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LINE SPECTRUM OF ATOMS DIFFERENT TYPES (BOHRS ATOMS THEORY)

Wahyudi*), Nurislamiah Dassir, Nurwira Supiarni Modern Physics Laboratory of Physics Department FMIPA State University of Makassar
Abstract: After done measurement about line spectra of atoms different types. The Objectives of this experiment is to determining the wavelength of the line spectra produced by atomic helium, natrium and neon using spectrometer with Rowland slit as a diffraction grating. For helium and neon, we used seven colours, they are violet, blue dye, blue, green, yellow, orange and red. The longest wave length is red, and the shortest wave length is violet colour, where the wave length is influenced by total of angle ( rigth+ left), orde and total of slit. For natrium we just used a yellow colour for each orde. The colour is gotten of prism which located in spectrometer.

KEYWORD: line spectra, wave length, helium, natrium, neon INTRODUCTION If a tube is placed in the gas then electric current is passed into the tube, the gas will emit light. The light emitted by each of the different gas and the characteristics of the gas. Light emitted in the form of spectral lines and not a continuous spectrum. The fact that the gas emits light in the form of spectral lines believed to be related closely to the structure of the atom. Thus, the atomic spectral lines can be used to test the truth of an atomic model. Since the discovery of basic particles, atoms, atomic theory greatly changed. This siphoning Dalton 's atomic theory which states that atoms can not be segmented. Atoms in an element can produce emission spectrum (discrete spectrum) by using Spectrometer, for example hydrogen spectrum. Hydrogen atom has the simplest structure. Spectral lines of the hydrogen atom successfully explained by Niels Bohr, in 1913. Spectrum line up a row of color light with different wavelengths. For hydrogen gas which is the simplest atom, the wavelength of this series turned out to have a certain pattern that can be expressed in mathematical terms. A swiss math teacher named Balmer series of hydrogen gas expressed as the following equation. At the end of the nineteenth century found that the wavelength is on the atomic spectrum falls on a particular group called spectral series. Wavelength in each row can be specified with the empirical formulas expressed moderate spectrum with a surprising similarity between the conclusions of the various series that expresses the complete spectrum of an element. THEORY Niels Bohr (18851962, Denmark). He developed a successful theory of the radiation spectrum of atomic hydrogen and also contributed the concepts of stationary states and complementarity to quantum mechanics. Later he developed a successful theory of nuclear fission. The institute of theoretical physics he founded in Copenhagen attracts scholars from around the world in the fall of 1911. [2] However, Bohr did not feel at home. After meeting with Rutherford, he decided to work with him in Manchester during the second half of his stay in England. This is where Bohr became familiar with the concept of the atomic nucleus by Rutherford developed in early 1911. [2] At the time, Rutherford has developed a model of the atom consists of a nucleus with Z number of positive elementary charge e is surrounded by Z electrons, which carry a negative charge e. [2] After returning to Denmark, Bohr model of the atom Rutherford examines itself theoretically. Have known at the time that the Rutherford atomic model is inconsistent with classical physics. This model cant explain why an atom is stable. From here, Bohr knew that a "new physics" should be used to overcome this problem. "New physics" is Planck's quantum theory. The first idea to solve the problem Bohr Rutherford atomic

model is limiting the number of possible orbits discrete values, ie an energy value quantity. When discussing this idea with his colleagues at a time. Bohr was once asked. "How is this related to the spectral formula?. From this it appears that the Bohr at the time did not know the Balmer formula. In 1922, Bohr was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for his contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics. [2] If the noble gases and low-pressure metal vapor under atmospheric pressure excited, the emitted radiation has a spectrum that contains only certain wavelengths. Each element of the spectrum shows a unique line. Optical spectrometer can be used to determine the wavelength of the line spectra of noble gas atoms and metal vapor. Grating is used to separate the spectral lines. Diffracted light in the lattice, experiencing the same wavelength superposition and produces maximum intensity. [1] The relationship between diffraction and wavelength is linear (sin ~ ) on the normal spectrum. We can determine the wavelength of the light that comes through the lattice using a spectrometer. The equation for determining the wavelength of the line spectrum is sin 2 (4.1) n.N With: n = Order Spectra, = number of angles between spectral lines right and left, N = number of grid lines used, and = wavelength. [1] The radiation from atoms can be classified into continuous spectra and discrete or line spectra. In a continuous spectrum, all wavelengths from some minimum, perhaps 0, to some maximum, perhaps approaching , are emitted. The radiation from a hot, glowing object is an example of this category. White light is a mixture of all of the different colors of visible light; an object that glows white hot is emitting light at all wavelengths of the visible spectrum. If, on the other hand, we force an electric discharge in a tube containing a small amount of the gas or vapor of a certain element, such as mercury, sodium, or neon, light is emitted at few discrete wavelengths and not at any others. Examples of such emission line spectra are shown in Figure 1.

for an electron to reqiure it can only have The strong 436 nm (blue) and 546 nm (green) lines in the mercury emission spectrum give mercury-vapor street lights their blue-green tint; the strong yellow line at 590 nm in the sodium spectrum (which is actually a doublettwo very closely spaced lines) gives sodium-vapor street lights a softer, yellowish color. The intense red lines of neon are responsible for the red color of neon signs.

