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MODULE 12 TITLE

CPCL HYDROCRACKER UNIT TRAINING UNIT START-UP/SHUTDOWN GENERAL GUIDELINES-INITIAL START-UP OBJECTIVES

The participant shall be able to: 1. 2. !. !. #. Display knowledge of the main unit start-up and shutdown steps List equipment and process limitations for unit startup shutdown List precautions taken during unit startup shutdown List potential ha"ards of a unit startup shutdown Display knowledge of unit startup shutdown preparations

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MODULE 12 TITLE

CPCL HYDROCRACKER UNIT TRAINING UNIT START-UP/SHUTDOWN GENERAL GUIDELINES - INITIAL START-UP

$.% - OPERATING PROCESS GUIDELINES & Taken from 'ection $.% of the ()(L )rocess *anual This section discusses operating process guidelines for the following acti+ities: $.1 ,eneral ,uidelines for -eactors $.2 )recommissioning .cti+ities $.! 'ystems (ommissioning $.# 'tartup )rocess ,uidelines 'tep .: -eactor 'ection /nitial Tightness Testing 'tep 0: -eactor 'ection /nitial Dryout 12o (atalyst3 and 4perating )ressure Tightness Testing 'tep (: (atalyst Loading 'tep D: -eactor 'ection 5eatup 6ith 7resh (atalyst 'tep 8: (atalyst 'ulfiding 'tep 7: 9,4 7eed /ntroduction 'tep ,: .chie+ing 4nspecification )roducts $.$ 2ormal 'hutdown )rocess ,uidelines $.: 8mergency )rocess ,uidelines $.; (atalyst -egeneration )rocess ,uidelines

The operating process guidelines included in this document are pro+ided for information only< and (he+ron Lummus ,lobal LL( 1(L,3< and its affiliated companies< assumes no liability whatsoe+er< with respect to their use< e=cept as may be pro+ided in applicable written agreements. The facility operator is responsible for the operations and safety of the facility.

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$.1

,eneral ,uidelines for -eactors

)ressuri"ation< depressuri"ation< heating< cooling< and purging the reactors occur many times during the normal operating cycle of the unit. 7or the safety of personnel and the long-term operability of the plant< guidelines for each of these acti+ities are presented below. $.1.1 -eactor )ressuri"ation The reactors should be pressuri"ed according to the temperature and pressure restrictions recommended below< in addition to any other restrictions recommended by the manufacturer. The 2-1 # (r-1 *o alloy steel used to build the high pressure reactors has good high temperature strength and good resistance to hydrogen attack. 5owe+er< this steel can become increasingly brittle at ambient temperatures after long-term e=posure to normal reactor operating temperatures. This loss of low temperature toughness is known as >temper embrittlement.? 7or this reason< pressuri"ation restrictions are necessary to pre+ent the possibility of brittle fracture during startup and shutdown when the reactor shell is cold. (he+ron@s recommended practice is to limit the reactor section pressure to 2$A of thick-wall +essel design pressure 1reactors3< when the internal process< e=ternal skin< or e=ternal no""le temperature at any location on the reactor below the minimum pressuri"ation temperature 1*)T3. 7or the reactors designed for this unit< 2$A of the design pressure B1C$.! kg cm2 1g3D is 46.3 !/"#2 $!%< and the recommended MPT is 3&'C. The recommended *)T temperature of !C( must be +erified with the manufacturer after reactor fabrication. -egarding pressuri"ation rate< there are no mechanical reasons to limit the rate. 5owe+er< good Eudgment suggests that the rate not e=ceed F2C kg cm2 hr. This rate should allow sufficient time for the unit to be checked during pressuring to assure that leaks are disco+ered before they become ha"ardous. /n actual practice< the pressuri"ation rate is normally limited by the a+ailable pressuring gas< either hydrogen or nitrogen. $.1.2 -eactor Depressuri"ation 6hen a reactor is in ser+ice< a small amount of hydrogen continually diffuses from the inside of the reactor through the wall to the atmosphere. The equilibrium concentration that the hydrogen in the wall reaches depends on the temperature and the hydrogen partial pressure. The higher the temperature and hydrogen partial pressure< the higher the equilibrium concentration of hydrogen.

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During hydrogenation reactor cooldown< the solubility of hydrogen in the reactor steel decreases. /n addition< the hydrogen diffusion rate in the reactor steel is a function of temperature. .s the temperature drops< the rate of hydrogen diffusion decreases. .s a consequence< a rapid cooldown can result in a significant concentration of hydrogen remaining entrapped in the reactor wall. The method used predominately in the industry to reduce the concentration of entrapped hydrogen is to control the cooling rate during shutdown. This allows a significant amount of hydrogen to diffuse out of the reactor wall while the reactor is gradually being cooled. 7or this reason< (L, has specified a strict cooling rate requirement that should be obser+ed during all normal shutdown operations. 'ee the discussion in 'ection ;.#.C on reactor outgassing. .nother consideration on shutdown is >temper embrittlement.? .s pre+iously discussed in 'ection $.1.1< the reactors should be depressured to below 2$A of the design pressure before the metal temperature of any part of the reactor 1including skin points and no""les3 falls below the *)T 1!CG(3. During rapid depressuri"ation there is a small possibility of increased stress on reactor internals caused by high pressure drop associated with high gas +elocity. Depressuri"ation rates should be controlled so as not to e=ceed a pressure drop of 1# kg cm2 o+er the reactors. This should assure that the mechanical limit of any indi+idual bed is not e=ceeded. 2ote that since the reactor inlet pressure drops nearly simultaneously with the reactor outlet pressure< a high pressure drop across the reactors is unlikely. 5owe+er< a mechanical obstruction in the reactor internals< such as a screen failure causing an internal to fill with catalyst< might cause a high reactor bed pressure drop during emergency depressuri"ation. . final consideration during rapid depressuring is the flare header capacity. This should not normally be a concern since the two high pressure emergency dump +al+es and downstream orifices ha+e been si"ed to depressure at a rate not e=ceeding 1%.$ kg cm2 min. total with one emergency depressuring +al+e open< and 21.% kg cm2 min. with both open< and the flare header should ha+e been si"ed to accommodate these flows.

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$.1.! -eactor 5eating The following limits are pro+ided as guidelines for reactor heating: To a+oid high thermal stresses< the ma=imum temperature difference between any two skin points< is limited by the temperature gradient between those two points. 7or the reactors< the ma=imum gradient is 2CG( o+er a characteristic length equal to 2.$ R * T < where - is the reactor radius and T is the wall thickness. (alculating the ma=imum temperature difference between any two skin T/s would result in many temperature differences to monitor. 8=perience has shown that the following limits will usually allow the reactors to be heated without e=cessi+e thermal stresses. )rocess 7luid Limits 7eed Temperature (hange (atalyst 0ed Temperature or 7eed Temperature -eactor 'kin Temperature H!CG( I!CG( HCG( 1$ *inutes H1#G( 1$ *inutes H1:;G( .bo+e .dEacent 'kin Temperature and H111G( .bo+e -eactor 4utlet Temperature H1:;G( .bo+e .dEacent 'kin Temperature and H111G( .bo+e -eactor 4utlet Temperature

These limits represent ma=imum heating rates for the reactor itself. )rocess conditions may dictate a slower heating rate. $.1.# -eactor (ooling During any reactor cooling step< the cooling rates should be kept within the following limits: )rocess 7luid Limits 7eed Temperature (hange (atalyst 0ed Temperature or 7eed Temperature -eactor 'kin Temperature H!CG( I!CG( HCG( 1$ *inutes H1#G( 1$ *inutes H111G( 0elow .dEacent 'kin Temperature and H111G( 0elow -eactor 4utlet Temperature H111G( 0elow .dEacent 'kin Temperature and H111G( 0elow -eactor 4utlet Temperature

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$.1.$ -eactor )urging /n each of the following sections< specific steps for purging the reactor section are gi+en. Despite +ariations among specific purging sequences< there are some important general considerations that should always be remembered. These are: .lways purge with inert gas 1nitrogen3 between an o=ygen-containing atmosphere and a hydrogen or hydrocarbon-containing atmosphere. This is to pre+ent the formation of a potentially e=plosi+e mi=ture of hydrogen and o=ygen. During shutdowns< always ensure the carbon mono=ide 1(43 concentration in the recycle gas is less than 1% ppm< if the reactors are to be cooled below 2%$G(. This is to pre+ent the formation of to=ic nickel carbonyl B2i1(43 #D. During normal and emergency shutdowns< always ensure a positi+e pressure is maintained as equipment is cooled to pre+ent a +acuum being imposed on the system. /f the system has leaks< the inflow of air could form a potentially e=plosi+e mi=ture of hydrogen and o=ygen< or promote an e=othermic reaction in the reactor catalyst beds. $.2 )recommissioning .cti+ities

)recommissioning acti+ities can best be described as tasks that should be Eointly accomplished by the construction group and the refinery startup team 1with input from the engineering team3. )roper e=ecution of these tasks should ensure that the entire plant is ready for commissioning within a +ery short time frame 1less than a week3 after mechanical completion and turno+er of the last construction area 1or equipment3 within the unit has been accomplished. /n general< Eoint precommissioning acti+ities include the following:

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/nternal /nspection of 9essels 1-eactors< 'eparators< (olumns< Drums< Tanks< 8tc.3 (heckout )iping 'ystems 0efore 7ield )ressure Test .fter 7ield )ressure Test 0efore )iping 'ystem /nsulation and )ainting 0efore Turno+er 5ydrostatic or )neumatic Testing of )iping 'ystems 6ater 7lushing and .ir 0lowing of )iping 'ystems 'team 0lowing of 'ome )iping 'ystems (hemical (leaning and )ickling )ressure -elief 9al+e -egistration< Tagging< and 9erification of -elief )ressure -otary 8quipment (heckout /nstrument (heckout 'ystem Turno+er (onstruction .rea Turno+er /n order to achie+e a smooth turno+er 1from construction to the refinery startup team3 and startup of the unit< precommissioning acti+ities must start early in the construction phase of the proEect. The following is a summary of the key precommissioning steps: /nternal inspection of +essels< including storage tanks< furnaces< reactors< separators< drums< and towers. )rehydrotest checkout of test systems in accordance with the latest issue of the piping and instrumentation diagrams 1)J/D3. /t is not unusual during the construction checkout of a hydroprocessing unit for the refinery inspectors to disco+er a few hundred punch-list items 1minor problems3 that require correction before the unit is ready for commissioning.

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. substantial number of these problems will be disco+ered during the prehydrotest checkout inspections. 'ome of the problems must be corrected before field pressure testing can commence for a particular test system. 4ther items disco+ered can be corrected at a later date in the construction schedule. 7or e=ample< additional minor problems may be disco+ered by the refinery inspectors after the field pressure test< Eust before a particular system or construction area is turned o+er to the refinery startup team. (ommunication to the construction team of the e=act location< nature< and priority of a substantial number of small problems can become a confusing< troublesome< time- and resource-consuming effort if a good communication system is not implemented early and accurately. ,eneral information on a communication system that has worked well for (L, proEects is discussed below. .ll faults or errors identified that require correction should be listed on the master construction punch-list and inde=ed to a master set of )J/Ds. The items that affect field pressure testing must be corrected to the refinery startup team inspector@s satisfaction< and signed off on the master construction punch-list before field pressure testing of the particular test system can proceed. 4ther items that do not affect field pressure testing must remain on the master construction punch-list until they are corrected later in the construction schedule. 6hile the master construction punch-list can be updated and shortened from time to time to only reflect the outstanding items not yet corrected< it is prudent to maintain all original master construction punch-lists in a permanent file. 5ydrostatic testing 1or pneumatic testing if appro+ed3 should be a Eoint effort by the team that should be carefully and accurately e=ecuted according to the protocol de+eloped by the team. 8=act recordkeeping is important. (L, recommends that the utility systems listed below be completed< precommissioned< and commissioned before hydrostatic testing of process piping begins. This will allow control of testing water quality and pro+ide ability to dry and maintain an inert en+ironment in systems after testing. Ktility 6ater 0oiler 7eedwater )lant .ir /nstrument .ir 2itrogen

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.s soon as a system hydrostatic test is accepted by the construction inspector and the refinery startup team inspector 1i.e.< within 2# hours3< steps should be taken to clear and dry the water from the tested system to minimi"e steel o=idation and or corrosion. 6here low chloride test water is required to pre+ent the potential of chloride stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel< it is especially important that all water from low points is remo+ed by being purged with nitrogen. 4therwise< as the remaining water e+aporates< the chloride concentration that started at less than !% ppm will concentrate to le+els that can 1and will3 crack or cause pitting of the austenitic stainless steel. 2ote: /f pitting occurs< it may be disco+ered during a final equipment inspection 1for e=ample< at the bottom of a fractionation column3< allowing time for repairs. 4n the other hand< if stress corrosion cracking occurs it will probably not be disco+ered until the equipment temperature is increased for the first time< causing a delay in the startup schedule. 7or the reactor loop piping on the suction side of the recycle compressor< carefully water wash to remo+e scale< dirt< and debris. This is to pre+ent damage to compressor seals. .ll reactor loop piping should at least be air blown to remo+e foreign material as well as any water. Kpon arri+al at the construction site< pressure relief +al+es 1)'9s3 should be protected in a clean< dry en+ironment until sent to the refinery shop facility for registration< tagging< +erification of relief pressure< etc. )'9s should not be installed until hydrostatic testing of the applicable system is complete and the system is dry 1e=cept for )'9s on water systems3. /f it is absolutely required that the test be carried out with the relief +al+e in place< it is possible to install a >test gag? to pre+ent the )'9 from openingL howe+er< careful remo+al of the test gag and inspection and or cleaning of the )'9 would thereafter be necessary. /n the case of large rotating equipment< such as the make-up hydrogen compressors< the recycle gas compressor< the reactor feed pumps< and other special equipment< +endor representati+es 1motor or turbine +endor also in some cases3 normally directs rotation and alignment checkout and all other acti+ities required to prepare the equipment for ser+ice. -efinery rotating equipment specialists and operations representati+es should monitor and participate in this acti+ity for +erification purposes< as well as for the opportunity to learn +aluable information about the equipment. /n the case of small rotating equipment< motor rotation should be +erified with the refinery medium +oltage electrical power system. .lignment should be checked with the suction and discharge lines disconnected< then monitored as the lines are reinstalled. 'eals< seal flush< packing< etc.< checkout should be carried out as required. (hecklists and record keeping for small rotating equipment checkout procedures should be established.

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/nstrumentation checkout. During the prehydrotest checkout< each test system is checked to insure all attachment points for instruments 1including local gauges< etc.3 are pro+ided. 4nce hydrostatic testing is complete and all instrumentation is installed< each loop should be checked for correctness of installation and support< continuity of electrical wiring< calibration< and beha+ior of the complete loop including transmitters< recei+ers< transducers< +al+e positioners< control +al+es< thermocouples< etc. -ecord sheets should be issued for each instrument loop 1noting calibration< correct installation of orifice plates< etc.3. )ackage units will ha+e +endor-supplied instrumentation. The package unit instrumentation will also be checked out using +endor-supplied information< and when necessary< in the presence of a +endor representati+e. )rior to turno+er of the custody of a tested system< from the construction group to the refinery startup team< a final preturno+er inspection of the system should be conducted. .ll new punch-list items disco+ered and all outstanding items on the master construction punch-list must be corrected and the following additional acti+ities completed prior to turno+er of a system: -otary equipment alignment and rotation checkout< seal inspection< etc.< as required. /nstrumentation installation< continuity< and calibration checkout. 'team tracing and insulation completion 1in some cases insulation flange caps may be fitted but not installed3. )ainting and line labeling and or color-coding. 4nce a tested system is determined to be ready for turno+er to the refinery startup team< all construction blinds should be remo+ed 1safely3 from the entire system and replaced 1where needed to safely isolate the system3 with >refinery blinds? of the correct specification< with durable >Danger - Do 2ot -emo+e? tags attached. Turno+er of the custody of a tested system 1within a construction area3 should be carefully administered with a formal request and acceptance form. /mmediately before accepting the turno+er of a test system< refinery-appro+ed lockout and tagout procedures should be implemented to disable all rotating equipment within the system. ,ood communication is required to inform all personnel working in the construction area about which test systems ha+e been turned o+er to the refinery group and can only be worked on under a permit 1issued by the refinery startup team3.

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Turno+er of the custody of an o+erall construction area should also be carefully administered according to refinery-appro+ed safe practices and procedures. $.! 'ystems (ommissioning

6hile the precommissioning efforts are considered to be best accomplished as a Eoint effort by the construction and refinery startup team< commissioning efforts are the responsibility of the refinery startup team< once they ha+e assumed care< custody< and control of a system 1by refinery-appro+ed turno+er procedures3. During the commissioning phase< equipment in+ol+ed will be placed under normal or near normal ser+ice conditions while flushing< run-in< and checkout steps are implemented to bring each system 1or subsystem3 to a condition of >standby readiness for operation.? .s indicated beforehand< some utility and support systems will be commissioned within an acti+e construction areaL therefore< it is of great importance that accurate< safe commissioning procedures 1including refinery-appro+ed lockout and tagout procedures3 be implemented. (L, considers the following approach to the initial operations phase of the facility as the optimum sequence for commissioning efforts in order to achie+e a trouble-free startup of the unit. The e=ample unit initial startup acti+ity schedule< located at the end of this section< illustrates time frames in which specific acti+ities and tasks should be accomplished in order to achie+e startup obEecti+es. The e=ample schedule co+ers only the final !! days leading up to the unit being onstream. (onstruction completion and precommissioning planning efforts< required to reach the starting dates of this e=ample startup schedule< must be considered and implemented beforehand. 6here+er possible< run-in tests 1which will be discussed in the following sections3 should be performed on separate systems and indi+idual components at pressures and temperatures as close to normal operating conditions as possible. )rocess changes and upsets can be simulated to check out instrument and interlock functions. $.!.1 Ktility 'ystems (ommissioning Ktilities inside the plot limit< such as nitrogen< instrument air< plant air< condensate< steam< and cooling water< are independent systems that should be prepared and commissioned early 1some during the construction phase3 as described in 'ection $.2< )recommissioning .cti+ities. .ccurate isolation and blinding procedures 1utili"ing refinery-appro+ed lockout and tagout procedures3 must be e=ecuted before the commissioning of any utility or process system is carried out.

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The flare systems should be commissioned 1after the entire unit turno+er3 Eust before the commissioning efforts begin for the unit@s main process sections< and only after being isolated from the process sections and the fuel gas system. .fter final precommissioning efforts are complete< the main flare headers should be commissioned with nitrogen purges 1fuel gas not yet a+ailable for purge3. 7lare subheaders to independent systems and subsystems should remain isolated by appropriate blinds until those systems are cleared of o=ygen and ready for ser+ice. The fuel gas header should be the last utility commissioned< using refineryappro+ed isolation and precommissioning procedures. Then fuel gas purges to the flare systems should be commissioned 1nitrogen purges disconnected and blinded3. $.!.2 'upport 'ystems (ommissioning 4nce the flare systems are appropriately commissioned< any remaining onplot support systems can be commissioned. $.!.! *aEor )rocess 'ystems (ommissioning )recommissioning and commissioning efforts of maEor process equipment can be e=ecuted in the most effecti+e and safe manner by segregating the unit into maEor sections< isolated from each other by appropriately specified blinds 1or other refinery-appro+ed isolation procedures3. 7or this unit the four sections are: The *ake-Kp 5ydrogen (ompression 'ection The -eactor 'ection 1/ncluding Low )ressure 'eparator 'ystem3 The -eactor 7eed 'ection< the 7ractionation 'ection< and the 'tartup 4il 'ystem The Light 8nds -eco+ery 'ection 1/ncluding the L), Treating 'ystem3 'tartup Diagrams 1 through M are o+er+iews of the entire unit showing each of the four maEor sections< and maEor isolation blinds 1or positi+e isolation ability3 recommended between the sections. 'tartup Diagram 1 does not illustrate any startup acti+ity in order to pro+ide a useful tool for training< planning< etc. 'tartup Diagram 2 illustrates the lines and special equipment required to facilitate startups and shutdowns. The remaining 'tartup Diagrams 1! through M3 illustrate stream routings during the +arious commissioning< startup< and shutdown steps discussed in this section.

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'hutdown Diagram 1 illustrates the optimum recycle gas routing required to facilitate final cooldown of the reactors after feed furnace firing is e=tinguished. /n addition< other connecting systems must be safely isolated from the four maEor sections listed abo+e< while precommissioning efforts are in progress. . partial list includes: 5ydrogen Knit The )lant .ir and Dilution ,as Line 1Ksed During (atalyst -egeneration3 to the *ake-Kp 5ydrogen (ompressor 7irst-'tage 'uction Drum 4ffplot 4il 7eed Lines 6ater /nEection 'ystem to the -eactor 5igh )ressure 'ection Liquid and ,as )roduct Lines 'our 6ater Drain 7rom the 'eparators 'our 6ater Degasser 'ystem 'ulfiding (hemical 'ystem 'tripping 'team to the )roduct 'tripper< )roduct 7ractionator< and Diesel 'tripper $.!.!.1.1 *ake-Kp 5ydrogen (ompression 'ection (ommissioning (L, suggests the offplot hydrogen plant@s reliability be pro+en well in ad+ance of when hydrogen will be required for running the make-up hydrogen compressors to check their mechanical reliability. The make-up hydrogen compressors should be tightness tested and then run-in on total spillback 1with nitrogen and hydrogen3 under the super+ision of the manufacturer@s representati+e< well in ad+ance of when they will be required for the reactor section@s startup high pressure tightness testing and dryout steps. This ensures initial unit operations are as trouble-free as possible. 5owe+er< the compressors can be commissioned concurrently with the reactor section. (heckout< leak test< and run-in procedures should be de+eloped by< and then carried out by< operations personnel that consider specific design features of the pressure control and spillback logic. The steps below are offered as guidelines for de+eloping detailed procedures. -efer to 'tartup Diagram !.

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1. 2. !.

)recommissioning efforts should be complete and support and utility systems commissioned. The catalyst regeneration piping should be isolated from the make-up hydrogen compressor and reactor sections. 'tartup Diagram ! illustrates the make-up hydrogen compressor section isolated from the offplot hydrogen unit and the reactor section. The compressor section is tightness tested to the ma=imum achie+able pressure from the plant air system BF: kg cm2 1g3D. .ny leaks found are corrected< plant air connections are remo+ed< and o=ygen is displaced with utility nitrogen.

2ote: The tightness test with air step can be ignored< and utility nitrogen BF: kg cm2 1g3D can be used if preferred. 5owe+er< (L, recommends using air for the initial tightness test to reduce nitrogen consumption. #. .fter all leaks are corrected< operate each compressor on total spillback with low pressure nitrogen< at as high a final third-stage discharge pressure allowed by the +endor< and cylinder discharge temperature limits. The compressors should ha+e the capability to pressure the reactor section to F#2.% kg cm2 1g3< measured at the /(- first reactor 12%;--13 inlet. This pressure is safely below the reactor *)T limitation BF#:.! kg cm2 1g3D before achie+ing *)T< yet high enough to allow the recycle gas compressor to be safely operated. 6hen operating on total spillback with the reactor section isolated< the spillback +al+e 1)9-:M%#3 is controlled by the compressor discharge pressure controller 1)/(-:M%#3 on the make-up hydrogen compressor common discharge header. $. 4nce the compressors are pro+en to be free of leaks< and operating satisfactorily on utility nitrogen< hydrogen from the hydrogen unit BF2%.% kg cm2 1g3D should be introduced 1nitrogen supply isolated3 to displace nitrogen from the compression section. 8ach compressor should be leak-tested and operated on total spillback while gradually increasing the third-stage discharge pressure to near full working pressure BF1C$.; kg cm2 1g3D to pro+e reliability. . thorough leak check is performed at this pressure. The compressor manufacturer should establish the actual allowable run-in operating pressure.

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:.

.t some point all of the make-up hydrogen compressors should be operated at the same time 1one operating 2$A loaded< the other two operating %A loaded3. .dditionally< the compressors should be started under +arious operating scenarios to check out the performance of the electrical system as installed< and to pro+e the electrical system@s reliability. The make-up hydrogen compressor section@s instrumentation should be checked for calibration< accuracy< and response to the e=tent possible. 6hen commissioning is completed for this section< the compressors should be maintained at standby readiness under a nitrogen atmosphere with the hydrogen supply line isolated according to refinery-appro+ed procedures. -eactor 'ection (ommissioning

;. C.

$.!.!.2

The reactor section includes the feed heating section< the fi=ed bed reactors< high pressure and low pressure separation and cooling< and the recycle gas compressor. (ommissioning efforts and system isolation in the reactor section must proceed to the point that the high pressure section can be safely brought to high pressure and temperature conditions while other startup acti+ities are being safely completed in the oil feed< fractionation< and light ends reco+ery sections. /t is recommended that all reactor section precommissioning efforts be completed< and the startup process guidelines identified in 'ection $.# begin at least #$ days before the date the unit is scheduled to be onstream at design rates with all products on-specification. 6hile the initial startup e=ample acti+ity schedule< located at the end of this section< is based on the final !! days before >oil-in? date< there is no contingency time built into the schedule in the e+ent of equipment failure or unforeseen startup delays. 0efore catalyst can be loaded into the reactors< it is necessary to dry out the high pressure reaction section to remo+e any moisture that might remain from equipment washing< hydrostatic testing< or simply from atmospheric conditions. The reactor dryout acti+ity will be combined with the initial high pressure tightness testing acti+ities. 8quipment required for the high pressure reactor section dryout< includes the make-up hydrogen compressors< the reactor feed furnace< the recycle gas compressor< and other high pressure reactor section equipment. ,uidelines for reactor dryout and high pressure tightness testing are located in 'ection $.#.2 of this manual.

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$.!.!.! 1.

6ater /nEection 'ystem (ommissioning 8nsure the two double blocks at the single water inEection point to the upstream side of the cold reactor effluent (L)' liquid e=changer 12%;-8C3 and the block and stop check +al+es at the single water inEection point to the upstream side of the reactor effluent air cooler 12%;-8M3 are closed. -emo+e the blinds on the inEection lines to 2%;-8C and 2%;-8M< located near the low-low flow emergency >chopper? +al+e? 1709-!!%!3. (ommission the inEection water drum@s 12%;-(C3 nitrogen blanketing pressure control loop 1)/(-!!%23 to maintain F1.; kg cm2 1g3. 8nsure the sour water from the fractionator reflu= drum 12%;-(1;3 is blocked. /ntroduce boiler feedwater from offplot to establish a $%A le+el in 2%;-(C< and commission the le+el control loop 1L/(-!!%13. -un-in the inEection water pumps 12%;-,#. 03 on total spillback 1)/(-!!%!3 back to 2%;-(C to pro+e reliability. -emo+e the water inEection flow element 178-!!%#3< and flush through the open flow element flange until clean. Then reinstall the flow element. -emo+e the strainer element and open the drain on each inEection line< near the isolation +al+es< and flush through each loop until clean. (heck the action of the low-low flow emergency >chopper? +al+e? 1709-!!%!3 by reducing water flow until 7/-!!%!.@s low-low flow trips the chopper +al+e. -einstall the blinds on the inEection lines to 2%;-8C and 2%;-8M. These lines should remain blinded until water inEection is required during the reaction section startup. D*D' 'ystem (ommissioning

2. !. #.

$. :. ;. C.

M.

$.!.!.#

(ommission the D*D' system on water< similar to that for the water inEection system 1e=cluding the low-low flow emergency shutoff3. Drain all water after pro+ing this system.

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$.!.!.$

7eed and 7ractionation 'ection (ommissioning Timing and .pproach

/n order to allow time to correct problems with pumps or minor leaks< etc.< it is recommended that the initial commissioning effort for the feed and fractionation sections begin at least ! weeks prior to the scheduled feed-in date. 2ote: The initial startup e=ample acti+ity schedule< located at the end of this section< shows this acti+ity beginning 2 weeks prior to the scheduled feed-in date. /f no problems are encountered during this acti+ity< beginning 2 weeks before oil-in date should allow sufficient time to complete this acti+ity. 5owe+er< as stated abo+e< the schedule lea+es no contingency time for equipment failure. The following guidelines discuss commissioning of the feed and fractionation sections simultaneously to the point of >hot standby? readiness for reactor feed introduction. .ctual feed introduction is co+ered in 'ection $.#.2< 'tep 7. Description of 'ections 'ince the feed and fractionation sections and the startup oil system are commissioned simultaneously< they are discussed together. The feed section consists of the feed blending instrumentation< two feed preheat e=changers that e=changes heat with product streams from the fractionation section 12%;-81 and 2%;-823< feed filters 12%;-T13< the reactor feed surge drum 12%;-(13< and the reactor feed pumps 12%;-,!. 03. The fractionation section consists of the product stripper 12%;-(1#3 and associated o+erhead equipmentL the fractionator feed furnace 12%;-723L the product fractionator 12%;-(1:3 and its associated o+erhead< sidecut< and bottoms equipment< as well as pumps and e=changers. The startup oil system links the feed and fractionation sections< and is illustrated by the bold lines on 'tartup Diagram 2. 'tartup lines pro+ide the ability to perform +arious functions< which are listed below: )ositi+e isolation points are pro+ided between the reactor high pressure and feed sections< and between the reactor low pressure and fractionation sections. This allows precommissioning and startup or turnaround acti+ities to proceed in the combined feed and fractionation sections independently of similar acti+ities being carried out in the reactor section. 'pecifically< startup oil can be circulated through equipment in the feed and fractionation sections in order to remo+e scale and rust< and for dryout. (oncurrently< in the reactor section< tightness testing< dryout< catalyst loading< catalyst dryout< and catalyst sulfiding can be safely completed without affecting acti+ities taking place in the feed and fractionation sections.

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'tartup lines link the oil feed and fractionation sections for >long-loop circulation.? This circulation routes oil from the feed section through the >startup pumpout line? to the fractionator bottoms >0? pump< which is aligned to the >internal circulation line<? to transfer oil to the product stripper@s feed preheat system< and subsequently to the product stripper< product fractionator feed preheat system< fractionator feed furnace< and into the product fractionator. The product fractionator bottoms< is then returned from the fractionator bottoms pump common discharge line to the feed section< +ia the >long-loop circulation line.? 'tartup oil systems and guidelines are designed to minimi"e the amount of startup diesel routed to the slop oil system. The combined feed and fractionation sections first undergo once-through diesel flushing to the slop oil system to remo+e the maEority of solid fines 1rust and scale3 before oil feed is introduced to pre+ent deposition of these solids on 2%;--1@s top catalyst bed. .fter once-through flushing is completed< circulatory flushing is accomplished by routing flush oil from the product fractionator column bottoms rundown< back to the feed section< upstream of the oil feed kerosene e=changer 12%;-813< +ia the >long-loop? circulation line. 7lows are adEusted to minimi"e the rate of flush oil routed to the slop oil system< which is maintained for column le+el control. During this step< any remaining solids are remo+ed +ia the feed filters and the small slipstream from the product fractionator column bottoms to the slop oil system. The long-loop startup oil circulation feature pro+ides the ability to: (ycle the flush oil temperature flowing through the reactor feed preheat e=changers to enhance rust remo+al from the shellside. The circulating oil temperature is cycled se+eral times with high rates of >cold? and then >hot? flushing oil 1referred to as thermal-cycling3 to accomplish this acti+ity. (irculate cool product fractionator column bottoms to the reactor feed section to replace normal reactor feed for catalyst cooling< if required< during e=treme temperature e=cursion e+ents. 'tartup lines pro+ide the ability to maintain the fractionation section at hot standby circulation< independent from the feed section. This is called >short-loop? circulation. 4il is routed< +ia the short-loop header< from the product fractionator bottoms to the internal circulation line< with the oil returning to the product fractionator as discussed abo+e for long-loop circulation.

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The feed and fractionation sections startup oil circulating system pro+ides the ability to flush rust and scale from the: (old low pressure separator 1(L)'3 internals and its associated effluent piping +ia the internal circulation line. )roduct stripper reflu= drum and column internals< with flush oil supplied +ia the startup line from the fractionator bottoms pump@s common discharge. 7ractionator reflu= drum< column internals< pumparound systems< and sidecut systems< with flush oil supplied +ia the startup line from the fractionator bottoms pump@s common discharge. 5ot and cold source warmup oil is pro+ided from the product fractionator bottoms rundown system to enable the reactor feed pumps to be properly warmed up. The startup oil system design allows the reactor feed pumps to be run-in on minimum flow for e=tended periods during initial commissioning without o+erheating the pumps or affecting the safety of work that may be proceeding concurrently in the reactor section< pro+ided startup oil flows are set up correctly on long-loop circulation as described in the guidelines that follow. *inimum flow from the feed pumps spills back to the reactor feed surge drum. 5eat generated by the reactor feed pumps is remo+ed from the reactor feed surge drum by the long-loop circulation circuit. 'tartup naphtha features allow the light ends section to be flushed to remo+e solid fines before feed is introduced to the reactors. 4+er+iew of 7eed 7ractionation 'ection (ommissioning ,uidelines /t is important to flush solids from the feed and fractionation sections< prior to introducing oil feed to the reactor section< to protect the catalyst from solids buildup and potential maldistribution and to bring the product fractionator@s products on-specification as quickly as possible. The combined sections must undergo once-through and circulatory flushing to remo+e solid fines 1rust and scale3 in preparation for feed introduction. .dditionally< the light end section should be flushed with startup naphtha to ensure the system is clean to pre+ent problems once oil feed is introduced. This requirement should apply during the initial startup or any restart following a turnaround effort during which columns or other equipment ha+e been opened and e=posed to air. . brief description of special startup features required and general guidelines utili"ed to prepare these sections to the point of standby readiness for oil feed introduction is presented in this section and are illustrated on 'tartup Diagrams ! through M.

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8quipment in the combined feed and fractionation sections< and the light ends section< must ha+e been tightness tested and cleared of o=ygen by purging with nitrogen or steam 1client@s preference3 before beginning flushing acti+ities. .dditionally< the refinery nitrogen and fuel gas systems and low pressure hydrogen from the hydrogen unit must be in ser+ice to pro+ide blanket pressures as follows: 8quipment 2%;-(1< -eactor 7eed 'urge Drum 2%;-(M< (old Low )ressure 'eparator 2%;-(1#< )roduct 'tripper 4+erhead 'ystem 2%;-(1:< )roduct 7ractionator 4+erhead 'ystem 2%;-(2%< Deethani"er 4+erhead 'ystem 2%;-(2;< Debutani"er 4+erhead 'ystem 2%;-(2M< 2aphtha 'plitter 4+erhead 'ystem )ressure $.; kg cm2 1g3 !C.1 kg cm2 1 g3 1#.1 kg cm2 1 g3 %.C kg cm2 1g3 12.% kg cm2 1 g3 1%.; kg cm2 1 g3 1.! kg cm2 1g3 )ressure 'ource 2itrogen Low )ressure 5ydrogen Low )ressure 5ydrogen 7uel ,as Low )ressure 5ydrogen Low )ressure 5ydrogen 7uel ,as

4nce-through flushing is first established to clear the bulk of solid fines 1e.g.< scale and iron o=ides3 from the combined feed and fractionation sections. 4nce the bulk is remo+ed< the feed filters are commissioned and most of the product fractionator bottoms are circulated back to the front end of the feed section 1long-loop circulation3. Long-loop circulation allows the combined sections to be heated and flushed at a high rate without generating an e=cessi+e +olume of slop oil that must be reprocessed. The product stripper@s and product fractionator@s equipment is commissioned and run-in while the combined sections are being heated. .lso< the columns are flushed to wash solid fines from the internals and their associated equipment. 'olids washed from the fractionation section are remo+ed from the flush oil by the automatic backwash feed filters and by the small product fractionator bottoms rundown stream to offplot slop oil storage. .fter the circulating startup oil stream is hot and clear of suspended solids< the high pressure reactor feed pumps are commissioned on minimum flow spillback and tested in anticipation of oil feed intorduction. 7inally< diesel flush oil is replaced with 9,4< and the combined sections left on >hot long-loop? circulation while waiting for feed-in.

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)reparation for Diesel 7lush 4il /ntroduction -efer to 'tartup Diagram !. 1. /nstall blinds to isolate the reactor section from the combined feed and fractionation sections. This enables the feed and fractionation sections to be safely commissioned concurrently with other startup acti+ities taking place in the reactor section. The oil feed line to the /(- first reactor 12%;--13 is blinded downstream of +al+e 179-1C%13< by remo+ing the spacer ring 1immediately downstream of 79-1C%13< and installing a spacer blind. This pro+ides positi+e isolation between the feed and reactor sections. The reactor low pressure section B(L)' 12%;-(M3 and the (L)' +apor centrifugal separator 12%;-(1%3D is isolated from the fractionation section Bfeed to the product stripper 12%;-(1#3D by installing a blind in the common effluent line to 2%;-(1#< Eust upstream of the common effluent line@s angle block +al+e. 2. 8nsure blinds are installed in plot limit isolation manifolds for the following oil feed lines to pro+ide positi+e isolation between the feed and reactor sections. 5ot 9isbreaker 9,4 7rom the 9isbreaker Knit (old 9,4 7rom 'torage 5ot 9,4 7rom -efinery /// (DK 9DK 5ot 9,4 7rom -efinery // (DK 9DK

!. 4=ygen-free all equipment in the feed< fractionation< and the light end sections< using appro+ed refinery steam-out or nitrogen purging procedures. #. (ommission the reactor feed surge drum@s 12%;-(13 nitrogen gas blanketing split range pressure control loop 1)/(-1:%23< and place it in automatic mode with a set point of F$.; kg cm2 1g3. $. .lign the product stripper 12%;-(1#3 system as follows: (lose the isolation +al+e on the product stripper reflu= drum@s 12%;-(1$3 +apor e=port line to the deethani"er o+erhead condensers 12%;-822. 03.

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(ommission 2%;-(1#@s o+erhead pressure control loop 1)/(-#1%13 with a set point of F1#.1 kg cm2 1g3< the normal operating pressure setting. .lign )9-#1%1 to +ent e=cess gas to the flare header. This pro+ides o+erpressure protection to the product stripper system. (ommission the product stripper o+erhead startup hydrogen self-contained pressure regulator 1)(9-#1%;3 to maintain F1#.% kg cm2 1g3. )ressure must be maintained to displace startup diesel flush oil that is routed through the column during this step. :. .lign the product fractionator 12%;-(1:3 system as follows: (ommission the fractionator reflu= drum@s 12%;-(1;3 high set point pressure controller 1)/(-#$%23 with a set point of F%.; kg cm2 1g3< the normal operating pressure. .lign )9-#$%2 to the flare header 1normal routing3. This alignment protects the product fractionator system from o+erpressuring. (ommission 2%;-(1:@s o+erhead pressure controller 1)/(-#$%13< and place it in automatic mode< with a set point of F%.; kg cm2 1g3. 2%;-(1:@s o+erhead normally operates at F%.C kg cm2 1g3< but during this acti+ity the pressure will be controlled at a ma=imum of F%.; kg cm2 1g3 to pre+ent +enting large +olumes of fuel gas to the flare header from 2%;-(1;< +ia )/(-#$%2. (ommission 2%;-(1:@s o+erhead startup fuel gas pressuri"ation line to allow the column to float on the fuel gas header Bwhich normally operates at less than ;.% kg cm2 1g3D. The obEecti+e is to maintain 2%;-(1:@s pressure as high as possible to aid in displacing startup flush oil< while not e=ceeding the reflu= drum@s normal operating pressure. This control philosophy minimi"es +enting to the flare header< while pro+iding o+erpressure protection to the product fractionator system. )ressure must be maintained to pro+ide a constant suction pressure to the fractionator bottoms pumps 12%;-,12. 03 to displace startup diesel flush oil that is routed through the column during this step. ;. 0ypass the feed filters 12%;-T13< which will remain out of ser+ice until long-loop circulation is established.

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(ommission the cooling water side 1tubeside3 of the following coolers: Nerosene )roduct Trim (ooler 12%;-81;3 Diesel )roduct Trim (ooler 12%;-82%3

M. (ommission the steam side 1shellside3 of the following steam generators< and establish normal water le+els in the generators. The steam generators are set up to +ent to the atmosphere during the initial startup steps< since circulating oil temperatures are not high enough to generate medium pressure steam. 7ractionator 0ottoms 'team ,enerator 12%;-8!:3 Diesel )umparound 'team ,enerator 12%;-81C3

1%. (ommission fans on the following: )roduct 'tripper 4+erhead (ondenser 12%;-8123 7ractionator 4+erhead (ondenser 12%;-81!3 Nerosene )roduct .ir (ooler 12%;-81:3 Diesel )roduct .ir (ooler 12%;-81M3 Nerosene )umparound .ir (ooler 12%;-81#3 Kncon+erted 4il .ir (ooler 12%;-8213

11. 8nsure all oil piping and instrumentation steam tracing within the combined feed and fractionation sections and the startup oil system is commissioned and steam traps are functioning properly. 8lectrical tracing< if applicable< should also be commissioned. 12. 8nsure all water is drained 1or purged3 from low point drains< pumps< e=changers< etc. 'ystem 7illing and 4nce-Through 7lushing These guidelines establish the once-through flushing circuit through the combined feed and fractionation sections to remo+e solids. 9al+e alignments and flush oil routings to achie+e this acti+ity are illustrated on 'tartup Diagram !< and are described in the following steps. -efer to 'tartup Diagram !.

