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Design Calculations, Section VIII, Division 1

Pressure Vessel Design


Shall include the requirements of: Introduction Subsection A, General Requirements Subsection B, Methods of Fabrication Subsection C, Classes of Materials Mandatory Appendices Section II, V, and IX when reference May include: Code Cases Nonmandatory Appendices Other sources which do not conflict with mandatory requirements

UG-16 General
(b) Minimum thickness of shells and heads is 1/16 in. (1.5 mm) excluding corrosion allowance (C.A.), after forming & regardless of product form except: (1) Heat transfer plates of plate type heat exchangers. (2) Inner pipe of double pipe heat exchangers and tubes in shell and tube heat exchangers (where the pipe or tube is NPS 6 [DIN 150] or less. (3) Unfired steam boilers shall be 1/4 in. (6mm) exclusive of corrosion allowance. (4) Compressed air, steam or water service vessels of UCS-23 materials shall be 3/32 in. (2.5mm) excluding corrosion allowance.

UG-16 General
(c) Mill Under tolerance Plate material shall not be ordered thinner than the design thickness. Vessels made of plate furnished with an under tolerance of not more than the smaller of 0.01 in. (0.25mm) or 6% of the ordered thickness may be used at the full design pressure for the ordered thickness. When the material spec, allows a greater under tolerance, the ordered thickness shall be increased so the material received is within these stated tolerances. (d) Pipe Under tolerance If pipe or tube is ordered by its nominal wall thickness, the material specification manufacturing under tolerance on wall thickness shall be taken into account (except for nozzle wall reinforcement area requirements per UG-37).

UG-16 General
After determining the minimum t, the thickness shall be increased by an amount sufficient to provide the manufacturing under tolerance allowed in the material specification.
NPS 6 8 10 OD 6.625 8.625 10.75 SCH 10 SCH 20 0.109 0.134 SCH 30 SCH 40 0.280 SCH 60 SCH SCH SCH 80 100 160 0.432 0.718

0.250 0.277 0.322 0.406 0.500 0.593 0.906 0.250 0.307 0.365 0.500 0.593 0.718 1.125

The decimal thicknesses listed for the respective pipe sizes represent their nominal or average wall dimensions and include an allowance of 12.5% under the nominal thickness.

UG-16 General
(e) Corrosion Allowance In Design Formulas All dimensional symbols used in all design formulas throughout this Division represent dimensions in the corroded condition. Therefore, material designated for corrosion purposes cannot contribute to the strength of the vessel. Such material must be deducted when determining design pressure, and added to the required thickness to determine design thickness. (Definitions, Appendix 3)

UG-19 Special Constructions


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(b) Special Shapes Vessels other than cylindrical or spherical and those for which no design rules are provided in this Division may be designed under the conditions set forth in U-2. U-2(g) This Division of Section VIII does not contain rules to cover all details of design and construction. Where complete details are not given, it is intended that the manufacturer, subject to the acceptance of the Inspector, shall provide details of design and construction which will be as safe as those provided by the rules of this Division. (c) No Design Rules When no design rules are given and the strength of a vessel (or part) cannot be calculated with a satisfactory assurance of accuracy, Maximum Allowable Working Pressure shall be established in accordance with the provisions of UG-101. (Proof testing)

UG-20 Design Temperature


(a) Maximum Shall not be less than the mean metal temperature under operating conditions for the part under consideration. May be determined by computation or measurement from equipment "in service" under equivalent operating conditions. (b) Minimum Is the lowest expected "in service", Determined same as for maximum temperature, Consideration includes: Lowest operating temperatures, Operational upsets, Auto refrigeration, Atmospheric conditions, Any other source of cooling.

UG-20 Design Temperature


(c) Maximum Design temperatures in excess of the maximum temperatures listed in the tables referenced in UG-23 are not permitted. In addition, design temperatures for vessels under external pressure shall not exceed the maximum temperatures given on the external pressure charts. (d) The design of zones with different metal temperatures may be based on their determined temperatures. (e) Suggested methods for obtaining the operating temperatures of vessel walls in service are given in Appendix C.