Figure 1. Apparatus for observing emission spectra. Light is emitted when an electric discharge is created in a tube containing a vapor of an element. The light passes through a dispersive medium, such as prism of a difraction grating, which displays the individual component wavelengths at different positions. Sample line spectra are shown for mercury and sodium in the visible and her ultraviolet.

Figure 2: Apparatus for observing spectra. A light source produces a continuous range of wavelenghths, some of which are absorbed by a gaseous element. The light is dispresed, is in Figure 1. The result is a continuous rainbow spectrum, with dark lines at wavelengths where the light was absorbed by the gas. Another possible experiment is to pass a beam of white light, containing all wavelengths, through a sample of a gas. When we do so, we find that certain wavelengths

have been absorbed from the light, and again a line spectrum results. In this case there are dark lines, superimposed on the bright continuous spectrum, at the wavelengths where the absorption occurred. These wavelengths correspond to many (but not all) of the wavelengths seen in the emission spectrum. Examples of absorption spectra are shown in Figure 2. [2]

table and align the telescope so that light passes through the slit and grating spectrum can be observed in the telescope.

Figure 3. Schematic diagram for the definition of angle To calculate the interval two lines, an example is given diffraction experimental data on n = 1 and n = 2 for the sodium D-line as follows: Table 4.1 Sodium D-Lines, measurements for n = 1 and n = 2 Line D1 D2 N 1 2 1 2 39.3000 84.5420 39.2500 84.4250 diffraction 5706/cm nm 589.33 589.41 588.61 588.74

Based on Table 4.1, the interval between two known yellow Sodium D-Lines with value = 0.72 nm (measured at n = 1) and = 0.67 nm (measured at n = 2). Its average value is (D1) - (D2) = 0.70 nm. [1] METHOD OF EXPERIMENT Ability Bohr atomic theory to explain the origin of the spectral lines is one result that stands out, so this theory will be applied to the atomic spectrum. Equipment and Materials is optic spectrometer, Rowland grating, He lamp spectrum, Na, Ne, Cd, Hg / Cd and Ti, Transformer, 6 V AC, 12 V AC, Universal Choke, 230 V, 50 Hz. Equipment and Work Adjustment Procedure Spectrometer settings He Put a light spectrum on the tube, then on-right on Universal choce. Look at the telescope and make sure you see a vertical light line. Position the prism grating at the

Measured the Line Spectra of He Align the collimator and the telescope optical spectrometer. Align the light lines are visible in the telescope with vertical threads on the telescope. Turn the telescope to one direction (right) and make sure the observed spectral lines. So also in the opposite direction (left). Return the telescope to its normal position. Rotate back to the right slowly so that the observed color of the first line on the order of 1 (n = 1). Align the mark on the vertical threads telescope with the first color line and read the scale on the spectrometer appointment as right Turn the telescope to the left so that the observed color of the first line on the order of 1 (n = 1) and read the scale on the spectrometer appointment as left Repeat the activity (2) and (3) for the next color stripes on the same order, Repeat the activity (2) and (3) for the next color stripes on the next order, Replace light bulbs with Ne He, then repeat the action (1) to (7). Determined the interval between two lines of Na-D Remove the lamp and replace it with the lights Ne Na, Find two yellow Na-D line of the first diffraction maximum on either side of the main, Align the mark on the vertical threads telescope with yellow lines and read the scale on the spectrometer appointment as Right, Turn the telescope to the left so that the observed yellow lines on the order of 1 and read the scale on the spectrometer appointment as Left, Repeat activities (2) to (4) on the next order.