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.lign startup diesel to the hot 9,4 feed flow control +al+e 179-1#%:3 that normally controls feed from the -efinery /// (DK 9DK. /n manual mode< open 79-1#%: to fill the preheat train and to establish a $%A le+el in the reactor feed surge drum 12%;-(13. )lace 2%;-(1@s le+el control loop 1L/(-1:%13 in automatic mode< resetting the flow controller 17/(-1#%:3. .lign the dual-purpose startup pumpout line from 2%;-(1 to the suction of the steam dri+en fractionator bottoms >0? pump 12%;-,1203. (ommission 2%;-,120@s minimum flow line and low set point flow controller 17/(-##%23. 'low roll the pump by introducing steam to the steam turbine. 6hen the pump is operating satisfactorily< increase the steam rate until the turbine go+ernor takes control. .t this point< the pump is operating on minimum flow returning to the bottom of the product fractionator 12%;-(1:3. *onitor 2%;-(1:@s le+el closely during this step.

2.

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8stablish internal circulation as follows: /n manual mode< close the internal circulation flow controller 17/(-2C%#3< and align 2%;-,120@s discharge to 79-2C%#. 'lowly open 79-2C%# to transfer flush oil from 2%;-(1 to the product stripper 12%;-(1#3. 7lush oil flows from 2%;-,12@s discharge< to downstream of the isolation manifold on the common effluent line from the (L)' 12%;-(M3 and (L)' +apor centrifugal separator 12%;-(1%3< and passes through the shellside of the cold reactor effluent (L)' liquid e=changer 12%;-8C3 and the hot reactor effluent (L)' liquid e=changer 12%;-8#3 before entering 2%;-(1#. 8stablish a rate of F12# m! hr B$%A of normal feed rate 12#;.C m! hr3D and place 7/(-2C%# in automatic mode.

#.

4nce 2%;-(1#@s le+el reaches $%A< slowly open the bottoms flow control +al+e 179-#%%!3 in manual mode to transfer flush oil through the tubeside of the fractionator feed effluent e=changers 12%;-811. 03< the shellside of the interreactor effluent fractionator feed e=changer 12%;-8:3< and the tubes of the fractionator feed furnace 12%;-723< before entering the product fractionator 12%;-(1:3. 4nce 2%;-(1#@s le+el is stable< and the bottoms flow rate is F12# m! hr< place 2%;-(1#@s le+el controller 1L/(-#%%!3 in automatic mode< resetting 7/(-#%%!. 4nce 2%;-(1:@s le+el is stable at F$%A< commission the fractionator bottoms >.? pump 12%;-,12.3 minimum flow line and low set point flow controller 17/(-##%13< and start the pump. .t this point< the pump is operating on minimum flow returning back to the bottom of 2%;-(1:. 8nsure the uncon+erted oil air cooler@s 12%;-8213 fans are operating< and place the downstream temperature controller 1T/(-$2%!3 in automatic mode with a set point of #%G(. T/(-$2%! +aries fan speed to pre+ent the rundown to offplot from e=ceeding design.

$.

:.

;.

2ote: 0efore routing flush oil to offplot< all high point +ents in the equipment should be purged of gas and all gas should be +ented from the rundown lines at the battery limits. This will pre+ent pockets of gas from being carried into offplot storage facilities.

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/n manual mode< slowly open the uncon+erted oil flow control +al+e 179-$2%23 to transfer flush oil from 2%;-(1: bottoms to the slop oil header. 7lush oil flows through the shellside of the fractionator feed bottoms e=changers 12%;-811. 03< the fractionator bottoms steam generator 12%;-8!:3< the naphtha splitter reboiler 12%;-82;3< the deethani"er reboiler 12%;-82#3< and 2%;-821. 4nce 2%;-(1:@s le+el is stable< and the bottoms flow rate is stable at F12# m! hr< place the column le+el controller 1L/(-#!%13 in automatic mode< resetting 7/(-$2%2. (ommission the fractionator feed furnace pilot burners to begin curing furnace refractory as soon as the once-through flushing circuit is established and +essel and column le+els are stable. .fter # hours of once-through flushing< begin to +isually monitor flush oil samples from 2%;-(1:@s rundown to the slop oil header. .t this point< the following startup oil flow conditions should e=ist: F12# m! hr of startup diesel from storage to the feed section. F12# m! hr internal circulation from the fractionator bottoms >0? pump 12%;-,1203 to the common effluent line from 2%;-(M and 2%;-(1%. F12# m! hr of startup diesel from 2%;-(1:@s bottoms to the slop oil header.

M.

1%.

11.

7lush )roduct 'tripper and )roduct 7ractionator 4+erhead 'ystems and (olumn /nternals 'lipstreams are taken from the fractionator bottoms pump@s common discharge to flush rust and scale from the product stripper and product fractionator o+erhead systems and column internals< while continuing the once-through flushing circuit.

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The slipstreams are established slowly< as withdrawal of flush oil from the once-through flushing circuit affects +essel and column le+els. 7lush oil is first routed to the reflu= drums for flushing to the slop oil header< and then pumped through the column@s reflu= circuits to flush rust and scale from column internals. During the product stripper and fractionator reflu= drum initial filling< and subsequent flushing to the slop oil header< the e=port rate from the product fractionator bottoms decreases to compensate for the amount of flush oil being withdrawn for this purpose. The e=port rate increases again< once flush oil is routed to the product stripper and product fractionator columns< +ia their respecti+e reflu= control +al+es. -efer to 'tartup Diagrams ! and #. 1. .lign the startup flush oil manifold on the fractionator bottom pumps common discharge line to supply flush oil to the product stripper and product fractionator o+erhead systems. 7lush the product stripper 12%;-(1#3 o+erhead system: 8nsure the slop oil header plot limit isolation manifold is set up to allow oil to be e=ported to the 4'0L slop tank. /n manual mode< close 2%;-(1#@s reflu= flow control +al+e 179-#%%13 and he block +al+e isolating 2%;-(1#@s reflu= pump@s 12%;-,;. 03 common discharge from 79-#%%1. 'lowly introduce flush oil to the product stripper reflu= drum 12%;-(1$3 until a ;$A le+el is achie+ed. There is no flow measurement on the flush oil line to the o+erhead system. 5owe+er< the addition rate can be determined by obser+ing 2%;-(1:@s bottoms e=port rate to the slop oil header. The e=port rate will reduce by the amount being added to the o+erhead. Limit import rate to F1! m! hr. .lign the unstabili"ed naphtha e=port line to the slop oil header. /n manual mode< open the e=port flow control +al+e 179-#1%13< commission a product stripper reflu= pump< and e=port at ma=imum rate< stopping when 2%;-(1$@s le+el drops to 1%A.

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-efill 2%;-(1$ to ;$A and run the second reflu= pump at ma=imum e=port rate< stopping when 2%;-(1$@s le+el drops to 1%A. (ontinue this process until the rundown to the slop oil header is relati+ely free from suspended solids. /n manual mode< close 79-#1%1< refill 2%;-(1$ to $%A< start a reflu= pump< and slowly open 79-#1%1 to establish a flush oil flow of F1!.$ m! hr to the slop oil header. )lace 2%;-(1$@s le+el flow control loop 1L/(-#1%1 7/(-#1%13 in automatic mode with a set point of $%A. 6ith 79-#%%1 closed in the manual mode< open the block +al+e isolating 2%;-,;. 0@s common discharge from 79-#%%1< and slowly open 79-#%%1 to establish flush oil flow to the top of 2%;-(1# at F1! m! hr to flush rust and scale from the column internals. )lace 7/(-#%%1 in automatic mode< with a set point of F1! m! hr. 2ote: 4nce flush oil is routed to 2%;-(1# 1+ia 7/(-#%%13< 2%;-(1$@s le+el is maintained by manually admitting slightly more flush oil than is required to achie+e the target flush oil rate to 2%;-(1#. This allows a small slipstream to be e=ported to the slop oil header< controlled by 2%;-(1$@s le+el flow control loop 1L/(-#1%1 7/(-#1%13. The e=port rate should be kept to a minimum. -un both reflu= pumps for a suitable period before 2%;-(1:@s feed temperature is increased abo+e M$( to pre+ent damaging pump seals 1in units where seals are not designed for higher temperatures3. 8ach time the pumps are switched< the suction screen should be checked for debris.

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7lush the product fractionator 12%;-(1:3 o+erhead system: 8nsure the slop oil header plot limit isolation manifold is set up to allow oil to be e=ported to the 4'0L slop tank. /n manual mode< close 2%;-(1:@s reflu= flow control +al+e 179-#!%13 and the block +al+e isolating the fractionator reflu= pumps 12%;-,11. 03 common discharge from 79-#%%1. 'lowly introduce flush oil to the fractionator reflu= drum 12%;-(1;3 until a ;$A le+el is achie+ed. There is no flow measurement on the flush oil line to the o+erhead system. 5owe+er< the addition rate can be determined by obser+ing 2%;-(1:@s bottoms e=port rate to the slop oil header. The e=port rate will reduce by the amount being added to the o+erhead. Limit import rate to F2% m! hr. .lign the unstabili"ed naphtha e=port line to the slop oil header. /n manual mode< open the e=port flow control +al+e 179-#!%13< commission a product fractionator reflu= pump< and e=port at ma=imum rate< stopping when 2%;-(1;@s le+el drops to 1%A. -efill 2%;-(1; to ;$A and run the second reflu= pump at ma=imum e=port rate< stopping when 2%;-(1;@s le+el drops to 1%A. (ontinue this process until the rundown to the slop oil header is relati+ely free from suspended solids. /n manual mode< close 79-#:%1< refill 2%;-(1; to $%A< start a reflu= pump< and slowly open 79-#:%1 to establish a flush oil flow of F2%.$ m! hr to the slop oil header. )lace 2%;-(1;@s le+el flow control loop 1L/(-#$%1 7/(-#:%13 in automatic mode with a set point of $%A. 6ith 79-#!%1 closed in the manual mode< open the block +al+e isolating 2%;-,11. 0@s common discharge from 79-#!%1< and slowly open 79-#!%1 to establish flush oil flow to the top of 2%;-(1: at F2% m! hr< to flush rust and scale from the column internals. )lace 7/(-#!%1 in automatic mode< with a set point of F2% m! hr. 2ote: 4nce flush oil is routed to 2%;-(1: 1+ia 7/(-#!%13< 2%;-(1;@s le+el is maintained by manually admitting slightly more flush oil to 2%;-(1; than is required to achie+e the target flush oil rate to 2%;-(1:. This allows a small slipstream to be e=ported to the slop oil header< controlled by 2%;-(1;@s le+el flow control loop 1L/(-#$%1 7/(-#:%13. The e=port rate should be kept to a minimum.

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-un both reflu= pumps for a suitable period before the fractionator feed temperature is increased abo+e M$( to pre+ent damaging pump seals 1in units where seals are not designed for higher temperatures3. 8ach time the pumps are switched< the suction screen should be checked for debris. #. (ontinue once-through flushing at F12# m! hr until a +isual rundown sample from 2%;-(1:@s bottoms to the slop oil header appears clear from suspended solids. The rundown must be relati+ely free from suspended solids before establishing long-loop circulation. .t this point< the following startup oil flow conditions should e=ist: F12# m! hr of startup diesel from storage to the feed section. F12# m! hr internal circulation from the fractionator bottoms >0? pump 12%;-,1203 to the common effluent line from 2%;-(M and 2%;-(1%. F1! m! hr flush oil reflu=ed to the top of 2%;-(1#< +ia the reflu= flow controller 17/(-#%%13. F1! m! hr flush oil returning to 2%;-(1#@s bottoms. F%.$ m! hr flush oil being e=ported to the slop oil header from 2%;-(1$< +ia L/(-#1%1 7/(-#1%1. F2% m! hr flush oil reflu=ed to the top of 2%;-(1:< +ia the reflu= flow controller 17/(-#!%13. F2% m! hr flush oil returning to 2%;-(1:@s bottoms. F%.$ m! hr flush oil being e=ported to the slop oil header from 2%;-(1;< +ia L/(-#$%1 7/(-#:%1. F12! m! hr of flush oil from 2%;-(1:@s bottoms to the slop oil header.

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Long-Loop (irculation 6hen the product fractionator 12%;-(1:3 bottoms rundown sample appears to be relati+ely free of suspended solids and or water< a hot long-loop flush oil circulation flow from 2%;-(1:@s bottoms back to the feed section is started. The hot long-loop circulation originates from the >hot startup oil Eump-o+er line<? upstream of the uncon+erted oil air cooler 12%;-8213< and enters the feed section upstream of the oil feed kerosene e=changer 12%;-813. 4nce hot long-loop circulation is established< the feed filters are placed in ser+ice to remo+e any remaining suspended solids from the feed and fractionation sections. .lso< during this step< the circulating stream temperature is increased to FM% ( to remo+e moisture. 8stablishing long-loop circulation minimi"es the amount of startup diesel being downgraded to slop. 5owe+er< during long-loop circulation< a small amount of startup diesel will continue to be imported from storage and a similar amount will be e=ported to the offplot 4'0L slop tank to maintain stable +essel and column le+el control. -efer to 'tartup Diagram #. 1. (ontinue flush oil rates that were established in the step abo+e. 7lush oil routed to the columns returns to the column bottoms and should not affect other circulation flows. 5owe+er< flush oil being e=ported from the reflu= drums to slop reduces 2%;-(1:@s bottoms e=port rate to slop. 8nsure the fractionator bottoms steam generator 12%;-8!:3 has been itial steam production should be routed to the atmosphere< +ia the silencer 12%;-*!3. )lace the feed filters 12%;-T13 and filter backwash system in ser+ice. The filters should remain in ser+ice for the duration of circulatory flushing to remo+e any remaining suspended solids. .lign the >hot? source long-loop +al+es to the long-loop circulation header. The >cold? source should be isolated. 8stablish long-loop circulation< by slowly opening the long-loop flow control +al+e 179-1#%C3 in manual mode< to transfer F11% m! hr of flush oil from 2%;-(1:@s bottoms back to the feed section< upstream of the oil feed kerosene e=changer 12%;-813. )lace 7/(-1#%C in automatic mode to maintain this rate.

2.

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2ote: /f continuous filter backwash occurs after long-loop circulation is established< it may be necessary to re+ert back to the once-through flush circuit for a time. :. )ro+ided the feed filter backwash frequency remains< slowly increase the internal and long-loop circulation rates< while making sure minimum import and e=port rates are maintained< as discussed abo+e. /ncrease the internal circulation rate 17/(-2C%#3 to F1;!.$ m! hr 1;%A of normal feed rate3< or until a mechanical limit is reached Bi.e.< fractionator bottoms pump 12%;-,12. 03 capacity< ability to transfer flush oil from the (L)' 12%;-(M3 to the product stripper 12%;-(1#3< or from 2%;-(1# to 2%;-(1:< etc.D. The obEecti+e is to increase the internal circulation rate to the ma=imum achie+able to impro+e flushing efficiency. /t is assumed that during this step< with 2%;-(1:@s pressure at F%.; kg cm2< and with only one bottoms pump operating< the estimated achie+able rate is F1;!.$ m! hr.

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/ncrease the long-loop circulation rate 17/(-1#%C3 to F1$C.: m! hr. ;. .s the long-loop rate is increased< startup diesel imported from storage and 2%;-(1:@s bottoms e=ported to the slop oil header should automatically reduce by equal amounts. *inimum import and e=port rates of F1$ m! hr are maintained to ensure stable +essel and column le+el control. *onitor le+els closely< as the import rate will +ary according to the amount of backwash oil required to keep the feed filters clean. .fter 2-! hours of hot long-loop circulation< stop all flush oil flows and let water settle in the piping and equipment for F2 hours< and then drain water from all low points.

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(.KT/42: *onitor the fractionator feed furnace 12%;-713 closely while completing the abo+e step< as pilot fires and possibly main burner fires were pre+iously commissioned to begin curing furnace refractory. *ain burners may ha+e to be e=tinguished before stopping circulation. M. 1%. -eestablish all flush oil flows at the pre+ious rates. .fter 2%;-72@s refractory has been cured< commission the main burners and slowly increase the circulating stream temperature entering 2%;-(1:@s flash "one to a range of C$-M%( 1ma=imum M$(3. Do not e=ceed M$( during this step to pre+ent flashing water in the system to steam. .llow the combined startup oil loop equipment to heat-up< while continuing to monitor 2%;-(1:@s rundown to the slop oil header for suspended solids. .s temperatures are increased< additional suspended solids will collect in the flush oil stream< and will be mostly remo+ed in the feed filters. The conditions described abo+e should be maintained for a minimum of 2# hours< while allowing the oil loop equipment to heat up gradually< and reach temperatures in the range of C$-M%(. 5old temperatures in this range until all water that may be trapped within the system has been eliminated. 'udden e+aporation of water could damage equipment. During the heatup period< and throughout the implementation of the feed and fractionation sections@ startup< pump suction screens should be inspected as required and spare pumps run-in.

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-eroute 7lush 4il Direct to the Top of the )roduct 'tripper and 7ractionator (olumns 4nce it is apparent that column internals ha+e been properly flushed 1determined by 2%;-(1:@s rundown samples to the slop oil header and feed filter backwash frequency3< discontinue flush oil flow to the product stripper and fractionator reflu= drums. -eroute flush oil direct to each column@s reflu= line upstream of their respecti+e reflu= flow control +al+es. The reflu= controllers remain in automatic mode< maintaining pre+iously established flush oil rates to the product stripper and fractionator columns. The flush oil routings are changed at this point to ensure the changes are made before oil temperatures are increased abo+e M$( to a+oid damaging reflu= pump seals. /t also pre+ents getting high pour point 9,4 into the uninsulated naphtha systems< when 9,4 is introduced to replace startup diesel before feed is introduced to the reactor section. -efer to 'tartup Diagram #. )roduct 'tripper 12%;-(1#3 1. 'lowly introduce flush oil to the upstream side of 2%;-(1#@s reflu= flow control +al+e 179-#%%13< and block in the flush oil +al+e to the product stripper reflu= drum 12%;-(1$3. (lose the block +al+e on the common discharge line from the product stripper reflu= pumps 12%;-,;. 03 to 79-#%%1. 6ith 2%;-,;. 0@s discharge still routed to the slop oil header< continue pumping to +oid startup diesel from 2%;-(1$< and then shutdown and isolate the pump. /n manual mode< close the e=port flow control +al+e 179-#1%13 and isolate the e=port line from the slop oil header. 8nsure F1! m! hr of flush oil flow to 2%;-(1# is maintained by 7/(-#%%1. 0egin to monitor the product stripper o+erhead condenser@s 12%;-8123 effluent temperature. 6hen practical< place the temperature controller 1T/(-#1%13 in automatic mode. Drain any remaining flush oil from 2%;-(1$< to pre+ent pumping flush oil to the light end section< during that section@s commissioning acti+ities.

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7ractionator 12%;-(1;3 1. 'lowly introduce flush oil to the upstream side of 2%;-(1:@s reflu= flow control +al+e 179-#!%13< and block in the flush oil +al+e to the fractionator reflu= drum 12%;-(1;3. (lose the block +al+e on the common discharge line from the fractionator reflu= pumps 12%;-,11. 03 to 79-#!%1. 6ith 2%;-,11. 0@s discharge still routed to the slop oil header< continue pumping to +oid startup diesel from 2%;-(1;< and then shutdown and isolate the pump. /n manual mode< close the e=port flow control +al+e 179-#:%13 and isolate the e=port line from the slop oil header. 8nsure F2% m! hr of flush oil flow to 2%;-(1: is maintained by 7/(-#!%1. 0egin to monitor the fractionator o+erhead condenser@s 12%;-81!3 effluent temperature. 6hen practical< place the temperature controller 1T/(-#$%23 in automatic mode. Drain any remaining flush oil from 2%;-(1;< to pre+ent pumping flush oil to the light end section< during that section@s commissioning acti+ities.

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7lush the )roduct 7ractionator< 'idecut< and )umparound 'ystems 'tarting (onditions and 4+er+iew /n the following guidelines rust and scale are flushed from 2%;-(1:@s sidecut and pumparound systems< as long-loop and internal circulation rates< and flush oil rates to the top of 2%;-(-1# and 2%;-(1: are continued. The flush oil temperature entering 2%;-(1:@s flash "one is maintained in the range of C$-M%( until these systems ha+e been flushed to pre+ent flashing water to steam that may be trapped within the systems. .t this point< the following startup oil flow conditions should e=ist: F1$ m! hr of startup diesel from storage to the feed section. F1;!.$ m! hr internal circulation from the fractionator bottoms >0? pump 12%;-,1203 to the common effluent line from 2%;-(M and 2%;-(1%. F1! m! hr flush oil direct to the top of 2%;-(1#< +ia the reflu= flow controller 17/(-#%%13. F1! m! hr flush oil returning to 2%;-(1#@s bottoms. F%.$ m! hr flush oil being e=ported to the slop oil header from 2%;-(1$< +ia L/(-#1%1 7/(-#1%1. F2% m! hr flush oil directly to the top of 2%;-(1:< +ia the reflu= flow controller 17/(-#!%13. F2% m! hr flush oil returning to 2%;-(1:@s bottoms. F%.$ m! hr flush oil being e=ported to the slop oil header from 2%;-(1;< +ia L/(-#$%1 7/(-#:%1. F1$ m! hr of flush oil being e=ported from the bottom of 2%;-(1: to the slop oil header. F1$C.: m! hr long-loop circulation from 2%;-(1:@s bottoms to the feed section upstream of the oil feed kerosene e=changer 12%;-813.

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164

7lush oil entering the top of 2%;-(1:< +ia the reflu= line< and flowing down the trays to the tower bottom< should pro+ide sufficient liquid accumulation on the draw trays to complete the flushing guidelines below. 'idecut and pumparound systems flushing steps must be e=ecuted carefully 1in the following order3 so that 2%;-(1:@s bottoms le+el is not lost and long-loop circulation is not e=cessi+ely disturbed. 2ote: .s flush oil is being withdrawn from 2%;-(1: into each sidecut stripper< the amount returning to the column bottoms is reduced. This causes the flush oil e=port rate from the bottom of 2%;-(1: to decrease< compensating for the amount being withdrawn. The e=port rate is the only measurement of the amount being withdrawn into the sidecut strippers. Limit the rate being withdrawn into the sidecut strippers to pre+ent reducing 2%;-(1:@s e=port rate to "ero. Nerosene )umparound The kerosene pumparound circuit flushing should be started se+eral hours before attempting to flush the kerosene stripper 12%;-(1C3 and its rundown equipment. 1. 2. !. #. /n manual mode< close 2%;-(1C@s le+el control +al+e 1L9-#;%13. Liquid fill the suction line from 2%;-(1:@s chimney tray 1(T!3< between Trays !M and #%< to the kerosene pumparound pumps 12%;-,C. 03. /n manual mode< close the kerosene pumparound control +al+e 179-#C%13. 'tart a pump< and in manual mode< slowly open 79-#C%1< taking care not to o+erdraw flush oil from (T!< to fill the kerosene pumparound circuit Bthe kerosene pumparound boiler feedwater preheaters 12%;-8!C. 03< kerosene pumparound air cooler 12%;-81#3< and then back to 2%;-(1: abo+e Tray #2D. 6ith 7/(-#C%1 in manual mode< gradually establish a pumparound flow. During this process< bleed gas from high point +ents to liquid fill piping and e=changers. 4nce the kerosene pumparound circuit is stable< increase the rate to achie+e F$%A 1F1!2.2 m! hr3 of design 1F2:#.# m! hr3< or the ma=imum rate achie+able with stable pump operation. )lace 7/(-#C%1 in automatic mode with a set point equal to the pumparound rate achie+ed. .fter a minimum of ! hours< switch the pumparound pumps and inspect the suction screen of the pump taken off-line. (ontinue switching pumps and inspecting suction screens until the suction line is deemed free from debris.

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7lush the pumparound circuit for a minimum of : hours< and then shut down< allowing a !% minute settling time before checking the circuit for water. /f the system is clear of water< and no additional flushing is required< inspect the suction screen of the pump last on-line< and perform any other maintenance that may be required. -eestablish the pumparound circuit at the pre+ious circulation rate.

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Nerosene 'tripper 12%;-(1C3 1. .fter the kerosene pumparound circuit has been flushed< in manual mode< slowly open 2%;-(1C@s le+el control +al+e 1L9-#;%13< flushing from 2%;-(1: into the top of 2%;-(1C< to establish a ;$A le+el 1taking care not to o+erdraw flush oil from (T!3. .fter a few minutes< the actual amount being withdrawn from 2%;-(1: to 2%;-(1C can be estimated by the change in 2%;-(1:@s bottoms rundown flow to the slop oil header. .dEust L/(-#;%1@s position< as required< to maintain an e=port rate from 2%;-(1:@s bottoms to the slop oil header. /n manual mode< open the kerosene product flow control +al+e 179-#;%23< and align the kerosene rundown line to the slop oil header. (ommission a kerosene product pump 12%;-,1!. 03< and discharge through the oil feed kerosene e=changer 12%;-813< kerosene product air cooler 12%;-81:3< and kerosene product trim coolers 12%;-81;. 03 to the slop oil header at the ma=imum rate achie+able. 0leed gas from high point +ents to fill piping and e=changers. .fter flush oil 1at FM%(3 has flowed through 2%;-81: long enough to increase its effluent temperature 1T/-#;1%3< commission the fans and obser+e the temperature change. 6hen 2%;-(1C@s le+el is reduced to F1%A< shut down the kerosene product pump and allow 2%;-(1C@s le+el to rebuild to F;$A. (ommission the other kerosene product pump and begin pumping 2%;-(1C@s contents through the circuit described abo+e at the ma=imum rate. 'top the pump when 2%;-(1C@s le+el is reduced to F1%A. 'ample the flush oil rundown during pumpout and +isually inspect for suspended solids. -epeat refilling and pumping out until the flush oil rundown is clear of solids. During this process< alternate pumps and inspect suction screens.

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6hen the flush oil rundown from 2%;-(1C appears to be clear of solids< close the kerosene product flow control +al+e 179-#;%23 in manual mode< and isolate the rundown system by closing one block +al+e on the rundown line to the slop oil header. .llow 2%;-(1C@s le+el to build to F;$A and then close the le+el control +al+e 1L9-#;%13 in manual mode. 'hut down and isolate the operating kerosene product pump. .llow a !%-minute settling time< and check the system for water. /f the system is clear of water and no additional flushing is required< inspect the pump suction screens and perform any other maintenance that may be required.

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Diesel )umparound The diesel pumparound circuit flushing should be started se+eral hours before attempting to flush the diesel stripper 12%;-(1M3 and its rundown equipment. 1. 2. !. #. /n manual mode< close 2%;-(1M@s le+el control +al+e 1L9-#M%13. Liquid fill the suction line from 2%;-(1:@s chimney tray 1(T13< between Trays 2$ and 2:< to the diesel pumparound pumps 12%;-,M. 03. /n manual mode< close the diesel pumparound control +al+e 179-$%%!3. 'tart a pump< and in manual mode< slowly open 79-$%%!< taking care not to o+erdraw flush oil from (T1< to fill the diesel pumparound circuit Bthe kerosene stripper reboiler 12%;-81$3< debutani"er reboiler 12%;-82:3< diesel pumparound steam generator 12%;-81C3< and then back to 2%;-(1: abo+e Tray 2CD. 6ith 7/(-$%%! in manual mode< gradually establish a pumparound flow. During this process< bleed gas from high point +ents to liquid fill piping and e=changers. (ommission the diesel pumparound steam generator 12%;-81C3< if not already done so. /nitial steam production should be to the atmosphere< +ia the silencer 12%;-*23. 4nce the diesel pumparound circuit is stable< increase the rate to achie+e F$%A 1F1CC.; m! hr3 of design 1F!;;.# m! hr3< or the ma=imum rate achie+able with stable pump operation. )lace 7/(-$%%# in automatic mode with a set point equal to the pumparound rate achie+ed.

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.fter a minimum of ! hours< switch the pumparound pumps and inspect the suction screen of the pump taken off-line. (ontinue switching pumps and inspecting suction screens until the suction line is deemed free from debris. 7lush the pumparound circuit for a minimum of : hours< and then shut down< allowing a !%-minute settling time before checking the circuit for water. /f the system is clear of water< and no additional flushing is required< inspect the suction screen of the pump last on-line< and perform any other maintenance that may be required. -eestablish the pumparound circuit at the pre+ious circulation rate.

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Diesel 'tripper 12%;-(1M3 1. .fter the diesel pumparound circuit has been flushed< in manual mode< slowly open 2%;-(1M@s le+el control +al+e 1L9-#M%13< flushing from 2%;-(1: into the top of 2%;-(1M< to establish a ;$A le+el 1taking care not to o+erdraw flush oil from (T13. .fter a few minutes< the actual amount being withdrawn from 2%;-(1: to 2%;-(1M can be estimated by the change in 2%;-(1:@s bottoms rundown flow to the slop oil header. .dEust L/(-#M%1@s position< as required< to maintain an e=port rate from 2%;-(1:@s bottoms to the slop oil header. 0ypass the coalescer filter 12%;-T23< coalescer 12%;-(!$3< and the salt dryer 12%;-(!:3. /n manual mode< open the diesel product flow control +al+e 179-$1%13< and align the diesel rundown line to the slop oil header. (ommission a diesel product pump 12%;-,1#. 03< and discharge through the oil feed diesel e=changer 12%;-823< diesel product air cooler 12%;-81M3< and diesel product trim coolers 12%;-82%. 03 to the slop oil header at the ma=imum rate. 0leed gas from high point +ents to fill piping and e=changers. .fter flush oil 1at FM%(3 has flowed through 2%;-81M long enough to increase its effluent temperature 1T/-#M%:3< commission the fans and obser+e the temperature change.

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6hen 2%;-(1M@s le+el is reduced to F1%A< shut down the diesel product pump and allow 2%;-(1M@s le+el to rebuild to F;$A. (ommission the other diesel product pump and begin pumping 2%;-(1M@s contents through the circuit described abo+e at the ma=imum rate. 'top the pump when 2%;-(1M@s le+el is reduced to F1%A. 'ample the flush oil rundown during pumpout and +isually inspect for suspended solids. -epeat refilling and pumping out until the flush oil rundown is clear of solids. During this process< alternate pumps and inspect suction screens. 6hen the flush oil rundown from 2%;-(1M appears to be clear of solids< close the diesel product flow control +al+e 179-$1%13 in manual mode< and isolate the rundown system by closing one block +al+e on the rundown line to the slop oil header. .llow 2%;-(1M@s le+el to build to F;$A and then close the le+el control +al+e 1L9-#M%13 in manual mode. 'hut down and isolate the operating diesel product pump. .llow a !%-minute settling time and check the system for water. /f the system is clear of water and no additional flushing is required< inspect the pump suction screens< and perform any other maintenance that may be required.

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Thermal-(ycling ,uidelines .fter the sidecut systems are flushed< and with the oil temperature entering the fractionator flash "one being maintained in the range of C$-M%(< the long-loop circulating stream is thermal-cycled to enhance the loosening of rust and scale from the shellside of the oil feed kerosene e=changer 12%;-813 and the oil feed diesel e=changer 12%;-823. The concern is to pre+ent debris from accumulating on the first bed of the /(- first reactor 12%;--13< which can cause a high pressure drop as well as flow maldistribution. Thermal-cycling is recommended to remo+e as much debris from the reactor feed preheat e=changers as possible< before feed is introduced to the reactor< to minimi"e the possibility of ha+ing to interrupt feed or possibly ha+ing to temporarily bypass the feed filter 1which should only be done in an e=treme situation3 if the feed filter@s backwash cycle becomes e=cessi+e due to scale loosened from the e=changers. Thermal-cycling is accomplished by changing from hot source long-loop circulation to cold source long-loop circulation at least si= times< allowing 2-! hours for each cycle.

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2ote: The fractionator bottoms steam generator 12%;-8!:3 and uncon+erted oil air cooler 12%;-8213 is designed to pass F12; m! hr during normal operations. This may limit the ability to switch totally to a cold source long loop. *a=imi"e cold source while not e=ceeding the ma=imum design rundown temperature to offplot storage. 1. To initiate thermal cycling< start the uncon+erted oil air cooler 12%;-8213 fans< if not already started. 'witch from the >hot source long-loop Eump-o+er? line upstream of 2%;-821 to the >cold source long-loop Eump-o+er? line downstream of 2%;-821. The flush oil temperature entering the reactor feed preheat train should reduce to F#% ( within a short time. (losely monitor feed filter performance and the temperature profile through the feed and fractionator preheat e=changer trains during thermal-cycling. .fter a period of F2 hours< switch the long-loop circuit from the cold sources to the hot source. 2ote that it may be necessary to bypass the fractionator bottoms steam generator 12%;-8!:3 to achie+e ma=imum temperature to the feed section. -epeat thermal cycling for a minimum of fi+e times< or as long as there is an indication that rust and scale is being loosened into the circulating flush oil stream< as indicated by an increase in feed filter 12%;-T13 backwash cycles< or an increase in solids carried to the slop oil header from 2%;-(1:@s bottoms. 4nce thermal cycling steps are completed< return the long-loop circuit to the hot source.

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'witch /nternal (irculation to the (old Low )ressure 'eparator /nlet 6hen the reactor startup tightness testing has progressed to where the reactor low pressure section is isolated from the reactor high pressure section< internal circulation is switched from the common hydrocarbon effluent line from the (L)' 12%;-(M3 and (L)' +apor centrifugal separator 12%;-(1%3< to 2%;-(M@s inlet. The routing is changed to flush suspended solids from the (L)' and to pro+e le+el instrumentation. This should be done +ery carefully to not interrupt flow to the downstream fractionation section.

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-efer to 'tartup Diagram :. 1. 9erify the reactor high pressure section is isolated 1by double block +al+e and bleeder method3 from the low pressure section in the following locations: The (5)'@s 12%;-(23 hydrocarbon le+el control +al+es 1L9-2#%1. 03. The high pressure centrifugal separator@s 12%;-(!3 hydrocarbon le+el control +al+e 1L9-2$%13. 2. 9erify 2%;-(2@s interface le+el control +al+es 1L9-2#%#. 03 are isolated 1by double block +al+e and bleeder method3 from the sour water header to the water degasser drum 12%;-(1!3. 9erify 2%;-(M@s interface le+el control +al+e 1L9-2C%23 is isolated 1by double block +al+e and bleeder method3 from the sour water header to 2%;-(1!. 9erify the reactor low pressure section@s startup hydrogen self-contained pressure regulator 1)(9-2C123< on 2%;-(M@s +apor line< is aligned to maintain F2%.% kg cm2 1g3 to pro+ide the force for circulating flush oil through 2%;-(M to the product stripper 12%;-(1#3. -emo+e the blind from the common hydrocarbon effluent line from the (L)' 12%;-(M3 and (L)' +apor centrifugal separator 12%;-(1%3< and from the internal circulation line to 2%;-(M@s inlet. 6ith 79-2C%1 closed in manual mode< align 2%;-(M@s hydrocarbon effluent line to the downstream e=changers< where it is heated before entering the product stripper 12%;-(1#3. 'lowly introduce flush oil to 2%;-(M@s inlet to establish a $%A le+el< taking care not to upset the internal circulation flow 17/(-2C%#3. 4nce 2%;-(M@s le+el is established< in manual mode< slowly open 79-2C%1< while closing the block +al+e on the internal circulation line to 2%;-(M and 2%;-(1%@s common hydrocarbon effluent line. This reroutes internal circulation through 2%M-(M. 4nce operating conditions are stable< place 2%;-(M@s le+el flow control loop 1L/(-2C%1 7/(-2C%13 in automatic mode to control 2%;-(M@s le+el at F$%A.

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7eed 7ractionation 'ection 5ot 7lushing The circulating flush oil stream temperature is maintained in the range of C$-M%(< controlled by the product fractionator@s 12%;-(1:3 feed temperature controller 1T/(-#2%M3< until sidecut flushing is completed< and then the temperature is increased to F12$( to hot flush the feed and fractionation sections. CAUTION( (olumns< +essels< piping< and e=changers must be properly flushed< and pro+en to be gas free at high point +ents and +irtually free of water by utili"ing refinery-appro+ed +enting and draining procedures before increasing 2%;-(1:@s feed temperature abo+e FM$(. (atch samples at +arious low point drains to +erify the system is free of water< which could otherwise suddenly flash to steam and possibly cause equipment damage< as the circulating stream reaches the boiling point of water. 6hile this concern relates to all equipment in the flush oil circulation loop< 2%;-(1:@s internals are especially +ulnerable to damage. 1. 0efore increasing 2%;-(1:@s feed temperature< ensure flush oil routings to the top of the product stripper 12%;-(1#3 and 2%;-(1: ha+e been changed< as pre+iously described< to a+oid damaging reflu= pump seals. ,radually increase the fractionator feed furnace 12%;-723 firing rate to increase 2%;-(1:@s feed temperature< at a rate not to e=ceed FC ( hr< until a feed temperature of F12$( is reached. The temperature shouldn@t be increased abo+e 12$( while circulating startup diesel to pre+ent ca+itation in the fractionator bottoms pump.

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.lthough the feed and fractionation sections are e=pected to be free of water< the temperature and pressure profile should be monitored closely as the temperature is increased< in the e+ent that any water is present and +apori"es. /f at any time there is an indication that water is being +apori"ed anywhere in the flush oil circuit< immediately stop increasing 2%;-72@s firing rate until the symptoms of +apori"ation decrease to nil.

2ote: .s the flush oil circulating stream temperature increases< the solids load to the feed filters 12%;-T13 is e=pected to increase. #. .fter the flush oil circulating stream temperature has been at F12$ ( for at least C hours< and pro+ided 2%;-T1@s backwash frequency has diminished and stabili"ed< thermal cycling< pre+iously described< should be repeated. >5ot? flush oil conditions should be maintained for a minimum of ;2 hours during the initial unit startup. During this time 2%;-T1@s backwash frequency should be monitored and recorded.

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2ote: 'ystem flushing with hot flush oil should be implemented for a suitable time during the initial startup or any unit restart following a turnaround during which the feed preheat or fractionation section@s equipment has been e=posed to air. -eactor 7eed )ump (ommissioning .fter the product fractionator@s 12%;-(1:3 sidecut systems flushing has been completed< the flush oil circulating stream temperature has been at F12$G( for at least 2# hours< and pro+ided that the feed filter 12%;-T13 backwash frequency is not e=cessi+e< the high pressure multi-stage reactor feed pumps 12%;-,!. 03 are warmed-up and run-in to pro+e reliability. 2ote that this run-in should be repeated on hot 9,4 after switching to 9,4 circulation. 'tartup Diagram : illustrates the warmup oil routing for 2%;-,!. 0. .fter warmup< the feed pumps are run-in on minimum flow circulation under the super+ision of a manufacturer@s representati+e. 'tartup Diagram ; illustrates the warmup oil routing for 2%;-,!0< with 2%;-,!. running on minimum flow back to the reactor feed surge drum 12%;-(13. (L, recommends running the pumps for a sufficient period 1as per +endor recommendations3 to pro+e reliability before oil feed is introduced to the reactor section. The pumps remain blinded from the reactor section during this step< and up until oil feed is to be introduced.

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7eed )ump 6armup -efer to 'tartup Diagram :. 6armup oil flow to the reactor feed pumps should be started se+eral hours 1specific number of hours to be +erified by the +endor3 before attempting to start the pumps< to allow time for all internal pump parts to reach equilibrium temperature. 7eed pump warmup oil is supplied from the discharge of the fractionator bottoms pumps 12%;-,12. 03 and cooled in downstream e=changers to an appropriate temperature for warming up the feed pumps. Typical feed pump warmup guidelines< before starting the feed pumps< are described below. 5owe+er< the heatup rate and pump case temperature differential will be set by the +endor representati+e. 1. The high pressure isolation blind in the feed line to the reactor section should remain installed until catalyst is loaded and the reactor section startup has progressed to oil feed-in status. The reactor feed pump warmup system consists of a hot and a cold source of warmup oil. These two streams are blended together to achie+e an oil stream temperature that is near normal feed pump operating temperature. The blended warmup oil temperature is monitored at the temperature gauge 1T/-1;%!3< located on the common blended warmup oil line to the feed pumps. The hot source originates from the upstream side of the uncon+erted oil air cooler 12%;-8213 after being cooled in the fractionator feed bottoms e=changers 12%;-811. 03< the fractionator bottoms steam generator 12%;-8!:3< the naphtha splitter reboiler 12%;-82;3< and the deethani"er reboiler 12%;-82#3< to a temperature of F1;1( 1slightly abo+e the reactor feed pump@s normal operating temperature3. The cold source originates from the downstream side of 2%;-821< after being further cooled. !. The blended warmup oil enters through each pump@s case drain. . portion of the warmup oil is routed in re+erse flow around the closed motor-operated suction +al+e< +ia a small bypass line< and flows to the suction line from the reactor feed surge drum 12%;-(13. The rate of warmup oil flow through the suction +al+e bypass line is set manually with a globe +al+e. The balance of the warmup oil entering the pump case drain flows from the discharge side of the case through a minimum flow bypass lines 1bypassing the minimum flow control +al+e< +ia a flow orifice3 to 2%;-(1.

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Temperature indicators pro+ided on the pump suction lines and minimum flow lines pro+ide information required to adEust warmup oil flow rates as needed to properly warm up the feed pumps in a balanced manner. )ump case temperatures are monitored by fi=ed skin point temperature readouts< or by contact pyrometers. The +endor representati+e will specify allowable temperature differences between points along the top and differences along the bottom of the case. .dditionally< an allowable temperature difference between the a+erage of the top and bottom will be specified.

