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computer network,

A computer network, or simply a network, is a collection of computers and other hardware interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing of resources and information. OR network is a group of two or more computer systems linked together. There are two types of networks: Peer-to-peer networks: In this networking system all computers are given e ual importance. All the software and data are stored on each computer and accesses to them are given to each user. local-area networks (LANs) : The computers are geographically close together !that is, in the same building". wide-area networks (WANs) : The computers are farther apart and are connected by telephone lines or radio waves. campus-area networks (CANs): The computers are within a limited geographic area, such as a campus or military base. metropolitan-area networks MANs): A data network designed for a town or city. home-area networks (HANs): A network contained within a user#s home that connects a person#s digital devices.

topolog : The geometric arrangement of a computer system. $ommon topologies include a bus, star, and ring. %ee the &etwork topology diagrams in the 'uick Reference section of (ebopedia. protocol : The protocol defines a common set of rules and signals that computers on the network use to communicate. One of the most popular protocols for )A&s is called Ethernet. Another popular )A& protocol for *$s is the IBM token-ring network .

The word topology means +arrangement,, so when we talk about the topology of a network, we mean how the different parts are arranged and connected together. There are three common network topologies...

!us Network
In this type of network, a long" central ca#le, the +bus, is used to connect all of the computers together. -ach computer has a short cable linking it to the +bus,. A bus network. Is cheap to install !/ust one long cable" $an be $uite slow since all computers share the same cable when communicating (ill stop working if there is a #reak in the central bus ca#le.

%ing Network
In this type of network each computer is connected to a loop o& ca#le, the +ring,. !If you took a bus network and connected the ends of the bus cable together, you would have a ring network." A ring network. $an cope with a #reak in the ring cable since all computers are still /oined together !it is now a bus network"

'tar Network
In this type of network every computer is connected to a central de(ice. The device passes messages between computers. At the centre of a star network you might use a hu# !cheap, but slower" or a switch !more e0pensive, but faster". A star network. Is $uite e)pensi(e to install !you have to buy lots o& ca#le and the central de(ice" Is (er &ast since each computer has its own cable which it doesn,t need to share $an cope with a #roken ca#le !only one computer will be affected" (ill stop working if the central de(ice #reaks Is the most common network topology

H #rid Network
A hybrid network is simply one that com#ines two or more of the above #asic topologies. -.g. A network that has se(eral star networks linked together is a hybrid network

N*+W,%-.N/ HA%0WA%*:---

Network .nter&ace Card (N.C)

Any computer that is to be connected to a network, needs to have a network interface card !&I$". 1ost modern computers have these devices built into the motherboard, but in some computers you have to add an e0tra e0pansion card !small circuitboard"

Some computers, such as laptops, have two NICs: one for wired connections, and one for wireless connections which uses radio signals instead of wires!

In a laptop, the wireless radio antenna is usuall" #uilt in to the side of the screen, so "ou don$t need to have a long #it of plastic sticking out the side of "our computer%

Network Ca#le
To connect together different devices to make up a network, you need cables. Ca#les are still used in most networks, rather than using only wireless, because they can carry much more data per second, and are more secure !less open to hacking".

&he most common t"pe of network ca#le ca#le in use toda" looks like the one shown a#ove, with plastic plugs on the ends that snap into sockets on the network devices' Inside the ca#le are several copper wires some used for sending data in one direction, and some for the other direction!'

A hub is a device that connects a number of computers together to make a LAN. The typical use of a hub is at the centre o& a star network !or as part of a hybrid network" 2 the hub has cables plugged into it from each computer.

A hub is a +dum#, device: if it receives a message, it sends it to e(er computer on the network. This means that hub2based networks are not (er secure 2 everyone can listen in to communications.

(u#s are prett" much o#solete now "ou can$t #u" them an" more!, having #een superseded #" cheap switches'

A switch, like a hub, is a device that connects a number of computers together to make a LAN. The typical use of a switch is at the centre o& a star network !or as part of a hybrid network" 2 the switch has cables plugged into it from each computer. A switch is a more +intelligent, device than a hub: if it receives a message, it checks who it is addressed to, and only sends it to that speci&ic computer. 3ecause of this, networks that use switches are more secure than those that use hubs, but also a little more e)pensi(e.

A router is a network device that connects together two or more networks. A common use of a router is to 1oin a home or business network !LAN" to the .nternet !(A&". The router will typically have the Internet cable plugged into it, as well as a cable, or cables to computers on the )A&.

Alternatively, the )A& connection might be wireless !(i4i", making the device a wireless router. !A wireless router is actually a router and wireless switch combined"
)outers are the devices that *oin together the various different networks that together make up the Internet' &hese routers are much more complex than the one "ou might have in "our home

Pro) 'er(er
A pro0y server is a computer setup to share a resource, usually an .nternet connection. Other computers can re uest a web page via the pro0y server. The pro0y server will then get the page using its Internet connection, and pass it back to the computer who asked for it. *ro0y servers are often used instead of router since additional so&tware can be easily installed on the computer such as anti2virus, web filtering etc.

A bridge is a network device that typically links together two di&&erent parts o& a LAN.

(hereas a router is usually used to link a )A& to a (A& !such as the Internet", a bridge links independent parts of a )A& so that they act as a single )A&.

A firewall is a de(ice, or a piece of so&tware that is placed between your computer and the rest of the network !where the hackers are5" If you wish to protect your whole )A& from hackers out on the Internet, you would place a firewall #etween the LAN and the .nternet connection.