RESULTS AND DATA ANALYSIS Observation Result: 1 The Least Scale of Spectrometer = 60 Slit = 600 line/m = 0,0006 line/nm Table 1 : Line Spectra of Helium Orde Spectra Colour Violet Blue Dye Blue Green Yellow Orange Red Violet Blue Dye Blue Green Yellow Orange Red right ( 0) 15,67 16,25 17,20 17,57 19,07 23,35 23,48 26,90 left (0) 5,25 5,75 7,58 7,92 10,53 13,33 13,83 14,52 ( right + left) (0) 20,92 22,00 24,78 25,48 29,60 36,68 37,32 41,42 43,62 44,40 45,95 51,75 55,53 59,23

Table 3 : Line Spectra of Neon Orde Spectra Colour Violet Blue Dye Blue Green Yellow Orange Red Violet Blue Dye Blue Green Yellow Orange Red right (0) 5,42 5,92 7,27 8,25 10,15 12,68 14,58 23,92 25,67 29,52 29,67 35,18 36,60 39,08 left (0) 14,75 16,33 16,90 17,15 20,77 23,18 25,08 25,67 34,17 35,48 45,77 49,58 52,33 54,70 ( right + left) (0) 20,17 22,25 24,17 25,40 30,92 35,87 39,67 49,58 59,83 65,00 75,43 84,77 88,93 93,78

26,97 16,65 27,32 27,98 31,68 32,02 33,82 17,08 17,97 20,07 23,52 25,42

Analysis of Data Determine Of Wavelength . Where, = () = + (0) n = orde difraction N = Determine uncertainly of wave length. + = sin 2 = +
=
1 2

Table 2 : Line Spectra of Natrium Line D1(Right) D2(Left) N 1 2 1 2 (0) 20,47 33,97 11,97 20,87 (nm) 296,21 487,01 86,90 150,97

cos

1 2

cos

Because , = = + 1 = cos 2 2 =
+ 1 cos 2 2 +

sin

= 100% =

Line Spectra of Helium Orde 1 Violet = sin


20.92 2

Table 4. Result the Wavelength of Line Spectra Helium Orde Spectra Colour Violet Blue Dye Blue Green Yellow Orange Red Violet Blue Dye Blue Green Yellow Orange Red Wave Length (x 10 nm) 30.3 1.4 31.8 1.4 35.8 1.4 36.8 1.4 42.6 1.4 52.5 1.3 53.3 1.3 29.5 0.7 31.0 0.7 31.5 0.7 32.5 0.7 36.4 0.6 38.8 0.6 41.2 0.6

1 0.0006 1
1 2 2 2

= 302.65 =

1 20,920 2 2 20,920 2

0,017 302.65

= 13, 93 nm 13. 93nm = 100% = 4,60% 302.65 = 467 13

Line Spectra of Neon = 583 13 Orde 2 Violet: = sin


41.42 2

Orde 1 Violet sin


20.17 2

2 0.0006

1 0.0006

= 294.79 =
1 2 2 2

= 291.92 =
1 2 2 2

1 41,42 0 2 2 41,42 0 2

0,017 294.79

1 20,17 0 2 2 20,17 0 2

0,017 291.92

= 13.95 nm = 13. 93nm 100% = 4,78 % 291.92

= 6.63 nm = 6.63 nm 100% = 2.25 % 294.79

= 442 5

= 29.2 1.4 10 Orde 2 Violet: = sin


49.58 2

2 0.0006

= 349.57 =
1 2 2 2

colimator, and atom different type. Each element have a wave length certainty which influenced by the total of angle ( right + left), total of slit and orde. CONCLUSION

1 49.58 0 2 2 49.58 0 2

0.017 349.57

= 6.43 nm = 6.43 nm 100% = 1.84 % 349.57

The wave length is influenced by total of angle, orde and the total of slit. The longest wave length is red colour and the shortest is violet and each element have a wave length certainty. BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] Krane, Kenneth. 1992. Fisika Modern. Jakarta : UI Press [2] Subaer, dkk. 2013. Penuntun Praktikum Eksperimen Fisika I Unit Laboratorium Fisika Modern Jurusan Fisika FMIPA UNM.

= 35.0 0.6 10 Table 5. Result the Wave length of Line Spectra Neon Orde Spectra Colour Violet Blue Dye Blue Green Yellow Orange Red Violet Blue Dye Blue Green Yellow Orange Red Wave length (x 10 nm) 29.2 1.4 32.2 1.4 34.9 1.4 36.7 1.4 44.4 1.4 51.3 1.3 56.6 1.3 35.0 0.6 41.6 0.6 44.8 0.6 51.0 0.6 56.2 0.5 58.4 0.5 60.9 0.5

In the experiment, there is seven colours of spectra, they are: violet, blue dye, blue, green, yellow, orange and red, although for orde, there are two orders which used. We used three elements, they are helium, neon and natrium. The objectives of experiment is to determine of wave length of line spectra of atom different type, and the result of experiment is red colour have the longest wave length and violet colour have the shortest wave length. And this appropriate with the theory, where to determine the wave length, we used a spectrometer which in these measuring is gotten a prism which produces colour different type. In this experiment too, we used slit,