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7eed )ump -un-/n 4nce it is determined that a reactor feed pump is properly warmed up< it is run-in on minimum flow spillback to 2%;-(1< under the direction of the +endor representati+e. This acti+ity should not be conducted until detailed written procedures ha+e been de+eloped by the facility operator< in conEunction with the pump +endor. 0ecause flush oil is flowing through 2%;-(1 to the fractionator bottoms >0? pump 12%;-,1203< heat generated by the feed pumps will not o+erheat the fluid being pumped. Therefore< the duration of the run-in is not limitedL howe+er< the discharge temperature of the operating feed pump should be carefully monitored while on minimum flow spillback. 0oth feed pumps should be run-in during this phase of the startup. .dditionally< a series of tests should be performed to ensure the electrical system could support +arious operating scenarios of a pump running< while starting the standby pump. -efer to 'tartup Diagram ;. 1. 2. !. The pumps remain blinded from the reactor section while being run-in to pro+e reliability. 8nsure the feed pump is properly warmed up< according to the pump manufacturer@s warmup criteria< before starting the pump. .lign the pump to be run-in to discharge through the minimum flow circulation line< back to the reactor feed surge drum 12%;-(13< with the minimum flow control +al+e in automatic mode with a set point to satisfy minimum flow requirements.

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'tart the pump and run it under the super+ision of a manufacturer@s representati+e. 6ith one pump running< start the spare pump and allow both pumps to run for a minimum of !% minutes. This is an e=pected operating situation when the feed pumps are being switched during normal operation. This step also checks out the electrical system as installed. 6hen the feed pump run-in and checkout is completed< the pumps should be shut down and safely isolated. /f no repairs are required< the pumps should be isolated full of startup oil and maintained in standby readiness 1warmed up3 until required for oil feed introduction to the reactor section.

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/ntroduce 'tartup 2aphtha to the )roduct 'tripper and 7ractionator -eflu= Drums 4nce flush oil is discontinued to the product stripper and fractionator reflu= drums< startup naphtha is introduced to the reflu= drums. 'tartup Diagram # illustrates startup naphtha going to the product stripper and fractionator reflu= drums< where it is pumped to the light end section as once-through flush to the slop oil header. 2ote: The light ends section must be commissioned and ready to recei+e startup naphtha from the fractionation section 1discussed later3 before the steps below can be accomplished. -efer to 'tartup Diagrams #. )roduct 'tripper -eflu= Drum 12%;-(1$3 1. 8nsure startup flush oil was +oided from 2%;-(1$. /f flush oil was not +oided< pump as much as possible to the slop oil header< and then drain any remaining oil to the oily water sewer to pre+ent sending flush oil to the light ends section. 8nsure the block +al+e to the slop oil header is closed< and align the product stripper reflu= pump@s 12%;-,;. 03 discharge to e=port to the deethani"er@s 12%;-(2%3 o+erhead system< upstream of the deethani"er o+erhead condenser 12%;-8223. /n manual mode< close 2%;-,;. 0@s discharge e=port flow control +al+e 179-#1%13. /ntroduce startup naphtha to 2%;-(1$ to establish a $%A le+el.

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4nce a $%A le+el is established in 2%;-(1$< start one of the product stripper reflu= pumps. /n manual mode< slowly open 79-#1%1 to transfer startup naphtha from 2%;-(1$ to the deethani"er o+erhead system at a rate of F:.$ m! hr 1$%A of design3. )lace 2%;-(1$@s le+el flow control loop 1L/(-#1%1 7/(-#1%13 in automatic mode< when the e=port flow rate is stable.

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2ote: *anual adEustments will ha+e to be made to the startup naphtha being imported to 2%;-(1$ to maintain a stable drum le+el and the desired e=port rate. 7ractionator -eflu= Drum 12%;-(1;3 1. 8nsure startup flush oil was +oided from 2%;-(1;. /f oil was not +oided< pump as much as possible to the slop oil header< and then drain any remaining oil to the oily water sewer to pre+ent pumping flush oil to the light end section. (lose the block +al+e to the slop oil header< and align the fractionator reflu= pump@s 12%;-,11. 03 discharge to e=port to the debutani"er@s 12%;-(2;3 feed line< downstream of the deethani"er@s 12%;-(2%3 bottoms flow control +al+e 179-$$%23. /n manual mode< close 2%;-,11. 0@s discharge e=port flow control +al+e 179-#:%13. /ntroduce startup naphtha to 2%;-(1; to establish a $%A le+el. 4nce a $%A le+el is established in 2%;-(1;< start one of the fractionator reflu= pumps. /n manual mode< slowly open 79-#:%1< to transfer startup naphtha from 2%;-(1; to 2%;-(2;@s feed line at a rate of F1%.# m! hr 1$%A of design3< where it Eoins the naphtha flow from 2%;-2%@s bottoms. *onitor 2%;-(2;@s le+el closely to ensure proper control is maintained. )lace 2%;-(1;@s le+el flow control loop 1L/(-#$%1 7/(-#:%13 in automatic mode< when the e=port flow rate is stable. The rate from 2%;-(2; to the naphtha splitter 12%;-(2M3 and from 2%;-(2M@s rundown to the slop oil header should increase. .t this point< the e=port rate should be F1:.$$ m! hr< or about CCA of design.

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2ote: *anual adEustments will ha+e to be made to the startup naphtha being imported to 2%;-(1; to maintain a stable drum le+el and the desired e=port rate

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Discontinue 'tartup 7lush 4il to the )roduct 'tripper and )roduct 7ractionator 7lush oil to the product stripper 12%;-(1#3 and product fractionator 12%;-(1:3< pre+iously routed to their reflu= lines< is discontinued and replaced with startup naphtha from their respecti+e reflu= drums to establish near normal operating conditions in the o+erhead systems. This step is accomplished before displacing startup diesel from the combined feed and fractionation sections with 9,4< to pre+ent getting high pour point 9,4 into column o+erhead systems. -efer to 'tartup Diagram :. 1. /ncrease the naphtha import rates to the product stripper reflu= drum 12%;-(1$3 and the fractionator reflu= drum 12%;-(1;3 to increase e=port rates high enough to allow naphtha to replace the startup diesel flush oil routed to each column top< +ia their respecti+e reflu= flow control +al+es.

)roduct 'tripper 12%;-(1#3 2. !. 8nsure the line to the slop oil header is blocked. 'imultaneously close the +al+e on the startup diesel line< upstream of the reflu= flow control +al+e 179-#%%13< and open the +al+e from the discharge of the product stripper reflu= pumps 12%;-,;. 03.

#. 8nsure 7/(-#%%1 maintains a reflu= rate of F1! m! hr to the top of 2%;-(1#. $. *anually adEust the startup naphtha import rate to 2%;-(1$ to maintain a reflu= rate of F1! m! hr< while maintaining a minimum e=port rate to the light end section for stable reflu= drum le+el control.

)roduct 7ractionator 12%;-(1:3 (.KT/42: During the following step< the pumparound circuits should be monitored +ery closely< as it will become difficult to maintain established flow rates. The rates may ha+e to be reduced or e+en discontinued. :. ;. 8nsure the line to the slop oil header is blocked. 'imultaneously close the +al+e on the startup diesel line< upstream of the reflu= flow control +al+e 179-#!%13< and open the +al+e from the discharge of the fractionator reflu= pumps 12%;-,11. 03.

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8nsure 7/(-#!%1 maintains a reflu= rate of F2% m! hr to the top of 2%;-(1:. *anually adEust the startup naphtha import rate 2%;-(1;< to maintain a reflu= rate of F2% m! hr< while maintaining a minimum e=port rate to the light end section for stable reflu= drum le+el control. .t this point< the flush oil header on the discharge of the fractionator bottoms pump can be blocked and blinded. .t this point< the flush oil header on the common discharge of 2%;-(1:@s bottoms pumps can be closed and or blinded.

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Displace 'tartup Diesel 6ith 9,4 /n the following guidelines< flush oil< being circulated at F12$G(< is switched from startup diesel to 9,4. .fter this is accomplished< the feed and fractionation sections will be left on long-loop 9,4 circulation while waiting for feed introduction to the reactor section. -efer to 'tartup Diagram C. 1. 2. (ontinue to maintain 2%;-(1:@s bottoms temperature at F12$(. (ontinue circulating 2%;-(1: bottoms back to the feed section at F1$C.: m! hr using the >hot long-loop startup Eump-o+er? from upstream of the uncon+erted oil air cooler 12%;-8213. 'imultaneously adEust the internal circulation rate to F12# m! hr and the long-loop circulation rate to F1%M m! hr. 'tartup diesel import rate and 2%;-(1:@s bottoms e=port rate to the slop oil header should automatically change to F1$ m! hr. 8nsure flush oil flow has been discontinued to the top of 2%;-(1# and 2%;-(1: to a+oid getting high pour point 9,4 into the uninsulated naphtha systems. .lign the hot 9,4 feed line from the -efinery /// (DK 9DK to the feed flow controller 17/(-1#%:3. 9,4 will be drawn into the feed section by 7/(-1#%: as startup diesel is discontinued. 'lowly close the startup diesel block +al+e at plot limit. The reactor feed surge drum@s 12%;-(13 le+el controller 1L/(-1:%13< resetting 7/(-1#%:< will begin to draw in 9,4 to maintain the drum le+el as startup diesel is discontinued.

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'witch to a 4nce-Through 7lush 4il (ircuit ;. 'witch to the once-through flushing circuit by slowly reducing and then stopping long-loop circulation 17/(-1#%C3. This will bring in F12# m! hr 1F$%A of the design feed rate3 of 9,4 to flush the offplot feed piping and to displace startup diesel flush oil from the feed and fractionation sections.

.t this point the following flow conditions should e=ist: F12# m! hr of 9,4 from the -efinery /// (DK 9DK to the feed section. F12# m! hr internal circulation from the fractionator bottoms >0? pump to 2%;-(M@s inlet. F12# m! hr of 9,4 from the product fractionator bottoms to the slop oil header.

-eturn to a Long-Loop 7lush 4il (ircuit .lthough not displayed on 'tartup Diagram C< after startup diesel is displaced< the long-loop circuit is reestablished. C. 6ith the internal circulation rate at F12# m! hr< slowly reestablish hot long-loop circulation at F1%M m! hr through 7/(-1#%C. This will reduce the 9,4 import rate 17/(-1#%:3 and 2%;-(1:@s bottoms e=port rate 17/(-$2%23 to the slop oil header to F1$ m! hr. 4nce the abo+e circulation conditions are established< the fractionator feed furnace 12%;-723 outlet temperature 1T/(-#2%M3 is adEusted< and heat e=change established in 2%;-(1:@s rundown cooling circuit< to limit the oil temperature entering the reactor feed surge drum to a ma=imum of 1;%G(. The oil temperature to 2%;-(1 should not be increased abo+e 1;%( until feed is introduced to the reactor section to ensure controllable reactor feed furnace duty. 5old at the abo+e conditions until final preparations are made to introduce feed to the reactor section.

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Light 8nds -eco+ery 'ection 7lushing

4nce product stripper and product fractionator flushing acti+ities reach the point where startup diesel utili"ed to flush their o+erhead systems is routed directly to the reflu= lines 1changed from the reflu= drums3< flushing acti+ities in the light ends section can commence. The run-in and flushing guidelines described below are conducted concurrently with ongoing startup guidelines in the feed and fractionation sections. Light 8nds 'ection 7lushing Light 8nds 'ection 4nce-Through 2aphtha 7lush O 'tarting (onditions The light ends reco+ery section< consisting of the deethani"er< sponge oil absorber< fuel gas 52' absorber< debutani"er< naphtha splitter< L), caustic treating< and all associated equipment< ha+e been o=ygen-freed by purging with nitrogen and are floating on the flare system 1or being maintained under pressure with an inert gas or fuel gas3. )roduct stripper and product fractionator startup acti+ities ha+e progressed to the point where flush oil has been routed directly to the top of each column +ia their reflu= lines. The reflu= drums ha+e been +oided of flush oil and are ready to recei+e startup naphtha for once-through flushing of the light end section. .ll water has been drained from low point drains< pumps< e=changers< instruments< etc.< which normally operate without a water phase. (ooling water has been commissioned for the following e=changers: Deethani"er 4+erhead (ondensers 'ponge 4il 4+erhead (oolers Debutani"er 4+erhead (ondensers Light 2aphtha )roduct Trim (oolers 5ea+y 2aphtha )roduct Trim (oolers 2%;-822. 0 2%;-82!. 0 2%;-82$. 0 2%;-8!%. 0 2%;-8!1. 0

7ans ha+e been started for the following air coolers: 5ea+y 2aphtha 'ponge 4il .ir (ooler 2aphtha 'plitter 4+erhead .ir (ooler 5ea+y 2aphtha )roduct .ir (ooler 2%;-8!M 2%;-82M 2%;-82C

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Light 8nds 'ection 4nce-Through 2aphtha 7lush This step allows suspended solids to be flushed from the light ends section to the slop oil header. .s pre+iously discussed< startup naphtha was introduced to establish working le+els of F$%A in the product stripper and product fractionator reflu= drums 12%;-(1$ and 2%;-(1;3< and was then pumped from the fractionation section to the light end section. 'tartup naphtha from 2%;-(1$ enters the deethani"er 12%;-(2%3 o+erhead system upstream of the deethani"er o+erhead condensers 12%;-822. 03< and startup naphtha from 2%;-(1; Eoins 2%;-(2%@s bottoms stream as feed to the debutani"er 12%;-(2;3. 7low rates to these locations are regulated by adEusting the startup naphtha intake +al+e to each reflu= drum. -efer to 'tartup Diagram #. 1. 2. !. 8nsure the L), caustic treating system is isolated and floating on the flare header or is under an inert gas blanket. /solate the lean amine to< and rich amine from< the fuel gas 5 2' absorber 12%;-(2$3. .lign the deethani"er 12%;-(2%3< sponge oil absorber 12%;-(223< and 2%;-(2$ system@s pressure control +al+e 1)9-:C%:3 to the flare. (ommission 2%;-(2%@s startup hydrogen self-contained pressure regulator 1)(9-$$%#3 to control the system pressure at F12.% kg cm2 1g3. )lace )/(-:C%: in automatic mode< with a set point slightly abo+e that being maintained by )(9-$$%#. 4pen 2%;-(2$@s bypass 15/(-:C%13. .lign the debutani"er 12%;-(2;3 o+erhead high set point pressure control +al+e 1)9-:%%!3 to the flare 1normal routing3. (ommission 2%;-(2;@s o+erhead startup hydrogen self-contained pressure regulator 1)(9-$M%!3 to control the column pressure at F1%.;% kg cm2 1g3. )lace )/(-:%%! in automatic mode< with a set point slightly abo+e that being maintained by )(9-$M%!. .lign the naphtha splitter 12%;-(2M3 o+erhead high set point pressure control +al+e 1)9-:2%23 to the flare 1normal routing3. (ommission 2%;-(2M@s o+erhead startup fuel gas self-contained pressure regulator 1)(9-:2%$3 to control the column pressure at F1.! kg cm2 1g3. )lace )/(-:2%2 in automatic mode< with a set point slightly abo+e that being maintained by )(9-:2%$.

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.lign 2%;-(2M@s bottoms rundown to bypass the hea+y naphtha sulfur sorber 12%;-(##3. /n manual mode< close the hot hea+y naphtha flow control +al+e 179-:!%13. 8nsure the rundown feed line to the 25T (-K is isolated. /n manual mode close the cold hea+y naphtha flow control +al+e 179-:!%23< and align the cold hea+y naphtha rundown to the slop oil header. .s described in the flushing guidelines for the product stripper< startup naphtha was introduced to the product stripper reflu= drum 12%;-(1$3 to establish a $%A le+el< a reflu= pump was started to transfer startup naphtha to 2%;-(2%@s o+erhead system Bupstream of the deethani"er o+erhead condensers 12%;-822. 03D< and 2%;-(1$@s le+el flow control loop 1L/(-#1%1 7/(-#1%13 was placed in automatic mode. The transfer rate was established at F:.$ m! hr 1$%A of design3 by manual adEustments to the startup naphtha being imported to 2%;-(1$. 6hen the deethani"er reflu= drum@s 12%;-(213 le+el is at $%A< close 2%;-(2%@s reflu= control +al+e 179-$:%13< start a deethani"er reflu= pump 12%;-,1;. 03< and slowly open 79-$:%1 to transfer startup naphtha to the top of 2%;-(2%. )lace 2%;-(21@s le+el flow control loop 1L/(-$:%1 7/(-$:%13 in automatic mode when the flow rate is stable. 9ariations in 2%;-(21@s le+el +aries the reflu= rate 6hen 2%;-(2%@s bottoms le+el is at $%A< slowly open 2%;-(2%@s bottoms flow control +al+e 179-$$%23 in manual mode to establish a flow of startup naphtha to the debutani"er 12%;-(2;3. )lace 2%;-(2%@s le+el flow control loop 1L/(-$$%2 7/(-$$%23 in automatic mode when the flow rate is stable. .t this point< the product fractionator bottoms circuit can be utili"ed to add heat to 2%;-(2%< +ia the deethani"er reboiler 12%;-82#3< to facilitate equipment internal cleaning. 6hen 2%;-(2;@s le+el is at $%A< slowly open 2%;-(2;@s bottoms flow control +al+e 179-$M%23 in manual mode to establish a flow of startup naphtha to the naphtha splitter 12%;-(2M3. )lace 2%;-(2;@s le+el flow control loop 1L/(-$;%1 7/(-$M%23 in automatic mode when the flow rate is stable. .t this point< the diesel pumparound circuit can be utili"ed to add heat to 2%;-(2;< +ia the debutani"er 12%;-82:3< to facilitate equipment internal cleaning.

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6hen 2%;-(2M@s le+el is at $%A< start a naphtha splitter bottoms pump 12%;-,2%. 03< and in manual mode< slowly open the cold hea+y naphtha flow control +al+e 179-:!%23 to transfer startup naphtha to the slop oil header< through the hea+y naphtha product air cooler 12%;-82C3 and hea+y naphtha product trim coolers 12%;-8!1. 03. )lace 2%;-(2M@s le+el flow control loop 1L/(-:1%1 7/(-:!%23 in automatic mode when the flow rate is stable 1the e=port rate should be F:.1$ m! hr< or about !!A of design3. .t this point< the product fractionator bottoms circuit can be utili"ed to add heat to 2%;-(2M< +ia the naphtha splitter reboiler 12%;-82;3< to facilitate equipment internal cleaning .s described in the flushing guidelines for the product fractionator< startup naphtha was introduced to the fractionator reflu= drum 12%;-(1;3 to establish a $%A le+el< and a reflu= pump was started to transfer startup naphtha to 2%;-(2;@s feed line< where it combined with naphtha from 2%;-(2%@s bottoms. 2%;-(1;@s le+el flow control loop 1L/(-#$%1 7/(-#:%13 was placed in automatic mode< and a transfer rate of F1%.# m! hr 1$%A of design3 was established by manual adEustments to the startup naphtha being imported to 2%;-(1;. *onitor 2%;-(2;@s le+el closely to ensure proper control is maintained. The rate from 2%;-(2; to 2%;-(2M and from 2%;-(2M@s rundown to the slop oil header should increase. .t this point< the e=port rate should be F1:.$$ m! hr< or about CCA of design. (ontinue the once-through circuit until 2%;-(2M@s rundown to the slop oil header is relati+ely free from suspended solids. 4nce this is accomplished< naphtha internal circulation can be established< and the naphtha splitter rundown can be switched back to normal naphtha storage.

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2ote: 6hen the light end section column internals are flushed< there will be an increase in solids that may require switching the rundown back to the slop oil header.

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8stablish 'tartup 2aphtha to the Debutani"er and 2aphtha 'plitter -eflu= Drums 1. (ommission the startup naphtha line to the debutani"er reflu= drum 12%;-(2C3< and slowly introduce naphtha to establish a $%A le+el. 8nsure the L), e=port line to the L), caustic treating system is isolated. /n manual< close the 2%;-(2;@s reflu= flow control +al+e 179-$M%13. (ommission one of the debutani"er reflu= pumps 12%;-,21. 03 and introduce naphtha at a rate of F!.% m! hr 1F2$A of design3 to 2%;-(2; by slowly opening 79-$M%1 in manual mode. )lace 7/(-$M%1 in automatic mode to maintain this rate to flush column internals< while obser+ing bottoms samples for an increase in solids. 6hen bottom samples are relati+ely free from suspended solids< discontinue naphtha flow to 2%;-(2C and shut down the reflu= pumps. 0oth reflu= pumps should be operated during this step. (ommission the startup naphtha line to the naphtha splitter reflu= drum 12%;-(!%3< and slowly introduce naphtha to establish a ;$A le+el. /n manual mode< close 2%;-(!%@s reflu= control +al+e 179-:1%13. /n manual mode< open the light naphtha e=port flow control +al+e 179-:2%13 and align it to the slop oil header. (ommission one of the naphtha splitter reflu= pumps 12%;-,2#. 03 and discharge through the light naphtha cooler 12%;-8!%3 to the slop oil header at ma=imum rate< stopping when the le+el drops to 1%A. -efill 2%;-(!% to ;$A and repeat the abo+e step with the second pump. (ontinue this until the rundown is relati+ely clear from suspended solids. -efill 2%;-(!% to $%A< start a reflu= pump< and place the le+el controller 1L/(-:2%13 in automatic mode< resetting 7/(-:2%1. 'lowly introduce naphtha to 2%;-(2M at F12.; m! hr 1F$%A of design3< by slowly opening 79-:1%1 in manual mode. )lace 7/(-:1%1 in automatic mode to maintain this rate to flush column internals< while obser+ing column bottoms samples for an increase in solids. 2%;-(!%@s le+el is maintained by importing more startup naphtha than is required to meet the target reflu= rate. The le+el flow control loop will e=port the e=cess to offplot. 4nce the e=port stream is clear< the rundown can be switched to a normal naphtha storage tank.

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8stablish /nternal 2aphtha (irculation 6hen 2%;-(2M@s bottoms rundown sample is relati+ely free from suspended solids< naphtha is transferred to the sponge oil absorber reflu= drum to establish internal naphtha circulation in the light ends section. 'ee 'tartup Diagram $. #. $. 8nsure the hea+y naphtha sponge oil air cooler 12%;-8!M3 fans are operating. /n manual mode< open the sponge oil flow control +al+e 179-$C%13 to gradually establish naphtha flow to the sponge oil absorber system at FC.: m! hr 1F$%A of design3. The flow from 7/(-$C%1 enters the sponge oil absorber o+erhead system< upstream of the sponge oil absorber o+erhead coolers 12%;-82!. 03< and collects in the sponge oil absorber reflu= drum 12%;-(2#3. 4nce the flow rate is stable 7/(-$C%1 should be placed in automatic mode with a set point to maintain FC.: m! hr. 4nce a $%A le+el is established in 2%;-(2#< in manual mode< close 2%;-(22@s reflu= flow control +al+e 179-$C%23. (ommission a reflu= pump 12%;-,1M. 03 and route naphtha to 2%;-(22 by slowly opening 79-$C%2 in manual mode. )lace 2%;-(2#@s le+el flow controllers in automatic mode 1L/(-$C%2 7/(-$C%23 to maintain a stable le+el in 2%;-(2#. .s the le+el collects in the bottom of 2%;-(22< column le+el control is established with L/(-$;%1 7/(-$;%1. 4ne of the sponge oil absorber bottoms pumps 12%;-,1C. 03 is started to transfer liquid back to the deethani"er o+erhead system upstream of the deethani"er o+erhead condensers 12%;-822. 03.

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2ote: 4nce naphtha from 2%;-(22 reaches the bottom of 2%;-(2%< naphtha being imported from the product stripper and product fractionator reflu= drums can be reduced. . small import stream should be continued in anticipation of feed-in to the reactor section. C. 4nce naphtha internal circulation 1+ia 7/(-$C%13 is stable at $%A of design flow 1FC.: m! hr3< the internal circulation rate should be slowly increased to near normal working flow 1F1;.2 m! hr3.

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Throughout the abo+e steps< flow adEustments must be made to maintain a slipstream from 2%;-(2M@s bottoms to the slop oil header to ensure stable column le+el control. This stream should be monitored for suspended solids. 4nce the rundown sample is relati+ely free from suspended solids< the rundown can be routed to normal hea+y naphtha storage. /n this case< the light ends reco+ery section can remain at standby readiness for operation on circulation to and from the naphtha storage until 9,4 is introduced to the reactor section. .s the light ends reco+ery system flushing proceeds< the pumps for each of the ser+ices should be rotated and the suctions screens inspected as required.

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-oute the )roduct 'tripper 4ffgas to the Light 8nds 'ection 11. .lign the product stripper reflu= drum pressure controller 1)/(-#1%13 to e=port to the light ends section and isolate the line to the flare header.

L), (austic Treating 'ystem (ommissioning The refinery startup team should de+elop detailed commissioning procedures for the L), caustic treating system. The following are general guidelines: .ll pumps and +essels are assumed to be in clean condition after inspection< howe+er this is not true for piping. )iping must be flushed with water to ensure cleanliness. . field de+eloped piping flushing procedure should be de+eloped to flush all piping in this system. 6here possible< water circulation should be established to test out pump reliability. /n some cases< temporary piping may ha+e to be installed to accomplish this. During circulation< proper function of all equipment should be +erified< and control +al+es should be checked for proper operation. The L), coalescer 12%;-(#13 should not be subEected to steam nor water flush if the coalescing pad has been installed. This +essel should be blocked on the inlet and outlet with the bypass +al+e open. .fter the system is properly flushed with water< nitrogen is connected to purge o=ygen from the system. To ensure operability< caustic should be charged to the caustic washer and water to the water washer< and circulation established sufficiently in ad+ance of when the system will be required to treat L),.

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'tartup )rocess ,uidelines $.#.1 ,eneral (omments

The basic acti+ities necessary to start up the unit includes: reactor section dryout and tightness testing without catalyst< catalyst loading< catalyst dryout< catalyst sulfiding< 9,4 feed introduction< achie+ing lined-out operation at design on-specification product yields. The startup process guidelines offered below assume that at this point unit construction is 1%%A mechanically complete< all construction blinds and debris ha+e been remo+ed< and precommissioning and commissioning acti+ities as described in 'ections $.2 and $.! are complete to the e=tent necessary to proceed with the guidelines described in this section. $.#.1.1 'tatus

.ll utilities are in ser+ice with necessary isolation blinds in place< or temporary connections isolated. The reactor section flare header is isolated and blinded 1inside plot limit3 from the main flare header. The following< which are either being prepared for ser+ice or at standby readiness< are isolated and blinded from the reactor section: 4il 7eed 'ection 7ractionation 'ection 6ater /nEection 'ystem 'ulfiding (hemical /nEection 'ystem 'our 6ater -undown 'ystem Light 8nds 'ection

The make-up hydrogen compressors ha+e been run-in and are at standby readiness. .ll other systems outside the plot limit required to safely operate the unit ha+e been commissioned to standby readiness. . blind list has been de+eloped and e=ecuted that safely isolates the reactor section and a+oids getting water in the high pressure reactor loop after dryout and during reactor catalyst loading.

188

. dryout procedure for initially curing the refractory in the reactor feed furnace 12%;-713 has been prepared in accordance with the manufacturer@s recommendations. 'tartup procedures and checklists ha+e been prepared for maEor equipment such as the reactor feed pumps< the recycle gas compressor< etc. $.#.1.2 -outine )restartup 6ork

The following work should be completed prior to the initial startup< or a startup following a routine shutdown for catalyst change and or general unit maintenance: )recommissioning efforts are completed. 9erify that all onplot support utility systems ha+e been commissioned. 8nsure that startup plans ha+e been communicated to other affected units. (heck all fire and safety equipment. Document that all unit blinds are in the proper position. (omplete a unit )J/D check to ensure that the proper gaskets< caps< blinds< etc.< are in place. (heck all alarms and interlocks on all maEor equipment. 9erify that all shutdown tools< staging< and other temporary equipment ha+e been remo+ed from the unit. 9erify that the offplot main flare headers are in ser+ice< under fuel gas purge. 9erify that pressure safety +al+es in the reactor high and low pressure sections are in place< but isolated from flare headers< and discharging to the atmosphere. This is necessary because the reactor section will be initially pressure tested with air. 9erify that all reactor bed internals and manways are installed to pre+ent deformation during subsequent dryout steps< to the point where reassembly would be difficult. The manways are remo+ed again for catalyst loading.

189

8nsure the recycle gas compressor 12%;-N13 suction high set point pressure controller 1)/(-2:%13 and the (L)' +apor N4 drum 12%;-(123 high set point pressure controller 1)/(-2M%!3 are aligned to discharge to the atmosphere< and not to the flare< since there will be air in the system. The reactor high and low pressure sections are isolated from other refinery systems. $.#.2 'tartup 'teps The reactor section is tightness tested at low pressures and then progressi+ely higher pressures before catalyst loading and subsequent feed-in to minimi"e leaks once feed-in occurs. During tightness testing< recycle gas flow is established and the reactor high pressure section is heated to near normal working temperatures to remo+e any moisture that might be left o+er after equipment washing and or hydrotesting. 'ubsystem tests should be conducted concurrently with this phase to check out instrument response and performance. The startup acti+ities listed below are necessary to achie+e a safe and orderly initial unit startup. )recommissioning and commissioning efforts for the feed and fractionation sections can proceed concurrently with the first four steps of the sequence if required. 'tep .: 'tep 0: 'tep (: 'tep D: 'tep 8: 'tep 7: 'tep ,: -eactor 'ection /nitial Tightness Testing -eactor 'ection /nitial Dryout 12o (atalyst3 and 4perating )ressure Tightness Testing (atalyst Loading -eactor 'ection 5eatup 6ith 7resh (atalyst (atalyst 'ulfiding 9,4 7eed /ntroduction .chie+ing 4nspecification )roducts

During subsequent startups after repairs< turnaround efforts< catalyst regeneration< catalyst change-out< etc.< it will be left to the Eudgment of the startup operating team as to what startup steps might be eliminated and or modified.

190

The following tables and figures pro+ide additional information pertaining to the startup sequence: Table $-/ pro+ides a summary of the estimated gas requirements for startup. 7igure $-1 presents D*D' inEection rate requirements during sulfiding. 7igure $-2 presents make-up hydrogen and bleed gas requirements during sulfiding. Table :-/ presents the catalyst specifications and catalyst loading diagrams for the /(- first reactor 12%;--13 and the /(- second reactor 12%;--23. 'tep .: -eactor 'ection /nitial Tightness Testing

Due to safety considerations< (L, recommends using nitrogen in-lieu-of hydrogen for tightness testing up to the ma=imum pressure achie+able< with the make-up hydrogen and recycle gas compressors operating on nitrogen. The make-up hydrogen compressor@s minimum acceptable nitrogen deli+ery capability is the pressure required to safely operate the recycle gas compressor. This allows nitrogen circulation to be established< and the reactor section to be heated up to *)T< assumed to be !C(. Ksing nitrogen instead of hydrogen for tightness testing while circulating through the reactor section under heated conditions eliminates fire ha"ards in the e+ent of a leak. 'ubsequent tightness tests at higher pressures are done with a mi=ture of hydrogen and nitrogen. Tightness tests< summari"ed below< are discussed in detail in subsequent te=t. . tightness test of the combined reactor high and low pressure sections< up to and including the rich amine flash drum with utility air to F: kg cm2 1g3. .ir is suggested for this first test to minimi"e the consumption of nitrogenL howe+er< nitrogen can be used if preferred. .ir is purged from the reactor section after this test phase is successfully completed. . tightness test of the combined reactor high and low pressure sections< up to and including the (L)' +apor N4 drum 12%;-(123 with nitrogen< compressed by the make-up hydrogen compressors< to 2%;-(12@s normal operating pressure of F!%.% kg cm2 1g3. This pressure is safely below 2%;-(12@s relief +al+e setting 1!!.% kg cm23. . tightness test of the combined reactor high and low pressure sections< up to and including 2%;-(11 with nitrogen< compressed by the make-up hydrogen compressors< to 2%;-(11@s normal operating pressure of F!;.$ kg cm2 1g3< a pressure safely below 2%;-(11@s and the (L)' 12%;-(M3 relief +al+e settings 1#1.C kg cm23. The reactor low pressure section is isolated from the high pressure section after this test phase is successfully completed.

191

. tightness test of the reactor high pressure section with nitrogen< compressed by the make-up hydrogen compressors< to F#2.% kg cm2 1g3. This pressure is safely 1F1%A3 below 2$A 1#:.! kg cm23 of the reactor@s design pressure 11C$.! kg cm23< to comply with thick-wall +essel pressuri"ation limitations before achie+ing *)T. *ost maEor leaks are normally found and repaired during this and the preceding tightness testing phases. 4nce the pressure required to safely operate the recycle gas compressor is achie+ed< it is started to establish gas flow through the reactor section< and the reactor feed furnace is fired to begin drying out the reactor high pressure section and to achie+e *)T. 4nce *)T is achie+ed< a tightness test of the reactor high pressure section with hydrogen< compressed by the make-up hydrogen compressors< at FM%A BF1$$.2$ kg cm2 1g3D of the /(- first reactor@s normal inlet operating pressure BF1;2.$ kg cm2 1g3D. This is the final tightness test. 8=perience has shown that a reactor section may be leak tight when tightness testing with nitrogen< or with a nitrogen-hydrogen mi=ture< but may still ha+e significant leaks with a higher concentration of hydrogen at a higher pressure and at operating temperature. 'tep .-1: Tightness Test 6ith )lant .ir

Ktility air is used to perform a static tightness test on the combined reactor high and low pressure sections< up to and including the rich amine flash drum 12%;-(:3 to the ma=imum pressure achie+able BF: kg cm2 1g3D< to detect and correct maEor leaks before tightness testing with nitrogen at higher pressures. This tightness test is safely below 2%;-(:@s normal operating pressure BF;.! kg cm2 1g3D and )'9 setting 1M.! kg cm23. Ksing air< rather than nitrogen< to detect maEor leaks reduces nitrogen consumption. .fter the reactor section is pro+en free from leaks with utility air< air is purged from the reactor section with nitrogen. 2ote: 2itrogen rather than air must be used for the initial tightness test if the reactor section contains hydrocarbons 1not e=pected in a newly constructed plant3. -efer to 'tartup Diagram !. 1. 2. 0lind the high pressure hydrogen supply header from the make-up hydrogen compressor section. The recycle gas compressor 12%;-N13< assumed to be a dry-seal compressor< is aligned to be tightness tested with the reactor section for this tightness test as well as subsequent tightness tests.

192

4pen the suction motor operated +al+e 1*49< 509-2;%13 and the downstream manual block +al+e. 4pen the discharge stop check +al+e< howe+er< the *49 1509-2;%$3 should remain closed until the compressor is started to circulate gas through the reactors. This pre+ents backflow of gas through the compressor. 4pen the compressor spillback control +al+e@s 1K9-2;%13 downstream manual block +al+e and *49 1509-2;%#3. !. /nstall the blind on the combined effluent line from the (L)' and (L)' +apor centrifugal separator le+el control +al+es to the fractionation section. This pro+ides positi+e isolation between the reactor and fractionation sections. -emo+e the spacer and install a spacer blind downstream of the reactor oil feed control +al+e 179-1C%13. This pro+ides positi+e isolation between the reactor and feed sections. 4pen control and manual +al+es as listed below to create a common section from the recycle gas compressor discharge *49 through the reactor section and into the rich amine flash drum. This pro+ides the opportunity to tightness test +al+e packing and flanges upstream and downstream of these +al+es: -eactor 7eed 8ffluent 8=changer@s /nlet *inimum 'top 9al+e -eactor 7eed 8ffluent 8=changer@s 0ypass Temperature (ontrol 9al+e 1T9-1C%!3 /(- 7irst and 'econd -eactor Puench ,as (ontrol 9al+es 1T9-1M11< 1M#1< 2%%!< and 2%213 (5)' 5ydrocarbon Le+el (ontrol 9al+e 1L9-2#%13 5igh )ressure (entrifugal 'eparator Le+el (ontrol 9al+e 1L9-2$%13 5igh )ressure 52' .bsorber 0ypass 9al+e 159-2$%23 5igh )ressure 52' .bsorber *anual 4il 'kim 9al+e and -ich .mine Le+el (ontrol 9al+e 1L9-2$%#3 -ecycle (ompressor N4 Drum Le+el (ontrol 9al+e 1L9-2:%13 (L)' 9apor 52' .bsorber 0ypass 9al+e 159-2M%13 (L)' 9apor 52' .bsorber )ressure (ontrol 9al+e 1)9-2M%13 (L)' 9apor 52' .bsorber *anual 4il 'kim 9al+e and -ich .mine Le+el (ontrol 9al+e 1L9-2M%13 (L)' 9apor N4 Drum Le+el (ontrol 9al+e 1L9-2M%C3

#.

$.

193

:.

4pen control and manual +al+es 1as listed below3 to pro+ide the opportunity to tightness test +al+e packing and flanges up to the last block +al+e on each line. (5)' /nterface Le+el (ontrol 9al+e 1L9-2#%#3 (L)' /nterface Le+el (ontrol 9al+e 1L9-2C%23 (L)' 5ydrocarbon 8ffluent 7low (ontrol 9al+e 179-2C%13 (L)' 9apor N4 Drum )ressure (ontrol 9al+e 1)9-2M%!.3 and the 5igh 'et )oint )ressure (ontrol 9al+e 1)9-2M%!03 -ecycle ,as (ompressor 'uction 5igh 'et )oint )ressure (ontrol 9al+e 1)9-2:%13 -ich .mine 7lash Drum )ressure (ontrol 9al+e 1)9-!2%13 -ich .mine 7lash Drum 4il 'kim *anual 9al+e and Le+el (ontrol 9al+e 1L9-!2%13 *ake temporary utility air connections< to appropriate locations within the reactor section< following refinery-appro+ed procedures for connecting utilities to process lines. 8nsure the connections are made to allow air to follow normal reactor flow patterns. /ntroduce plant air and pressure the reactor section to the ma=imum achie+able BF: kg cm2 1g3D. 'oap test all flanges< +al+e packing< instrument fittings< etc.< and carefully inspect for leaks. -epair leaks as found. /f it is necessary to depressure the reactor section and open any equipment for repairs< repeat the entire tightness test with plant air. During the time the reactor section is at ma=imum plant air pressure< blow down all low point drains and instrument leads to eliminate any freestanding water left o+er from hydrotesting and water washing. 4pen blinds to the atmosphere on the downstream side of the (L)' +apor N4 drum@s 12%;-(123 high set point pressure control +al+e 1)9-2M%!03 and the recycle gas compressor suction high set point pressure control +al+e 1)9-2:%13< and depressure the reactor section at both locations. -emo+e all plant air connections.

;.

C. M. 1%.

11.

12.

1!.

194

'tep .-2:

-eplace .ir 6ith 2itrogen

The obEecti+e of this step is to remo+e air left in the reactor section by purging with nitrogen. 2o air should be allowed into the flare system. .ir is not used for subsequent pressure testing due to e=plosion concerns. 2itrogen is introduced to the reactor section to allow it to follow the normal downward flow through the reactors< through the reactor effluent cooling and separator systems< and +ented to the atmosphere +ia the (L)' +apor N4 drum high set point pressure control +al+e 1)9-2M%!03 and the recycle gas compressor suction high set point pressure control +al+e 1)9-2:%13 to purge air 1o=ygen3 from the reactor section. 1. 8nsure the high pressure hydrogen header from the make-up hydrogen compressor section is blinded< and remo+e the blind on the startup nitrogen connection to the header. .dmit nitrogen to the high pressure hydrogen header< and purge through the reactor section to the atmosphere +ia )9-2:%1< for $-1% minutes. 4pen each reactor quench control +al+e for a time at the beginning of the sweep to clear o=ygen from the quench lines. 6hen the sweep is completed< close )9-2:%1 in manual mode and allow the reactor section pressure to stabili"e at utility nitrogen header pressure. /n manual mode< slowly open )9-2M%!0 to allow the reactor pressure to reduce< while continuing to allow nitrogen to sweep through the reactor section to the atmosphere +ia )9-2M%!0 for $-1% minutes. 4nce again< open the reactor quench control +al+es for a time at the beginning of the sweep to clear o=ygen from the quench lines. 6hen the sweep is completed< close )9-2M%!0 in manual mode and allow the reactor section to stabili"e at utility nitrogen header pressure. -epeat the abo+e steps< until o=ygen is less than %.2 +ol A at both atmospheric +ent locations. )urge all dead-end piping runs to bleeder +al+es Eust upstream of isolation blinds for subsystem< plot limit< etc.< until o=ygen content at each point is below %.2 +ol A. -epressure the reactor section to the ma=imum pressure achie+able from the refinery nitrogen header.

2.

!.

#. $.

:.

195

;.

During the time the reactor section is at ma=imum nitrogen header pressure< blow down all low point drains and instrument leads to eliminate any freestanding water that may ha+e accumulated. 4nce again< soap test all flanges< +al+e packing< instrument fittings< etc.< and carefully inspect for leaks. -epair any leaks found before going to the ne=t step. Tightness Test at F2$.% kg cm2 1g3 andF!%.% kg cm2 1g3 6ith

C.

