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Conceptual Framework

According to Jerome Bruners Constructivist theoretical framework, learners engage in discovery learning obtaining knowledge by themselves. They select and transform information, construct hypotheses, and make decisions, relying on a cognitive structure to do so. In order for discovery to occur learners require background preparation in the form of a cognitive structure that provides meaning and organization to experiences and allows the individual to "go beyond the information given". Bruner's theoretical framework is based on the theme that learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon existing knowledge. Learning is an active process. Facets of the process include selection and transformation of information, decision making, generating hypotheses, and making meaning from information and experiences. Bruner's theories emphasize the significance of categorization in learning. "To perceive is to categorize, to conceptualize is to categorize, to learn is to form categories, to make decisions is to categorize." Interpreting information and experiences by similarities and differences is a key concept.

Bruner emphasized teaching as a means of enhancing cognitive development, hence the task of the teacher is to translate information to be learned into a format appropriate to the learner's current state of understanding. The instructor should try and encourage students to discover principles by themselves, and both learners and teachers should engage in an active dialog (Socratic learning). Curriculum should be organized in a spiral manner so that the student continually builds upon what they have already learned.

Level of Knowledge refers to the scores that the barangay health workers obtained in answering the researcher made questionnaire; grouped as definition, indication, method and body parts and functions. Body Parts and Functions is a component of the level of knowledge on CPR which refers to statements describing parts of the human body, its purpose and its relevance when performing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation; Definition is a component of the level of knowledge on CPR which refers to statements which explain the meaning, concept and process of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation; Method is a component of the level of knowledge on CPR that refers to statements which explains the series of steps or actions in performing correct Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation; Indication is a component of the level of knowledge on CPR that refers to statements which specifies or suggests the instances where there is a need to perform Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. Barangay health worker refers to the frontline health care worker who was trained under the health department of the local government and/or the Department of Health; they man the barangay health center and provide basic health care services to their respective constituents.