UG-21 Design Pressure


When determining design pressure, consideration must include the following. At least the most severe condition if coincident pressure and temperature expected in normal operation. The operating and test conditions including the maximum difference in pressure between The inside and outside of the vessel, Any two chambers of a combination unit.

UG-98 Maximum Allowable Working Pressure


(a) It is the maximum permissible pressure at the top of the vessel in its normal operating position.

(b) The MAWP for a vessel is the maximum internal or external pressure, including static head thereon as determined by the rules and formulas of this Division, together with the effect of any combination of loadings listed in UG-22 which are likely to occur for the designated coincident temperature, excluding any metal specified as corrosion allowance (UG-25).

UG-22 Loadings
The loadings to be considered in designing a vessel shall include those from: Internal or external design pressure (UG-21). Weight of the vessel & normal contents under operating or test conditions (this includes additional pressure due to the static head of liquids).

- 1 cubic foot of water at 62F = 62.35 lb. - 62.35 lb. /1728 cubic inches = 0.0361 lb. / cu. inch - 0.0361 cu. inches x 12 inches = 0.433 lb./foot (for water)

UG-23 Maximum Allowable Stress Values


The maximum allowable tensile stress values permitted for different materials are given in Subpart 1 of Section II, Part D. A listing of these materials are included in Subsection C. Materials meeting more than one specification and/or grade may be used provided all requirements for the selected specification and/or grade are met.

UG-25 Corrosion
(a) the user or his designated agent (see U-2) shall specify corrosion allowances other than those required by this Division. Where corrosion allowances are not provided, this fact shall be indicated in the Data Report. (b) vessels or parts subject to thinning by Corrosion Erosion Mechanical abrasion shall have provision made for the desired life of the vessel by a suitable increase in the thickness over that determined by the design formulas, or by using some other suitable method of protection. (See Appendix E).

UG-25 Corrosion
(c) Material for these purposes need not be of the same thickness for all parts of the vessel if different rates of attack are expected for the various parts. (d) No additional thickness need be provided when previous experience in like service has shown that corrosion does not occur or is of only a superficial nature. (e) Telltale Holes May be used to provide some positive indication when the thickness has been reduced to a dangerous degree. Shall not be used in vessels which are to contain lethal substances [seeUW-2(a)], except as permitted by ULW-76 for vent holes in layered construction.

UG-25 Corrosion
(e) Telltale Holes

(f) Openings for Drains Vessels subject to corrosion shall be supplied with a suitable drain opening at the lowest point practicable in the vessel; or a pipe may be used extending inward from any other location to within 1/4 in. (6mm) of the lowest point.

UG-27 Thickness of Shells Under Internal Pressure


(a) The minimum required thickness of shells under internal pressure shall not be less than that computed by the following formulas13 except as permitted in Appendix 32 (local thin areas). In addition, provision shall be made for any of the loadings listed in UG22, when such loadings are expected. The provided thickness of the shells shall also meet the requirements of UG-16, except as permitted in Appendix 32. UG-16(b) requires that minimum thickness be determined after forming and exclusive of any c.a. UG-16(c) Mill undertolerance UG-16(d) Pipe Undertolerance UG-16(e) Corrosion Allowance in Design Formulas
Formulas in terms of outside radius and for thicknesses and pressures beyond the limits fixed in this paragraph are given in 1-1 to 1-3.
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UG-27 Thickness of Shells Under Internal Pressure


(b) The symbols defined below are used in the formulas of this paragraph. t = minimum required thickness P = internal design pressure R = inside radius of the shell course under consideration S = maximum allowable stress value (see UG-23 and the stress limitations specified in UG-24 E = joint efficiency for, or the efficiency of, appropriate joint in cylindrical or spherical shells, or the efficiency of ligaments between openings, whichever is less For welded vessels: UW-12, for ligaments: UG-53

UG-27 Thickness of Shells Under Internal Pressure


(c) Cylindrical Shells. The minimum thickness or Maximum allowable Working Pressure of cylindrical shells shall be the greater thickness or lesser pressure as given in (1) or (2) below. (c)(l) Circumferential Stress (Longitudinal Joints)

(c)(2) Longitudinal Stress (Circumferential Joints15)

