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EQUIPMENTS IN SUB-STATION

ISOLATOR : It used for supporting live conductor and bus bars. For 66 kv switch yard stack, mounted horizontal or vertical as per condition. CONDUCTOR : Generally copper / luminium material used. !ow a days luminium conductor used for it"s higher conductivity on weight basis, low cost for same current capacity and e#cellent corrosion resistance and formability, for reliable connection they can be coted with silver. OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER AND RECLOSER : $he %& 'ircuit breaker are intended for making/breaking high voltage circuits when they carry the normal load current/break circuit in case of fault. Generally pneumatic/hydraulic/mechanically operated breaker should be used instead of solenoid mechanisum. $he re(closers used on low voltage bus structure columns and thus separate structure can be avoided. AIR BREAK/DISCONNECTED SWITCH : $hey are manually operated but can also be mounted if they are to be of remote controlled type. !ow a days automatic sectionalization switches used. $he disconnect switch for )6 k& and below are generally of single pole and have hook stick operated mechanism but they can also be of group(operated mechanism. $he **+ kv and higher voltage disconnected switches are group operated. %owever, these air break switches are opened only after the circuit breaker had made the circuit dead. TRANSFORMERS : $he use of , phase transformers, because of the advantages of , transformer is that in case of fault in one of them it could be completely replaced by new one. $he main advantage of , phase transformer need only one , phase load tap changing mechanism could be used. Further the installation of a single , phase transformer is much simpler than , phase transformer. $he , phase transformer generally installed over a flat concrete slab foundation In order to provide ventilation the large transformer are placed upon length of rail. CARRIER CURRENT EQUIPMENT : -uch e.uipment is used for communication, relaying tele metering or for supervisory control. $his e.uipment is suitably mounted and connected to the high voltage power circuit. $he communication e.uipment is mounted ad/acent to the breaker and connected above the breaker termination. PROTECHTIVE FUSE AND RELAYS : $he fuses are very commonly provided on the high voltage side longwith the other protection device. It serves to protect the transformer from the system or it can also be said that the fuse protects the system from transformer. It"s also used to protects the power system e.uipment from damage against fault at any point enroute.

CONTROL CABLE AND CONDUIT SYSTEM : $he modern power comple# has made it all most necessary to provide automatic operation/interlocks. 'ontrol cables and conduits are necessary for effecting such automatic controls. $he control supply **+ or 00+ volt and cable used is multi conductor havinf *+ / ,1 or 6* conductors as per re.uirement. For laying this cables generally ducts are run from control house basement to centerally located /unction bo#es from where the conduits are to the re.uired point. SWITCH BOARD : It consists of meters, relays and control e.uipment. $he essential meters are placed as the top end. 2elay and nonessential meters are placed at the bottom, so as to facilitate their operation. CONTROL ROOM : ll e.uipment such as switch board carrier current e.uipment, batteries etc. Generally 0 3 *.4 5tr. 6asement hatch way left in floor for facilitating the installation. 6elow the switch board a slot of about *+ cm. 7rovided for control room cable. Equipment *.6usbars Function &arious incoming and out going circuits are connected to bus bars. 6us bars receive power from incoming circuits and deliver power to outgoing circuits. Remarks 8ither 2igid luminium $ubular bus bars supported on post insulators. OR Fle#ible -'2 or ll aluminium stranded bus bars supported from two ends by strain insulators. $wo levels or three levels Indoor or outdoor. ( 'onnected generally between phase conductor and ground. ( :ocated as the first e.uipment as seen from the incoming overhead line and also near transformer terminals phase to ground. ( $wo types ? Gapped rresters and Gapless zinc(@#ide rrestors.

