e& a! o contin in$ for#ar"/reverse reactions 89 "ynamic process Section 1-.2 e& i!ibri m1constant expression: expression obtaine" by m !tip!yin$ concentrations of pro" cts+ "ivi"in$ by concentrations of reactants+ an" raisin$ each concentration term to po#er e& a! to coefficient in chemica! e& ation e& i!ibri m constant *Ec,: va! e obtaine" for e& i!ibri m1constant expression #hen e& i!ibri m concentrations are s bstit te" o re!ates a!! e& i!ibri m compositions of reaction at $iven temperat re o for reaction a. < bB 89 cC < "2+ Ec8FCGcF2G"/F.GaFBGb o "efine" in mo!ar concentrations o ratio of rate constants for for#ar"/reverse reactions !a# of mass action: re!ation that states that va! es of e& i!ibri m1 constant expression Ec are constant for partic !ar reaction at $iven temperat re+ #hatever e& i!ibri m concentrations are s bstit te" Ep 89 #ritten in terms of partia! press res of $ases rather than concentrations o Ep 89 Ec*54,On #here On is s m of coefficients of $aseo s pro" cts min s s m of coefficients of $aseo s reactants sef ! r !e 89 if $iven chemica! e& ation can be obtaine" by ta%in$ s m of other e& ations+ e& i!ibri m constant for $iven e& ation e& a!s pro" cts of e& i!ibri m constants of other e& ations Section 1-.3 homo$eneo s e& i!ibri m: e& i!ibri m that inc! "es reactants an" pro" cts in sin$!e phase hetero$eneo s e& i!ibri m: e& i!ibri m invo!vin$ reactants an" pro" cts in more than one phase o omit concentrations of non$aseo s reactants Y pro" cts

o reaction not affecte" by amo nts of non$aseo s s bstances+ as !on$ as some are present sma!!/!ar$e e& i!ibri m constants 89 favors reactants/pro" cts o #hen aro n" 1+ e& i!ibri m mixt re contains appreciab!e amo nts of both reactants Y pro" cts Section 1-. reaction & otient *Sc,: expression that has same form as e& i!ibri m1constant expression b t #hose concentration va! es are not necessari!y those at e& i!ibri m o Sc9Ec 89 $oes to !eft o ScTEc 89 $oes to ri$ht o Sc8Ec 89 at e& i!ibri m

Section 1-.6 three steps se" to so!ve e& i!ibri m concentrations o set p tab!e of concentrations *startin$+ chan$e+ an" e& i!ibri m expressions in x, o s bstit te expressions in x for e& i!ibri m concentrations into e& i!ibri m1constant e& ation o so!ve e& i!ibri m1constant e& ation for va! es of e& i!ibri m concentrations Section 1-.: Ce Chate!ier3s princip!e 89 #hen system in chemica! e& i!ibri m is "ist rbe" by chan$e of temperat re+ press re+ or concentration+ system shifts in e& i!ibri m composition in #ay that ten"s to co nteract chan$e of variab!e Section 1-.8 press re o "ecrease"/increase" vo! me 89 increase"/"ecrease" press re 89 moves to#ar"s si"e #/ fe#er/more mo!es temperat re o en"othermic reaction *positive O@Z, increase"/"ecrease" temperat re 89 increase"/"ecrease" pro" cts o en"othermic reaction *ne$ative O@Z, increase"/"ecrease" temperat re 89 "ecrease"/increase" pro" cts

Section 1-.9 cata!yst has no effect on e& i!ibri m composition of reaction mixt re 89 mere!y spee"s p attainment of e& i!ibri m