These formulas will govern only when the circumferential joint efficiency is less than one-half the longitudinal joint efficiency, or when the effect of supplemental loadings (UG-22) are being investigated.
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UG-27 Thickness of Shells Under Internal Pressure


(c)(l) Circumferential Stress (Longitudinal Joints)

(c)(2) Longitudinal Stress (Circumferential Joints)

UG-27 Thickness of Shells Under Internal Pressure


Example: Assume P = 150PSI R = 24 inches E=1.0 S = 17, 500

(c)(l) Circumferential stress (Longitudinal Joints)

(c)(2) Longitudinal Stress (CircumferentialJoints)

UG-32 Formed Heads and Sections, Pressure on the Concave Side


(a) The required thickness at the thinnest point after forming of ellipsoidal, torispherical hemispherical, conical and toriconical heads under pressure on the concave side (plus heads) shall be computed by the appropriate formulas in this paragraph, except as permitted in Appendix 32 (Localized Thin Areas). (a) In addition, provision shall be made for any of the loadings listed in UG-22. The provided thickness of the heads shall also meet the requirements of UG-16, except as permitted in Appendix 32. (b) The thickness of an unstayed ellipsoidal or torispherical head shall in no case be less than the required thickness of a seamless hemispherical head divided by the efficiency of the head to shell joint.

UG-32 Formed Heads and Sections, Pressure on the Concave Side


(c) The symbols defined below are used in the formulas of this paragraph. t = minimum required thickness of the head after forming P = internal design pressure D = inside diameter of the head skirt; or inside length of a major axis of an ellipsoidal head; or inside diameter of a conical head at the point under consideration, measured perpendicular to the longitudinal axis. Dt = inside diameter of the conical portion of a toriconical head at its point of tangency to the knuckle, measured perpendicular to the axis of the cone. [ = D- 2r(l-cos a)]

UG-32 Formed Heads and Sections, Pressure on the Concave Side


r = inside knuckle radius S = maximum allowable stress value in tension as given in the tables referenced in UG-23, except as limited in UG-24 and (e) below E = lowest efficiency of any joint in the head; for hemispherical heads this includes head-to-shell joint; for welded vessels, use the efficiency specified in UW-12 L = inside spherical or crown radius. The value of L for elliptical heads shall be obtained from Table UG-37 a = one-half of the included (apex) angle of the cone at the center line of the head (see fig. 1-4)

UG-32 Formed Heads and Sections, Pressure on the Concave Side


(d) Ellipsoidal Heads with t/L >0.002. The required thickness of a dished head of semi-ellipsoidal form, in which half the minor axis (inside depth of head minus head skirt) equals one-fourth of the inside diameter of the head skirt, shall be determined by:

NOTE: For ellipsoidal heads with t/L< 0.002, the rules of l-4(f) shall also be met. An acceptable approximation of a 2:1 ellipsoidal head is one with a knuckle radius of 0.17D and a spherical radius of 0.90D.

UG-32 Formed Heads and Sections, Pressure on the Concave Side


(e)Torispherical Heads with t/L >0.002. The required thickness of a torispherical head for the case in which the knuckle radius is 6% of the inside crown radius and the inside crown radius equals the outside diameter of the skirt [see (j) below], shall be determined by:

Note: For torispherical heads with t/l <0.002, the rules of 1 -4(f) shall also be met.

UG-32 Formed Heads and Sections, Pressure on the Concave Side

(f) Hemispherical Heads. When the thickness of a hemispherical head does not exceed 0.356L, or P does not exceed 0.665SE, the following formula shall apply:

UG-32 Formed Heads and Sections, Pressure on the Concave Side

(g) Conical Heads and Sections (Without Transition Knuckle). The required thickness of conical heads or conical shell sections that have a half apex-angle a not greater than 30 deg shall be determined by:

UG-32 Formed Heads and Sections, Pressure on the Concave Side


(h) Toriconical Heads and Sections The required thickness of the knuckle shall be determined by formula (3)of l-4(d)in which:

UG-32 Formed Heads and Sections, Pressure on the Concave Side


(i) When an ellipsoidal, torispherical, hemispherical conical or toriconical head is of a lesser thickness than required by the rules of this paragraph, it shall be stayed as a flat surface according to the rules of UG-47 for braced and stayed flat plates. (o) If a torispherical, ellipsoidal, or hemispherical head is formed with a flattened spot or surface, the diameter of the flat spot shall not exceed that permitted for flat heads as given in Formula (1) in UG-34, using C = 0.25. (p) Openings in formed heads under internal pressure shall comply with the requirements of UG-36 through UG-47.