'tep .-!: 2itrogen

The combined reactor high and low pressure sections< up to and including the (L)' +apor N4 drum 12%;-(123< are tightness tested with nitrogen< compressed by the make-up hydrogen compressors< to 2%;-(12@s normal operating pressure of F!%.% kg cm2 1g3. This pressure is safely below 2%;-(12@s relief +al+e setting 1!!.% kg cm23. )ressures are slowly increased in two steps< first to F2$.% kg cm2 1g3< allowed to stabili"e< and then to F!%.% kg cm2 1g3. (.KT/42: 0efore proceeding to increase the reactor section pressure abo+e the nitrogen header pressure< remo+e all low range pressure gaugesL temporary low pressure hose or pipe connectionsL and install caps< plugs< and blinds. /t should be carefully determined beforehand which blinds should be remo+ed from the +enting and pressure relief +al+e lines to the flare system< in both the high and low pressure reactor sections< before proceeding to increase the reactor section pressure abo+e nitrogen header pressure. -efer to 'tartup Diagram #. 1. 2. /solate the rich amine flash drum 12%;-(:3 from upstream +essels by double block +al+es: 5igh )ressure 52' .bsorber< -ich .mine< and 'kim 4il Lines -ecycle (ompressor N4 Drum Liquid Line (L)' 9apor 52' .bsorber< -ich .mine< and 'kim 4il Lines (L)' 9apor N4 Drum< -ich .mine Line 7uel ,as 52' .bsorber< -ich .mine< and 'kim 4il Lines )lace 2%;-(:@s pressure controller 1)/(-!2%13 in automatic mode with a set point of F;.! kg cm2 1g3< with the offgas routed to the flare. This is a safety measure to pre+ent o+erpressuring this system.

196

!.

(ommission 2%;-(:@s startup fuel gas pressuri"ation manifold. 'ince the fuel gas pressure is less than the pressure at which 2%;-(: normally operates< 2%;-(: will float on fuel gas header pressure< pre+enting air from entering the system. 6ith )/(-!2%1@s set point at F;.! kg cm2 1g3< there should be no +enting to the flare. )lace the (L)' +apor N4 drum@s 12%;-(123 pressure controller 1)/(-2M%!3 in automatic mode< with a set point of F!%.$ kg cm2 1g3< and ensure the offgas is routed to the atmosphere. This pressure control loop is in ser+ice as a safety measure to pre+ent e=ceeding 2%;-(12@s relief +al+e setting 1!!.% kg cm23 by +enting any o+erpressure to the atmosphere. )lace the recycle gas compressor suction high set point pressure controller 1)/(-2:%13 in automatic mode< with a set point of F!C. kg cm2 1g3< and ensure the offgas is routed to the atmosphere. This pressure control loop also ser+es as a safety measure to pre+ent lifting relief +al+es< yet the set point is high enough that no +enting should be e=perienced from this point unless abnormal conditions e=ists. 8nsure the low pressure hydrogen line from the hydrogen plant to the make-up hydrogen compressor suction drum 12%;-(!23 is blinded. 8nsure the make-up hydrogen spillback cooler 12%;-8!#3 and first and second intercoolers are commissioned. )lace the make-up hydrogen compressor suction high set point pressure controller 1)/(-:M%23 in automatic mode< aligned to the flare< with a set point of F22 kg cm2 1g3 to protect from o+erpressuring the compressor suction system. )lace the make-up hydrogen compressor suction low set point pressure controller 1)/(-:M%!3 in automatic mode< with a set point of F: kg cm2 1g3. 6hile pressuring the reactor section< the compressor suction pressure is pre+ented from going too low by )/(-:M%!. 'hould the suction pressure fall below set point< due to compressor capacity e=ceeding nitrogen header supply capability< )/(-:M%! will send an o+erride signal to the high signal selector 1)Q-:M%#3< which will open the spillback control +al+e 1)9-:M%#3 to increase suction pressure.

#.

$.

:. ;. C.

M.

197

1%.

'witch the make-up hydrogen compressor discharge pressure controller 1)/(-:M%#3 from remote set point mode to local set point mode. This pre+ents the recycle gas compressor suction pressure controller 1)/(-2;%23 from resetting )/(-:M%#@s set point. )lace )/(-:M%# in manual mode< and fully open the spillback control +al+e 1)9-:M%#3. )repare the make-up hydrogen compressors and the common spillback system for nitrogen ser+ice< utili"ing refinery-appro+ed purging procedures. /ntroduce nitrogen to 2%;-(!2< +ia the startup nitrogen connection< and pressure the compressor section to nitrogen header pressure BF:.% kg cm2 1g3D. 'tart a make-up hydrogen compressor unloaded with )9-:M%# fully open. .llow the compressor to run for se+eral minutes to warm-up and to assure no mechanical problems e=ists. )lace )/(-:M%# in automatic mode< with an initial set point of F:.% kg cm2 1g3. 4nce compressor capacity loading is initiated and the discharge pressure e=ceeds )/(-:M%#@s set point< the )(@s output signal to the high signal selector 1)Q-:M%#3 will open the spillback control +al+e 1)9-:M%#3 to maintain set point. The make-up hydrogen compressor discharge pressure must be controlled to pre+ent:

11.

12.

1!.

4+erheating the compressor discharge 1normally< F1!$ ( ma=imum from any cylinder< howe+er< the actual ma=imum is established by the compressor manufacturer3. Lifting compressor discharge safety +al+es< in the e+ent nitrogen flow to the reactor section is interrupted. 1#. Load one capacity step 12$A loading is assumed3. 'ince the nitrogen header pressure to the make-up hydrogen compressor suction normally runs F:.% kg cm2 1g3< and )/(-:M%#@s set point is at F:.% kg cm2 1g3< a 2$A capacity loading is about the ma=imum loading at this point. 'lowly increase )/(-:M%#@s set point to F2$.% kg cm2 1g3< the first safe pressure to be achie+ed during this step. This assures there will be a forward-flow through the reactor section during the following steps.

1$.

198

1:.

4nce the conditions described abo+e are satisfied< remo+e the blind from the high pressure hydrogen header. 'lowly open the header@s isolation block +al+e to allow the reactor section to equali"e with the make-up hydrogen compressor discharge pressure. 6hen the pressures are equali"ed< fully open the isolation block +al+e. 'oap test all flanges< fittings< etc. .ny leaks found should be corrected before proceeding. 6hile continuing to check for leaks< slowly increase the reactor section pressure to F!%.% kg cm2 1g3 o+er a period of F# hours 1pro+iding no maEor leaks are disco+ered3 by gradually increasing )/(-:M%#@s set point. 4nce the pressure has stabili"ed at F!%.% kg cm2 1g3< perform a thorough leak check and correct leaks< if any< before proceeding to the ne=t testing phase. /f it is necessary to open any equipment to repair leaks< it will be necessary to nitrogen purge the system again. During the time the reactor section is at this pressure< blow down all low point drains and instrument leads to eliminate any freestanding water that may ha+e accumulated. Tightness Test at F!;.$ kg cm2 1g3 6ith 2itrogen

1;. 1C.

1M.

2%.

'tep .-#:

The combined reactor high and low pressure sections< up to and including the (L)' +apor 52' absorber 12%;-(113< are tightness tested with nitrogen< compressed by the make-up hydrogen compressors< to 2%;-(11@s normal operating pressure of F!;.$ kg cm2 1g3< a pressure safely below 2%;-(11@s and the (L)' 12%;-(M3 relief +al+e settings 1#1.C kg cm23. -efer to 'tartup Diagram $. /solate the (L)' 9apor N4 Drum 7rom the (L)' 5 2' .bsorber 1. 2. The rich amine flash drum startup fuel gas pressuri"ation manifold remains open< with the drum floating on the fuel gas header. The rich amine flash drum pressure controller 1)/(-!2%13 remains in automatic mode with a set point of F;.! kg cm2 1g3< and will +ent any o+erpressure to the flare to pre+ent e=ceeding the drum@s relief +al+e setting.

199

!.

The (L)' +apor N4 drum@s 12%;-(123 pressure controller 1)/(-2M%!3 remains in automatic mode with the set point adEusted to F!%.% kg cm2 1g3< with the offgas routed to the atmosphere. This pressure controller will +ent any o+erpressure from 2%;-(11 to the atmosphere to pre+ent e=ceeding 2%;-(12@s relief +al+e setting 1!!.% kg cm23. The (L)' 52' absorber@s 12%;-(113 pressure controller 1)/(-2M%13 is placed in automatic mode< with a set point of F!;.$ kg cm2 1g3. .ny o+erpressure will be +ented from the reactor low pressure section +ia )/(-2M%1 to 2%;-(12< and then +ented to the atmosphere +ia 2%;-(12@s pressure controller 1)/(-2M%!3.

#.

2ote: *onitor 2%;-(12@s pressure closely during this step< as the drum does not ha+e an e=ternal startup pressure source. /t may be necessary to partially open the bypass +al+e on 2%;-(11@s pressure control +al+e 1)9-2M%13 to maintain pressure on 2%;-(12. Tightness Test at F!;.$ kg cm2 1g3 6ith 2itrogen $. 'lowly increase the reactor section pressure to F!;.$ kg cm2 1g3 by adEusting the make-up hydrogen compressor discharge pressure controller@s 1)/(-:M%#3 set point. 4nce the target pressure is achie+ed< perform a leak check< and correct leaks< if any< before going to the ne=t step. Tightness Test atF#2.% kg cm2 1g3 6ith 2itrogen and 0egin 5eatup

:.

'tep .-$:

The reactor high pressure section is isolated from the low pressure section< and is then tightness tested with nitrogen< compressed by the make-up hydrogen compressors< to F#2.% kg cm2 1g3. This pressure is safely 1F1%A3 below 2$A 1#:.! kg cm23 of the reactor@s design pressure 11C$.! kg cm23< to comply with thick-wall +essel pressuri"ation limitations before achie+ing *)T. 4nce the reactor pressure is ele+ated abo+e the recycle gas compressor@s minimum operating suction pressure< gas flow is established through the reactor high pressure section< and the reactor feed furnace is commissioned to cure furnace refractory< dry out residual water from the empty reactors and high pressure loop< and to achie+e *)T. )erform leak checks throughout pressuri"ation and heatup< and at the final target pressure for this step. (orrect leaks before going to the ne=t step. -efer to 'tartup Diagram :.

200

/solate the -eactor 5igh )ressure 'ection 7rom the Low )ressure 'ection 1. /solate the reactor high pressure section from the low pressure section by double block +al+es.

(lose the (5)'@s hydrocarbon le+el control +al+es 1L9-2#%1. and L9-2#%103 by using the stem >hand Eack<? and close the single downstream block +al+e for each control +al+e. Tag the le+el control and downstream block +al+es closed. .llow the two upstream isolation +al+es of L9-2#%1.< and the one upstream isolation +al+e of L9-2#%10 to remain at least !%A open so that the stem packing of the control +al+es and the stem packing of the three high pressure side isolation +al+es will be subEected to the highest test pressure that will be imposed on the reactor system. (lose the high pressure centrifugal separator@s le+el control +al+e 1L9-2$%13 by using the stem >hand Eack<? and close the single downstream block +al+e. Tag the le+el control and downstream block +al+es closed. .llow the two upstream isolation +al+es of L9-2$%1 to remain at least !%A open so that the stem packing of the control +al+es and the stem packing of the two high pressure side isolation +al+es will be subEected to the highest test pressure that will be imposed on the reactor system. 2. !. The rich amine flash drum pressure control loop and startup pressuri"ation alignment remains the same. /ntroduce hydrogen to the (L)' +apor line during this step to maintain pressure on the reactor low pressure section.

The (L)' +apor N4 drum@s 12%;-(123 pressure controller 1)/(-2M%!3 remains in automatic mode with a set point of F!%.% kg cm2 1g3. 'witch the offgas routing from the atmosphere to the flare. The (L)' +apor 52' absorber 12%;-(113 pressure control +al+e 1)9-2M%13 is opened in manual mode to create an open path to 2%;-(12. This enables 2%;-(12@s pressure control loop to protect the reactor low pressure section from o+erpressuring< while tightness testing the reactor high pressure section at ele+ated pressures. (ommission the startup hydrogen self-contained pressure regulator 1)(9-2C123 to maintain a positi+e pressure BF2% kg cm2 1g3D on the entire reactor low pressure section. )ressure is maintained to pre+ent air from entering< and to pro+ide the dri+ing force to displace startup diesel flush oil that is routed through the (L)' for flushing and to test the le+el control loop during commissioning acti+ities in the feed and fractionation sections.

201

Tightness Test at F#2.% kg cm2 1g3 6ith 2itrogen #. 'witch the make-up hydrogen compressor discharge pressure controller 1)/(-:M%#3 from local set point mode to remote set point mode. This allows the recycle gas compressor@s 12%;-N13 suction pressure controller 1)/(-2;%23 to reset )/(-:M%#@s set point. )lace )/(-2;%2 in automatic mode. )/(-2;%2 is used to control the reactor section pressure while performing the remaining tightness testing and dryout steps. 'lowly increase the reactor section pressure to F#2.% kg cm2 1g3 by slowly adEusting )/(-2;%2@s set point. This is safely below the reactor pressuri"ation limitation 1#:.! kg cm23 before achie+ing *)T. 4nce the target pressure is achie+ed< perform a leak check< and correct leaks< if any< before going to the ne=t step.

$.

:.

;.

8stablish -ecycle ,as (irculation C. /f the recycle gas compressor 12%;-N13 was not included in the tightness testing circuit< purge with nitrogen< and tightness test it in preparation for startup. 9erify that all reactor quench controllers are closed in manual mode. 9erify that 2%;-N1@s discharge *49 1509-2;%$3 is closed and the suction *49 1509-2;%13 and all +al+es on the antisurge line are open Bincluding the automatic antisurge control +al+e 1K9-2;%13< K9-2;%1@s downstream manual block +al+e< and the spillback line *49 1509-2;%#3D.

M. 1%.

2ote: .ll preliminary preparation necessary to start 2%;-N1 should ha+e been performed earlier< including commissioning steam tracing on the suction line< commissioning the surface condenser system< warming up the steam supply line< warming the turbine case< slow rolling the turbine and compressor< etc. 11. 'tart 2%;-N1 on total spillback at minimum speed.

2ote: .s 2%;-N1 is being operated for the first time under abnormal operating conditions 1i.e.< lower suction pressure and hea+ier molecular weight gas than design3< carefully monitor the discharge temperature.

202

12.

4nce 2%;-N1 is operating smoothly< open the compressor discharge *49 1509-2;%$3 to establish recycle nitrogen gas flow through the reactor section.

(.KT/42: .t this point< all the reactors are cold< and should not be allowed to e=ceed 2$A of design pressure until all skin points are abo+e the *)T 1assumed to be !CR(3 to pre+ent se+ere damage due to >brittle fracture.? The table below lists pressuri"ation limitations for the reactors when below *)T. 8quipment 2%;--1< /(- 7irst -eactor 2%;--2< /(- 'econd -eactor 1!. Design )ressure 1C$.! kg cm2 1g3 1C$.! kg cm2 1g3 2$A of Design )ressure #:.! kg cm2 1g3 #:.! kg cm2 1g3

/ncrease the turbine 12%;-NT13 speed through critical speeds without delay to a+oid damaging the rotating equipment. .s the turbine speed is increased< 2%;-N1@s suction pressure controller 1)/(-2;%23 set point may ha+e to be reduced to pre+ent e=ceeding pressuri"ation limits before achie+ing *)T.

6ithout catalyst in+entory in the reactors< it is e=pected that the total differential pressure through the reactor section gas loop will probably be low enough to allow 2%;-N1 to circulate a substantial +olume of nitrogen without approaching surge conditions or e=ceeding the discharge temperature limits specified by the +endor. 6hile operating 2%;-N1 on nitrogen at a pressure to pre+ent e=ceeding 2$A of the reactor design pressure< 2%;-NT1@s minimum go+ernor speed may not be achie+ed without e=ceeding compressor discharge temperature limits. 1#. /ncrease turbine speed to achie+e the ma=imum possible circulation rate while operating 2%;-N1 on 1%%A nitrogen< without subEecting the compressor to potential damage. *onitor reactor pressure as the speed is being increased and make appropriate mo+es to stay below 2$A of design pressure. *aintaining ma=imum circulation rates will allow the reactor section to be heated< and then later< cooled in the shortest time.

203

0egin 5eatup The recycle gas compressor continues to operate< circulating nitrogen through the reactors at the ma=imum achie+able rate. -eactor feed furnace pilots 1and main burners as necessary3 are commissioned to cure furnace refractory and to begin heating the reactor section. The main obEecti+e in heating up a cold reactor is to accomplish the heatup in a reasonable amount of time< but not e=ceed the rate of heatup specified for the reactor. Therefore< close temperature sur+eillance will be required. 1$. *a=imi"e preheat to the reactor feed furnace 12%;-713 by aligning preheat e=changer +al+es as described below. 2ote< howe+er< that as reactor temperatures increase< adEustments to these +al+es will be required to maintain furnace duty. .dEust the three-way +al+e< on the reactor effluent recycle gas e=changer 12%;-8;3 recycle gas inlet< to fully close the bypass port. 7ully open the minimum stop +al+e on the inlet to the reactor feed effluent e=changers 12%;-8!. 03. /n manual mode< close the temperature control +al+e 1T/(-1C%!3 that bypasses 2%;-8!. 0. 1:. 1;. (lose all reactor quench control +al+es to pre+ent cooler gas from entering the reactors. 8nsure that preparations< required to protect 2%;-71@s con+ection coils< ha+e been completed 1boiler feedwater and or steam flowsSdepending on final design details3. 0efore establishing fires in 2%;-71< +erify that the following conditions e=ists: )ressure at 2%;--1@s inlet 1local )/-1M%13 is below 2$A of the design pressure. 2%;-N1 is operating smoothly and circulating nitrogen at the ma=imum rate through the reactor section. -eactor effluent air cooler 12%;-8M3 fans are in operation.

1C.

204

2ote: The initial time the reactor feed furnace is commissioned 1or after refractory repairs ha+e been made3< heatup rates will be limited following the furnace manufacturer@s procedures to cure the refractory. 1M. )urge 2%;-71@s firebo= and light pilot and main burners to begin curing the furnace refractory 1following +endor procedures3 and to begin drying residual water from the empty reactors and high pressure loop. 6hen adding pilot and main burners< stagger the locations so that temperatures throughout the firebo=es are as uniform as possible. )lace the reactor inlet temperature controller 1T/(-1M1%3 in automatic mode as soon as possible< and slowly increase the reactor inlet temperature< subEect to the refractory dryout procedures and the heatup limits of 'ection $.1.!< in order to a+oid the danger of thermal shock or stress to the furnace and reactors. -ecord the following temperatures hourly: 22. 7urnace Temperatures as Directed by the 9endor for -efractory (uring -eactor /nlet Temperatures .ll -eactor 'kin and 2o""le T/s -eactor 4utlet Temperatures

2%.

21.

.s 2%;-71@s burners are commissioned< nitrogen within the reactor section will e=pand. 6hen this occurs< make-up nitrogen should automatically reduce 1)/(-2;%23. (arefully monitor reactor and make-up hydrogen compressor pressure control loops to ensure appropriate control is maintained. /n most cases< nitrogen has to be +ented +ia the recycle gas compressor@s suction high set point pressure controller 1)/(-2:%13 to pre+ent e=ceeding target pressure. During the startup phase of circulating nitrogen to heat up and dry out the reactor section< use e=treme caution while blowing down all drains< sample connections< instrument leads< and dead-end lines to remo+e any freestanding water. (ontinue to monitor the reactor section for leaks< as piping e=pands when temperatures are increased< and once the target pressure and temperatures ha+e been achie+ed< perform a leak check and correct leaks< if any< before going to the ne=t step.

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205

Tightness Test at *a=imum 2itrogen )ressure 7rom the *ake-Kp 5ydrogen (ompressors 4nce all reactor internal< skin point< and no""le temperatures are abo+e *)T< it is safe to tightness test the reactor section at higher pressures. The ma=imum pressure at which a pure nitrogen test can be performed is set by the ma=imum horsepower of the recycle gas compressor 1at reduced go+ernor speed3 and the make-up hydrogen compressor@s ability to compress nitrogen without e=ceeding discharge +al+e temperature limits. /f the make-up hydrogen compressor can deli+er nitrogen at a pressure higher than the tightness test abo+e< the target pressure for this tightness test should be the higher +alue. 'ubsequent tightness tests are accomplished with a mi=ture of hydrogen and nitrogen. -eactor inlet temperatures are increased to allow the reactor section to be tightness tested with nitrogen circulating at the ma=imum rate with the reactors at near normal working temperatures. This is the final tightness test with nitrogen only< so a thorough leak check should be performed after achie+ing the target tightness test pressure and temperature. 2$. 0efore increasing the reactor section pressure during this step< 2%;-N1@s suction high set point pressure controller 1)/(-2:%13 set point is set at a +alue slightly higher than the e=pected ma=imum pressure achie+able with the make-up hydrogen compressors operating on nitrogen. )9-2:%1 remains aligned to the atmosphere. 4nce *)T has been achie+ed< slowly increase the reactor section pressure to the ma=imum achie+able with the make-up hydrogen compressors operating on nitrogen< by increasing )/(-2;%2@s set point. *onitor both compressors@ operation to ensure the make-up hydrogen compressor is not o+erstaged< nor 2%;-N1@s horsepower limit is not e=ceeded during this step. .s the reactor section pressure is being increased< continue to increase the reactor inlet temperatures to near normal working temperatures< within the guidelines outlined in 'ection $.1.! regarding rate of temperature increase and differential temperature. .s the reactor temperatures are increased< monitor water accumulation in the (5)'. 6ith no oil present in the (5)'< the interface instrument should indicate a higher water le+el than the actual le+el.

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29.

The reactor section dryout should continue until the reactor outlet temperatures ha+e been at F!;C( for at least # hours< equilibrium temperature conditions ha+e been reached< and the water rate from the (5)' is minimal. The water rate can be measured by +ery carefully draining water from the (5)'@s drain. This is the final tightness test before introducing hydrogen to the reactor section< so it is important that a thorough leak check be performed by soap testing all flanges< +al+e packing< instrument fittings< etc.< during pressuri"ation< and once the target pressure and temperature are achie+ed. (orrect leaks< if any< before increasing the reactor section pressure in the ne=t testing phase. During the time the reactor section is at target pressure< carefully blow down all low point drains and instrument leads to eliminate any remaining freestanding water. -eactor 'ection /nitial Dryout 12o (atalyst3 and 4perating )ressure Tightness Testing

!%.

!1.

'tep 0:

During this startup phase< the recycle gas compressor continues to operate< pro+iding ma=imum gas flow through the reactor section. The reactor inlet temperatures are maintained at near normal working temperature< and 2%;--1@s inlet pressure is increased with hydrogen< compressed by the make-up hydrogen compressors< to FM%A BF1$$.2$ kg cm2 1g3D of normal working pressure BF1;2.$ kg cm2 1g3D to subEect the piping to near normal thermal stresses 1for tightness testing3 and to dry out any remaining residual water from the empty reactors and high pressure section. 8=perience has shown that a reactor section may be leak tight when tightness testing with nitrogen< or with a nitrogen-hydrogen mi=ture< but may still ha+e significant leaks with a higher concentration of hydrogen at a higher pressure and at operating temperature. 6hile the reactor section is circulating gas at high pressure and temperature conditions< a series of tests are carried out to run-in equipment and to demonstrate instrument performance and response. /n some cases< false loading of instrument signals< etc.< may be required. 4ne e=ample is to check out the response and action of the reactor quench system. Temperature response in the top of the bed below from changes in quench should be checked to assure good quench distribution. 4ther subsystems that can be checked out are the inEection water system< sour water degasser systems< etc.

207

'tarting (onditions The reactor low pressure section alignment and control systems remain the same as in the pre+ious step. The feed pumps 12%;-,!. 03 remain blinded from the reactor section. 4ther minor systems 1such as inEection water< sour water< etc.3 are isolated from the reactor section. 4ne of the make-up hydrogen compressors 12%;-N2. 0 (3 is operating on nitrogen at the ma=imum third-stage discharge pressure achie+able. 'tep 0-1: 'witch the *ake-Kp 5ydrogen (ompressors to 5ydrogen 'er+ice

5ydrogen from the offplot hydrogen unit is introduced to the make-up hydrogen compressor train< where it is compressed to the reactor section to increase the pressure to FM%A of normal operating pressure< measured at the reactor inlet. ,ood operating technique must be implemented during the transition from startup nitrogen to hydrogen to the make-up hydrogen compressor@s first-stage suction N4 drum 12%;-(!23. (losely monitor the reactor section pressure and recycle gas compressor operation while performing the following steps: -efer to 'tartup Diagram ;. 1. 2. Knload the make-up hydrogen compressor to 2$A capacity< while closely monitoring the reactor section@s pressure. 'witch the make-up hydrogen compressor discharge pressure controller 1)/(-:M%#3 from remote set point mode to local set point mode. This pre+ents the recycle gas compressor suction pressure controller 1)/(-2;%23 from resetting )/(-:M%#@s set point. The make-up hydrogen compressor discharge pressure is controlled by )/(-:M%# at this point. (lose the +al+es on the high pressure hydrogen header isolation manifold to the reactor section. -educe the make-up hydrogen compressor@s capacity loader to %A< and then shut down the operating compressor.

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208

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Depressure the make-up hydrogen compressor section to the atmosphere to purge as much nitrogen as possible< stopping slightly abo+e atmospheric pressure. *ake sure air does not enter the system. 8nsure the make-up hydrogen compressor low set point suction pressure controller 1)/(-:M%!3 is in automatic mode with a set point slightly below the pressure supplied by the offplot hydrogen unit. 8nsure the make-up hydrogen compressor high set point suction pressure controller 1)/(-:M%23 is in automatic mode with the set point set slightly abo+e the pressure supplied by the offplot hydrogen unit. /nstall the blind in the startup nitrogen connection to the make-up hydrogen compressor low pressure hydrogen header< and then remo+e the blind from the offplot hydrogen unit isolation manifold to the low pressure hydrogen header. .dhere to this blind installation and remo+al sequence to pre+ent contaminating the refinery nitrogen system with hydrogen. 4nce the low pressure hydrogen header plot limit blind has been remo+ed< slowly open the isolation block +al+es to allow hydrogen to flow from the offplot hydrogen unit to purge through the make-up hydrogen first-stage suction drum 12%;-(!23 and through each compressor train to the flare to displace nitrogen. 'tart a make-up hydrogen compressor on total spillback. 'lowly increase the compressor discharge pressure controller@s set point 1)/(-:M%#3< loading the compressor as necessary to achie+e a pressure slightly higher than that being maintained in the reactor section. Tightness Test the 5igh )ressure -eactor 'ection at M%A of 2ormal 6orking )ressure 6ith 5ydrogen

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4nce the conditions described abo+e are achie+ed< it is safe to increase the reactor section pressure with hydrogen. This step is accomplished in two pressure steps and in a manner to a+oid upsets to the recycle gas compressor control system. The final reactor section tightness test is performed with the reactors hot< while circulating a mi=ture of nitrogen and hydrogen at rates near design +alues. This step pro+ides final tightness testing and dryout before cooling down to load catalyst.

209

. series of tests to run-in equipment and to pro+e instrument performance and response are also performed< while the reactor sections are operating on nitrogen hydrogen recycle at high pressure and temperature conditions. )roceed with the following steps slowly and obser+e reactor feed furnace and recycle gas compressor operation carefully. (.KT/42: 5ydrogen is admitted to the reactor section during this step. Therefore< e=tra precautions should be taken during this step as well as subsequent steps. 6hen pressuring the reactor section with hydrogen< it should be noted that at normal atmospheric temperatures and pressures< hydrogen has a wide e=plosi+e range. The flammability limits 1e=plosi+e range3 for hydrogen in air are: Lower Limit - # 9ol A 5ydrogen in .ir Kpper Limit - ;$ 9ol A 5ydrogen in .ir

The e=plosi+e range includes all concentrations of hydrogen in which a spontaneous flash will occur< or a flame will tra+el if the mi=ture is ignited. )urge 2itrogen 7rom the -eactor 'ection -efer to 'tartup Diagram ;. 1. 2. !. 0efore introducing hydrogen to the reactor section< test the reactor section once again to assure the o=ygen content is below %.2 +ol A. .lign 2%;-N1@s suction high set point pressure control +al+e 1)9-2:%13 to +ent to the flare. 'lowly open +al+es on the high pressure hydrogen supply header isolation manifold to the reactor section< to allow the reactor section pressure to equali"e with the pressure being maintained on the make-up hydrogen compressor discharge by )/(-:M%#. /n manual mode< establish a bleed to the flare to purge nitrogen from the reactor section +ia )9-2:%1. 2itrogen is replaced by hydrogen as a precautionary measure to pre+ent operating 2%;-N1 under se+ere conditions while operating on the denser nitrogen gas. 6hen purging is complete< )/(-2:%1 is placed in automatic mode with a set point slightly higher than the pressure to be achie+ed during this tightness test.

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210

Tightness Test at F1$$.! kg cm2 1g3 6ith 5ydrogen $. 'witch the make-up hydrogen compressor discharge pressure controller 1)/(-:M%#3 from local set point mode to remote set point mode. This allows 2%;-N1@s suction pressure controller 1)/(-2;%23 to reset )/(-:M%#@s set point to control the reactor section pressure. 6ith temperatures safely abo+e *)T< increase )/(-2;%2@s set point to increase 2%;--1@s inlet pressure< at F1%.% kg cm2 1g3 hr< to F1$$.! kg cm2 1g3< M%A of 2%;--1@s normal working pressure BF1;2.$ kg cm2 1g3D< taking care not to e=ceed the (5)'@s normal working pressure BF1$!.M kg cm2 1g3D. .s the pressure is being increased< maintain 2%;--1@s inlet temperature at near normal working temperature 1F!;C(3. .s the reactor section pressure is increased with hydrogen< the molecular weight of the gas within the reactor section is decreased. Leaks that may ha+e not been detectable with nitrogen will become easier to locate. 'ystematically make inspection tours of the unit< checking for leaks. /t should be noted that as the piping temperature increases< soap solution testing will not identify leaks< and the use of ultrasonic or gas thermal conducti+ity leak finding equipment should be considered. 6hen 2%;--1@s inlet pressure reaches F1$$.! kg cm2 1g3< do the following: Knload the make-up hydrogen compressor to 2$A 1if not there already3. (lose the +al+es on the high pressure hydrogen header isolation manifold to the reactor section. *onitor the make-up hydrogen compressor operation to ensure proper compressor pressure control is maintained as the compressor continues to operate. 12ote that )/(-:M%# will ha+e to be switched back to local set point mode.3 0lock in 2%;-N1@s suction high set point pressure control +al+e 1)9-2:%13 to ensure there is no bleed from the suction to the flare.

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*onitor the reactor section pressure loss o+er 1 hourSit should be less than ! kg cm2 1g3 hr. (arefully check the entire system for leaks before proceeding.

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6hen the target pressure is achie+ed< and with the reactor inlet temperatures being maintained at near normal working temperatures< check calibration< accuracy< and response of all reactor thermocouples< quench systems< analy"ers< differential pressure instruments< etc.< to the e=tent possible. Detail procedures and checklists for these tests should be prepared by the operating team before initiating high pressure tightness testing and dryout acti+ities. )erform leak checks during pressuri"ation< and then make a thorough leak check once the target pressure is achie+ed. (orrect leaks< if any< before cooling down and depressuring for catalyst loading.

12.

2ote: .fter the reactor temperatures ha+e reached equilibrium conditions and before beginning to cool the reactors< the internal and skin temperatures of each reactor should be studied< and temperature differences between thermocouples corrected as required. 'tep 0-!: -estart the 6ater /nEection 'ystem to )ro+e -eliability at 2ear 2ormal 6orking )ressure

The water inEection system should now be restarted to pro+e reliability at the higher reactor section pressure. To enable this to be accomplished< the water degasser drum system will ha+e to be placed in ser+ice. 4nce the water inEection system is pro+en to be reliable< stop the water inEection and allow a measurable water le+el to remain in the (5)' to pro+ide a reference point for water accumulation during catalyst dryout. -efer to 'tartup Diagram ;.

212

(ommission the 6aterDegasser Drum 12%;-(1!3 1. /solate the following sour water lines to 2%;-(1!< lea+ing the sour water line from the (5)' open: 'our water from the (L)' 12%;-(M3< +ia 2%;-(M@s interface le+el control +al+e 1L9-2C%23. 8=cess sour water from the fractionator reflu= drum 12%;-(1;3< +ia the fractionator sour water pumps 12%;-,1%. 03 and 2%;-(1;@s interface le+el controller 1L/(-#$%!3. 'our water from the product stripper reflu= drum 12%;-(1$3< +ia 2%;-(1$@s interface le+el controller 1L/(-#1%#3. 'our water from the deethani"er reflu= drum 12%;-(213< +ia 2%;-(21@s interface le+el controller 1L/(-$:%23. 'our water from the water draw-off pot 12%;-(2!3< +ia 2%;-(2!@s manual drain +al+e. 'our water from the debutani"er reflu= drum 12%;-(2C3< +ia 2%;-(2C@s interface le+el controller 1L/(-:%%23. The common spent wash water header from the water washer 12%;-(#%3< +ia 2%;-(#%@s le+el controller 1/(9-::%13< and from the coalescer 12%;-(#13< +ia 2%;-(#1@s manual drain +al+e.

2.

(ommission 2%;-(1!@s pressure control loop 1)/(-::%:3 with a set point of F:.1 kg cm2 1g3 1normal operating pressure3< aligned to combine with the offgas stream from the rich amine flash drum 12%;-(:3< which is +ented to the flare.

2ote: 2%;-(1! does not ha+e an e=ternal startup pressuri"ation source. /f there is not sufficient gas entrainment in the water from the (5)' during this step to pro+ide pressure to displace water from 2%;-(1!< a temporary nitrogen connection will ha+e to be made. !. /n manual mode< close the flow control +al+e 17/(-::%23 on 2%;-(1!@s effluent< and align the e=port to the offplot sour water stripper facility.

213

(ommission the 5igh )ressure /nEection 6ater 'ystem #. $. 8nsure the fans on the reactor effluent air cooler 12%;-8M3 are running. (ommission inEection water drum@s 12%;-(C3 nitrogen blanketing pressure control loop 1)/(-!!%23 with a set point of F1.; kg cm2 1g3 1normal operating pressure3. /solate the sour water line to 2%;-(C from the fractionator reflu= drum 12%;-(1;3< +ia the fractionator sour water pumps 12%;-,1%. 03< and 2%;-(1;@s interface le+el controller 1L/(-#$%!3. .lign startup boiler feedwater to the upstream side of 2%;-(C@s le+el control +al+e 1L9-!!%13. 6ith L/(-!!%1 in manual mode< introduce water to establish a $%A le+el in 2%;-(C< and place L/(-!!%1 in automatic mode. 'tart an inEection water pump 12%;-,#. 03< and run it on total spillback 1)/(-!!%!3 to pro+e there are no mechanical problems before starting water inEection. The inEection water pumps were run for reliability and the inEection piping was flushed during commissioning acti+ities 1described earlier in 'ection $.!3. -emo+e the water inEection isolation blinds< one upstream of the reactor effluent air cooler 12%;-8M3 and the other upstream of the cold reactor effluent (L)' liquid e=changer 12%;-8C3. 'lowly introduce water to the single water inEection point upstream of 2%;-8M. 4nce the flow is stable< commission the water inEection flow controller 17/(-!!%#3< place it in automatic mode< and slowly increase the inEection rate to design. 4bser+e the (5)' for water accumulation. 6hen a le+el appears< in manual mode< open one of the interface le+el control +al+es 1L9-2#%#. or 2#%#03 to establish a flow of water to 2%;-(1!. 6hen the flow is stable< place L/(-2#%# in automatic mode. 6hen a $%A le+el is established in 2%;-(1!< in manual mode< open the bottoms flow control +al+e 17/(-::%23 to establish a flow to the offplot sour water stripper facility. 6hen the flow is stable< place L/(-::%2 in automatic mode< resetting 7/(-::%2.

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1!. 1#. 1$.

(ontinue water inEection at the design rate to pro+e system reliability. .lternate water inEection pumps during this step. 'witch the water inEection point to upstream of 2%;-8C for a time to pro+e reliability. 4nce the water inEection system reliability has been pro+en< shut down the inEection pumps< and block the (5)'@s interface le+el control +al+es 1L9-2#%#. 03< lea+ing a working le+el in the (5)' for a reference point during catalyst dryout. 2%;-(1! remains as pre+iously aligned. -eactor (ooldown for (atalyst Loading

'tep 0-#:

To prepare for catalyst loading< the reactors are cooled and depressured 1preferably by testing the emergency depressuring +al+es3 after the high pressure hot dryout and tightness testing acti+ities are completed. The reactor section is then cleared of hydrogen with nitrogen< cleared of nitrogen with air< isolated< and prepared for personnel to enter the reactors for catalyst loading. (ooling and depressuring rates must follow metallurgical and equipment design limitations specified by (L,. 1. *aintain 2%;--1@s inlet at near normal working pressure< and the recycle gas rate at the ma=imum recycle gas compressor capability< in order to cool down the reactors in the shortest time frame allowable. 'lowly decrease 2%;--1@s inlet temperature< subEect to the restrictions indicated in 'ection $.1.#< and taking care to stay safely abo+e *)T. 6hen permitted by cooling rate restrictions< speed cooling as follows: #. .dEust the three-way +al+e< on the reactor effluent recycle gas e=changer 12%;-8;3 recycle gas inlet< to fully open the bypass port. (lose the minimum stop +al+e 1to the mechanical stop3 on the inlet to the reactor feed effluent e=changers 12%;-8!. 03. /n manual mode< open the temperature control +al+e 1T/(-1C%!3 that bypasses 2%;-8!. 0.

2. !.

.s the reactor temperatures decrease to near !CG(< carefully monitor all reactor temperatures to pre+ent dropping below *)T before reducing reactor pressure.

215

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6hile still safely abo+e *)T< reduce 2%;-N1@s suction pressure controller 1)/(-2;%23 set point to reduce 2%;--1@s inlet pressure to #2.% kg cm2 1g3< taking care to stay abo+e 2%;-N1@s minimum operating suction pressure. 8nsure 2%;--1@s inlet pressure is below #:.! kg cm2 1g3 B2$A of the reactor@s design pressure of 1C$.! kg cm2 1g3D< before any reactor internal< reactor skin< or reactor no""le temperature reaches !C ( 1*)T3. /f necessary< further reduce )/(-2;%2@s set point. (ontinue circulating hydrogen at the reduced pressure. 6hen the rate of cooldown reduces substantially< open reactor quench +al+es< as needed< to direct cooler gas to the inlet of each lower reactor bed. .t some point< it may be necessary to adEust quench flows to assist in e+enly cooling the reactors to equali"e cooldown times. *onitor all reactor skin and internal temperatures hourly to assure e+en reactor cooling and that cooldown rates are not e=ceeded. 6hen 2%;-71 is no longer required to control cooldown rates< terminate 2%;-71@s main burners and pilots< and con+ert the furnace to an air cooler by ma=imi"ing furnace draft< by opening furnace dampers< air registers< a+ailable peepholes< etc. /solate the make-up hydrogen compressor section from the reactor section at the high pressure hydrogen header isolation manifold. Depressure the reactor section to the flare< to F%.# kg cm2 1g3 by testing the emergency depressuring +al+es 1509-2:%1 and 509-2:%23< and then closing them when the depressuring target pressure is reached. -emo+e the startup nitrogen blind on the connection to the high pressure hydrogen header< and repressure the reactor section with nitrogen to F:.% kg cm2 1g3< depressure again to the flare< +ia 2%;-N1@s high set point pressure control +al+e 1)9-2:%13. -epeat as necessary 1at least ! times3 to lower hydrogen concentrations to acceptable limits before admitting air.

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7or final cooling< continue sweeping utility nitrogen through the high pressure loop and out to the flare to cool the reactors to the temperature specified in appro+ed refinery +essel entry procedures. Kse reactor shell temperatures as a guide. 2itrogen can continue to be admitted at the startup nitrogen connection to the high pressure hydrogen header< or the blind can be remo+ed to allow nitrogen to be admitted on the downstream side of 2%;-N1@s discharge *49 1509-2;%$3. 0lind the reactor section and reactors for entry. Test that combustibles ha+e been purged from the reactors with nitrogen< then open the reactors and purge with air in preparation for entry. (atalyst Loading

12. 1!.

'tep (:

-efer to 'ection :.% 1(atalyst 5andling3 for catalyst loading details. Table :-/ presents a catalyst loading diagram for the reactor system. 'tep D: -eactor 'ection 5eatup 6ith 7resh (atalyst

The reactor section is tightness tested with nitrogen in the same manner as that used for tightness testing the reactor section without catalystSe=cept that the initial test is with nitrogen rather than air. The obEecti+e is to tightness test the reactor section at nitrogen header pressure< and then to progressi+ely higher nitrogen pressures with the make-up hydrogen compressors. This is done before the recycle gas compressor is commissioned to circulate nitrogen through the reactor section< and the reactor feed furnace is commissioned to dry out the catalysts and to achie+e *)T. 7resh catalyst can absorb up to 1% wt A water in transportation< shipping< storage< and loading. /f not dried slowly< the catalyst may release water too quickly when heated< resulting in pore damage and loss in catalyst surface area. /n e=treme cases< a sudden release of steam from the catalyst may result in catalyst shattering 1the popcorn effect3. The basic principle for drying catalyst is to circulate nitrogen through the reactors at the ma=imum rate< fire the reactor feed furnace to heat the circulating gas stream to the minimum temperature required to slowly release adsorbed water< and ma=imi"e effluent cooling to remo+e as much water as possible from the circulating gas stream. 2ote that hydrogen is not introduced until the catalyst is dry< and the reactor section has been heated abo+e *)T.