0. -urge rresters 9:ightning rresters;

-urge rresters discharge the over < voltage surges to earth and protect the e.uipment insulation from switching surges and lighting surges. 9=ord >-urge" refers to impulse wave is transmission of distribution systems.;

,. Isolators $o provide isolation ( :ocated at each side of 9 Aisconnecting from live parts for the circuit breaker. -witch ; purpose of maintenance. ( Aoes not have any rating for current breaking or

current making. ( $ypes ? *. 'enter rotating horizontal swing. 0. 'enter(break ,. &ertical swing ). 7antograph type ( Interlocked with circuit breaker. ). 8arthing -witch Aischarging the voltage ( 5ounted on the frame of on the circuit to each for the isolators. safety. ( :ocation generally for each incomer and each bus bar -ection. -tepping down current (*. 7rotective '$ measurement, protection (0. 5easuring '$ and control. (:ocation decided by protective zone measurement re.uirement. -tepping down current ( $ypes ? for measurements, *. 8lectro magnetic protection and control. 0. 'apacitive &$ 9'&$; ( :ocation on feeder side of circuit breaker. -witching during normal and abnormal operating condition. $o interrupt short circuit currents. @perations include ? ( closing ( opening ( auto(reclosing :ocated near every switching point. :ocated at both end as every protected zone. ( types ? Aepending on rated voltage ? :ow voltages, medium high voltage, high voltage, e#tra high voltage. ( $ypes ? Aepending on medium of are .uenching ?

4. 'urrent $ransformer

6. &oltage $ransformer

1. 'ircuit breaker

B. 7ower $ransformer

( $hree single phase units to form a three bank used when single three phase unit becomes too large to transport. ( 7rovided with coolers. ( 7rovided with tamp( changers. D. -hunt 2eactors Csed for long 8 % & ( Csually oil filled, transmission lines to gapped core, shielded. control voltage during ( Csually unswitched. low(load period. $o compensate shunt capacitance of transmission line during low load periods. *+. -hunt 'apacitor For compensating ( :ocated at receiving reactive power of stations and Aistribution lagging power factor. -ub(stations. $o improve power ( 6anks rated *,0 k&, 66 factor. For voltage k&, ,, k&, ** k&, 6.6 k& control during heavy etc. lagging power factor ( -witched in during loads. heavy loads, switched off during low loads. **. -ales 'apacitor Csed for some long 8 % ( 'apacitor bank located & . '. lines to improve at sending(end and/or power transferability. receiving(end of line. ( 7rovided with by(pass circuit(breaker and protective spark(gaps. *0. 'arrier 8.uipment Csed for protection and ( :ine trap unit usually :ine trap communication mounted above ' & $ or unit signaling, voice on separate structure. ( 'oupling 'apacitor communication, ( 'oupling capacitor ( 8lectronic protection signaling, mounted on structure. 8.uipment tele# channel, control ( $unning unit.

$o step(up or step(down .'. voltages and to transfer electrical power from one voltage level to another. $ap changers used for voltage control. For every large transformers, $ransportation, rail permit etc. should be decided in advance.

*. -F 0. &acuum ,. ir blast ). 5inimum @il. ( Csually oil filled for outdoor use. ( two winding or three winding.

and monitoring signals. *,. 5arshalling Eiosks $o mount monitoring instruments, control e.uipment and to provide access to various transducers. 'ontrol and protective cable are laid between 5arshalling Eiosks located in switchyard and corresponding indoor control panels. $o house various 5easuring Instruments, 'ontrol Instruments, 7rotective 2elays.

( 7 : ' ' panels located in 'ontrol room. ( :ocated switchyard near every power transformer F a group of e.uipment in a bay.

*). 5etering 7anels, 'ontrol and 2elay 7anels 9Indoor;

( :ocated in air( conditioned building. 'ontrol cables and laid between switchyard e.uipment and these panels. *4. 5edium &oltage . '. $o provide . '. power ( :ocated inside switchgear and :ow to au#iliaries, station switchgear building. &oltage . '. lightning system etc. at -witchgear 9Indoor;. respective voltage levels. *6. -tation 8arthing $o provide a low ( 8arth(mat and earth -ystem resistance 8arthing for electrodes placed below ( discharging currents ground level. 'onnected from surge arrestors, to e.uipment structures, overhead shielding, neutral points for purpose 8arthing switches. of 8.uipment 8arthing ( For e.uipment body and !eutral 7oint 8arthing 8arthing. ( for safe touch potential and step potential in substation. ( for providing path for neutral to ground currents for earth fault protection. *1. :ightning 7rotection $o protect substation (:ightning 5asts located e.uipment from direct in outdoor yard. lightning strokes. ( lternatively, overhead shieding wires to cover entire outdoor yard. *B. -eries 2eactors $o limit short(circuit ( :ocated at strategic 9'urrent current and to limit locations such that fault