UG-34 Unstayed Flat Heads and Covers


(a) The minimum thickness of unstayed flat heads, cover plates and blind flanges shall conform to the requirements of this paragraph. Some acceptable types of flat heads and covers are shown in Fig. UG-34. In this figure, the dimensions of the component parts and the dimensions of the welds are exclusive of extra metal required for corrosion allowance.

UG-34 Unstayed Flat Heads and Covers


(c) The thickness of flat unstayed heads, covers and blind flanges shall conform to one of the following three requirements. (c)(l) Circular blind flanges conforming to the standards referenced in Table U-3, when the blind flange is of the types shown in Fig. UG34 sketches (j) and (k).

UG-34 Unstayed Flat Heads and Covers


(c) Flat unstayed heads, covers and blind flanges shall be calculated by the following formula: (c)(2)Circular

(c)(3) square, rectangular, elliptical, obround, segmented or otherwise noncircular

UG-36 Openings in Pressure Vessels


(c)(2)(a) Openings in Cylindrical or conical shells, or formed heads shall be reinforced to satisfy the requirements of UG-37 except as given in (3) below. (c)(2)(b) Openings in flat heads shall be reinforced as required by UG-39. (c)(3) Openings in vessels not subject to rapid fluctuation in pressure do not require reinforcement other than that inherent in the construction under the following conditions: (a) welded, brazed or flued connections with a finished opening not larger than: 3 1/2 in. (89mm) dia. in vessel shells or heads with a required minimum thickness of 3/8 in. (10mm) or less 2 3/8 in. (60mm) dia. in vessel shells and heads over a minimum required thickness of 3/8 in (10mm).

UG-36 Openings in Pressure Vessels


UG-36(c) exemptions to reinforcement consideration, continued... UG-36(c)(3)(b) threaded, studded or expanded connections in which the hole cut in the shell or head is not greater than 2 3/8 in. (60mm) dia. UG-36(c)(3)(c) no two unreinforced openings, in accordance with (a) or (b) above, shall have their centers closer to each other than the sum of their diameters example

UG-36 Openings in Pressure Vessels


(d) Openings Through Welded Joints Additional provisions governing openings through welded joints are given in UW-14. UW-14 (a) Any type of opening that meets the requirements for reinforcement given in UG-37 or UG-39 may be located in a welded joint. UW-14(b) Single openings meeting the requirements given in UG36(c)(3) may be located in head-to-shell or Category B or C butt welded joints, provided the weld meets the RT requirements of UW-51 for a length equal to three times the diameter of the opening with the center of the hole at midlength. Defects that are completely removed in cutting the hole shall not be considered in judging the acceptability of the weld.

UW-14 Openings in or Adjacent to Welds


UW-14(c) In addition to meeting the radiographic requirements of (b) above, when multiple openings meeting UG-36(c)(3) are in line in head-to-shell or Category B or C butt welded joints, the requirements of UG-53 (ligaments) shall be met or the openings shall be reinforced in accordance with UG-37 through UG-42. UW-14(d) Except when the adjacent butt weld satisfies the requirements for radiography in (b) above, the edge of openings in solid plate meeting the requirements of UG-36(c)(3) shall not be placed closer than 1/2 in. (13mm) to the edge of a Category A, B, or C weld for material 1 1/2 in. (38mm) thick or less.

UG-37 Reinforcement Required For Openings in Shells and Formed Heads


(b) General. The rules of this paragraph apply to all openings other than: Small openings, UG- 36(c)(3) Openings in flat heads, UG-39 Openings designed as reducer sections, UG-36(e) Large head openings, UG-36(b)(2) Tube holes with ligaments, UG-53 Reinforcement shall be provided in amount and distribution such that the area requirements for reinforcement are satisfied for all planes through the center of the opening and normal to the vessel surface.

Fig. UG-37.1

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