A firewall #locks unauthorised connections being made to your computer or )A&. &ormal data is allowed through the firewall !e.g. e2mails or web pages" but all other data is blocked.

In addition to ph"sical devices, firewalls can also #e software' In fact most computer operating s"stems have a software firewall #uilt in e'g' +indows, ,inu- and Mac .S!

3efore the days of broadband Internet connections, most computers connected to the Internet via telephone lines !dial-up connections". The problem with using telephone lines is that they are designed to carry (oices, which are analogue signals. They are not designed for digital data.

The solution was to use a special device to /oin the digital computer to the analogue telephone line. This device is known as a modem. A modem contains a 6A$ and an A6$. The 6A$ in the modem is re uired so that the digital computer can send data down the analogue telephone line !it converts digital data into noises which is e0actly what the telephone line is designed to carry." The A6$ in the modem is re uired so that the analogue signals !noises" that arrive via the telephone line can be converted back into digital data.
&he reason telephone lines were used is that almost ever" #uilding in the world is alread" *oined to ever" other via the telephone s"stem' /sing the telephone s"stem for connecting computers meant that people didn0t have to install new wires to their houses and offices *ust for computer use' In the last few "ears however, this is e-actl" what people have done' Special ca#les have #een installed *ust for Internet access' &hese special ca#les are designed to carr" digital data, so no modem is re1uired' &he word modem is an a##reviation of MOdulator DEModulator' 2 modulator acts as a 32C, and a demodulator acts as an 23C'

%o, simply put, a modem is re uired because computers are digital devices and the telephone s stem is analogue. The modem con(erts from digital to analogue and from analogue to digital.
If "ou have ever used a dial-up connection, "ou have pro#a#l" heard the noises sent #" the modem down the telephone line' &he" sound like a horri#le screeching #eeping sound'

.N+*%N*+:-The Internet is a world-wide network that has grown and evolved from an e0perimental network !AR*A&et" created by the 7% military back in the 89:;s. Over the years, as more and more computers and networks have connected to this network, it has grown into the Internet that we know today.

What Can We 3se the .nternet 2or4

The Internet provides the network connections that links computers together. There are many ways that we can use these connections: <iew we# pages on the ((( !(orld2(ide (eb" %ending and receiving e-mail messages 'haring &iles $ommunicating using (oice !<OI*" and (ideo !video2conferencing" *laying multi-pla er games )istening to streamed music or watching streamed (ideo

An intranet is the name given to a pri(ate network that provides similar ser(ices to The Internet: e2mail, messaging, web pages, etc. =owever, these services are onl &or the users o& the intranet > they are pri(ate, not public !unlike Internet services which are generally public". !usinesses and other organisations often have intranets for use by their emplo ees. Typical uses of an intranet would be: <iewing internal we# pages !e.g. company calendars, etc." .nternal e-mail and instant-messaging between workers 'haring o& internal documents

Network ,perating ' stem also referred to as the 6ialoguer, is the software that runs on a server and enables the server to manage data, users, groups, security, applications, and other networking functions. The network operating system is designed to allow shared file and printer access among multiple computers in a network, typically a local area network !)A&", a private network or to other networks. +he most popular network operating s stems are: 1icrosoft (indows %erver ?;;@ , 1icrosoft (indows %erver ?;;A , 7&IB, )inu0, 1ac O% B, &ovell &et(are.

E-commerce :---

*lectronic commerce, commonly known as e-commerce, is a type of industry where buying and selling of product or service over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. -lectronic commerce draws on such technologies as mobile commerce, electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange !-6I", inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. 1odern electronic commerce typically uses the (orld (ide (eb at least at one point in the transaction#s life2cycle, although it may encompass a wider range of technologies such as e2mail, mobile devices social media, and telephones as well. -lectronic commerce is generally considered to be the sales aspect of e2business. It also consists of the e0change of data to facilitate the financing and payment aspects of business transactions. -2commerce can be divided into:

-2tailing or Cvirtual storefrontsC on (eb sites with online catalogs, sometimes gathered into a Cvirtual mallC The gathering and use of demographic data through (eb contacts and social media -lectronic 6ata Interchange !-6I", the business2to2business e0change of data -2mail and fa0 and their use as media for reaching prospects and established customers !for e0ample, with newsletters" 3usiness2to2business buying and selling

What is E-Governance?
It is the use of a range of modern Information and $ommunication Technologies such as Internet, )ocal Area &etworks, mobiles etc. by Dovernment to improve the effectiveness, efficiency, service delivery and to promote democracy

%everal dimension and factors influence the definition of e-/o(ernance. The word EelectronicF in the term e2Dovernance implies technology driven governance. -2 Dovernance is the application of Information and $ommunication Technology !I$T" for delivering government services, e0change of information communication transactions, integration of various stand2alone systems and services between /o(ernment-to-Citi5ens (/6C) " /o(ernment-to-!usiness(/6!) "/o(ernment-to/o(ernment( /6/) as well as back office processes and interactions within the entire government frame work. Through the e2Dovernance, the government services will be made available to the citiGens in a convenient, efficient and transparent manner. The three main target groups that can be distinguished in governance concepts are Dovernment, citiGens and businessesHinterest groups. In eDovernance there are no distinct boundaries. Denerally four basic models are available2Dovernment to $ustomer !$itiGen", Dovernment to -mployees, Dovernment to Dovernment and Dovernment to 3usines.