217

'tartup 'ummary .t this point in the startup sequence< catalyst has been loaded< and the reactors are under a dry air purge. (ommissioning efforts required to bring the feed and fractionation sections to operation readiness are either nearing completion or completed. The feed and fractionation sections are on hot standby long-loop circulation. .ll utility and support systems are assumed to ha+e been commissioned earlier< as described in 'ection $.!. During this period the offplot hydrogen source and make-up hydrogen compressors should ha+e been prepared to deli+er hydrogen to the 5QD-4(-.(N8- unit. 'mall quantities will be required Eust prior to sulfiding< during sulfiding< and larger quantities will be required during introduction of 9,4 feed. Discuss timing of hydrogen requirements with the hydrogen production facility super+ision. /t should be confirmed that on-specification hydrogen will be a+ailable at the required rate and times during startup. The estimated gas requirements are listed on Table $-/< at the end of this section. 6hene+er nitrogen or hydrogen is added to the system< it is important they be added at appropriate locations to a+oid upflow in the catalyst beds< which can cause catalyst displacement. To prepare the reactor for catalyst sulfiding< and subsequent 9,4 feed introduction< the commissioning sequences co+ered in this section are as follows: (lear the reactor section of o=ygen and tightness test at F: kg cm2 1g3 with nitrogen< up to and including the rich amine flash drum 12%;-(:3< after which 2%;-(: is isolated from the combined high and low pressure reactor section. Tightness test the combined high and low pressure section< up to and including the (L)' +apor N4 drum 12%;-(123 at F2$ and then !% kg cm2 1g3 with nitrogen compressed by the make-up hydrogen compressors. .fterwards< 2%;-(12 is isolated from the combined high and low pressure reactor section. Tightness test the combined high and low pressure section< up to and including the (L)' +apor 52' absorber 12%;-(113 at F#2.% kg cm2 1g3 with nitrogen compressed by the make-up hydrogen compressors. .fterwards< the reactor high pressure section is isolated from the low pressure section.

218

8stablish nitrogen recycle gas circulation< commission the reactor feed furnace< and begin heating the reactor section to dryout the catalyst. /ncrease reactor inlet temperatures to F1!$(< the temperature required to begin catalyst dryout. Temperatures are subsequently increased to 21C-2!2( to complete catalyst dryout. )ressure the reactor section with hydrogen to establish a hydrogen partial pressure between 1#-2C kg cm2 1a3. .dEust reactor temperatures for sulfiding< and introduce the sulfiding chemical to 2%;--1@s inlet gas stream to begin sulfiding. 'ulfiding is completed. 2ote: /f the reactor low pressure section was not opened and e=posed to air during catalyst loading 1remained under an inert gas blanket3< it will only be necessary to clear o=ygen from the reactor high pressure section and tightness test at F:.% kg cm2 1g3 with nitrogen before further tightness testing at F#2.% kg cm2 1g3. /f the reactor low pressure section was opened during catalyst loading and e=posed to air< the reactor low pressure section should be subEected to the same tightness testing steps as that specified during tightness testing without catalyst.

219

'tep D-1:

(lear 4=ygen 7rom the -eactor 'ection and Tightness Testing at F:.% kg cm2 1g3 6ith 2itrogen

The steps to clear o=ygen from the reactor section are the same as that used when performing this task with no reactor catalyst in+entory. 5owe+er< initial tightness testing is accomplished with nitrogen rather than with air. -efer to 'tartup Diagram !. 1. 8nsure that all flanges opened or disturbed during catalyst loading are properly made up< all temporary connections remo+ed< and the unit area is clear of debris. -emo+e blinds installed for +essel entry and or other reasons according to the blind list. 8nsure the reactor section oil feed line is still blinded downstream of the oil feed control +al+e 179-1C%13. 8nsure the blind is still installed in the combined effluent line from the (L)' and (L)' +apor centrifugal separator le+el control +al+es to the fractionation section. This pro+ides positi+e isolation between the reactor and fractionation sections. 8nsure the lean amine line to and the rich amine line from the high pressure 52' absorber 12%;-(#3 is isolated. .mine is not circulated through 2%;-(# during sulfiding to allow accurate measurement of hydrogen sulfide in the recycle gas stream. 8nsure the high pressure hydrogen header to the reactor section is isolated from the make-up hydrogen compression section. .lign 2%;-N1 +al+es< as described for dryout without catalyst< to include the compressor in the reactor tightness testing circuit. .lign 2%;-N1@s high set point pressure control +al+e 1)9-2:%13 to +ent to the atmosphere< and open it in manual mode. .lign the (L)' +apor N4 drum 12%;-(123 high set point pressure control +al+e 1)9-2M%!03 to +ent to the atmosphere< and close it in manual mode. -emo+e the startup nitrogen blind to the high pressure hydrogen header< downstream of the isolation manifold between the make-up hydrogen compressor and reactor sections.

2. !. #.

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220

11.

.dmit nitrogen to the high pressure hydrogen header< and purge through the reactor section to the atmosphere +ia )9-2:%1 for $-1% minutes. 4pen each reactor quench control +al+e for a time at the beginning of the sweep to clear o=ygen from the quench lines. 6hen the sweep is completed< close )9-2:%1 in manual mode and allow the reactor section pressure to stabili"e at utility nitrogen header pressure BF:.% kg cm2 1g3D. /n manual mode< slowly open )9-2M%!0 to allow the reactor pressure to reduce< while continuing to allow nitrogen to sweep through the reactor section to the atmosphere +ia )9-2M%!0 for $-1% minutes. 4nce again< the reactor quench control +al+es are opened for a time at the beginning of the sweep to clear o=ygen from the quench lines. 6hen the sweep is completed< close )9-2M%!0 in manual mode and allow the reactor section to stabili"e at utility nitrogen header pressure. -epeat the abo+e steps< until o=ygen is less than %.2 +ol A at both atmospheric +ent locations. )urge all dead-end piping runs to bleeder +al+es Eust upstream of isolation blinds for subsystem< plot limit< etc.< until o=ygen content at each point is below %.2 +ol A. -epressure the reactor section to the ma=imum pressure achie+able from the nitrogen header. During the time the reactor section is at ma=imum nitrogen header pressure< blow down all low point drains and instrument leads to eliminate any freestanding water that may ha+e accumulated. 'oap test all flanges< +al+e packing< instrument fittings< etc.< and carefully inspect for leaks. -epair any leaks found before going to the ne=t step.

12.

1!. 1#.

1$. 1:.

1;.

221

'tep D-2:

Tightness Test at F2$.% kg cm2 1g3 and F!%.% kg cm2 1g3 6ith 2itrogen

The guidelines below are an abbre+iated +ersion of the guidelines described for tightness testing the reactor section to F2$.% kg cm2 1g3 and F!%.% kg cm2 1g3 without catalyst 1see that section for details3. 1. /solate the rich amine flash drum 12%;-(:3< from upstream +essels by double block +al+es. (ommission 2%;-(:@s startup fuel gas pressuri"ation manifold to allow 2%;-(: to float on the fuel gas header. 'et 2%;-(:@s pressure controller@s 1)/(-!2%13 set point at F;.! kg cm2 1g3< with the offgas routed to the flare< as a safety measure to pre+ent o+erpressuring this system. .lignments for tightness testing the combined high and low pressure reactor sections are the same as that for performing these tightness tests without catalyst. 'tart a make-up hydrogen compressor< with the discharge pressure controller 1)/(-:M%#3< in local set point mode< controlling the discharge pressure. 'lowly increase )/(-:M%#@s set point to F2$.% kg cm2 1g3< the first safe pressure to be achie+ed during this step. This also assures there will be a forward-flow through the reactor section during the following steps. 6hile continually checking for leaks< introduce hydrogen to the reactor section to allow the reactor section pressure to equali"e with that being maintained on the make-up hydrogen compressor discharge o+er a period of F# hours 1pro+iding no maEor leaks are disco+ered3. 'oap test all flanges< fittings< etc. .ny leaks found should be corrected before proceeding to the ne=t testing phase. 6hile continuing to check for leaks< slowly increase the reactor section pressure to F!%.% kg cm2 1g3< by gradually increasing )/(-:M%#@s set point. 4nce the pressure has stabili"ed at F!%.% kg cm2 1g3< perform a thorough leak check and correct leaks< if any< before proceeding to the ne=t step. During the time the reactor section is at this pressure< blow down all low point drains and instrument leads to eliminate any freestanding water that may ha+e accumulated.

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222

'tep D-!:

Tightness Test at F!;.$ kg cm2 1g3 6ith 2itrogen

The guidelines below are an abbre+iated +ersion of the guidelines described for tightness testing the reactor section to F!;.$ kg cm2 1g3 without catalyst 1see that section for details3. 1. )lace the (L)' +apor N4 drum@s 12%;-(123 pressure controller 1)/(-2M%!3 in automatic mode with a set point of F!%.% kg cm2 1g3< with the offgas routed to the atmosphere. This pressure controller will +ent any o+erpressure from 2%;-(11 to the atmosphere. )lace 2%;-(11@s pressure controller 1)/(-2M%13 in automatic mode< with a set point of F!;.$ kg cm2 1g3. .ny o+erpressure will be +ented from the reactor low pressure section +ia )/(-2M%1 to 2%;-(12< and then +ented to the atmosphere +ia )/(-2M%!.

2.

2ote: *onitor 2%;-(12@s pressure closely during this step< as the drum does not ha+e an e=ternal startup pressure source. /t may be necessary to partially open the bypass +al+e on 2%;-(11@s pressure control +al+e 1)9-2M%13 to maintain pressure on 2%;-(12. !. 'lowly increase the reactor section pressure to F!;.$ kg cm2 1g3 by adEusting )/(-:M%#@s set point. 4nce the target pressure is achie+ed< soap test all flanges< fittings< etc. .ny leaks found should be corrected before proceeding to the ne=t step. Tightness Test at F#2.% kg cm2 1g3 6ith 2itrogen

'tep D-#:

The guidelines below are an abbre+iated +ersion of the guidelines described for tightness testing the reactor section to F#2.% kg cm2 1g3 without catalyst 1'ection $.#< 'tep .3. 1. /solate the reactor high pressure section from the low pressure section by double block +al+es at the (5)'@s hydrocarbon le+el control +al+es 1L9-2#%1. and L9-2#%103 and the high pressure centrifugal separator@s le+el control +al+e 1L9-2$%13. /ntroduce hydrogen to the (L)' during this step to maintain pressure on the entire reactor low pressure section. The (L)' +apor N4 drum@s 12%;-(123 pressure controller 1)/(-2M%!3 remains in automatic mode with a set point of F!%.% kg cm2 1g3. 'witch the offgas routing from the atmosphere to the flare.

2.

223

The (L)' +apor 52' absorber 12%;-(113 pressure control +al+e 1)9-2M%13 is opened in manual mode to create an open path to 2%;-(12. (ommission the startup hydrogen self-contained pressure regulator 1)(9-2C123 to maintain a positi+e pressure BF2% kg cm2 1g3D on the reactor low pressure section. !. 'witch the make-up hydrogen compressor discharge pressure controller 1)/(-:M%#3 from local set point mode to remote set point mode. This allows 2%;-N1@s suction pressure controller 1)/(-2;%23 to reset )/(-:M%#@s set point. )lace )/(-2;%2 in automatic mode to control the reactor section pressure. 'lowly increase the reactor section pressure to F#2.% kg cm2 1g3 by slowly adEusting )/(-2;%2@s set point.

#. $.

:. 4nce the target pressure is achie+ed< perform a thorough leak check at this pressure. (orrect leaks< if any< before proceeding to the ne=t step. Don@t assume the initial tightness testing< without catalyst< is sufficient< as system heating and cooling tends to cause flanges< etc.< to open up. /n addition< reactors ha+e been opened and isolated for entry< and then closed for startup. 'tep D-$: 8stablish -ecycle 2itrogen (irculation

4nce the reactor section pressure is ele+ated abo+e 2%;-N1@s minimum operating suction pressure< gas flow is established through the reactor section. (.KT/42: (arefully monitor reactor section pressure profiles< as the reactor section beha+ior will be somewhat different while operating with the increased differential pressure through the reactor section< created by reactor catalyst in+entory. 6ith catalyst in+entory in the reactors< it is e=pected that the total differential pressure through the reactor section gas loop will not allow the compressor to circulate the same +olume as that circulated during catalyst dryout without catalyst< without approaching surge conditions or e=ceeding the discharge temperature limits specified by the +endor. 1. 2. /f 2%;-N1 was not included in the tightness testing circuit< purge with nitrogen< and tightness test it in preparation for startup. 9erify that all reactor quench controllers are closed in manual mode.

224

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9erify that 2%;-N1@s discharge *49 1509-2;%$3 is closed and the suction *49 1509-2;%13 and all +al+es on the antisurge line are open Bincluding the automatic antisurge control +al+e 1K9-2;%13< K9-2;%1@s downstream manual block +al+e< and the spillback line *49 1509-2;%#3D. 'tart 2%;-N1 on total spillback at minimum speed. .s 2%;-N1 is being operated under abnormal operating conditions 1i.e.< lower suction pressure and hea+ier molecular weight gas than designed for3< careful monitoring of the discharge temperature is required. 4nce 2%;-N1 is operating smoothly< open the compressor discharge *49 1509-2;%$3 to establish recycle nitrogen gas flow through the reactor section. (.KT/42: .t this point< all reactors are cold< and should not be allowed to e=ceed 2$A of design pressure until all skin points are abo+e the *)T 1assumed to be !CR(3 to pre+ent se+ere damage due to >brittle fracture.? The table below lists pressuri"ation limitations for each reactor when below *)T. 8quipment 2%;--1< /(- 7irst -eactor 2%;--2< /(- 'econd -eactor Design )ressure 1C$.! kg cm2 1C$.! kg cm2 2$A of Design )ressure #:.! kg cm2 #:.! kg cm2

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/ncrease the turbine 12%;-NT13 speed through critical speeds without delay to a+oid damaging the rotating equipment. 6hile operating on nitrogen at F #2.% cm2 1g3 suction pressure with the catalyst in+entory in the reactors< the total differential pressure through the reactor section may pre+ent 2%;-NT1 from reaching minimum go+ernor speed without approaching surge conditions< or e=ceeding 2%;-N1@s discharge temperature limits specified by the +endor. /ncrease turbine speed to achie+e the ma=imum possible circulation rate while operating 2%;-N1 on 1%%A nitrogen< without subEecting the compressor to potential damage. *onitor 2%;--1@s inlet pressure as the speed is being increased< and adEust 2%;-N1@s suction pressure controller 1)/(-2;%23< as needed< to stay below 2$A B#:.! kg cm2 1g3D of reactor design pressure before achie+ing *)T.

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225

'tep D-::

0egin 5eatup

The recycle gas compressor continues to operate< circulating nitrogen through the reactors at the ma=imum achie+able rate. -eactor feed furnace pilots 1and main burners as necessary3 are commissioned to begin heating the reactor section. 1. .fter completing the reactor section dryout 1without catalyst3< some +al+e positions were changed to facilitate reactor cooldown. 8nsure that the +al+es in the reactor preheat system are now set up to facilitate reactor heatup. -emember that as reactor temperatures increase< adEustments to these +al+es will be required to maintain furnace duty. (lose all reactor quench control +al+es to pre+ent cooler gas from entering the reactors. 8nsure that preparations< required to protect the reactor feed furnace@s 12%;-713 con+ection coils< ha+e been completed 1boiler feedwater and or steam flowsSdepending on final design details3. 0efore establishing fires in 2%;-71 -eactor 7eed 7urnace< +erify that the following conditions e=ists: )ressure at 2%;--1@s inlet 1local )/-1M%13 is below 2$A of the reactor design pressure. 2%;-N1 is operating smoothly and circulating nitrogen at the ma=imum rate through the reactor section. -eactor effluent air cooler 12%;-8M3 fans are in operation. $. )urge 2%;-71@s firebo= and light pilot and main burners to begin drying the catalyst 1assuming no furnace refractory curing is required3. 6hen adding pilot and main burners< stagger the locations so that temperatures throughout the firebo=es are as uniform as possible. -efinery procedures go+erning the safe operation of furnaces should be followed. )lace 2%;--1@s inlet temperature controller 1T/(-1M1%3 in automatic mode as soon as possible< and slowly increase the temperature< subEect to the heatup limits of 'ection $.1.!< in order to a+oid the danger of thermal shock or stress to the furnace and reactors.

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-ecord the following temperatures hourly: -eactor /nlet Temperatures .ll -eactor 'kin and 2o""le T/s -eactor 4utlet Temperatures

C.

.s 2%;-71@s burners are commissioned< nitrogen within the reactor section will e=pand. 6hen this occurs< make-up nitrogen should automatically reduce 1)/(-2;%23. (arefully monitor reactor and make-up hydrogen compressor pressure control loops to ensure appropriate control is maintained. /n most cases< nitrogen has to be +ented +ia 2%;-N1@s suction high set point pressure controller 1)/(-2:%13 to pre+ent e=ceeding target pressure. (ontinue to monitor the reactor section for leaks< as piping e=pands when temperatures are increased. (atalyst Dryout

M.

'tep D-;:

During this phase of the startup< the reactor temperatures are increased to F1!$( in order to begin slowly drying out the catalyst in a nitrogen atmosphere. The dryout process is conducted to slowly release water that was absorbed on the catalyst during handling to pre+ent damage to the catalyst pore structure and to a+oid shattering the catalyst pellets due to rapid water release 1steam3. Temperatures are increased to 21C(-2!2( to complete the dryout process< and once complete< reactor temperatures are reduced to 2%% ( and maintained at that temperature until sulfiding steps are initiated. 0efore implementing catalyst dryout steps< prepare the following to a+oid potential headaches and to a+oid scrambling for information at the last minute. 'ummari"e heatup and pressuri"ation limitations of the reactors and other equipment.

227

(alculate the ma=imum acceptable water accumulation rates during dryout. During dryout< if the rate of water accumulation e=ceeds %.1 wt A hr of the catalyst weight< it is important to hold 2%;--1@s inlet temperature until it drops below that le+el. This is to pre+ent shattering the catalyst due to a high steam release rate. /t is helpful to ha+e a plan de+eloped ahead of time< such as: 5ow many gallons per hour is this for this unitT 5ow will it be measuredT (ommonly< the water rate is monitored by closing the (5)' interface le+el control +al+es when there is a continuous rate of water being accumulated< or by monitoring the amount of water being accumulated when the accumulation rate is not continuous by carefully draining water into a calibrated container.

.s the guidelines discussed below are being carried out to dry the catalyst and prepare for sulfiding< final measures required to prepare the D*D' inEection system@s equipment for ser+ice should also be carried out. 1. /f not already done so< establish a reference le+el in the (5)' by inEecting water upstream of the reactor effluent air cooler 12%;-8M3< and then shut down and isolate the water inEection system. /t will remain isolated until the catalyst dryout steps are completed. During heatup and dryout< use e=treme caution while blowing down all drains< sample connections< instrument leads< and dead-end lines to remo+e any freestanding water from the reactor section. 'lowly increase 2%;--1@s inlet temperature to 1!$-1;$( at a ma=imum rate of 1%( hr< or within other limits. *onitor water accumulation in the (5)' as catalyst dryout progresses. 'ignificant water accumulation is not e=pected until reactor temperatures are in the range of 1!$-1;$G(. /f at any time the rate of water accumulation e=ceeds %.1 wt A of the catalyst weight per hour< stop increasing temperatures until the rate of accumulation drops below that le+el.

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6hen all reactor bed temperatures are between 1!$-1;$(< and the rate of water accumulation has dropped to less than %.1 wt A of the catalyst weight per hour< the reactor inlet heatup rate can be increased to 2# ( hr. 'lowly increase 2%;--1@s inlet temperatures to 21C-2!2(. The catalyst is considered dry when 2%;--1@s inlet is between 21C-2!2(< 2%;--1@ outlet is between 2%%-212(< and 2%;--2@s inlet and outlet is between 2%%-212(< and the rate of water accumulation is less than %.1A of the catalyst weight per hour. To bring reactor outlet temperatures to 2%%-212( more quickly< it is permissible to heat 2%;--1@s inlet to as high as 2!2-2CC(< but only if no hydrogen is present. 4nce the reactor outlets are at target temperatures< 2%;--1@s inlet temperature should be reduced to 21C-2!2(. 4nce the abo+e steps are completed< soap test all flanges< fittings< etc. .ny leaks found should be corrected before proceeding to the ne=t startup phase< as this is last chance to check for leaks before hydrogen is introduced to the reactor section during the sulfiding startup phase< so it is important to spend a little e=tra time while performing this tightness test. -educe the reactor inlet temperature to 2%% ( to prepare catalyst beds for sulfiding. -estricting the temperature to 2%% (< until sulfiding steps are initiated< reduces the risk of catalyst reduction.

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229

'tep 8:

(atalyst 'ulfiding

6hen a fresh charge of catalyst has been loaded 1or the catalyst has been regenerated and prereduced3< it is sulfided before 9,4 is introduced to the reactor section and normal operating conditions are established. 'ulfiding con+erts the metal o=ides on the catalyst to metal sulfides< which in turn promotes a smooth startup< better selecti+ity< and lower catalyst fouling rates. Dimethyl disulfide 1D*D'3< the sulfiding chemical most commonly used< is inEected into the recycle gas stream entering 2%;--1< hence< gas-phase sulfiding. 'ince 2%;--1 and 2%;--2 are in series and there is only one D*D' inEection point< sulfiding of 2%;--2 will proceed once the sulfiding wa+e has passed through 2%;--1. 'ulfiding should be accomplished quickly in order to a+oid reduction of catalyst metals by hydrogen that may affect subsequent catalyst performance. 'ulfiding can usually be completed within a couple of days< so it is important to make sure the selected startup feed 19,43 is a+ailable for at least ! days of operation before cracked gas oil stocks are introduced< and that the reactor section equipment is ready for startup. .dditionally< feed and fractionation flushing should be completed and circulating 9,4< in ad+ance of when it is required for feed-in to the reactor section. 0efore sulfiding is started< there are +arious things that should be acquired and checked to a+oid potential headaches and to a+oid scrambling for information at the last minute. 'ome recommendations: *ake a+ailable graphs of sulfiding agent addition rate +ersus gas rate. 7igure $-1 illustrates the sulfiding agent rate +ersus recycle gas rate to obtain anywhere from %.!-1.% mole A hydrogen sulfide at the inlet to 2%;--1. .lso< calculate D*D' drum le+el +ersus in+entory to check against inEection rate. 8nsure there is sufficient D*D' on hand for 1%%A of the complete theoretical requirement before beginning sulfiding acti+ities. (heck the D*D' inEection system. . common problem when starting to sulfide is that the D*D' inEection system doesn@t work when needed. This is not une=pected< since the pumps< +al+es< check +al+es< and other equipment may only be used once e+ery 1-$ years< the sulfiding chemical may arri+e in anything from barrels to trucks to railcars< and so on. /t is difficult to gi+e any ad+ice here other than to be familiar with the inEection equipment being used and to ha+e the equipment checked and tested before D*D' inEection is required.

230

(alculate D*D' requirement. The D*D' requirement is estimated after the catalyst has been selected. /t is helpful to ha+e a few numbers worked out ahead of time< such as: 5ow many gallons of D*D' per inch on a sight glassT 5ow many gallons per 1%A theoretical sulfur requirementT 5ow many gallons are e=pected to be inEected before breakthrough in 2%;--1T 5ow many gallons are e=pected to be used to sulfide 2%;--2T

Locate DrUeger or equi+alent tubes and other equipment for hydrogen sulfide measurement. Typically< low le+el 1less than 1%%% ppm3 and high le+el 1less than 1%A3 tubes are used. 2otify the laboratory that sulfiding operation will require 2# hour co+erage for measuring gas samples for hydrogen< hydrogen sulfide< and hydrocarbons. 8nsure 'cott .ir-)acks or other acceptable air safety breathing equipment is a+ailable at gas stream sampling locations containing hydrogen sulfide. 8nsure that refinery personnel who will be taking samples are properly trained in the use of air safety breathing equipment. )repare a startup monitoring log sheet. The log sheet must include all reactor process temperatures< recycle gas rates< D*D' drum le+el< inEection rates< reactor inlet pressure< hydrogen sulfide concentrations< and recycle gas compositions. -ecalibrate the recycle gas flowmeters< or pro+ide correction charts for sulfiding pressures and e=pected ranges of gas composition. The feed and fractionation sections must ha+e been flushed and are circulating hot 9,4. The reactor section has been cleared of o=ygen and tightness testing has been performed to locate and correct leaks. 8nsure all instrumentation is calibrated properly and operable.

231

Neep a careful account of the sulfiding chemical drum@s 12%;-(!C3 le+el as sulfiding is carried out so that the total sulfur consumption can be determined. The normal sulfur requirement is about :%-1%%A of the amount theoretically required to con+ert all of the metal o=ides on the catalyst to metal sulfides. The theoretical sulfur requirements for the hydrogenation catalysts are: -eactor 2%;--1 (atalyst Type /(- 122V'0 /(- 1!#L.P /(- 12:L /(- 11#V7 /(- 12:2 /(- 11#V7 Theoretical -equirement kg 'ulfur 1%% kg (atalyst %.; 12.# 1%.C M.: 1%.C M.:

2%;--2

'tep 8-1:

8stablish 5ydrogen )artial )ressure of 1#-2C kg cm2 1a3

Wust before sulfiding is to begin< 2%;--1@s inlet temperature is increased to 21C-2!2G( and hydrogen from the hydrogen unit is introduced to establish a hydrogen partial pressure of between 1# and 2C kg cm2 1a3. 4nly manufactured or electrolytic hydrogen is to be used for sulfiding. 5ydrocarbons hea+ier than ( ! must be a+oided to pre+ent the possibility of uncontrolled e=otherms from hydrocracking reactions on unsulfided catalyst. .fter hydrogen is introduced< and the reactor temperatures are abo+e 2%%(< there is a potential for catalyst reduction. Therefore< sulfiding must be started as soon as possible after hydrogen pressuring. /f a delay of more than a few hours is anticipated< the (L, process engineer on site may request that the reactor section be held under nitrogen circulation until it is assured that sulfiding can proceed quickly. (.KT/42: 5ydrogen is admitted to the reactor section during this step. Therefore< e=tra precautions should be taken during this step as well as subsequent steps. -efer to 'tartup Diagram C.

232

1. 2. !.

8nsure the hydrogen analy"er 1./-2;%13 is in ser+ice and recently calibrated with span gases. (heck all quench +al+es and confirm catalyst bed temperature response. )repare for hydrogen introduction by bringing 2%;--1@s inlet temperature to 21C-2!2G( and using quench to bring all lower beds to 2%%-21!G(. .dditionally< use quench to bring 2%;--2@s inlet and lower bed to 2%%-21!G(. Do not proceed until these temperature ranges ha+e been met. To ensure complete D*D' decomposition< 2%;--1@s inlet temperature should be maintained at 21C-2!2G(. /ncrease 2%;-N1@s suction high set point pressure controller 1)/(-2:%13 set point at a +alue slightly higher than the target pressure for this step 1pressure needed to establish hydrogen partial pressure3. -oute the offgas to the flare. 8nsure +al+es are closed on the high pressure hydrogen header@s isolation manifold to isolate the reactor section from the make-up hydrogen compression section. )repare a make-up hydrogen compressor for hydrogen ser+ice< in the same manner as that described for tightness testing the reactor section without catalyst. /ncrease the make-up hydrogen compressor@s discharge pressure controller 1)/(-:M%#3 set point to ele+ate the discharge pressure higher than that being maintained on the reactor section. This assures a forward-flow< once hydrogen is introduced to the reactor section. 'lowly open the isolation +al+es on the high pressure hydrogen header to allow the reactor section to equali"e with the pressure being maintained on the make-up hydrogen compressor discharge. 6hen the pressures are equali"ed 1pro+ided no maEor leaks are disco+ered3< fully open the isolation +al+es. 'witch )/(-:M%# from local set point mode to remote set point mode to allow 2%;-N1@s suction pressure controller 1)/(-2;%23 to reset )/(-:M%#@s set point.

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233

1%.

6hile continually checking for leaks< increase )/(-2;%2@s set point< increasing the total reactor section pressure o+er a period of F1 hour< to establish a hydrogen partial pressure of between 1# and 2C kg cm2 1a3 Bestimate 2%;--1@s inlet pressure 1)/-1M%13 will be :1-;$ kg cm2 1g3D. 6atch reactor temperatures closely while adding hydrogen. /mmediately discontinue hydrogen addition if there is any indication of a temperature rise. . temperature rise indicates that catalyst reduction is starting to occur. /f allowed to continue< damage to the catalyst could result. /f a temperature rise occurs< stop adding hydrogen until it passes through the reactors< then slowly resume hydrogen addition.

2ote: 4nce hydrogen is introduced< the hydrogen partial pressure is limited to 2C kg cm2 1a3. (he+ron has found that going to higher hydrogen partial pressures during sulfiding can cause a loss in catalyst acti+ity. 11. .s pressure is increased< 2%;-N1 should be monitored and the speed adEusted as required to maintain ma=imum recycle gas rate. Take care to not e=ceed 2%;-N1@s discharge temperature limits 1or other +endor limits3< as the circulating gas stream is now a mi=ture of hydrogen and nitrogen. .s the mass flow to the reactor feed furnace increases< ensure that 2%;--1@s inlet temperature controller automatically adEusts to maintain the inlet temperature between 21C-2!2G(. (onfirm the hydrogen partial pressure target has been achie+ed by sampling the recycle gas stream for laboratory analysis. (ompare the laboratory analysis to the hydrogen content readings pro+ided by the on-line gra+ity analy"er 1./-2;%13. 5ydrogen content of the recycle gas at this point is e=pected to be F:%A< which would equal a hydrogen partial pressure at 2%;--1@s inlet of F2C kg cm2 1a3. Do not wait for the results of the laboratory analysis. )roceed directly to catalyst sulfiding.

12.

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234

'tep 8-2:

Low Temperature 'ulfiding

During this step< 2%;--1@s inlet temperature is maintained at 2!2G(< and then D*D' is inEected into the recycle gas stream entering 2%;--1 to begin the low temperature sulfiding step. .t 2!2G(< D*D' decomposes into hydrogen sulfide< and then the hydrogen sulfide reacts with catalyst in each of the reactors< con+erting the base-metal-o=ides to their acti+e sulfide form. The basic principle of the initial sulfiding at low temperatures is to sulfide the catalyst as much as possible at temperatures less than 2:%( with a hydrogen partial pressure between 1# and 2C kg cm2 1a3. 5igher temperatures in the presence of hydrogen can reduce the base metals< resulting in poorer catalyst performance and life. -efer to 'tartup Diagram C. 1. 8nsure 2%;--1@s inlet temperature is at 21C-2!2G(< to assure complete D*D' decomposition< and all lower beds are in the range of 2%%-21!G(. .lso< ensure that 2%;--2@s inlet and lower bed are in the range of 2%%-21!G(. The actual temperature at which the sulfiding agent is inEected should be based on unit history. 5owe+er< when in doubt 1such as a first-time startup3< use the 21C-2!2( stated abo+e< and ensure that temperatures abo+e 2:%( are a+oided. 8nsure that 2%;--1@s inlet pressure is steady< the recycle gas rate to the reactors is at the ma=imum rate achie+able< and the hydrogen partial pressure at 2%;--1@s inlet is in the range of 1#-2C kg cm2 1a3. )ro+ided the on-line gra+ity analy"er 1./-2;%13 is properly calibrated< it should indicate the hydrogen concentration in the recycle gas stream in the range of !%-:%A. 'ulfiding is initiated by starting D*D' inEection into the inlet stream of recycle gas to 2%;--1 at a rate equi+alent to about %.!-%.$ +ol A hydrogen sulfide. .s D*D' enters the line between the reactor feed furnace 12%;-713 and 2%;--1< it may +apori"e and act as a quench< causing the inlet temperature to reduce below 2!2G(. *aintain the reactor top bed inlet catalyst temperatures at 2!2G(. The D*D' entering the reactors cause two types of temperature rises: The first temperature rise is due to the reaction of hydrogen and D*D' to form hydrogen sulfide 152'3 and methane 1(5#3. This reaction should always occur in 2%;--1@s top catalyst bed. The second temperature rise is due to the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with metal o=ides on the catalyst. This reaction causes a temperature wa+e that mo+es down through the catalyst beds of each reactor. 235

2.

!.

#.

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(.KT/42: The quantity of heat released during sulfiding is large< and high temperatures during the early stages of sulfiding are detrimental to catalyst life. Therefore< throughout the sulfiding step< all catalyst bed T should be controlled to less than 2CG(. .dditionally< reactor o+erall Ts should be controlled to less than 2CG(< and no catalyst bed temperature should be allowed to e=ceed 2:%G(. -educe the D*D' inEection rate< or use quench as necessary to stay within these requirements. :. /f high temperatures are obser+ed after the initial inEection rate 1%.!-%.$ +ol A hydrogen sulfide3< the indicated flow rate may be in error. -educe the inEection rate and check the flowmeter calibration< or determine the inEection rate by obser+ing the sulfiding chemical drum@s 12%;-(!C3 calibrated le+el gauge. 'ome e+idence of D*D' decomposition to hydrogen sulfide should be obser+ed< i.e.< decomposition includes an e=othermic reaction and water accumulation in the (5)'. /f the liquid in the (5)' smells like D*D'< then decomposition is not occurring. /f lack of a temperature rise indicates the sulfiding reaction is not proceeding within !% minutes after the time it should ha+e taken for the D*D' to reach the catalyst< or if sulfiding chemical appears in the water being remo+ed from the (5)'< try the following: *ake sure the D*D' pump is working and D*D' is actually being inEected. /f inEection is confirmed without reaction< stop sulfiding chemical inEection immediately. Then increase 2%;--1@s inlet temperature F1%( and restart the D*D' inEection immediately. -epeat this process until: .n e=othermic reaction or water accumulation in the (5)' is obser+ed. The smell of D*D' in the (5)' is eliminated. The reactor inlet temperature is at 2#:(.

;.

C.

236

2ote: (losely monitor reactor temperature profiles to ensure that sulfiding proceeds in a normal manner. Loading up the system with D*D' and ha+ing an uncontrollable sulfiding reaction could result in decreased catalyst acti+ity and shortened run length. M. 6hen reaction in 2%;--1@s top catalyst bed is apparent and under control< the D*D' inEection rate should be slowly increased to the equi+alent of 1.% +ol A hydrogen sulfide in the recycle gas stream. The sulfiding temperature wa+e will begin mo+ing through the reactor. Kse quench gas to keep all lower bed inlet temperatures below 21!G( and lower bed outlet temperatures below 2#%G(. -educe D*D' inEection rate if needed to control bed T to H2CG(. Do not increase the sulfiding chemical inEection rate abo+e the equi+alent of 1.% +ol A hydrogen sulfide at the reactor inlet< e+en though the ma=imum top bed temperature encountered is below 2:%G( and ma=imum lower bed outlet temperatures are below 2#%G(. 1%. 6ater is generated as catalyst is sulfided. The total amount of water generated could be as much as 1%.% wt A of the catalyst in+entory weight. *onitor the (5)'@s interface le+el 1L/(-2#%#3< and drain water as necessary. 2ote that with no oil present in the (5)'< the interface instrument will indicate a higher water le+el than the actual le+el. 5ydrogen is consumed and methane will begin to build up in the recycle loop as sulfiding reactions proceed. *onitor the onstream hydrogen analy"er 1./-2;%13 and maintain the recycle gas hydrogen content in the !%-:% +ol A range B1#S2C kg cm2 1a3 hydrogen partial pressure at 2%;--1@s inletD by establishing a bleed to the flare< +ia 2%;-N1@s suction high set point pressure controller 1)/(-2:%13. 8stablishing a bleed causes the reactor section pressure to decrease< which causes more make-up hydrogen to be drawn in to maintain the pressure< and consequently< hydrogen partial pressure is increased. 'ample the recycle gas stream e+ery 2 hours for hydrogen sulfide concentration. *onitor the temperature wa+e as it passes through 2%;--1@s first two catalyst beds< and forward-quench the bed below to pre+ent e=ceeding bed ma=imum temperature limitations. . subtle temperature rise in the bottom of a bed is a forewarning of a breakthrough< and an indication the forward-quenching technique should be employed.

11.

12.

237

1!.

*onitor the temperature wa+e through 2%;--1@s bottom bed. 4nce a subtle temperature rise is noted in the bottom of the bed< 2%;--2@s inlet temperature should be decreased in proportion to the temperature rise across 2%;--1@s bottom bed. This pre+ents a sudden increase in 2%;--2@s inlet temperature and potential for e=ceeding ma=imum temperature limitations. 4nce hydrogen sulfide breaks through 2%;--1@s bottom bed< sulfiding will begin in 2%;--2. *onitor the temperature wa+e as it passes through 2%;--2@s first catalyst bed< and use the forward-quench technique to pre+ent the bed below from e=ceeding ma=imum temperature limitations. *onitor the temperature wa+e through 2%;--2@s bottom bed. 4nce a subtle temperature rise is noted in the bottom of the bed< adEustments should be made to the reactor feed effluent e=changers 12%;-8!. 03 and reactor feed furnace 12%;-713 to accommodate the anticipated sudden increase in the reactor effluent temperature. This pre+ents a sudden increase in 2%;--1@s inlet temperature and potential for e=ceeding ma=imum temperature limitations. 4nce a break through is apparent from 2%;--2@s bottom bed< sample the recycle gas stream for hydrogen sulfide e+ery !% minutes with *'. or DrUeger tubes to pro+ide data for making D*D' inEection rate adEustments.

1#.

1$.

1:.

(.KT/42: Kse 'cott .ir-)acks or other accepted safety breathing equipment for sampling. 1;. 4nce hydrogen sulfide breakthrough is detected in 2%;--2@s effluent< the D*D' inEection rate to 2%;--1@s inlet must be decreased so that the combined hydrogen sulfide concentration from D*D' inEection and recycle gas at 2%;--1@s inlet does not e=ceed 1A. 7or e=ample< if the recycle gas hydrogen sulfide is %.!A< the inEection rate to 2%;--1@s inlet must be set at the equi+alent of %.;A.

238

1C.

6hen the hydrogen sulfide concentration in the recycle gas stream is greater than %.$ +ol A 1$%%% ppm3< block in the bleed to the flare +ia )/(-2:%1. .llow the hydrogen sulfide in the recycle gas stream to build to 1-2A< and then stop the D*D' inEection pump. 5old 1-2A hydrogen sulfide in the recycle gas stream to 2%;--1@s inlet< by batching in D*D' as needed< until the catalyst stops taking up hydrogen sulfide 1should ha+e inEected at least $%A of the theoretical sulfur requirement3< then proceed to the high temperature sulfiding and soak step. /f after # hours at 1-2A hydrogen sulfide< $%A theoretical sulfur addition still has not been reached< there may be channeling in the reactors. Try the following before continuing to the high temperature sulfiding and soak step: 8nsure that the recycle gas rate is at the ma=imum rate achie+able to assure good gas distribution. (heck for radial temperature maldistribution at each catalyst bed ele+ation< which may indicate flow maldistribution. (onfirm the accuracy of the test for hydrogen sulfide content by laboratory analysis.

1M.

2%.

Discontinue the D*D' inEection for !% minutes< and then measure the hydrogen sulfide concentration in the recycle gas again. /f the hydrogen sulfide drops by an amount greater than that e=pected due to leaks 1dissol+ed and bleed losses3< D*D' inEection should be restarted and temperatures held. -epeat this until the hydrogen sulfide concentration in the recycle gas does not drop more than e=pected or until $%A of the theoretical amount of D*D' has been added. 21. (ontinue with the high temperature sulfiding and soak step.

239

'tep 8-!:

5igh Temperature 'ulfiding and 'oak

.s the high temperature sulfiding and soak phase is being carried out< final preparations should be made in the feed< fractionation< and light ends reco+ery sections for 9,4 feed introduction. .fter completing the low temperature sulfiding step< increase reactor temperatures to force sulfiding reactions to completion. During the high temperature heatup and soak< hydrogen sulfide should always be present at 1-2 +ol A in the recycle gas to minimi"e the potential for catalyst reduction. 8ither continuously inEect D*D'< or batch in as required< to ensure that whene+er the catalyst needs additional sulfur< there is some hydrogen sulfide a+ailable to pro+ide it. -efer to 'tartup Diagram C. 1. 'lowly increase 2%;--1@s reactor inlet temperature from 2!2( to !1$( at a rate not to e=ceed 1#( hr. (oncurrently increase inlet temperatures to 2%;--1@' lower catalyst beds from 21!G( to !1$G( by adEusting the set points of each catalyst bed inlet temperature controller< reducing quench gas flows. .lso< increase 2%;--2@s inlet and second bed inlet temperatures to !1$G( by adEusting their respecti+e inlet temperature controller set points< reducing quench gas flows

2.

2ote: /f appreciable sulfiding reaction occurs 1greater than 2C ( rise across any catalyst bed3< stop increasing reactor inlet and catalyst bed inlet temperatures until the reaction rate diminishes. 2o point in the reactor should e=ceed !2M (. Puench gas is used< if required< to stay within these limits. !. .s the sulfiding reaction consumes a+ailable hydrogen sulfide< monitor the recycle gas stream hydrogen sulfide content and adEust the D*D' inEection rate to maintain 1-2 +ol A hydrogen sulfide.