:imiting 2eactor; *D. Isolated 7hase 6us -ystem

0+. !eutral Grounding (-hort(time rated. 8.uipment 'onnected between (2esistor neutral point and ground. ( 2eactor 0*. -tatic &ar -ources $o provide stepless, ($hyristor controlled 9-&-; variable shunt shunt reactor and shunt compensation for capacitor voltage control. ( 2apid control of voltage. 00. :ine trap Inductive coil usually ('onnected in outdoor outdoor. yard incoming line. ( 7ast of 7:'' re.uirement. 0,. 7ower 'ables ( -ingle (7 & ' insulated core (3 : 7 8 insulated ( ( $hree (for power flow core 0). 'ontrol 'ables ( 5ulti (7 & ' insulated core ( -hiclded ( For protection, 'ontrolme asurements etc. ( :ow voltage 04. Insulators ( -tring ( For ( 7rocelain Insulator Fle#ible ( Glass s -'2 ( 8po#y for ( *. conductors ( Indoor use $ension ( For tublar ( 0. conductors -uspensi ( For on apparatus ( 7ost

current surges associated with fluctuating loads. 7rovides connection between generator and main transformer. %igh normal currents. $o provide connection between : & side of power transformer and indoor metal clad switchgear. $o limit short(circuit current during ground fault.

levels are reduced. !ow no more preferred. ( luminium enclosures for each phase conductor. 'an withstand high. -hort(circuit currents due to magnetic shielding provided by enclosures.

insulators -olid care

LIST OF EQUIPMENTS IN SUB STATIONS *. 0. ,. ). 4. 6. 'ircuit breaker 66/*,0 k&? a; 6ulk oil 9b; 5inimum oil c; -F 6 Isolaters $ransformer a; 7ower b; Aistribution 8arth -witches 7otential $ransformers ? a; 'urrent b; 7otential 'ircuit breaker ** k& a; 6ulk b; 5inimuum oil c; -F(6 d; &acuum 1. 7ower line carrier communication e.uipment B. =ire less set D. $elephone *+. 6atteries **. 6attery 'harger *0. ' Aistribution 6oard *,. A ' Aistribution 6oard *). !eutral 2esistance *4. !eutral 2esistance *6. 'apacitor 6ank *1. 8arting $ransformer *B. Fire 8#tingusher *D. :ighting restor PERMISSIBLE CONTINOUS RATING OF FEEDERS SYSTEM VOLTAGE *,0 k& *,0 k& 66 k& 66 k& 66 k& 66 k& 66 k& ** k& ** k& ** k& RATING OF TRANSFORMERS : SIZE OF CABLE/CONDUCTOR +.0 -..inch. +.*04 -..inch. +.0 -..inch. +.*14 -..inch +.4 -..inch. +.* -..inch. 0)+ -..mm *.04 -..inch. +.0 -..inch. 0)+.-..mm CURRENT CAPACITY )4+ 0B+ )4+ ,B+ 044.-..inch. 0*+ D66 0,+ 00+ 04)

4 5& *0.4 5& *4 5& 0+ 5& ,+ 5& 4+ 5& 64 5& *++ k& *6+ k&

66/** k& 66/** k& 66/** k& 66/** k& *,0/**k& *,0/66 k& *,0/66 k& ** k&/ ))+ & ** k&/))+ &

)B.B/060.4 *+D/646 *,*/1B1.4 *14/*+4+ *,*/*414 0*B.1/),1.) 0B).,/46B.6 4.04/*,,.,) B.)/0*,,