2ote: /f the hydrogen sulfide content in the recycle gas stream drops below 1.% +ol A hydrogen sulfide< stop increasing reactor temperatures until the hydrogen sulfide content is again abo+e 1.% +ol A hydrogen sulfide. #. .dEust the purge rate to the flare to maintain the hydrogen partial pressure between 1# and 2C kg cm2 1a3.

240

$.

*onitor the onstream hydrogen analy"er 1./-2;%13 and or take samples as the sulfiding reaction consumes a+ailable hydrogen. .t this point< the bleed to the flare 1)/(-2:%13 from 2%;-N1@s suction is not required to maintain hydrogen partial pressure. /ncrease )/(-2:%1@s set point to close the control +al+e. The operating action to maintain the hydrogen partial pressure between 1#-2C kg cm2 1a3 at this point is to increase the reactor section pressure. >5ot soak? for # hours after reactor inlet temperatures reach !1$ (< reactor outlet temperatures are o+er 2CC(< and there is little to no T across any catalyst bed. -eactor inlet temperatures may be increased to no more than !2M( if necessary to reach 2CC( on reactor outlet temperatures.

:.

2ote: 6hen the abo+e conditions are met< catalyst sulfiding is complete. Typically< this will occur after :%-1%%A of the theoretical sulfur has been added to the catalyst. ;. /ncrease the reactor section pressure at F1$ kg cm2 hr to 2%;--1@s normal inlet operating pressure B1;2.$ kg cm2 1g3D.

(.KT/42: 6hile pressuring< check the reactor section for leaks. Leaks must be corrected +ery carefully due to the presence of lethal concentrations of hydrogen sulfide in the recycle gas. C. M. (ontinue to add D*D' to maintain 1-2A hydrogen sulfide in the recycle gas stream and maintain !1$( at 2%;--1@s inlet. -ecord the amount of D*D' used compared to the theoretical amount required. This rate may also be useful for subsequent catalyst performance test runs and sulfiding. *ake a final leak test by blocking in the make-up hydrogen and recycle gas bleed 1if open3< stopping any D*D' inEection< and recording pressure loss o+er 1 hour. The pressure loss should be less than ! kg cm2 o+er the 1-hour period.

1%.

241

11.

-educe 2%;--1@s inlet temperature to F2%$G( in preparation for 9,4 feed introduction. .s the temperature is being reduced: -educe 2%;--1@s inlet pressure to FM%A of normal operating pressure BF1$$.% kg cm2 1g3D. /ntroducing feed at less than normal operating pressure pro+ides better control o+er feed-in e=othermic reactions and pro+ides a safety margin to pre+ent lifting reactor section relief +al+es due to the feed-in pressure spike that occurs when feed is introduced. Test the quench distribution to 2%;--1 and 2%;--2@s catalyst bed inlets by recording catalyst temperatures abo+e and below the internals before and after adding quench. Test 2%;--2@s bottom bed first< and then work upward sequentially. Kse as much quench gas as is needed to achie+e about 1$( temperature drop in $-1% minutes 1until stable3 across the internals being tested. -eturn each quench to "ero before testing the ne=t set of internals.

12.

During sulfiding< the feed and fractionation sections should be prepared for feed-in to minimi"e the time between the completion of this step and feed introduction to pre+ent catalyst reduction. /f it is anticipated that feed-in will not occur within C hours< lea+e the D*D' inEection line hooked up. *onitor the recycle gas stream e+ery C hours. /f the hydrogen sulfide concentration falls below 1%% ppm< raise 2%;--1@s inlet temperature to 2!2( and batch in D*D' to build the hydrogen sulfide le+el back to 1-2A. (ool the inlet back to 2%$( prior to feed-in and blind the D*D' inEection point.

242

'tep 8-#

7inal 7eed and 7ractionation 'ystem )reparation

2ear the end of 'ection $.!< startup diesel was displaced from the feed and fractionation sections with 9,4< and the combined sections were left at >hot standby readiness? while circulating 9,4 under the following conditions: F1$ m! hr of hot 9,4 from -efinery ///@s (DK 9DK to the feed blend system at about 1;%G(< controlled by the reactor feed surge drum@s 12%;-(13 le+el controller 1L/(-1:%13 resetting 7/(-1#%:. The import rate +aries according to the difference between the oil being withdrawn from 2%;-(1 by the fractionator bottoms >0? pump that is sent to the fractionation section< +ia the internal circulation flow controller 17/(-2C%#3< and the long-loop circulation rate sent back to the feed section from the fractionator bottoms< +ia 7/(-1#%C. F12# m! hr 9,4 flow from 2%;-(1 to the fractionator bottoms >0? pump 12%;-,1203 to the fractionation section< +ia the internal circulation line 17/(-2C%#3. F1%M m! hr of long-loop circulation from the fractionator bottoms >.? pump 12%;-,12.3 through the hot startup line upstream of the uncon+erted oil air cooler 12%;-8213 to the feed section upstream of the oil feed kerosene e=changer 12%;-813 at about 1;%G(. F1$ m! hr 9,4 flow from the fractionator bottoms >.? pump 12%;-,12.3 to the slop oil header< +ia the fractionator bottoms le+el flow control loop 1L/(-#!%1 7/(-$2%23 and the uncon+erted oil air cooler 12%;-8213.

The fractionator feed furnace 12%;-723 outlet temperature 1T/(-#2%M3 is being controlled to maintain the product fractionator 12%;-(1:3 bottoms temperature at F1;%-1;$G(< and heat e=change has been established in 2%;-(1:@s rundown cooling circuit< to limit the oil temperature entering the reactor feed surge drum 12%;-(13 to a ma=imum of 1;%G(. The oil temperature to 2%;-(1 should not be increased abo+e 1;%( until feed is introduced to the reactor section to ensure controllable reactor feed furnace duty. The reactor feed pumps ha+e been run-in and are shut down and isolated. The high and low pressure separator le+el instruments ha+e been properly commissioned. -efer to 'tartup Diagram M.

243

1.

'imultaneously change oil flows as follows: -educe the internal circulation rate from F12# m! hr to F1%% m! hr 1F#% A of design feed rate3< +ia 7/(-2C%#. /nternal circulation is reduced to lower the amount of 9,4 being withdrawn from the reactor feed surge drum to the fractionation section to ensure sufficient 9,4 from offplot can be pro+ided to satisfy the $%A of the design feed-in rate to the reactor feed pump. -educe the long-loop circulation rate from F1%M m! hr to F$% m! hr< +ia 7/(-1#%C. Lea+ing some long-loop circulation remo+es heat as the reactor feed pump is run on minimum flow spillback to the reactor feed surge drum< as well as maintains controllable le+els and flows in the the feed and fractionation sections. The 9,4 import rate and product fractionator bottoms e=port rate to the slop oil header should automatically change to F$M m! hr.

2.

/t is e=pected that higher than normal solids load will be e=perienced as the 9,4 import rate increases. *ake flow changes slowly< stopping if the backwash frequency is greater than once e+ery 2% minutes. 9,4 7eed /ntroduction

'tep 7:

During sulfiding< the feed and fractionation sections should be prepared for feed-in to minimi"e the time between completion of catalyst sulfiding and oil feed introduction to the reactor section. 4il feed< following sulfiding< must be straight-run 9,4 1i.e.< no coker oils3 for at least ! days after feed-in to a+oid e=cessi+e coke laydown on the +ery acti+e fresh catalyst. The starting 9,4 feed rate should be F$%A of design 1F12#.% m! hr3. The 9,4 temperature lea+ing the reactor feed pump should be at F1;%G( in order to control the reactor feed furnace 12%;-713 outlet in the 2%$G( range required for feed introduction and still maintain minimum feed furnace duty. Therefore< the upstream +acuum units must be operating to pro+ide hot 9,4 feed 1at F1;%G(3 at the required initial feed-in rate of F12#.% m! hr< as well as a rate of F1$%.% m! hr 1F:%A of design feed rate3 that is achie+ed shortly after the initial feed-in rate.

244

)rior to feed introduction< the unit should be at the following conditions: 'tartup 4il 7eed Type 'tartup 4il 7eed Temperature to the -eactor 7eed 'urge Drum< G( 9,4 /mport -ate to the 7eed 'ection< m! 5r /nternal (irculation -ate< m! 5r 5ot Long-Loop (irculation -ate< m! 5r 9,4 8=port -ate 7rom the 7ractionator 0ottoms< m! 5r )lanned /nitial 9,4 'tartup 7eed -ate< m! 5r /(- 7irst -eactor /nlet 1M%A of 2orm3< kg cm2 1g3 5ydrogen 'ulfide (oncentration in the -eactor Loop< ppm /(- 7irst -eactor /nlet ,as -ate< m! 5r /(- 7irst -eactor /nlet Temperatures< G( )roduct 7ractionator 0ottoms Temperature< G( The following should also be checked: .ll blinds and isolations in proper position. .ll instrumentation ready for ser+ice. 7eed quantity and quality analy"ed and +isually checked 1no dark oil3. 5ydrogen a+ailability. 6ater inEection system is ready to begin inEecting water upstream of the reactor effluent +apor air cooler. Temperatures in both reactors should be a uniform 2%$G(. The quench controllers should ha+e been checked out and set at 2%$G(. 9,4 7eed /ntroduction to the /(- 7irst -eactor 9,4 4nly F1;% $M 1%% $% $M 12# F1$$ I1%% F1<;!$ F2%$ F1;$

'tep 7-1:

-efer to 'tartup Diagram M.

245

1. 2. !. #.

8nsure 2%;--1@s inlet pressure is being maintained at FM%A of normal operating pressure in preparation for feed introduction. -eroute the internal circulation to the outlet of the (L)'< and isolate the internal circulation line to the (L)'@s inlet. -emo+e the spacer blind from the downstream side of the oil feed flow control +al+e 179-1C%13. 6ith both reactor feed pumps shut down< carefully liquid fill and gas-free the high pressure oil feed line with low pressure liquid from the reactor feed surge drum to the bleeder Eust upstream of the emergency backflow pre+ention +al+e 1709-1C%23< otherwise known as the feed chopper +al+e. This step requires the feed pump discharge +al+e to be opened slightly< then shut. /n order to liquid fill the oil feed line up to the >chopper +al+e<? open the feed oil control +al+e F!%A with 7/(-1C%1 in manual mode. 79-1C%1 should remain !%A open in the manual mode until feed is introduced to the reactor section in the steps that follow. (are must be taken due to the temperature of the fluid. 4nce the feed line is liquid filled< the feed pump discharge +al+e should be closed in preparation to start the pump. 'tart a reactor feed pump on minimum flow circulation. 6atch for any temperature buildup in the reactor feed surge drum if feed-in is delayed. /ntroduce 9,4 feed to 2%;--1 by carefully opening the feed pump discharge +al+e< and the bypass +al+e around 709-1C%2 1the chopper +al+e3. Puickly increase the feed rate to at least 12#.% m! hr 1$%A of design3 within !-$ minutes. 6hen the oil feed rate reaches 12#.% m! hr< place 7/(-1C%1 in automatic to control the rate at 12#.% m! hr. The initial $%A feed rate was selected to assure the heat release due to oil adsorption is quickly quenched by >cool? oil behind the adsorption wa+e and to a+oid channeling. .t this point the low-low oil feed shutdown 17/-1C%203 should be satisfied. The field operator should hand reset the solenoid +al+e 17Q-1C%2.3< which should open 709-1C%2 1the chopper +al+e3 1%%A. 0efore the field operator closes 709-1C%2@s bypass +al+e< a function test of 709-1C%2 should be performed. /mpose a false signal on the flow transmitter 17T-1C%23 to falsely indicate there is no feed flow< which should cause 709-1C%2 to trip closed. )ro+iding 7/-1C%20@s low-low signal functions correctly and closes 709-1C%2< the false signal should be remo+ed< 7Q-1C%2. hand reset by the field operator< and the bypass +al+e around 709-1C%2 closed and locked.

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246

(.KT/42: This initial feed-in step is +ery critical. 6hen oil first flows o+er the >dry? catalyst< a large heat release occurs as the oil adsorbs on the catalyst surface. -eactor bed Ts of up to $$G( are possible at the leading oil edge. /f the temperature rise is too large< e=cessi+e hydrocracking reactions could be triggered< causing the reactor temperature to escalate into a temperature runaway. C. *onitor bed temperatures carefully. Puench each lower bed with generous quench 11%%A open3 Eust before the heat wa+e reaches each lower bed< as indicated by a sudden temperature increase at the outlet of the bed abo+e. 12ote that a slow< modest increase in bed outlet temperatures is common for many minutes prior to the actual adsorption wa+e as recycle gas heats up the catalyst.3 6hen the temperature at the inlet to the bed below has returned to below 2%$ (< quench can be stopped to the bed abo+e. /f any catalyst temperature e=ceeds !1$G( and continues to increase: /ncrease oil feed. Puench abo+e and below the hot spot. (ut back furnace fires and bypass the feed effluent e=changers to reduce the reactor inlet temperature. -educe system pressure by F1# kg cm2.

M.

2ote: /f the abo+e steps do not bring the temperature e=cursion under control< cut the feed< cut back furnace fires< and depressure to the flare as necessary. 6ait until all reactor bed temperatures are steady at 2%$G( for at least an hour before repressuring and restarting feed. 1%. /mmediately after feed-in< switch the internal circulation from the fractionator bottoms >0? pump@s 12%;-,1203 discharge to the short-loop source to maintain flow to the fractionation section +ia the reactor effluent system. Long-loop circulation is discontinued to pre+ent catalyst fines< washed from the catalyst< from being returned to the reactor. 4pen the short-loop block +al+es to route hot product fractionator bottoms from upstream of the uncon+erted oil air cooler 12%;-8213 to the internal circulation line.

247

'lowly close the internal circulation block +al+e on the fractionator bottoms >0? pump@s 12%;-,1203 discharge< making sure the internal circulation controller 17/(-2C%#3 maintains a rate of F1%% m! hr to the effluent line from the (L)'. This stops oil from being drawn from the reactor feed surge drum to the fractionation section. 'et up 2%;-,120 for normal operation. (lose the long-loop flow controller 17/(-1#%C3. 11. )ressure will rise as feed fills the reactor section. *onitor 2%;-N1@s suction pressure. The high set point pressure controller 1)/(-2:%13 should be set to automatically bleed gas to the flare to make sure the normal start-of-run operating pressure BF1$! kg cm2 1g3D is not e=ceeded and relief +al+es do not unseat. 6hen the heat of adsorption temperature wa+e reaches the bottom of 2%;--2@s last catalyst bed< the feed rate may be reduced to F#%A 1F1%% m! hr3 to a+oid filling the (5)' too quickly. The oil le+el should begin to build in the (5)' #$-:% minutes after oil is introduced to 2%;--1. .s the oil le+el buildup is obser+ed< commission the le+el control +al+es to transfer liquid to the (L)'. This is the most critical stage of the feed-in process< since it is not practical to ha+e functionally checked the (5)'@s le+el indicator and control system prior to feed-in. 7aulty le+el indication or control can cause carryo+er into the high pressure 52' absorber 12%;-(#3 or gas carry-under to the (L)'. 8ither must be a+oided. 0lind the startup hydrogen header to the reactor low pressure section< and ensure the (L)' and (L)' +apor 52' absorber 12%;-(113 are holding at design pressure BF!;.$$ kg cm2 1g3D by adEusting the set point of )/(-2M%1 on the offgas line from 2%;-(11. .dditionally ensure the (L)' +apor N4 drum 12%;-(123 and rich amine flash drum 12%;-(:3 are holding at design pressures BF!% and ;.! kg cm2 1g3D by adEusting the set points of )/(-2M%! and )/(-!2%1< respecti+ely. 6hen the liquid letdown rate from the (5)' to the (L)' and the (L)' letdown rate to the fractionation section are steady< slowly reduce and then stop the short-loop circulation +ia the internal circulation controller 17/(-2C%#3. 6atch the fractionator feed furnace firing< and hold 1;%-1;$( on the outlet.

12.

1!.

1#.

1$.

248

1:.

'lowly increase )/(-2;%2@s set point to F1$! kg cm2 1g3< 2%;-N1@s design operating pressure. 2ote that the preferred pressure control arrangement is to set 2%;-N1@s suction high set point pressure controller@s 1)/(-2:%13 set point higher than )/(-2;%2@s set point< which results in no bleed to the flare. /n this case< )/(-2;%2 controls reactor pressure by resetting the make-up hydrogen compressor discharge controller@s 1)/(-:M%#3 set point< which regulates compressor spillback. 0egin water inEection upstream of the reactor effluent air cooler 12%;-8M3. 6hen water accumulates in the (5)' and (L)'< commission the interface le+el controls and the sour water degasser system. 6hen the system is fully under control< the oil feed rate should be increased to :%-;$A of design. 5igher feed rates assures better distribution in the reactors prior to increasing temperature to achie+e con+ersion. 0egin increasing reactor temperatures according to the following guidelines: ( H 8=pected (.T $: 2C-$: 11-2C H11 *a=imum 5eating -ate< ( 5r 2C 11 : !

1;.

1C.

1M.

6hen increasing reactor temperatures< the top bed should be adEusted first and then each succeeding lower bed ne=t. (ontinue increasing temperatures until desired con+ersion is achie+ed. 6hen increasing temperatures< subtract F1$G( from estimated temperatures to allow for superacti+ity usually shown by fresh 5ydrocracker catalysts. 5ydrogen consumption may be used as a rough guide for con+ersion le+els until con+ersion can be +erified with reactor effluent or product samples. 2%. .s the reactor temperatures are increased< put the inter-reactor effluent fractionator feed e=changer 12%;-8:3 on temperature control with T/(-2%%2.

249

'tep ,: 1.

.chie+ing 4n-'pecification )roducts

*aintain the feed rate to the reactor section at F:%-;$A of design< while making final (.T adEustments to reach target con+ersion le+els. Then allow a suitable time for the reactor section to reach equilibrium conditions< while making adEustments to the product stripper 12%;-(1#3 and product fractionator 12%;-(1:3 to achie+e the conditions shown on the process flow diagrams. .s (.T temperatures are increased< lighter cracked products will begin to flow to the fractionation section. (onditions in 2%;-(1# and 2%;-(1: must be adEusted in order to start bringing products on-specification. 2ote that when operating at reduced feed rates and lower than normal con+ersion le+els< good fractionation performance is not e=pected. 5owe+er< acceptable separation of light hydrocarbons from the column bottom streams should be achie+able. 8nsure 2%;-(1#@s o+erhead condenser 12%;-8123 fans are commissioned to cool the inlet stream to the product stripper reflu= drum 12%;-(1$3 to F:%G( after stripping steam is introduced and the heat load to the column increases. (ommission the hot reactor effluent (L)' liquid e=changer@s 12%;-8#3 outlet temperature controller 1T/(-21%23< and gradually increase 2%;-(1#@s inlet temperature towards design conditions. 8nsure 2%;-(1:@s o+erhead condenser 12%;-81!3 fans are commissioned to cool and condense the column o+erhead +apor going to the fractionator reflu= drum 12%;-(1;3< after stripping steam is introduced and the heat load to the column increases. )rior to attempting to introduce stripping steam to 2%;-(1# or 2%;-(1:< make sure the superheated steam supply lines are warmed up and clear of all liquid up to the inlet +al+e on each column no""le. Ktili"e the blow-down +al+e between the check +al+e and the +essel isolation +al+e to warm-up the line while monitoring temperature gauges on each inlet line. .s 2%;-(1# heats up< stripping steam +ia 7/(-#%%2 should be carefully commissioned at F2$A of the design rate 1F:C m! hr3 initially< then increased as the startup progresses< to F2;% m! hr. 6hen condensate begins to collect in the product stripper reflu= drum 12%;-(1$3< commission the interface le+el control loop 1L/(-#1%#3 and e=port the water to the water degasser drum 12%;-(1!3.

2.

!.

#.

$.

:.

;.

250

C. M.

,radually increase 2%;-1:@s inlet temperature towards design. .s 2%;-(1: heats up< stripping steam +ia 7/(-#!%$ should be carefully commissioned at F2$A of the design rate 1F1:2 m! hr3 initially< then increased as the startup progresses< to F:#C.! m! hr. 6hen condensate begins to collect in the fractionator reflu= drum 12%;-(1;3< commission one of the fractionator sour water pumps 12%;-,1%. 03 and establish automatic interface le+el control with L/(-#$%! e=porting to the inEection water drum. 6hen sufficient naphtha carryo+er to the product stripper reflu= drum 12%;-(1$3 and the fractionator reflu= drum 12%;-(1;3 occurs< adEust column reflu= rates as required to maintain design column o+erhead temperatures of 1#:G( and 11!G(< respecti+ely. )lace 2%;-(1#@s +apor line temperature controller 1T/(-#%%!3 in automatic mode< resetting the reflu= flow controller 17/(-#%%13. )lace 2%;-(1:@s column temperature controller 1T/(-#!%23 in automatic mode< resetting the reflu= flow controller 17/(-#!%13.

1%.

11.

12.

6hen the o+erflash liquid rate 17/-#!%#3 indicates there is good liquid traffic throughout 2%;-(1:< slowly increase the kerosene and diesel pumparound rates to design. 0egin to draw side products. 'et draw rates to try to match design draw temperatures. 2ote that too high a draw temperature indicates that the oil on the tray is too hea+y. 8ither that draw rate or those abo+e must be reduced to allow lighter oil to flow downward in the column. (on+ersely< a draw temperature that is lower than design indicates that the draw rate or those abo+e must be increased. Draw diesel to the stripper 12%;-(1M3 by putting L/(-#M%1 on automatic and pumping to the slop oil header< +ia 7/(-$;%1. *onitor the diesel drawoff temperature and make adEustments to the drawoff rate to achie+e F2;C(. .s 2%;-(1M heats up< stripping steam +ia 77/(-#M%1 should be carefully commissioned to introduce medium pressure superheated steam at F2$A of the design rate initially< then increased as the startup progresses to design. Draw kerosene to the stripper 12%;-(1C3 by putting L/(-#;%1 on automatic and pumping to the slop oil header< +ia 7/(-#;%2. *onitor the kerosene drawoff temperature and make adEustments to the drawoff rate to achie+e F1;$G(. .dd heat to the reboiler to meet flash point specifications as conditions permit.

1!.

251

1#.

6hen naphtha carryo+er to 2%;-(1$ and 2%;-(1; is sufficient to pro+ide target reflu= rates and naphtha e=port for stable reflu= drum le+el control< startup naphtha should be discontinued to the drums. .dEust the light end section to achie+e on-specification products. 4nce the reactor and fractionation sections are lined out with all products on-specification< increase feed rate to the target le+el. 6hile the feed rates are increased< the reactor (.Ts should be increased as shown on the process +ariable charts in 'ection #.%.

1$. 1:.

2ote: (racked feedstocks should not be introduced to the 5ydrocracker Knit for at least ! days after the unit is running steadily at full con+ersion. 6hen cracked stocks are finally introduced< they should be brought in gradually. $.$ 2ormal 'hutdown )rocess ,uidelines

The following guidelines outline maEor steps for managing a controlled< orderly shutdown to prepare the reactors for catalyst regeneration at end-of-run< catalyst replacement< or to perform general maintenance requiring reactor depressuri"ation and cooldown for entry. (ooling and depressuring rates must follow metallurgical and equipment design guidelines described in 'ection $.1. /ntroduction These guidelines assume that the unit will be shut down for maintenance< and the reactor loop will be brought to any of the following conditions: -eactors remain under hot gas circulation at full pressure when the shutdown will be of short duration. -eactors are cooled and depressured but remain under nitrogen purge for reactor loop maintenance. -eactors are cooled and depressured for catalyst skimming< regeneration< or dumping.

252

'pecial 7eatures of the 'hutdown 'ystem The reactor section can be blinded from the feed and fractionation section< with the feed and fractionation sections remaining under pressure and on long-loop circulation if turnaround efforts are not required in the feed and fractionation sections. . pumpout line from the reactor feed surge drum to the fractionator bottoms >0? pump@s suction is pro+ided to clear hydrocarbon liquid from the drum< if turnaround efforts require. )recautions During shutdowns< precautions must be taken to a+oid the following< whether planned or unplanned: 8=posing personnel to to=ic or no=ious conditions when catalyst is drained or when equipment is entered. 7ire possibilities when the reactors are opened< due to e=plosi+e hydrogen-o=ygen mi=tures< or e=posure of pyrophoric material to air. 7urnace or catalyst coking< by keeping temperatures under control. (ooling reactors at rates that e=ceed cooling guidelines as described in 'ection $.1.#. )otential formation of highly to=ic nickel carbonyl compound when the reactors are cooled below 2%$(.

253

)reparations for a )lanned 'hutdown 7or a planned shutdown 1e.g.< catalyst regeneration or replacement3< some work can be done in ad+ance< such as: )repare blind lists and blind list accounting procedures for required isolations. 5a+e test equipment onsite for: (4 Test for 2ickel (arbonyl p5 Tester for .cid or (austic 6aters 8=plosi+e ,as and 5ydrogen .naly"ers 4=ygen .naly"er 1/f 9essel 8ntry is )lanned3

/f inert atmosphere entry into the reactors is planned< ha+e the necessary personnel protecti+e equipment on hand. 5a+e the necessary materials onsite to complete the shutdown. /nform all interested parties of shutdown plans. 5a+e temporary piping spools< blinds< gaskets< etc.< onsite. 8rect staging 1scaffolding3. 8nsure adequate storage space is a+ailable in the offplot slop oil storage system. )lan for any unbalanced utilities.

'hutdown 'ummary 7eed to the reactor section is gradually reduced to $%A of design< while concurrently reducing the (.Ts to maintain ontest products< and then oil feed is stopped. 4nce oil feed has been stopped< a catalyst hot stripping period commences with reactor temperatures at the +alue they were at before they were first reduced at the outset of the shutdown< and with the recycle gas rate at design. .fter hydrocarbons are stripped from the catalyst beds< cooling and depressuring should commence following guidelines in 'ection $.1. 7inal nitrogen purging and other appropriate acti+ities are carried out to prepare the reactor section for standby status< catalyst skimming< catalyst unloading< catalyst regeneration< or general maintenance.

254

$.$.1 -educe 7eed -ate and 0egin -eactor (ooldown -efer to 'hutdown Diagram 1. 1. .dEust reactor catalyst temperatures downward< and then gradually reduce oil feed in increments of F$A e+ery 2% minutes< such that feed con+ersion remains at the desired le+el to continue producing on-specification products. 0ed quench controllers are adEusted simultaneously with reactor inlet temperatures to lower all catalyst temperatures e+enly. .s the oil feed rate is reduced< the reactor feed and effluent flow rates will not be in balance for short periods. This is why feed reductions should be gradual< as recommended abo+e. *onitor the reactor feed effluent heat e=changer feed-side outlet temperatures closely< and make gradual adEustments to maintain controllable furnace duty in the reactor feed furnace 1i.e.< F2%-!%( temperature increase3. The product draw rates from the product fractionator@s 12%;-(1:3 sidecut systems should be reduced proportionately as the oil feed rate is reduced. .ttempt to keep draw temperatures constant to maintain on-specification products. 'ample product streams on short inter+als< and route products to the slop oil header< once they fail to meet specification. 6hen oil flow from the (L)' to the product stripper 12%;-(1#3< and subsequently to the fractionator feed furnace 12%;-723< falls below $%A of 2%;-72@s design flow rate 1or minimum flow rate recommended by the furnace +endor3< assure the emergency circulation low set point flow controller 17/(-#2%13 has opened to route 2%;-(1: bottoms from the discharge of the fractionator bottoms pumps to 2%;-72@s inlet to maintain a minimum oil flow to the furnace. 7low must be maintained to minimi"e potential furnace tube coking as oil feed to the reactor section is reduced and ultimately terminated. /f oil feed is reduced below the reactor feed pump minimum flow requirement< ensure the minimum flow controller performs correctly to protect the pump. .s the reactor temperatures and oil feed rate is being reduced< the working pressure and recycle gas rate to the reactor section should be maintained at design +aluesL howe+er< the hydrogen make-up consumption will fall. (losely monitor the make-up hydrogen compressor loading and pressure controller performance as the hydrogen make-up requirements reduce.

2.

!.

#.

$.

:.

255

;.

6ith the normal arrangement< where reactor loop pressure is controlled by the pressure controller on the recycle gas compressor suction 1)/(-2;%23< resetting the make-up hydrogen compressor@s discharge pressure controller 1)/(-:M%#3< the spillback +al+e will e+entually fully open< and the reactor loop pressure will rise. /f correcti+e actions are not taken< the recycle gas compressor suction high set point pressure controller 1)/(-2:%13 will open to pre+ent o+erpressuring the reactor section. To pre+ent this from happening< unload or shut down make-up hydrogen compressors as required. /f the shutdown is of short duration and it is desired to keep the feed and fractionation sections hot< hot long-loop circulation can be established before stopping feed to the reactor section. .fter the oil feed rate is at $%A 1F12# m! hr3< do the following: 8nsure the fractionator bottoms >.? pump 12%;-,12.3 is in ser+ice. .lign the fractionator bottoms >0? pump 12%;-,1203 to draw oil from the reactor feed surge drum and discharge through the internal circulation line to the downstream side of the (L)'< to establish an internal circulation rate of F1%% m! hr 1F#% A of design feed rate3< +ia 7/(-2C%#. This will draw 9,4 feed into the feed section at M%A of the design rate 1F12# m! hr feed to the reactor section and F1%% m! hr of internal circulation3. There will still be sufficient capacity in the feed section to continue supplying the reactor feed pump at $%A of design. 8stablish hot long-loop circulation at FC$ m! hr< +ia 7/(-1#%C. The 9,4 import rate to the feed section will reduce proportionately. This assures that F1$ m! hr of 9,4 feed will continue to be imported and the same amount e=ported from 2%;-(1:@s bottoms to the slop oil header.

C.

M.

-educe the reactor feed furnace firing 1maybe to pilots only3< stop the feed pump< and block in the pump discharge. This is a con+enient time to check that the feed pump discharge emergency block +al+e 1chopper +al+e3 closed automatically on low flow. .s soon as the reactor feed pump is shut down< simultaneously increase the: /nternal circulation to F12# m! hr 1+ia 7/(-2C%#3< or F$%A of design feed rate. Long-loop circulation to F1%M m! hr 1+ia 7/(-1#%C3. This should establish a feed import rate and 2%;-(1:@s bottoms e=port rate of F1$ m! hr.

1%.

256

11.

4nce oil is displaced from the reactor high and low pressure sections< isolate the high pressure section from the low pressure section< and commission the startup hydrogen line to the low pressure section to maintain pressure on that section. .dditionally< commission the startup hydrogen line to 2%;-(1# and the startup fuel gas line to 2%;-(1: to allow oil circulation through the combined feed and fractionation sections. 'tart reducing 2%;-(1:@s inlet temperature. 6hile still abo+e F12$ (< align startup diesel to the feed section< and isolate the 9,4 feed line to displace the hea+ier feedstock from the feed and fractionation section before cooling down below 12$(. -e+ert back to the once-through flush circuit to e=pedite this task< and then reestablish the pre+ious long-loop circulation conditions. 4nce naphtha production stops< isolate 2%;-(1# and 2%;-(1:@s e=port systems and shut down the light end section. 4nce 9,4 is displaced from the feed and fractionation sections< diesel flush oil can be routed to the top of 2%;-(1# and 2%;-(1: to aid in cooldown< and to flush hea+ier oils from column trays. 'lowly switch the long-loop circuit to the cold source. *onitor the uncon+erted oil air cooler outlet temperatures to ensure the ma=imum rundown temperature to storage is not e=ceeded. (ool 2%;-(1:@s inlet temperature to either standby conditions or cooler for complete shutdown.

12.

1!. 1#. 1$.

1:.

1;.

$.$.2 (atalyst 5ot ,as 'tripping 6hen oil feed has been discontinued< catalyst hot gas stripping is initiated to remo+e as much hydrocarbon from the catalyst as possible. 1. 2. 4nce oil feed has been discontinued< maintain normal reactor section working pressure and continue the design recycle gas rate. /ncrease 2%;--1 and 2%;--2@s inlet temperatures to F!$%( 1or endO of-run temperature conditions3 to begin a catalyst >hot gas? stripping period. .dEust the reactor feed effluent e=changer temperature controller< as required< for accomplishing the most effecti+e heatup.

257

!. #.

6hen hydrocarbon liquid stops collecting in the (5)' 1usually F# hours3< stop water inEection. /f the unit is being shut down for brief maintenance< which does not require stopping the recycle gas compressor< continue circulation at normal working pressure. /f the shutdown is for catalyst regeneration< catalyst replacement< or maintenance that requires stopping the recycle gas compressor or depressuring the reactor section< continue circulation at normal pressure for 2 hours after hydrocarbon liquid stops collecting in the (5)'. Then reduce reactor temperatures e+enly to F2%$ ( as discussed in the ne=t section.

$.

$.$.! -eactor (ooldown (ool and depressure the reactor section after hot gas stripping is completed. The reactor section is then cleared of hydrogen with nitrogen and isolated. 1. *aintain normal working pressure and the ma=imum recycle rate to cool the reactors in the shortest time< within the cooldown limits specified in 'ection $.1.#. 'lowly reduce the reactor feed furnace 12%;-713 outlet temperature< taking care to stay safely abo+e !C( 1*)T3. During this step< monitor all reactor skin< no""le< and internal temperatures hourly to assure e+en reactor cooling and that cooldown rates are not e=ceeded 1i.e.< catalyst beds< no""les< skin points< etc.3.

2.

2ote: 2%;--1@s inlet pressure should be reduced below #:.! kg cm2 12$A of reactor design pressure3 before any reactor internal< reactor skin< or reactor no""le temperature drops below *)T. !. #. Displace hydrocarbon liquids from the (5)' to the (L)'< and from the (L)' to the product stripper 12%;-(1#3< and block the le+el control +al+es. Displace water from the (5)' and (L)' to the water degasser drum 12%;-(1!3< and block the interface le+el control +al+es.

258

$.

6hen permitted by cooling rate restrictions< speed cooling as follows: *inimi"e preheat to 2%;-71< by opening the reactor feed effluent e=changers 12%;-8!. 03 bypass and closing the minimum-stop +al+e 1to mechanical stop3. *inimi"e preheat to 2%;-71 by adEusting the three-way +al+e on the reactor effluent recycle gas e=changer 12%;-8;3 to close the e=changer inlet port< thus fully bypassing the e=changer. 8nsure all reactor effluent air cooler 12%;-8M3 fans are running and the cooler is set up for ma=imum cooling. /f the shutdown does not in+ol+e opening the reactors< but it is necessary to cool below 2%$G(< continue cooling within limits described in 'tep 1:. /f the shutdown is for catalyst regeneration or change out< or for maintenance that requires opening the reactors< begin to monitor recycle gas samples for (4 content. 8nsure that the recycle gas stream (4 content is below 1% ppm before reducing any reactor temperature below 2%$G( to pre+ent the possible formation of highly to=ic metal carbonyl compounds. /f (4 is less than 1% ppm< continue cooling within limits described in 'tep 1:.

:. ;.

C.

(4 (ontent in the -ecycle ,as is ,reater Than 1% ppm and the -eactors 6ill 0e 4pened M. /f more than 1% ppm (4 has been detected in the recycle gas< and the reactors will be opened< the (4 must be purged before cooling can continue to eliminate possible formation of metal carbonyls. /solate the high pressure 52' absorber 12%;-(#3 and +oid amine from the +essel. 'top recycle gas circulation while catalyst temperatures are still safely abo+e 2%$G( to a+oid cooling any portion of any catalyst bed below 2%$G(.

259

0efore depressuring the reactor section< check that all +al+es listed below are closed. 1%. Discharge block +al+es on the reactor feed pumps. 0lock +al+es on the oil feed line. 0lock +al+es on the (5)'< high pressure centrifugal separator and (L)' hydrocarbon lines< and the (5)' and (L)' water lines. -ecycle gas compressor motor-operated discharge +al+e 1509-2;%$3. 5igh pressure hydrogen header from the make-up hydrogen compression section. 6ater inEection lines< blocked and blinded. Low pressure hydrogen supply header to the make-up hydrogen compression section.

Depressure the reactor section to F%.# kg cm2 1g3< and purge nitrogen through the reactor section. 6hen purging< nitrogen should be admitted to allow it to follow the normal downward flow path through the catalyst beds. -emo+e the startup nitrogen blind to the downstream side of the high pressure hydrogen header isolation manifold to the reactor section. .dmit nitrogen and purge through the reactor section to the flare< +ia the recycle gas compressor 12%;-N13 suction high set point pressure control +al+e 1)9-2:%13< for $-1% minutes< and then close the +al+e. .dmit nitrogen and purge through the reactor section to the flare< +ia the (L)' +apor N4 drum 12%;-(123 high set point pressure control +al+e 1)9-2M%!03< for $-1% minutes< and then close the +al+e.

11. 12. 1!.

.llow the reactor section@s pressure to increase to nitrogen header pressure< F:.% kg cm2 1g3. 4nce again< depressure the reactor section to F%.# kg cm2 1g3 and purge nitrogen through the reactor section and out to the flare as before. -epressure the reactor section to nitrogen header pressure. 'eparately purge nitrogen to the flare through )9-2:%1 and )9-2M%!0.

260

1#. 1$.

'witch the make-up hydrogen compressors to nitrogen ser+ice< following appro+ed refinery isolation and purging procedures. 6ith the make-up hydrogen compressors operating on nitrogen< repressure the reactor section to F#%.% kg cm2 1g3. 'tart 2%;-N1 and circulate through the reactors. -eestablish 2%;-71@s main burners 1if the furnace was reduced to pilots only before stopping oil feed3 to maintain reactor temperatures abo+e 2%$G( for at least 2 hours. Then analy"e the recycle gas stream for (4. /f the (4 content still e=ceeds 1% ppm< go back to 'tep ; and repeat the depressuring< purging< and repressuring steps 1'teps 1% through 1$3.

(4 (ontent in the -ecycle ,as is below 1% ppm 1:. .t this point the (4 content in the recycle gas stream must be below 1% ppm< unless the reactors are not to be opened. The reactors can now be cooled below 2%$G(< following the cooling rate restrictions. (ontinue to circulate nitrogen through the reactors< with 2%;-N1@s suction pressure being maintained at F#%.% kg cm2 1g3. /f the reactors are not cooling down e+enly 1time-wise3< equali"e cooldown time by adEusting quench flows to assist in e+enly cooling the reactors. (ontinue to reduce 2%;-71@s fires. .s the reactor section temperatures decrease to near *)T< carefully monitor all reactor temperatures.

1;. 1C.

(.KT/42: The reactors should be depressured below F#:.! kg cm2 1g3 12$A of reactor design pressure3 before any reactor internal< no""le< or skin temperature drops below *)T. 1M. 6hen 2%;-71 is no longer needed to control the cooling rate< pull the fires and purge the firebo=. (on+ert 2%;-71 to an air cooler by opening dampers< air registers< a+ailable inspection ports< etc. (ontinue circulating nitrogen until the reactors 1including the shells3 ha+e cooled to within 1%( of 2%;-71@s outlet temperature or until the hottest reactor temperature 1including the outer wall skin thermocouples3 are below #$( 1or other refinery temperature requirements for +essel entry3. 6hen the reactors can no longer be cooled with recycle gas< shutdown and isolate 2%;-N1.

2%.

21.

261

22. 2!.

0lock in the reactor section as described in 'tep M. Depressure the reactor section to F%.# kg cm2 1g3 by testing the emergency depressuring +al+es to the flare< close the +al+es< and then purge the reactor section as in 'teps 1% through 1!. (ontinue sweeping utility nitrogen through the high pressure loop and out to the flare< +ia 2%;-N1@s suction high set point pressure controller 1)/(-2:%13< to cool the reactors to the ma=imum temperature allowed for +essel entry< as specified in refinery-appro+ed +essel entry procedures. Kse reactor shell temperatures as a guide. Test to ensure that combustibles ha+e been purged from the reactor section. /f necessary< repressure the reactor section with nitrogen< depressure again to the flare< and repeat as necessary to lower hydrogen concentrations to acceptable limits. The reactor section is now ready for installation of isolation blinds 1following accurate blinding list3 and or opening. *aintain the reactors under a slight nitrogen pressure to ensure that no o=ygen is admitted.

2#.

2$.

2:.

CAUTION( 6hen air< water< and sulfidic scale are all present< polythionic acids may form. )olythionic acids will crack austenitic stainless steel. (racking occurs +ery quickly< e+en at ambient temperatures. )recautions should be taken to a+oid situations that may be conduci+e to stress cracking. During turnaround< it is prudent to assume that when austenitic stainless equipment is to be e=posed to air and moisture< all other conditions necessary for stress corrosion cracking 1stresses< sulfidic scale< sensiti"ation3 will be present. The best protection for austenitic stainless steel is to keep it dry< free of air< and warm to pre+ent condensation of moisture. /f this is not possible and the austenitic steel will be subEect to contact with air or moisture< it should be neutrali"ed by washing with a soda ash solution to this e=posure. The austenitic equipment that will not be opened during the turnaround should be sealed in a nitrogen atmosphere. 0ecause the maintenance work to be done during each turnaround is different< a procedure to protect the austenitic stainless steel must be written for each turnaround.

262

TABLE )-1 SUMMARY O* GAS RE+UIREMENTS CHENNAI PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED CPCL RE*INERY-III PROJECT CHEVRON HYDROCRACKER PROCESS MANALI, TAMIL NADU, INDIA 4peration Dryout and )ressure Test )ressure at % kg cm2 1g3 )ressure to : kg cm2 1g3 )ressure to !% kg cm2 1g3 )ressure to !;.$ kg cm2 1g3 )ressure to #2 kg cm2 1g3 )ressure to 1$$.! kg cm2 1g3 -eactor 'ystem 5eatup 6ith 7resh (atalyst )ressure at % kg cm2 1g3 )ressure to : kg cm2 1g3 )ressure to !% kg cm2 1g3 )ressure to !;.$ kg cm2 1g3 )ressure to #2 kg cm2 1g3 'hutdown 'ystem )urge for (4 52 8limination -eactor 'tatus 8mpty 8mpty 8mpty 8mpty 8mpty 8mpty 7ull 7ull 7ull 7ull 7ull 7ull ,as -equirements 113 2m! ,as 1<#;% 123 $<2;% 123 22<C%% 123 1%<;%% 1!<#3 2<2C% 1!<#<$3 1$<1%% 1!<#<$3 1<2%% 1:3 !<#!% 1$<2!1 1#3 !<C1% 1#3 2<2M% 1#3 C<%%% 1;3 22 )lant .ir 22 22 22 or 52 52 22 22 22 22 22 22

2otes: Puantities shown do not assume any contingency. 9olume based on estimated system +olume and should be checked by ()(L based on as-built drawings and layout. 0ased on empty reaction section +olume 1includes low pressure separators3. 0ased on empty reaction section +olume 1does not include low pressure separators3. The gas requirement shown for this pressure test is the gas required in addition to the gas already in the system from the pre+ious test. The requirement assumes simultaneous heating and pressuring of gas in the system. .n additional nitrogen purge will be required before opening reactors to lower 52 le+el to a safe limit. 0ased on loaded reaction section +olume 1does not include low pressure separators3. This quantity is required for each repeat of steps for (4 purging in the 2ormal 'hutdown )rocedures.

263

MODULE 13 TITLE

CPCL HYDROCRACKER UNIT TRAINING CATALYST OBJECTIVES

The participant shall be able to: 1. 2. !. #. Display knowledge of proper catalyst handling Display knowledge of catalyst loading unloading and precautions taken Display knowledge of catalyst regeneration guidelines including cautions and limitations Describe emergencies that can occur during catalyst regeneration and immediate steps to be taken upon an emergency

264

MODULE 13 TITLE C-.-/01.1

CPCL HYDROCRACKER UNIT TRAINING CATALYST

The catalysts that are used in the 5ydrocracker reactors are listed in Table 29. . more detailed loading diagram is pro+ided in section :.% of the ()(L )rocess *anual. The catalyst types perform the following functions: /(- 122V0' is a demetalation catalyst. /t grades out particulate solids that might plug the interstices between the smaller catalyst below. 4rganic molecule bound metals in the feed are deposited on the catalyst< protecting the metals-intolerant hydrotreating and hydrogracking catalysts below. /(- 1!#L.P is a hydrotreating catalyst that con+erts sulfur and nitrogen in the feet into 52' and 25!. /(- 12:L and 12:2 are two different si"es of the same hydrocracking catalyst that con+erts the 9,4 into higher +alued< lower boiling range products. The /(- 12:2 is larger that the /(- 12:L and so pro+ides for a lower pressure drop per meter of catalyst bed. /(- 11#V7 is a large support catalyst that pro+ides a small amount of hydrotreating acti+ity. /ts main function is to keep the small side catalyst from plugging the Wohnson support screen.

265

C-.-/01. R2!2324-.563 P46"211 G7582/5321 During normal operation< some reaction by-products accumulate as coke on the catalyst and reduce its acti+ity< which requires compensating catalyst temperature increases to maintain con+ersion. 8+entually temperatures get so high that the reactor design temperature is reached< the product yields degrade< or the desired product qualities can@t be achie+ed at full feed rate. The lost acti+ity can be substantially regained by regenerating the catalyst< unless it was poisoned by metals in the feed< or sustained substantial other damage. R2!2324-.563 O924952: (atalyst regeneration consists of two distinct phases: o=idation phase followed by reduction phase. The o=idation process is a controlled burn of the accumulated coke in an atmosphere of dilute o=ygen in circulating nitrogen< followed by the reduction of metal sulfates< una+oidably formed on the catalyst in the o=idation phase< to sulfides< in an atmosphere of dilute hydrogen in nitrogen 1the reduction phase3. The regeneration is completed by sulfiding the catalyst. 'ulfiding is discussed in the startup process guidelines 1'ection $.#3. The combustion products from the reactors are cooled in the reactor feed effluent e=changers 12%;-8!. 03< bypassing effluent e=changers 12%;-8#< 2%;-8$< 2%;-8;< and 2%;-8C3 before being further cooled in the reactor effluent air cooler 12%;-8M3. The combustion products must be maintained abo+e 2CCG( to pre+ent condensation of sulfurous acids in these e=changers. During both phases of regeneration< reactor effluent gases from 8-!. 0 are quenched with a dilute caustic solution before further cooling in 2%;-8M. 'ulfur o=ides and carbon o=ides produced during the burn are neutrali"ed and cooled by the dilute caustic quench. The quench recirculation pump 12%;-,!23 circulates caustic quench solution from the (5)' 12%;-(23 through a static mi=er 12%;-*#3< before being inEected into the reactor effluent between 2%;-!. 0 and 2%;-8M. The gas is separated from the caustic solution in the (5)' and is recycled. The caustic solution is recirculated as quench to the inlet of 2%;-8M by 2%;-,!2. 'pent caustic is bled from the (5)' to maintain a low le+el of dissol+ed solids 1ma=imum of 1%A3. *ake-up caustic 11$ wt A3 is inEected at the suction of the water inEection pump 12%; ,-#. 03. The caustic solution is combined with water from the inEection water drum 12%;-(C3. This dilute caustic solution is pumped to combine with the ciculating quench solution at the suction of the quench pump 2%;-,!2 to maintain the p5 between ;.$ and C.$. The make-up hydrogen compressors are used to pro+ide make-up air for the o=idation phase. The make-up air is diluted with inert recycle gas at the suction

266

of the make-up compressors. This dilution gas from the suction header of the recycle gas compressor flows through )/(-:M%: to control the suction pressure of the make-up compressor. *ake-up air is added to the suction and is continuously monitored for the rate of o=ygen concentration at the compressor suction and at the reactor inlet. The o=ygen concentration and compressor discharge temperature are continuously monitored. The ma=imum o=ygen concentration +aries from # mole A at the start of the o=idation phase< when residual hydrogen or hydrocarbon may be present< to ;A after the first 2# hours of burning. The dilute make-up air is combined with the preheated inert recycle gas from the recycle gas compressor 12%;-N13< and the mi=ture is heated in the feed effluent e=changers 12%;-8!. 03 and the reactor feed heater 12%;-713 to reactor inlet conditions before the gas mi=ture enters the reactor. The regeneration process should be carried out at the ma=imum discharge pressure allowed by the make-up hydrogen compressor +endor. This will ma=imi"e the recycle gas flow rate within the limits set for o=ygen concentration and discharge temperature of the make-up hydrogen compressors. The obEecti+e is to regenerate the catalyst with the make-up hydrogen compressor fully loaded and the spillback fully shut. . fully closed spillback will pre+ent o=ygen recirculating in the system. .lso this assures ma=imum deli+ery of gas from the make-up hydrogen compressor to the reactors< which will speed the regeneration process. The pressure controller alignments suggested in these guidelines for both regeneration phases achie+es this obEecti+e. 'ystem pressure is not controlled during regenerationL pressure will be maintained by adding fresh make-up nitrogen at the suction of the make-up compressor and impurities as (4 (42 will be +ented out to atmosphere. 4=ygen content at the reactor inlet is closely monitored< and analy"er readings should be +erified by check samples to laboratory at least once per shift. /nterbed quenches will remain shut during regeneration. The process flow and control diagram for catalyst regeneration is shown in Drawing 2%;-%%1#< located in 'ection !.% of the ()(L )rocess *anual. 7acilities and process control features unique to regeneration are shown. The pressures and flow rates shown are estimates. The actual flow rates of recycle gas< make-up gas< and caustic circulation will be specified by (L, when the capacity and configuration of the make-up hydrogen compressors and the performance cur+es for the recycle gas compressor are a+ailable.

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C-.-/01. R2!2324-.563 $PCD-2;<-;;14% )rocess control features unique to regeneration are described. During the o=idation phase< a flow-controlled amount of o=idation gas is sent to the reactors. . ratio controller 177(-:M%#3 is used to control the A o=ygen in nitrogen concentration at the reactor inlet. /nert 1nitrogen3 recycle gas is brought to the suction of the make-up hydrogen compressor on pressure control. The ratio controller measures this flow and adEusts airflow to keep the ratio constant. 7or safety reasons< the air control +al+e will automatically shut on high o=ygen concentration at the inlet of the make-up compressor or on low-low flow of inert recycle gas. -eactor loop pressure control is achie+ed by +enting to the atmosphere. During the reduction phase< a flow-controlled amount of reduction gas is sent to the reactors. /nert 1nitrogen3 recycle gas is brought to the suction of the make-up hydrogen compressor on pressure control. . flow controller is used to manually control the A hydrogen in nitrogen concentration at the reactor inlet. 9enting to the atmosphere is not necessary for reactor loop pressure control because all the hydrogen is consumed and the reactor loop is a closed system. O=58-.563 P>-12 The o=idation phase is a controlled burn of coke on the catalyst with %.$ +ol A o=ygen in nitrogen. /nitially< the temperature is !#$G( at the reactor inlet. The ma=imum temperature rise across any bed or across the reactor must be controlled to H$$G(. .fter this burn wa+e is completed< the reactor inlet temperature is raised to #%%G( for a second burn and finally to ##%G( for the third burn wa+e. 0etween 'tep 1 and 2 and 'tep 2 and ! the o=ygen content at the reactor inlet is maintained at %.$ +ol A. During the third burn wa+e< the o=ygen concentration at the reactor inlet can be increased to 1.$ +ol A as the temperature rise across each bed approaches "ero. The guidelines offered below can be used to perform a full or partial catalyst regeneration. . partial regeneration 1pacification burn3 should be used only if the catalyst is to be discarded or remo+ed for metals reco+ery. )artial catalyst regeneration remo+es the combustible and pyrophoric material from the catalyst so that it may be more safely unloaded and shipped in an air atmosphere. The process flow and the equipment used for a partial regeneration are the same as for a full regeneration. The essential differences< as compared to a full regeneration< are that instead of the two or three successi+e burns at increasing temperatures< a partial regeneration consists of a single burn and the reduction phase is eliminated. 'teps 1-!2 of 'ection $.;.1 outline the steps to partially regenerate the catalyst. .fter these steps are completed< the reactors may be cooled and prepared for catalyst unloading following the guidelines in

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'ection $.$. Knloading of partially regenerated catalyst is discussed in 'ection :.%. *541. B743 1. )roceed with the normal shutdown process guidelines 1'ection $.$3 leading up to regeneration. The system will then be under a slight nitrogen pressure at a reactor temperature of about 2%$G(. .ll oil should ha+e been remo+ed from the high pressure system. /n addition to the nitrogen purges carried out during a normal shutdown< ensure that the following are well purged: The *ake-Kp 5ydrogen (ompressors 12%;-N2. 0 (3 The -ecycle ,as (ompressor 12%;-N13 The -egeneration (austic Puench 'olution (irculation 'ystem

2. 6hile maintaining a small nitrogen flow through the reactor section to pre+ent air from entering the reactors< install the regeneration quench piping< +ent piping for the atmospheric bleed< necessary isolation blinds< etc. !. /nstall o=ygen analy"ers at the make-up hydrogen compression suction Bupstream of the first-stage suction drum 12%;-(!23D and 2%;--1@s inlet gas stream to continuously monitor o=ygen concentration. *ake-up hydrogen compression suction 1.-:M%13. This analy"er is wired to the D(' for continuous monitoring and to enable the alarm system. 2%;--1@s inlet. This analy"er can be a portable battery operated Teledyne< multiple range< or equal. -ecalibrate L/(-2#%1 for circulating quench solution. -ecalibrate flow instruments in the recycle gas system to circulating nitrogen gas.

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2%;-8-;. The e=changer shellside will be out of ser+ice while the tubeside will be li+e during the regeneration. The shell is protected by design to withstand this condition. To protect the connected piping< ha+e the shellside in out blinded. Test all shutdown interlocks< include the make-up air inEection 179-:M%#3 +al+e trip action

#. Disconnect +ents and safety +al+e discharges where o=ygen will be present from normal blowdown and flare systems. $. 8nsure the make-up hydrogen compressors are blinded to isolate the make-up hydrogen compressor section from the offplot hydrogen unit< and the reactor section from the oil feed and fractionation sections. :. /f noncompounded lubricants are to be replaced in the make-up hydrogen compressors< use a lubricant specially compounded for o=idation resistance. ;. /nstall portable instruments and change or recalibrate permanent instruments as required for regeneration ser+ice. )ro+ide new meter factors< as required< for measuring inert gas and o=ygen rather than hydrogen and hydrocarbons. C. )ressure the reactor section to nitrogen header pressure BF: kg cm2 1g3D< +ia the startup nitrogen connection on the downstream side of the isolation manifold between the make-up hydrogen compression and reaction sections. M. 4pen the startup nitrogen connection to the make-up hydrogen compressor suction header and pressure the make-up hydrogen compression section to nitrogen header pressure BF: kg cm2 1g3D. 1%. 'tart a make-up hydrogen compressor unloaded with the spillback manually open. 11. .t this point the reactors are cold. .t no time is the pressure in the reactors to be allowed to e=ceed #:.! kg cm2 1g3 until all skin points are abo+e *)T. 'e+ere damage to the reactors can occur from >temperature embrittlement? at pressures greater than #:.! kg cm2 1g3 and temperatures below *)T.

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12. 'et the controllers< as described below< in preparation for pressuring the reactor section with nitrogen to the ma=imum pressure permitted by *)T limits at 2%;--1@s inlet Bbelow #:.! kg cm2 1g3< 2$A of the design pressure of 1C$.! kg cm2 1g3D. )lace the recycle gas compressor@s suction high set point pressure controller 1)/(-2:%13 in automatic mode with a set point of F#% kg cm2 1g3< a +alue safely below the *)T restriction. 'witch the make-up hydrogen compressor discharge pressure controller 1)/(-:M%#3 from remote set point mode to local set point mode. This pre+ents the recycle gas compressor suction pressure controller 1)/(-2;%23 from resetting )/(-:M%#@s set point 1represented on -egeneration Drawing 2%;-%%1# as disconnected3. )/(-2;%2 does not play a part in the regeneration pressure control scheme. )lace )/(-:M%# in manual mode and open the spillback +al+e. )lace the make-up hydrogen compressor@s suction pressure controller 1)/(-:M%!3 in automatic mode with a set point of F$.% kg cm2 1g3< or F1.% kg cm2 1g3 below the nitrogen header pressure BF:.% kg cm2 1g3D. 6hile pressuring 1and subsequent o=idation3< )/(-:M%! pre+ents the make-up hydrogen compressor suction pressure from going too low. 'hould the pressure fall below set point 1due to compressor capacity e=ceeding the nitrogen header supply limits3< )/(-:M%! will send an o+erride signal to the compressor spillback control +al+e through low signal selector 1)Q-:M%#3 to open the spillback +al+e to satisfy set point. )lace the make-up hydrogen compressor@s regeneration suction pressure controller 1)/(-:M%:3 in automatic mode with a set point of F$.$ kg cm2 1g3< or %.$ kg cm2 1g3 higher than the low set point pressure controller 1)/(-:M%:3< to pre+ent the controllers from interfering with one another. /n normal regeneration operation< with )/(-:M%: controlling the make-up hydrogen compressor suction at F$.$ kg cm2 1g3< )/(-:M%!@s set point is satisfied and its output signal will not open the spillback control +al+e. )/(-:M%: routes inert dilution gas from the recycle gas compressor suction to the make-up hydrogen compressor suction 1F1#<M!% 2m! hr during the first burn and F12<%$% 2m! hr during the third burn3 in order to a+oid high o=ygen concentrations in the make-up hydrogen compressors.

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1!. 'tart a make-up hydrogen compressor on total spillback. Load the compressor< as limited by nitrogen a+ailability< and begin increasing the reactor section pressure. 'hould it be necessary to limit the pressuri"ation rate< due to nitrogen a+ailability< the startup nitrogen supply to the make-up hydrogen compressor suction header can be pinched. This will cause the suction pressure to drop. .t $.$ kg cm2 1g3< )/(-:M%: will begin drawing in dilution gas from the recycle gas compressor suction 1e+en though the recycle gas compressor is not running3. 'hould this be insufficient to maintain the make-up hydrogen compressor suction pressure abo+e $.% kg cm2 1g3< )/(-:M%! will ha+e a low output signal< which will open the make-up hydrogen compressor spillback control +al+e. 1#. 6hen the recycle gas compressor suction pressure allows< start the compressor and the fans on the reactor effluent air cooler 12%;-8M3. (irculate gas at a ma=imum rate and begin heating 2%;--1@s inlet to !#$(< following heatup restrictions in 'ection $.1.! of the ()(L )rocess *anual. 1$. 4nce *)T is achie+ed< and as the reactors are continued to be heated< increase the recycle gas compressor@s high set point pressure controller 1)/(-:M%!3 set point to F$% kg cm2 1g3< or slightly abo+e the recycle gas compressor@s target suction pressure of F#C kg cm2 1g3. 1:. 6hen 2%;--1@s inlet target pressure is reached< startup nitrogen is added to the suction Eust enough to maintain the system pressure. The suction pressure will be maintained at F$.$ kg cm2 1g3 by )/(-:M%:< with flow through the dilution gas line from the recycle gas compressor suction. )/(-:M%: recei+es its pressure output signal from the low set point pressure controller on the make-up hydrogen compressor suction 1)/(-:M%!3. 'hould it be necessary to bleed nitrogen to maintain reactor section pressure< due to gas e=pansion< the high set point pressure controller 1)/(-2:%13 at the recycle compressor suction will automatically open. 1;. During the regeneration process< make-up spillback is manually shut and flow to the reactor is not controlled. 1C. )repare a dilute caustic solution of between ;.% and C.% p5 in the water inEection system and establish a :%A le+el in the (5)' 12%;-(23< using the inEection water pumps 12%;-,#. 03. 6hen the le+el is established and stable< start the quench recirculation pump 12%;-,!23. *onitor the (5)'@s le+el closely< as the caustic quench solution can foam and carry o+er into downstream equipment and cause corrosion and catalyst poisoning.

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1M. .s the reactor temperatures approach !#$G(< adEust the feed effluent e=changer 12%;-8!. 03 bypass to maintain the temperature of the effluent lea+ing 2%;-8!. abo+e 2CCG( to pre+ent condensing sulfur and carbon o=ides. 'et 2%;-8!.@s outlet temperature indicator 1T/-1C123 low alarm at 2M%G(< and test the alarm to make sure it works. This will pro+ide a safe margin away from the e=pected acid dew point of the effluent gases during regeneration. /f the temperature goes lower< the e=changers could corrode +ery rapidly. 2%. Test the recycle gas sample for hydrogen content. /t should be no more than 2.% +ol A. 0leed out system and add fresh nitrogen to make the system ready for air inEection. 21. .dEust the quench solution circulation rate to design 121% m! hr3 or higher to obtain a stream temperature of FM!G( 1T/-2!%13< or lower< entering the 2%;-8M. (ontrol the stream temperature lea+ing 2%;-8M 1T/(-2!%:3 to maintain the (5)' temperature as low as possible. 22. /nstall a temporary p5 analy"er on the suction of the quench recirculation pump@s 12%;-,!23 suction to continuously monitor the recirculating stream@s p5. 6hen the p5 drops below ;.$< add dilute caustic from the water inEection system at a low rate to control the p5 in the range of ;.$-C.$ 1measured at atmospheric pressure3. (heck the accuracy of the temporary p5 analy"er once each shift with a portable p5 meter. The p5 should not be allowed to go below ;.%< nor abo+e M.%. (ontrol may be difficult until carbon dio=ide 1(423 is being formed in the reactor. 4nce the burn wa+e is definitely established and (42 is present in the effluent gases< it should only be necessary to add caustic at a low steady rate or batchwise at inter+als of 1-2 hours to maintain the p5 abo+e ;.$. N6.2( 4nce (42 is being formed in the reactor< the caustic quench solution will be< in part< con+erted to carbonates and bicarbonates< both of which are buffers which maintain a constant p5 while reacting away incoming acids. 'ince the solution@s p5 will go to the buffer@s +alue< and controlling p5 in a specific range 1;.$ and C.$3 is ne=t to impossible< the obEecti+e becomes keeping the p5 abo+e ;.$. 6hen sulfur is o=idi"ed< '42 and '4! will come o+er as acids and react with the carbonate. This reaction can cause foaming when the (4 2 is liberated.

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22. .naly"e the circulating quench solution for total dissol+ed solids at 1-hour inter+als. Drain spent caustic to offplot disposal facilities to maintain less than 1% wt A dissol+ed solids in the circulating quench solution. .dd make-up water from the water inEection system to maintain a steady le+el in the (5)'. /t will be necessary to increase the make-up caustic rate to maintain p5 control after spent caustic draining has started. 'pent caustic at regeneration pressure contains a significant amount of dissol+ed (4 2 and nitrogen. These gases should be +ented before measuring the sample for p5. The p5 of high pressure caustic is about %.$ p5 unit less than the p5 measured at atmospheric pressure. 2!. 'et the interbed quench controllers manually shut. Puench gas will not be used during the regenerationL burning se+erity is controlled by rate of air addition. 2#. 'tart adding make-up air from the plant air system by gradually increasing the ratio of make-up air to inert recycle 1dilution3 gas at the suction of the make-up hydrogen compressors from "ero< by adEusting the ratio controller@s 177/(-:M%#3 set point. (arefully watch the concentration of o=ygen to not e=ceed #.%A at the make-up hydrogen compressor suction and %.$A at 2%;--1@s inlet. 2$. 4bser+e 2%;--1@s burn wa+e by closely monitoring catalyst bed temperatures. The temperature increase across any catalyst bed< or across the total reactor< should not e=ceed $$(. 0e on guard for a possible locali"ed hot spot that indicates the presence of a >coke ball<? which can take se+eral hours to burn through. There may be such areas away from the temperature indicators and completion of burning acti+ity will be well indicated by lack of e=otherm in the bed followed by o=ygen breakthrough at the reactor outlet. 2:. Load the make-up hydrogen compressor as necessary to maintain the discharge pressure at the ma=imum achie+able. 2;. 6hen the burn wa+e breaks through 2%;--1< the burn will begin in the /(second reactor 12%;--23. 2C. 'ample the recycle gas for hydrogen. 6hen no hydrogen is present< the air rate may be increased. The o=ygen content should not e=ceed %.$A and reactor temperatures should not e=ceed #%%G( at any point.

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2M. *aintain the regeneration make-up gas o=ygen content at or below #.%A until analysis shows the recycle gas to be free of hydrogen for at least 2# hours. The o=ygen content may then be increased< pro+iding it does not e=ceed ;.% +ol A< by adEusting the ratio controller 177/(-:M%#3. !%. 7ollow the progress of the burn wa+es by obser+ing catalyst bed temperatures. 'ome o=ygen may break through before a burn wa+e gets to the bottom of the reactors. 6hen this happens< cut back on the air rate and maintain the o=ygen content at the reactor inlet no more than %.$A. !1. (ontinue to follow the progress of the burn wa+e through 2%;--2. 6atch for o=ygen breakthrough before the burn wa+e reaches the bottom of the reactor and adEust the regeneration gas flow controller 17/(-2;%#3 accordingly. 6hen the burn wa+e has passed through the bottom bed and no temperature rise is e+ident anywhere< the first burn is nearly complete. -educe the make-up air rate 177/(-:M%#3 to keep the o=ygen content of 2%;--1@s inlet gases below %.$A. !2. The first or primary 1pacification3 burn is complete when: a. The regeneration air rate has been reduced to 1$A of design. b. The o=ygen consumption is +erified by analyses to be less than 1$A of that achie+ed in 'tep 2M 1by o=ygen analyses3. c. The recycle gas o=ygen content is steady below %.$A for at least 1 hour.

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S2"638 B743 !!. -aise the reactor inlet temperatures gradually to #%%G( to start the second burn. .dEust the ratio controller 177/(-:M%#3 on the make-up compressor suction to hold %.$A o=ygen in the regeneration gas to 2%;--1. Do not allow any of the temperature to e=ceed #$$G(. The second burn wa+e should mo+e down the reactors faster than the first. 'ometimes it@s not seen at all. 4ccasionally< the second burn is diffused with some local burning with o=ygen breakthrough at the same time. Do not e=ceed %.$A o=ygen in the regeneration gas to 2%;--1. 5old #%%G( reactor inlet temperatures and %.$A o=ygen until the wa+e passes through 2%;--2@s bottom bed. The second burn is complete when: a. The regeneration air rate has been reduced to 1$A of the air rate used during the burn wa+e. b. The o=ygen consumption is +erified by analyses to be less than 1$A of that achie+ed during the burn wa+e. c. The recycle gas o=ygen content is steady below %.$A for at least 1 hour. T>548 B743 !#. -aise reactor inlet temperatures gradually to F##%G( for the third burn. Kse quench gas to maintain 2%;--2@s inlet temperature at ##%G(. /ncrease the ratio controller@s 177/(-:M%#3 set point to increase the make-up air rate to the make-up compressor suction and to increase the reactor inlet o=ygen concentration to between 1.%A and 1.$A< but do not allow any temperature in any reactor to e=ceed #C2G( for more than 1 hour. /f a burn wa+e is seen< hold these conditions until it passes through the bottom beds. !$. 4nce the third burn wa+e breaks through 2%;--2< increase the o=ygen concentration to !.%A at ##%G( reactor inlet temperatures. 5old for : hours or until the o=ygen consumption is reduced to a low rate< as indicated by a drop in reactor inlet o=ygen content of less than 1.%A for 2 hours with make-up air stopped. This completes the third and final burn.

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C66/ R2-".641 ?64 E3.40 !:. 'tart cooling the reactors gradually according to the restrictions of 'ection $.1.#. 6hen the temperatures reach F2%$G(< transfer as much of the caustic quench solution as possible to a+ailable storage< and hold it there for use during the reduction phase. To pre+ent nickel carbonyl formation< (4 must be lowered to H!% ppm before continuing cooldown. This will require a purge step. Drain the (5)' and flush the caustic quench solution piping with boiler feedwater. (arefully drain all traces of water from the high pressure system. 6hen the system is free of water< continue cooling the reactors until the reactors are cool enough to enter. 'top the recycle gas compressor and depressure to the atmosphere. The catalyst now contains acti+e metals in the o=ide and sulfate formsL all precautions taken for fresh catalyst loading should apply here. 1'ee 'ection :.% - (atalyst 5andling.3 !;. 4pen 2%;--1@s top manway and< after appropriate safety protocols are in place< clean out the top set of internals. /nspect the top layer of catalyst and replace it if there is any e+idence of a crust. Then close up the reactor to prepare for the reduction phase. !C. /f used< replace the special o=idation-resistant lubricant to the make-up hydrogen compressors with the normal noncompounded lubricant to pre+ent catalyst poisoning. 0e sure to flush out all of the old lubricant.

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R287".563 P>-12 .fter the o=idation phase is complete< metal sulfates 1by-products of the o=idation3 are reduced to sulfides in a controlled reaction with a reactor inlet temperature of !#$G( and a 1.%-2.% +ol A hydrogen-in-nitrogen mi=ture. 'ince the reduction phase reaction is highly e=othermic< make-up hydrogen flow should be metered accurately to maintain this dilute hydrogen-nitrogen mi=ture. This is accomplished by bringing hydrogen into the make-up hydrogen compression section through a small flow control +al+e that bypasses the main +al+e on the low pressure hydrogen line to the make-up compressor section. During reduction< hydrogen concentration in the e=port gas from the make-up hydrogen compressors should be limited to F1:.% +ol A. 1. -emo+e the portable o=ygen analy"ers and blind plant air to the make-up hydrogen compressors< but lea+e other regeneration instruments and piping in place. -econnect all flare tie-ins to normal< for reduction phase. 2. The make-up hydrogen compressors< reactor section< and recycle gas compressor must now be purged with nitrogen to remo+e o=ygen. 6hen purging< the purge nitrogen gas should be introduced at a point to allow the nitrogen to follow the normal downward flow path through the catalyst beds. 2itrogen is introduced to the reactor section< downstream of the isolation manifold between the reactor and make-up hydrogen compressor sections. Table $-/ lists the estimated nitrogen requirement for this step. 0lock in the recycle gas and make-up hydrogen compressors and purge with nitrogen to remo+e o=ygen. Depressure the reactor section to F%.# kg cm2 1g3 and purge nitrogen through the reactors to the atmosphere from the recycle gas compressor suction< until air is remo+ed. )ressure the reactor section to nitrogen header pressure and then depressure to the flare system< +ia the recycle gas compressor suction high set point pressure controller 1)/(-2:%13. -epeat this step twice more.

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!. 'et the regeneration pressure controllers< as described for the o=idation phase< in preparation for repressuring the reactor section with nitrogen to the ma=imum pressure permitted by *)T limits at 2%;--1@s inlet. /n this case< the make-up hydrogen compressor@s regeneration suction pressure controller 1)/(-:M%:3 routes inert dilution gas from the recycle gas compressor suction to the make-up hydrogen compressor suction 1F1$<#!% 2m! hr3 in order to a+oid high hydrogen concentrations in the make-up hydrogen compressors. #. 'pillback control +al+e shall remain shut reduction process. $. )ressure the reactor section to nitrogen header pressure BF: kg cm2 1g3D< +ia the startup nitrogen connection on the downstream side of the isolation manifold between the make-up hydrogen compressor and reactor sections. :. 4pen the startup nitrogen connection to the make-up hydrogen compressor suction header and pressure the make-up hydrogen compression section to nitrogen header pressure. CAUTION( .t this point the reactors are cold. .t no time is the pressure in the reactors to be allowed to e=ceed #:.! kg cm2 1g3 until all skin points are abo+e*)T. 'e+ere damage to the reactors can occur from >temperature embrittlement? at pressures greater than #:.! kg cm2 1g3 and temperatures below *)T. ;. 'tart a make-up hydrogen compressor on total spillback. Load the compressor< as limited by nitrogen a+ailability< and begin increasing the reactor section pressure. 'hould it be necessary to limit the pressuri"ation rate< due to nitrogen a+ailability< the startup nitrogen supply to the make-up hydrogen compressor suction header can be pinched. This will cause the suction pressure to drop. .t $.$ kg cm2 1g3< )/(-:M%: will begin drawing in dilution gas from the recycle gas compressor suction 1e+en though the recycle gas compressor is not running3. 'hould this be insufficient to maintain the make-up hydrogen compressor suction pressure abo+e $.% kg cm2 1g3< )/(-:M%! will ha+e a low output signal< which will open the make-up hydrogen compressor spillback control +al+e. N6.2( To minimi"e the reduction phase time< the compressor loading should always be the minimum required to satisfy )/(-:M%#@s set point with minimal spillback< while pro+iding the ma=imum deli+ery of gas from the make-up hydrogen compressor to the reactors.

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C. 6hen the recycle gas compressor suction pressure allows< ensure the fans on the reactor effluent air cooler 12%;-8M3 are still on< start the compressor< and establish ma=imum circulation through the reactor section. M. )urge and reestablish fires in the reactor feed furnace. 0egin heating up the reactor section according to the restrictions in 'ection $.1.!. 9erify that all reactor quench control +al+es operate properly< and adequate quench flow can be achie+ed to each quench point. 1%. 4nce *)T is achie+ed< and as the reactors are continued to be heated up< increase the recycle gas compressor@s high set point pressure controller 1)/(-:M%!3 set point to F$% kg cm2 1g3< or slightly abo+e the recycle gas compressor@s target suction pressure< F#C kg cm2 1g3. 11. -echarge the caustic quench solution 1that was stored after the o=idation phase3 and establish circulation to the static mi=er 12%;-*#3. 'et the circulation rate at design 121% m! hr3< or higher< to obtain a temperature of M!G( 1T/-2!%13< or lower< entering 2%;-8M. (ontrol the stream temperature lea+ing 2%;-8M 1T/(-2!%:3 to maintain the (5)' temperature as low as possible. 12. 6hen 2%;--1@s inlet target pressure is reached< block in the startup nitrogen to the make-up hydrogen compressor suction< while continuing to run the make-up hydrogen compressor. The suction pressure will be maintained at F$.$ kg cm2 1g3 by )/(-:M%: with flow through the dilution gas line from the recycle gas compressor suction. )/(-:M%: recei+es its pressure output signal from the low set point pressure controller on the make-up hydrogen compressor suction 1)/(-:M%!3. 'hould it be necessary to bleed nitrogen to maintain reactor section pressure< due to gas e=pansion< the high set point pressure controller 1)/(-2:%13 at the recycle compressor suction will automatically open. 1!. /ncrease 2%;--1@s inlet temperature to !#$G(< and hold until temperatures are at least !1$G( throughout 2%;--1 and 2%;--2.

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1#. .s 2%;--2@s outlet temperatures approach !1$G(< adEust the feed effluent e=changer 12%;-8!. 03 bypass to maintain the temperature of the effluent lea+ing 2%;-8!. abo+e 2CCG( to pre+ent condensing sulfur and carbon o=ides. 'et 2%;-8!.@s outlet T/ 1T/-1C123 low alarm at 2M%G(< and test the alarm to make sure it works. This will pro+ide a safe margin away from the e=pected acid dew point of the effluent gases during regeneration. /f the temperature goes lower< the e=changers could corrode +ery rapidly. 1$. 5ydrogen will be introduced to the make-up hydrogen compression section during the ne=t step. )recautions should be taken to pre+ent hydrogen from entering the refinery utility nitrogen system. N6.2( The hydrogen used for reduction must be manufactured hydrogen. There should be essentially no hydrocarbons larger than methane. 1:. /solate the startup nitrogen connection to the make-up hydrogen compressor suction header. 1;. 'lowly introduce hydrogen to the make-up hydrogen compressor suction header< +ia the regeneration hydrogen flow controller 17/(-:M%!3< to obtain 1.%-2.% +ol A hydrogen in 2%;--1@s inlet gas. .fter each incremental increase in hydrogen addition< analy"e the inlet gas to ensure the hydrogen concentration does not e=ceed 1.%-2.% +ol A. 4nce the concentration le+el is achie+ed< analy"e the reactor inlet gas e+ery 2 hours thereafter. N6.2( The hydrogen rate required for reduction is so small that the reactor section will probably slowly lose pressure during reduction due to leakage. /f the regeneration pressure control loops< pre+iously discussed< cannot maintain pressure and still pro+ide required recycle gas and quench gas rates< nitrogen will ha+e to be added. This should be done at the suction of the make-up hydrogen compressor to increase the reactor section pressure to the desired +alue. /f this becomes necessary< the hydrogen source should be isolated before introducing nitrogen to the make-up compressor suction header< and afterward the nitrogen should be isolated before reintroducing hydrogen.

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1C. The addition of hydrogen should cause a temperature rise of F1#-22G( for each +olume percent hydrogen in the reactor inlet gas. This temperature rise should mo+e down through 2%;--1 in a definite wa+e. 6hen the reduction wa+e breaks through 2%;--1< the wa+e will begin in 2%;--2. 2o hydrogen should appear in 2%;--2@s effluent gases until the reduction wa+e has passed through 2%;--2. /mmediately after hydrogen addition is begun< start checking the recycle gas stream for hydrogen 1either by laboratory analysis or the hydrogen analy"er3 to ensure that no hydrogen is leaking through. Do not e=ceed 2.%A hydrogen at 2%;--1@s inlet< e+en if the temperature rise is less than e=pected. /f no temperature rise occurs< or if hydrogen is present in 2%;--2@s effluent< stop hydrogen addition. Then increase the reactor temperature 1#G( and start again. 1M. 'tart monitoring the recirculating quench solution p5 +ia the temporary p5 analy"er installed on the quench recirculation pump@s 12%;-,!23 suction. 6hen the p5 drops below ;.$< add dilute caustic from the water inEection system at a low rate to control the p5 in the range of ;.$-C.$. (heck the accuracy of the temporary p5 analy"er once each shift with a portable p5 meter. The p5 should not be allowed to go below ;.%< nor abo+e M.%. 2%. Test for solids in the recirculating quench stream at 2-hour inter+als. 0leed caustic quench solution to the drain and make-up with dilute caustic solution from the water inEection system< as required< to remain below 1% wt A solids. 21. /f after 1-2 hours the reduction is proceeding smoothly< slowly increase the hydrogen concentration to 2.%-!.%A at 2%;--1@s inlet< and then follow the progress of the reduction wa+e by obser+ing catalyst bed temperatures. /f the temperature rise e=ceeds $$G(< or if reactor temperatures at a reduction wa+e reach !C$G(< stop increasing hydrogen content. Do not e=ceed !.%A hydrogen at 2%;--1@s inlet under any circumstances< and do not allow the temperature to e=ceed #%%G( at any point in the reactors during this step. 22. 6hen hydrogen breaks through 2%;--2@s bottom bed< reduce or stop hydrogen addition as required to maintain 2.%-!.%A hydrogen at 2%;--1@s inlet. (heck the recycle gas hydrogen content at 1-hour inter+als and batch in hydrogen as required to hold 2.%-!.%A hydrogen at 2%;--1@s inlet. 5old reactor temperatures at !#$G( and 2.%-!.%A hydrogen at 2%;--1@s inlet for at least C hours and until hydrogen consumption has dropped to a low rate 1indicated by a drop in hydrogen content in the recycle gas of less than 1.%A hr with hydrogen addition stopped for at least 2 hours3.

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2!. Discontinue hydrogen addition and cool the reactors slowly to about 2%$G(. Test recycle gas for (4 content. The ma=imum allowable in the system is 1% ppm to pre+ent formation of carbonyls. 5old reactor temperature I22$G( in case the (4 le+el is higher and until is purged out to allowable limit. 7ollow cooling restrictions in 'ection $.1.#. 'top quench solution circulation and drain all quench solution from the system. (arefully drain all sample taps< instrument leads< etc.< to ensure that the caustic is drained thoroughly. Then flush the system downstream of the reactor with chloride-free water from the water inEection system to remo+e the last traces of caustic. 2#. 8=tinguish furnace fires and stop the recycle gas and make-up hydrogen compressors. Depressure to about %.# kg cm2 1g3. 2$. 6hile maintaining a slight positi+e nitrogen pressure on the reactor section< disconnect the regeneration piping and reconnect the normal process piping. (hange instrument ranges and settings as required for normal operation. 2:. The catalyst is now ready for sulfiding and feed introduction. The startup process guidelines are the same as that for fresh catalyst in 'ection $.# e=cept for the following: The initial purging operations may be deleted. 2o dryout step is required. (atalytic reformer hydrogen cannot be used for sulfiding regenerated catalyst. 1(atalytic reformer hydrogen can be used< after hydrogen sulfide breakthrough< for lower acti+ity hydrocracker catalysts.3 The sulfur uptake will be somewhat less 1appro=imately two-thirds of that for fresh catalyst3. Less by-product water will be formed during sulfiding. The catalyst may require a somewhat higher temperature to achie+e the required degree of feed con+ersionL howe+er< the same feed introduction temperature should be used as for fresh catalyst.

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S-?2.0 P42"-7.5631 O=0!23 C63.23. 6? O=58-.563 G-1 4=ygen content of the regeneration gas used during the o=idation phase must be carefully controlled at all times< e+en if a smaller-than-e=pected temperature rise occurs. /f the o=ygen concentration goes abo+e 1.%A while significant quantities of coke remain on the catalyst< it is possible to get a large enough temperature rise to damage the catalyst or the equipment< especially during the high temperature third burn. /f a temperature rise o+er $$G( is obser+ed across any reactor bed< or total reactor< cut back o=ygen inEection immediately to suppress the liberation of heat. 0efore raising the reactor inlet temperature< be sure that the o=ygen content of the gas into the reactor is at or below %.$A. /f it is higher than %.$A< turn off the air supply and inEect inert gas into the system until the e=cess o=ygen is bled off. The o=ygen concentration in the make-up gas compression system is limited normally to :.%-;.%A. This limitation is necessary to keep the o=ygen-hydrocarbon content in the compression system below the e=plosi+e limit during the latter parts of the regeneration. 8arly in the regeneration< hydrogen may be present in the recycle gas. The o=ygen concentration at the compressor suction must be limited to #.%A until the hydrogen is remo+ed< usually in the first 2# hours. L6"-/5@28 C6 2 P6" 2.1 .fter the burn wa+e has passed through the reactor< additional burning may still occur because of locali"ed coke pockets within the system. This type of burning will show no immediate temperature rise unless it is located near a thermocouple. /n time< such a temperature rise will be detected by the thermocouples. Therefore< reactor bed temperatures should be carefully obser+ed< e+en after the temperature wa+e has apparently passed through the reactor. /t may be necessary to reduce the o=ygen content of the gas to a+oid e=cessi+e local temperatures in the catalyst beds. H0846!23 C63.23. 6? R287".563 G-1 5ydrogen content of the reduction gas must be carefully controlled< e+en if a smaller-than-e=pected temperature rise occurs. /f the hydrogen concentration goes too high< e=cessi+e temperatures may result< causing a loss of catalyst acti+ity. /f a temperature rise o+er $$G( is obser+ed across the reactor< cut back hydrogen inEection immediately.

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*/-42 S01.2# During the o=idation phase< relief +al+es should be +ented to the atmosphere to a+oid e=plosi+e mi=tures in the hydrocarbon flare system and loading the flare system with inert gases 1nitrogen3. CO /nert gas containing (4 should not be used to purge the catalyst. E#24!23"0 G7582/5321 The guidelines are intended to guard against equipment or catalyst damage by caustic or sulfur o=ides in the e+ent of the loss of quench circulation or recycle gas flow. 1. L611 6? +723"> R2"54"7/-.563

Loss of quench solution circulation will ha+e e=tremely serious consequences unless prompt action is taken. The two main ha"ards are the accumulation of acids in the equipment downstream of the quench solution inEection point 1if operation is continued3 and the possibility of quench solution backflow into the reactor 1if gas circulation is halted too soon3. The former will damage +essels< heat e=changers< and piping. The latter can affect both the reactor and the catalyst. /f quench solution circulation is lost< immediately e=tinguish furnace fires and stop the inEection of make-up o=ygen or hydrogen to the reactor section. (ontinue gas circulation. Thoroughly drain the quench solution to ensure no quench solution remains in the piping and heat e=changers< which may latter flow back into the reactor. Then stop gas circulation. 0lock in the recycle gas compressor and reduce system pressure at F%.; kg cmX min.< +ia the high set point pressure controller on the recycle compressor suction 1)/(-2:%13. Depressure to the atmosphere if the recycle gas contains o=ygen 1o=idation phase3 or depressure to the flare header if the gas contains hydrogen 1reduction phase3. 6hen the system has depressured sufficiently< nitrogen may be introduced to maintain a continuous purge through the reactor section.

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2.

L611 6? R2"0"/2 G-1 C6#A421164

/f the recycle gas compressor stops< the make-up air or hydrogen must be stopped immediatelyL ensure 79-:M%# has tripped off. /mmediate action must be taken to guard against backflow of quench solution into the reactor. 'top the quench solution circulation. Then block in the recycle gas compressor and reduce the reactor section pressure at F%.; kg cmX min.< +ia )/(-2:%1. Depressure to the atmosphere if the recycle gas contains o=ygen 1o=idation phase3 or depressure to the flare header if the gas contains hydrogen 1reduction phase3. Drain the quench solution system piping and reactor effluent air cooler as thoroughly as possible. 6hen the system has depressured sufficiently< nitrogen may be introduced to maintain a continuous purge through the reactor section. 3. L611 6? M- 2-UA P46"211 W-.24 W>23 U153! - R2"54"7/-.53! +723">

/f process water is stopped< solids build up in the circulating quench solution and can no longer be controlled. -egeneration may be continued on a short-term basis until a solids concentration of 1% wt A is reached. .t this point< make-up air or hydrogen inEection must be stopped. ,as and quench solution circulation is continued until process water is again a+ailable. 4. L611 6? M- 2-UA C-71.5"

/f make-up caustic flow is stopped< make-up air or hydrogen inEection should be cut off immediately. (ontinue operating the recycle gas compressor. .lso< continue quench solution circulation until sulfur o=ides are remo+ed from the system. /f the recirculating quench solution p5 becomes too low< continuing the abo+e operation will result in a rapid buildup of acids in the equipment. 'hould the p5 drop below ;< cut the furnace fires and cool the reactor section< but do not cool the catalyst below 2%$G(. Then stop quench solution circulation and drain the quench solution from the system piping and reactor effluent air cooler. Then stop the recycle gas circulation. )artially open )/(-2:%1 and introduce nitrogen at a low rate to maintain a continuous purge through the reactor section.

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CATALYST HANDLING The following section discusses loading and dumping of catalyst. )reparation -eactor )reparation /nspect reactor internals after the reactors ha+e been opened and the safety engineers ha+e tested the atmosphere and determined the reactor safe for entry. (heck the catalyst drainpipe and the trays for broken welds< deformation< blockage< and other damage. .lso< inspect the caulking and wire screen on each of the catalyst grids for openings that would allow catalyst to flow into the internals. The screen under the holddown frame should fit flush. There must not be any openings around the manway or drainpipe flange larger than 2 mm in diameter through which catalyst could flow. (lean out any debris which has been blown into the reactors. (lean the catalyst support screen thoroughly< remo+ing all debris and foreign material. The screen openings must not be plugged with broken catalyst or any other material that may ha+e been ground into the screen openings by foot. 'upport screens with plugged catalyst will cause e=cessi+e pressure drop. 8=perience has shown that during the catalyst loading operation< nuts and bolts in the reactor internals may accumulate enough catalyst fines to cause binding when assembled. 7or this reason< nuts and bolts should be cleaned before they are assembled and coated with an antigalling lubricant such as *olykote or Nelpro (-1%% 1which contain no catalyst poisons3. .fter the reactor internals ha+e been inspected and are in order< displace any moist air in the reactors by lowering a hose connected to dry air to the bottom of each reactor. )urge with dry air to displace the moist air up through the top of the reactor. 0low out the quench lines with dry air from Eust upstream of quench line temperature control +al+es into the reactor. 0efore loading catalyst< the reactor walls and internals should be +isually inspected for water. (atalyst must not be loaded if there is any sign of water.

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(atalyst Loading (onsiderations Dry conditions are necessary for catalyst storage and loading. During the catalyst loading< the catalyst must not be e=posed to steam< rain< fog< cooling tower mist< etc. (atalyst should not be e=posed to atmospheric air for long periods of time. /n inclement weather< protection should be pro+ided at the top of the reactor to ensure that the catalyst is kept dry. . plastic or can+as-co+ered >doghouse? co+ering the top of the reactor will usually pro+ide sufficient protection to permit catalyst loading during mildly ad+erse conditions. During periods of hea+y rain< it is usually prudent to close up the reactor and postpone catalyst loading. Drum and or bin co+ers should be left on until the catalyst is ready to be loaded into the reactor. . loading diagram must be prepared and issued by )rocess 8ngineering prior to catalyst loading. .n accurate tally of the number of barrels and bins of catalyst loaded must be kept. The drums and or bins must be co+ered with plastic during field storage to pre+ent water contamination. The first reactor shall ha+e three beds< all of which shall ha+e support catalyst at the bottom of the bed abo+e the support screen. 'upport catalyst layer shall be 1$% mm thick. 5owe+er in the bottom-most bed< the support catalyst layer shall be laid o+er the bottom catalyst support. The second reactor will ha+e two beds< with support and bottom layer support loaded similarly to the first reactor. The grading and support catalyst in the reactors will be sock loaded< while the first acti+e catalysts 1/(- 1!#L.P< /(- 12:L< and /(- 12:23 will be dense loaded. Dense loading pro+ides the following benefits: 1. Denser loading of catalyst compared to sock loading. 2. 8+en catalyst distribution across the reactor< thus reducing the chances of channeled flow after startup. De+ices used to dense load catalysts require setup and adEustments for reactor diameter< catalyst shape< and catalyst density. The catalyst loading +endor will be able to do these calculations based on the equipment used< and will monitor and adEust the equipment during the loading as needed. 7or the first catalyst load< (he+ron is a+ailable< at ()(L@s discretion< to assist ()(L in monitoring the loading process as per the engineering ser+ices agreement. 'ome general practices for good catalyst loading follow. . catalyst loading must be interrupted periodically to inspect the bed. /f the loader is operated correctly< the bed le+el will rise e+enly and the bed surface will be firm 1should not lea+e deep footprints when walked upon3. Dense loading will be used until the bed can no longer be kept le+el. .t that point< sock loading and le+eling with a wooden rake will be used to finish the Eob. 8ach bed must be

288

loaded until 1$% mm Y 2$ mm is left between the bed surface and the distributor tray abo+e it. The catalyst bed should be le+eled across the entire reactor. The catalyst must be loaded carefully to limit the amount of freefall through the loading sock< as rough handling will cause breakage and produce fines. Typically a 1$% mm conduit attached to the loading hopper outlet is used to guide the catalyst through the manways in the reactor internals to the dense loader and to pre+ent damage to the catalyst as it falls. . conduit made from sections of metal pipe with a fle=ible nylon or Dacron sock attached at the bottom to connect with the loader is preferred. The conduit must run full of catalyst without any free fall to pre+ent unnecessary catalyst attrition and to achie+e the ma=imum catalyst loading rate. .lternati+ely< fle=ible conduits< such as hea+y-walled fiberglass hose or rip stop polyethylene hose< can be used. 8=ercise care using fle=ible hose< tying it off at each deck for safety 1the deli+ery hose may contain up to :C% kg of catalyst3. .ll workers e=posed to catalyst fines must wear proper protecti+e gear. .n efficient +acuuming system should be used inside the reactor to help reduce the amount of catalyst dust. (he+ron loads all reactors in an air atmosphere. /nert loading is offered by many contract loading companies. Typically< catalyst that is shipped in drums is transferred to a larger transfer bin< which is then lifted to the top of the reactor. This way the rate at which catalyst can be mo+ed to the top of the reactor doesn@t limit the rate at which catalyst can be loaded in the reactor. (ranes are typically used as the hoist de+ise. Loading )rocedure 5QD-4(-.(N8- -eactor 2%;--1 This discussion gi+es the procedure for loading all three beds of the first reactor 12%;--13. 1'ee Table :-/ for estimated catalyst requirements and loading diagrams.3 (atalyst quantities gi+en in Table :-/ are appro=imate. .ctual quantities will be determined by )rocess 8ngineering prior to loading.

289

A. L6-853! B28 N6. 3 $B6..6# B28% 1. -emo+e the catalyst dump pipe from the reactor internals abo+e the bed to pre+ent interference with catalyst loading. 2. )lace chalk marks along the wall of 0ed 2o. ! about 1$% mm abo+e the bottom cone. /f possible< also mark the demarcation between the /(- 12:L and /(- 1!# L.P loading point. /f it isn@t possible to reach the reactor wall at this location< load the estimated weight of /(- 12:L according to the loading diagram pro+ided by )rocess 8ngineering. !. 7ill the bottom dump pipe with 1 #-in. .lcoa T1:2 alumina balls or equi+alent. 7ill the reactor to flush with the bottom support cone with inert 1 #-in. balls. .lcoa T1:2 or equi+alent should be used. #. 'ock load the bottom of 0ed 2o. ! with /(- 11#V7 1support catalyst3 up to the chalk mark. $. Dense load 0ed 2o. ! with /(- 12:L< a called for in the loading diagram. /nspect the bed se+eral times during the dense loading to check for le+elness and compactness. .t the point at which /(- 1!#L.P is to be added< do not rake the catalyst bed unless the le+el is unacceptably une+en. 'imply switch to /(- 1!#L.P and continue loading. The catalyst sock should be kept full at all times. /f the reactor is being loaded to a mark< an estimate as to the amount of catalyst held up in the loading sock will need to be made. /n any case< it is more important to keep the loading sock full of catalyst to a+oid catalyst breakage than it is to get the catalyst transition from /(- 12:L to /(1!#L.P at e=actly the right le+el. 4n the last bed inspection< place se+eral chalk marks 1$% mm below the interbed distributor tray to aid in >topping off? 0ed 2o. !. :. During the >topping off? operation< load the catalyst in the area adEacent to the reactor wall first since this is the most difficult area to reach. 7ill in the center portion and le+el the bed to 1$% mm Y 2$ mm below the distributor tray. ;. 6hen loading of the bottom bed is completed< clean catalyst dust from the internals. . small +acuum cleaner is recommended. (heck the catalyst support screen abo+e the loaded bed to ensure that it was not damaged during catalyst loading. Then install the manway co+ers< reassemble the interbed internals< and insert the catalyst dump pipe into the catalyst bed by +acuuming catalyst from inside the pipe. These steps should be repeated as each subsequent reactor catalyst bed is loaded.

290

B. L6-853! B28 N6. 2 1. -emo+e the catalyst dump pipe from the reactor internals abo+e the bed to pre+ent interference with catalyst loading. 2. 7ill the catalyst drainpipe with 1 #-in. .lcoa T1:2 alumina balls 1or equi+alent3 to a le+el appro=imately %.: m below the top of the drainpipe. )lace a disposable flow restrictor on top of the drainpipe filling at this le+el. The flow restrictor is a metal plate< slightly smaller in diameter than the inner diameter of the drainpipe< that is cut into four M%-degree wedges to allow it to flow out with the catalyst during catalyst dumping. (ontinue to till the drainpipe with 1 #-in. .lcoa T1:2 alumina balls to le+el appro=imately %.! m below the top of the drainpipe. )lace another disposable flow restrictor on top of the drainpipe filling at this le+el. (ontinue to fill the drainpipe with 1 #-in. .lcoa T1:2 alumina balls until it is full. !. )lace chalk marks along the wall of 0ed 2o. # about 1$% mm abo+e the catalyst support screen. #. 'ock load a 1$% mm layer of /(- 11#V7 on top of the catalyst support screen. $. Dense load the remainder of 0ed 2o. 2 with the acti+e catalyst 1/(- 1!#L.P3 called for in the loading diagram to a le+el approaching the loader cone. 7ollow the dense loading procedure described for loading 0ed 2o. !< 'tep $. :. Top the bed off to 1$% mm Y 2$ mm below the distributor tray following the procedure described for loading 0ed 2o. !< 'tep $. C. L6-853! B28 N6. 1 $T6A B28% -epeat the steps in a similar fashion to loading 0ed 2. )lace chalk marks abo+e the support tray at both 1$% mm and 2C% mm abo+e the tray le+elL these will denote the demarcations between the /(- 11#V7< the /(- 1!#L.P< and the /(122V'0. 'ock load the /(- 11#V7< the /(- 1!#L.P< and the /(- 122V'0. 2ote that this is a change from the 8D)< which specified a dense load of /(1!#L.P in this bed. This change was made for practical reasons. The same comments about the importance of keeping the sock full o+er making e=actly the loading le+el apply in this bed as well as in 0eds 2 and !. /t is important that the /(- 122V'0 be sock loaded and not dense loadedL it@s efficiency for solids grading will be compromised if it is dense loaded. 6hen the top catalyst bed of the reactor has been loaded< +acuum out catalyst dust and fines from the catalyst internals. /nstall the manway co+ers in the distributor tray and perforated tray. /nstall the screened feed inlet basket. (lose the reactor and replace the o+erhead piping.

291

Loading )rocedure 5QD-4(-.(N8- -eactor 2%;--2 (atalyst quantities gi+en in Table :-/ are appro=imate. )rocess 8ngineering will determine the actual quantities prior to loading. Kse similar procedure as described for -eactor 2%;--1. (atalyst Dumping /ntroduction 6hen catalyst is spent or when reactor repairs or inspection is necessary< the reactor catalyst charge must be emptied or dumped. The type of dumping procedure employed depends largely on the ultimate use of the catalyst. )ossible uses of this catalyst area: 1. 2. !. #. -eturn to -eactor 8=-'itu -egeneration *etals -eco+ery Disposal 1i.e.< Throw .way3

'ection :.! presents se+eral dumping techniques and highlights ad+antages and disad+antages associated with each technique. The selection of catalyst dumping and disposal methods is +ery site specific. There is not single method in general use. The choice of which procedure to use depends on the ultimate use of the catalysts and the economics in+ol+ing downtime< maintenance< etc. There are se+eral economic factors and safety ha"ards to be considered in choosing the most appropriate dumping technique. 4f course< personnel safety is always the o+erriding consideration. (atalytic )yrophoric )roperties Dumping used catalyst is complicated by its pyrophoric nature. This means that the catalyst can burn spontaneously if e=posed to air. .ny finely di+ided< metallic sulfide may be pyrophoric. /ron and nickel are two common metals whose sulfides o=idi"e e=othermically. .dsorbed oil or coke can supply fuel to support combustion after the catalyst has spontaneously ignited. 0ecause of this property< precautions must be taken to pre+ent a ha"ardous situation. The procedures discussed below will mitigate this ha"ard.

292

-eactor Design for Dumping The catalyst dumping features of (he+ron-designed reactors permit draining the catalyst from all beds from the bottom of the reactor. 8ach bed is linked to the bed below by a 1$% mm diameter catalyst drainpipe. .s catalyst is remo+ed from the bottom of the reactor< catalyst drains from the upper beds through the drainpipes. (oke balls or agglomerated catalyst bigger than 1$% mm in diameter may ha+e formed that will not go through the drainpipes. 6hen these coke balls plug drainpipes< a time-consuming mining procedure is required to remo+e this catalyst. 7ortunately< this occurs infrequently. The residual or angle-of-repose catalyst remaining on the screens after all of the free-falling catalyst has e=ited must be remo+ed. The at-rest< angle-of-repose of (he+ron e=trudate catalyst lies between 1$ and #$ degrees depending on particle si"e and condition of the catalyst. 'ection :.!.! discusses the remo+al of this residual catalyst. Types of (atalyst Dumping Techniques The general types of dumping are dry< wet< or a combination of the two. .gain< the choice is one of safety and economics. /f the catalyst is to be e=-situ regenerated or discarded< it should be dry dumped under inert atmosphere. (atalyst to be reused must be screened after dumping to separate acti+e catalyst from support catalyst. /f the catalyst is to be discarded< it can be wet dumped. 5owe+er< considerable weight will be added to the catalyst by absorbed water. The additional cost of shipping and of disposing this added weight may make dry dumping a more attracti+e option. The following table summari"es the atmosphere for clean-up and protecti+e equipment required for unregenerated catalyst. (atalyst 'tate Knregenerated Dumping Technique Dry 6et Dumping .tmosphere /nert .ir )rotection -equired for -esidual (atalyst -emo+al 8quipment for /nert 8ntry 2eeded 7resh .ir *ask

293

Dry Dumping (atalyst Knregenerated catalyst is pyrophoric and must be dumped under inert conditions into nitrogen-purged drums 1or other containers3 with plastic liners< then sealed for shipment. )artially or fully regenerated catalyst should also be dumped into plastic-lined< sealable drums or other containers. The drums in which (he+ron normally supplies fresh catalyst are suitable for this purpose. Dry dumping generates dust in the unloading area. /f personnel must work in close pro=imity to the flowing catalyst when dry dumping to drums< (he+ron uses special hoods o+er recei+ing drums equipped with an eductor and wet scrubber to draw ways from laborers. /f desired< (he+ron can pro+ide additional details about this dry dumping method. 'ome catalyst dumping contractors also ha+e dust abatement equipment. Laborers must also wear protecti+e equipment 1i.e. respirator< glo+es< long slee+es3. Dry Dumping Knregenerated (atalyst Knregenerated catalyst to be sent for e=-situ regeneration or for metals reclaiming can be dumped dry under an inert atmosphere. .n inert nitrogen blanket is normally used because it is nonflammable< cheap< and noncorrosi+e. The inert atmosphere pre+ents combustion of the pyrophoric catalyst. The catalyst is dumped into nitrogen-blanketed drums which are immediately sealed. .t present< this is the only recommended technique if the catalyst is to be regenerated e=-situ. .d+antages of dry dumping unregenerated catalyst: The reco+ered catalyst is suitable for e=-situ regeneration. The reactor remains dry if all catalyst< including residual angle-of-repose material< is inert dumped. /n this case< there is little potential for chloride stress corrosion cracking or sulfurous acid attack on stainless steel parts. 2ote< howe+er< as discussed later< (he+ron a+oids inert entry where possible for safety reasons. (he+ron generally sho+els out angle-of-repose catalyst after water flooding. )rocedure is fast. 4nce the catalyst is dumped and dry air atmosphere is admitted< reactor repair and or catalyst loading can proceed immediately if not water flooded.

294

Disad+antages of dry dumping unregenerated catalyst: Dumped catalyst must be sealed in nitrogen-blanketed drums. 2eed time to cool the catalyst to around :% o( before dumping proceeds to ensure that it will not melt the plastic liner of the drum. 'tringent shipping restrictions may apply. .ir intrusion during dumping could cause fire. -esidual angle-of-repose catalyst remo+al requires inert entry< unless water flooded. Dry Dumping )acified (atalyst (atalyst can be subEected to a single high temperature burn 1partial regeneration3 prior to dry dumping. /t is used when the catalyst is to be discarded or sent away for metals reco+ery. (he+ron can ad+ise ()(L on the details of such a procedure at the time it is needed. .d+antages of dry dumping pacified catalyst: (atalyst can be handled in an air atmosphere with little pyrophoric ha"ard. (atalyst can be shipped without added water weight. The reactor remains dry. 2o potential for chloride cracking or sulfuric acid attack on stainless steel parts. /f catalyst is to be disposed there is no screening< inert atmosphere scalping< or special dry handling required. Disad+antages of dry dumping pacified catalyst: Downtime is consumed of single burn 1F# days should be allowed3. Time needed to cool the catalyst to F:%o( before dumping proceeds to ensure that it will not melt the plastic liner of the drum. Dry Dumping 7ully -egenerated (atalyst The catalyst can be fully regenerated 1three burns at successi+ely higher o=ygen le+els and temperatures3 before dry dumping. This procedure is employed when the catalyst is to be reused< or if it is required prior to shipment. (atalyst which has been fully regenerated should only be dumped if there is need for reactor inspection or repair< if there is a large pressure drop in one of the catalyst beds< if there was unacceptable flow distribution during the pre+ious run< or if it will be replaced with fresh catalyst.

295

.d+antages of dry dumping fully regenerated catalyst: (atalyst can be dumped in an air atmosphere with great time sa+ings. .ll of the catalyst e=cept screening losses can be reco+ered for reuse. (oke balls or agglomerated catalyst chunks can be remo+ed easily. The reactor is kept dry< sa+ing drying time. 'ulfur acid 1>polyphonic acid?3 attack is a+oided because water is eliminated. 5ea+y metal poisoned catalyst 1nickel and +anadium3 and scale or trash can be remo+ed 1+acuumed3 from the top of the reactor in an air atmosphere prior to dumping. 2o danger of combustion. Disad+antages of dry dumping fully regenerated catalyst: Downtime required for regeneration 1! to 1% days for complete regeneration3. /f the catalyst is to be dumped and reused< it must be screened with attendant losses 1usually 1%-1$A3. (atalyst must be kept dry during dumping< screening< and reloading. Time needed to cool the catalyst to F:%o( before dumping begins to ensure that it will not melt the plastic liner of the drum. 6et Dumping /n wet dumping< the reactor is filled with water to mitigate the pyrophoric nature of the spent catalyst. Low chloride water and sodium carbonate may be added to pre+ent stress corrosion cracking of the stainless steel metallurgy. 6et dumping can be used when catalyst will be sent to a ha"ardous waste dump or to metals reclamation. 6et dumped catalyst cannot be reused. To a+oid problems with pyrophoric iron sulfide when the catalyst dries< the catalyst may be gi+en a pacification burn before dumping. 6et catalyst dump time is usually about 2$A faster than dry dumping because wet catalyst flows more easily. 7or a 1$% mm diameter dump no""le< catalyst flow should be at least 1%% barrels per hour wet or dry and will probably be limited by barrel or bin handling capacity. 6et dumping catalyst can gi+e fewer problems in multibed reactors because wet agglomerated catalyst is less prone to bridging than dry catalyst in interbed dump no""les. 1(atalyst agglomeration is e=pected to occur more frequently in unregenerated catalyst compared to partially or fully regenerated catalyst.3

296

-eactor cooldown time for wet dumping is reduced because water flooding can commence at temperatures up to M!o( 1although lower temperatures must be used in locations where e+olution of 52' from the top of the reactor could create an odor nuisance3. *ake sure reactor bed and skin T/s are less than M! o( before water flooding to pre+ent total water +apori"ation and consequent metallurgy problems. 6ater temperature must be within !C o( of shell temperature to pre+ent e=cessi+e thermal stresses. The higher cooldown temperature may sa+e one to three shifts compared to dry dumping< which requires a temperature of about $%-:%o( for safe dumping. /t is desirable to minimi"e the water carried with the wet catalyst into storage containers. This will reduce catalyst shipping weight< minimi"e metals reclamation cost< and minimi"e drainage in the ha"ardous waste dump. . >spiral? classifier< manufactured by 6emco< has been used for this purpose. The catalyst can be dewatered nearly as effecti+ely by fitting the bottom manway with a plate flange and drain no""le< then simply draining free water from the bottom no""le after the water flood. .dditional water can be remo+ed if the catalyst is dumped into drainable containers. 6hile not usually a problem< water drained from the reactor and catalyst may contain contamination 1see Table :-//3 which could require that the water be impounded in portable tanks and slowly bled to the refinery effluent system. Dump water can also be recycled for washing out angle-of-repose catalyst to minimi"e wastewater. .d+antages of wet dumping catalyst: 6et dumping is rapid. (atalyst is nonpyrophoric while wet. 6et catalyst can be handled in air. -eactor cooldown time reduced because water flooding can commence at temperatures up to M!o(. Disad+antages of wet dumping catalyst: (atalyst cannot be reused. 'hipping cost of adhering water may make metals reco+ery uneconomic. Disposal of wastewater may be a problem. 1'ee Table :-// for typical analysis.3 7looding water needs to ha+e low chloride content 1H$% ppm3 to mitigate chloride stress corrosion cracking of most types of stainless steels. .dditi+es 12A 2a2(4!3 may be necessary to mitigate sulfurous acid corrosion of stainless steels depending on ma=imum operating temperature. The !#; '' used in the (he+ron-designed reactors does not sensiti"e to acid corrosion at normal operating temperatures 1H#C%o(3 and therefore will not normally need soda ash washing. -eactor must be thoroughly dried before catalyst is replaced.

297

-esidual (atalyst -emo+al 4nce the catalyst has stopped draining out of the bottom of the reactor after dry or wet dumping< the reactors should be further cooled to a safe entry temperature set by refinery standards before workers may enter the +essels to remo+e residual catalyst. .ngle-of-repose catalyst in each of the reactor beds must be sho+eled or washed from the reactor. This work is done in either an inert atmosphere or in an air atmosphere< depending on whether it was dry or wet dumped. /f the catalyst has been dumped< the residual catalyst is remo+ed in an air atmosphere using fresh air masks due to the e+olution of 5 2' and hydrocarbons from the catalyst when disturbed. Knregenerated catalyst that is dry dumped must remain under inert conditions to pre+ent spontaneous combustion. 'ome catalyst dumping contractors 1but not all3 and (he+ron -efinery *aintenance 'afety staff do not consider it safe to work more than two beds deep in a reactor under inert atmosphere< and consequently will only sho+el out catalyst from the top two beds under inert conditions. The remaining catalyst is remo+ed by water flooding and water washing in an air atmosphere 1but with use of fresh air equipment due to the e+olution of 52' and hydrocarbons from the remaining catalyst when disturbed3. -esidual catalyst 1appro=imately !%A of the entire catalyst charge3 remo+ed by water flooding is water wetted and may not be suitable for e=-situ regeneration. (he+ron recommends that only qualified< e=perienced contractors be used< particularly where inert entry will be required. 8ntry into a reactor under inert atmosphere is a ha"ardous operation and should be done only by specially trained people using speciali"ed equipment. 'ection C.! presents a guideline for inert entry which must be de+eloped into a detailed< refinery-specific< qualified procedure by the licensee and the inert entry contractor. 0ecause of the ha"ards in+ol+ed and continuous< special training necessary< it is strongly recommended that refinery personnel not attempt inert entry. There are highly competent contractors who can do this work safely.

298

Detailed (atalyst 5andling )rocedures Dry Dumping Knder /nert .tmosphere This procedure assumes catalyst has not been regenerated and that the reactor has been cooled following the normal shutdown procedures outlined in 'ection $.:. 1. Depressure nitrogen atmosphere to atmospheric pressure. 4pen top head of reactor. )ro+ide temporary< loose co+er. Neep slight positi+e pressure of nitrogen in reactor at all times to pre+ent air entry until reactor is empty of catalyst. (heck frequently to be sure no o=ygen is present. Trend reactor bed T/s and frequently check for (4 at top manway with Draeger tube. -emo+e catalyst dump no""le flange and fit with 1$% mm simple gate +al+e. -emo+e keyed flange in the no""le with proper< long-handled tool through open gate +al+e and then quickly close the gate +al+e. .ttach suitable fle=ible 1can+as3 sock to temporary +al+e. Dump catalyst into sealable nitrogen-purged drums< preferably lined with ! mm or thicker polyethylene liners. 2itrogen purging of drums typically can be accomplished by a simple 1! mm copper tubing line placed into the bottom of the drum Eust prior to filling with catalyst. )urge rate need only to be set high enough to displace most of the air in the drum. )urging of an opentopped drum will not be completely effecti+e< but e+en partial purging will help minimi"e heating of the catalyst from pyrophoric iron sulfide. *elting of the plastic liners can be a+oided by assuring reactor is well cooled prior to dumpling< purging drums as noted abo+e< and e=tending the dump line from the dump no""le as close to the top of the drums as possible. The !-mm polyethylene liners are recommended for their added heat resistance. /mmediately close drums with well-fitting co+ers. Tight sealing of the lids is desirable but not necessary. /f residual catalyst is to be remo+ed under inert atmosphere< see 'ection C.! for suggested inert entry guidelines. .n e=perienced contractor with proper equipment and highly trained crews must be employed for inert entry. -esidual catalyst is remo+ed by sho+eling or sweeping from upper beds to lower beds through the catalyst drainpipe and out the bottom dump no""le. (atalyst must be kept under nitrogen at all times. /f residual catalyst is to be remo+ed by water flooding< see 'ection :.#.2 below.

2.

!.

#.

$.

299

-egenerated or )acified This procedure assumes a full regeneration or a single-burn pacification step has been done and that the reactor has been cooled to #%-:% o( following the normal shutdown procedures: 1. 4pen top head of reactor. )ro+ide +entilation. -emo+e catalyst dump no""le flange and fit with :-in. simple gate +al+e. -emo+e keyed flange in no""le with proper< long-handled tool through open gate +al+e. 8stablish catalyst flow. .ttach suitable fle=ible 1can+as3 sock to temporary +al+e. Dump catalyst into dry drums. .lternati+ely< the catalyst may be dumped into >Tote? bins< >7low? bins< or >'upersacks? if sufficiently cooled. !. #. .ppro=imately ;%A of the catalyst can be e=pected to free flow. 4nce a safe en+ironment for reactor entry has been established< the reactor may be entered under an air atmosphere for residual catalyst remo+al and or inspection. ,ood +entilation must be pro+ided. Dust protection is required for residual regenerated catalyst remo+al. 7resh air masks are required for residual pacified catalyst remo+al. 'pent catalyst that is not fully regenerated may e+ol+e to=ic +apors when disturbed. The residual catalyst is sho+eled or swept from the top bed downward through the succeeding catalyst drainpipes.

2.

300

6et Dumping This procedure assumes the catalyst is fully stripped of oil and the recycle gas contains less than 1% ppm (4 before the catalyst temperature is lowered to 2%$o(. 1'ee 'ection $.$ - 2ormal 'hutdown )rocedures.3 1. (ool reactor until all bed and skin T/s are less than M! o( with recycle gas. 4pen furnace doors< bypass feed effluent e=changer< etc.< to facilitate cooling. 2. Thoroughly purge system to replace hydrogen-rich gas with nitrogen. Depressure to atmospheric pressure. 4pen top head and remo+e inlet basket. Neep a small flow of nitrogen into inlet section to pre+ent air reaching the catalyst. !. -emo+e catalyst dump no""le flange and fit with 1$% mm simple gate +al+e. -emo+e keyed flange in no""le with proper< long-handled tool through open gate +al+e. Puickly close the gate +al+e. #. .ttach suitable conduit to carry catalyst water slurry to disposal. Depending on water disposal procedure< suitable slurry receptacles should be a+ailable. $. /nEect flooding water into the bottom of the reactor. 7looding the reactor from the bottom rather than the top is preferred to better eliminate pockets of gas in the catalyst bed. 7looding water should ha+e a low chloride content 1H$% ppm3 and should be with F2Co( of the reactor shell temperature to a+oid thermal shock. 7ill reactor to the top of the inlet distributor. 6ater will displace nitrogen from the reactor and may liberate some 5 2'. Therefore< personnel at the top of the reactor should be adequately protected. :. 0egin draining the catalyst water slurry from the reactor through the bottom dump no""le. )ump drained water back into the reactor to keep the water le+el up and the catalyst wet. This will aid the catalyst to flow out of the reactor and also keep the catalyst suitably wet. The water le+el should be kept abo+e the catalyst le+el. 0ecause the catalyst le+el cannot be obser+ed< ideally the water le+el should remain at the inlet internals. Neep water in the reactor and continue dumping until no more catalyst is remo+ed from the reactor. Then drain all the water from the reactor.

301

;. 9entilate the top part of the reactor with air. Test the atmosphere for safety 1e=plosibility< 52'< (4< and (42 content3. *ake sure reactor has cooled to a temperature for safe entry. -emo+e top distributor manways. )ro+ide access ladders< proper lights< etc. 6ith a water hose aided by sho+eling< remo+e the residual catalyst through the catalyst drainpipe from the first bed support internals. (lean the support screen thoroughly before proceeding. 7resh air gear is recommended if the catalyst is unregenerated or only pacified 1single burn3< e+en though reactor is +entilated and tested safe. 'pent catalyst that is not fully regenerated may e+ol+e to=ic +apors when disturbed. C. 4nce the support tray is clean< remo+e manway and the dump pipe and clean the internals. -epeat 'tep ; and work down the reactor. M. 8ach bed support screen should be cleaned as well as possible using a high pressure water stream 1hydroblast3. This will sa+e time later. 1%. 6et dumped catalyst may be dumped into drums with plastic liners and sealed. 2itrogen purge is not necessary. Dumping may be facilitated by using a multi-armed pipe manifold< each arm equipped with a :-in. ball +al+e< to fill four drums with slurry at a time. The drums are filled on the pallet. 6ater is allowed to o+erflow until the wet catalyst appears at the top of the drums. .lternati+ely< >Tote? bins< >7low? bins< or a gondola-type body with drain are an adequate recei+er. 11. The reactor should be purged dry with dry air or nitrogen prior to reloading with catalyst. 'kimming >'kimming? is the name gi+en to the procedure for remo+ing catalyst from the top bed of a reactor. This is done to remo+e foreign material trapped by the catalyst which causes a pressure drop. 'kimming can be done during the run by cooling the reactor and changing the circulating atmosphere to an inert atmosphere. -efer to 'ection C.! for inert entry guidelines. 4f course< it is only done when the remaining catalyst is to be reused. 'kimming should be done under an inert atmosphere. (atalyst remo+al may be by sho+el and bucket or by +acuum with a special< cyclone- equipped +acuum de+ice. 9acuuming under inert conditions requires special inert gas recirculation to the reactor to pre+ent drawing in air.

302

The skimmed material is usually thrown away due to breakage. /t is not necessary to skim more catalyst than is necessary to remo+e the foreign material. /f a meter or less /(- 122V'0 is skimmed and replaced by fresh catalyst< it is usually not sulfided. /f more than a meter of /(- 122V'0 is remo+ed and replaced by fresh catalyst< a brief abbre+iated sulfiding procedure prior to feed introduction is needed. (atalyst 5andling 7resh catalyst or catalyst that is to be reused after regeneration must be carefully handled. /t must be protected from breakage and moisture. .ttrition The catalyst is strong< but rough handling will break the particles causing e=cessi+e screening losses or subsequent high pressure drop if broken particles are returned to the reactor. The catalyst in general should not free fall more than %.: m. 'ocks and handling de+ices should be designed to minimi"e attrition. *oisture .ll catalyst should be kept dry. Drummed catalyst should be kept in a warehouse if long-term storage is necessary. 4+ernight or temporary outdoor storage is permissible if tarps co+er the unopened drums. Drums should not be left in the open if there is rain. Drums should not be opened until immediately before use. Loading< dumping< or screening must not be not in the rain. /t is particularly important to protect catalyst from high humidity and moisture. .fter pacification< some of the catalytic metals are in the form of soluble sulfates. *oisture can cause migration or actual loss of catalytic metals. Drumming (atalyst to be transported or stored must be drummed. 7resh catalyst is shipped by (he+ron in $$-gal. Drums will full-opening tops. These are closed with a le+er clamp. The top has a sponge rubber gasket and the catalyst is packed in a plastic bag. This container arrangement is also ideal for holding dumped catalyst. 6hen a nitrogen blanket is required 1for instance< unregenerated catalyst3< a tight-fitting top is desire. )lastic liners pro+ide additional protection against moisture.

303

8quipment The usual drum handling equipment is required. Drum rollers facilitate catalyst dumping. Drums 1usually four at a time3 are handled on wooden pallets with a forklift. (atalyst Disposal 4ptions 5a"ardous 6aste Dump Disposal to a ha"ardous waste dump is often the easiest and least costly option in the K.'. (atalyst >preconditioning? may be require 1e.g.< dewatering or a pacification burn3. *etals -eclamation 6et or dry dumped catalyst may be processed for tungsten reco+ery. -eco+ery +alues are highest for dry< partially regenerated catalyst where the weight concentration of tungsten is the highest. .ny catalyst not containing tungsten which is dumped and shipped with the catalyst will decrease the reco+ery +alue. 5a"ards There are se+eral special ha"ards associated with catalyst dumping. These are listed below: )yrophoric )roperties 'ee 'ection M.% for more details. 2ickel (arbonyl 'ee 'ection M.% for more details. 5ydrogen 'ulfide 'ee 'ection M.% for more details.

304

/nert .tmosphere The ha"ards of working under an inert atmosphere ha+e been discussed in 'ection :.!.! and 'ection C.!. .gain< the recommendation is to hire a contractor who has speciali"ed equipment and specially trained personnel. 2o=ious 9apors 4ther ha"ardous or no=ious +apors may be e+ol+ed from the unregenerated catalyst when the reactor is openedL for e=ample: 5ydrocarbons may be desorbed from the catalyst< especially if the reactor was not sufficiently cooled. 0en"ene e+olution is a specific concern. (urrent K.'. regulations require less than 1 ppm ben"ene in a working space without protecti+e gear. 7or ben"ene le+els up to 1% ppm< a half mask respirator with an organic +apor cartridge is required. 2ormal hot stripping of catalyst Eust after pulling the feed should be sufficient to meet the 1 ppm limit. (ombustion products 1'42< (42< and (43 may be e+ol+ed if the catalyst is e=posed to air. /f the catalyst is unloaded in air< fresh air breathing apparatus should be a+ailable in case ha"ardous or no=ious +apors are e+ol+ed. 'ee 'ection M.% and *'D's located at the end of 'ection M.% for more details. 4ther 'trict obser+ance of go+ernment safety organi"ations@ regulations concerning use of electrical equipment inside reactors is important< especially during water flood operation.

305

MODULE 14 TITLE

CPCL HYDROCRACKER UNIT TRAINING UTILITIES OBJECTIVES

The participant shall be able to: 1. List ha"ards associated with the utilities in the 5ydrocracker. 2. List the proper protecti+e clothing to be worn when working near or handling ha"ardous chemicals in the 5ydrocracker.

306

MODULE 14 TITLE

CPCL HYDROCRACKER UNIT TRAINING UTILITIES

Ktilities are considered a support network necessary to keep the process areas running. This module does not co+er detailed operation of the utilities systems. *ost of the utilities are supplied from off-plot to e+ery unit in the -efinery. They must be in ser+ice and steady in order to keep the process areas on line. Loss of some of the utilities can force a partial shutdown or total shutdown of the unit. 7ollowing is a list of utilities for the ()(L 5ydrocracker: Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z 'team 0oiler 7eed 6ater and 0lowdown (ondensate 6ater Lube 4il .ir 2itrogen 7uel ,as 8lectrical -elief )lot Limit (onnections Drainage (hemicals

307

S.2-#, B65/24 *228 W-.24, C638231-.2, -38 B/6:86:3 'team is generally pro+ided as pump seal steamL to dri+e pump turbinesL to strip< purge< and pressure test equipment and +esselsL and as heat medium in some e=changers. The pressure le+els of steam in the ()(L 5ydrocracker are: Low )ressure 'team at #.% kg and 1M%R( *edium )ressure 'team at12.$ kg and 2#%C 5igh )ressure 'team at !2.$ kg and 2M%R( 9ery 5igh )ressure 'team at $#.M kg and #!$ C

The four utilities listed abo+e are at a high enough temperature to cause se+ere burns. ,reat care must be taken when using these utilities to pre+ent burns. These utilities must also be commissioned +ery slowly to allow piping +essels to heat slowly< a+oiding >water hammer? and possible damage. N5.46!23 2itrogen is an inert odorless< colorless gas used e=tensi+ely throughout the 5ydrocracker. The nitrogen header has branches to process lines and equipment throughout the unit and is normally used for displacing o=ygen from equipment< +essels<and piping and for pressure testing. 2itrogen lines are to be blocked and blinded at all times when not in use. 0reathing nitrogen in a high enough concentration can be fatal. W-.24 6ater is +ery +aluable in the process< but in the wrong places it can be e=tremely ha"ardous. (are must be made to a+oid getting water into a hot column< either while operating< or during startups or shutdowns.

308

C>2#5"-/1 D52.>-36/-#532 $A#532% Lean .mine is a colorless liquid. 'olutions of amine in water 1normally 2% 6TA solutions are used3 are alkaline and corrosi+e to many metals such as copper and copper alloys. /t reacts with strong o=idi"ing materials such as acid. .mine has an ammonia-like smell. . ma=imum acceptable concentration in air has not been established. 5owe+er< due to the low +apor pressure of amine< e=posure to unsafe air conditions at room temperatures is unlikely. /f amine solutions are heated< e=cessi+e concentrations of +apors may occur. /rritation to the eyes and nose gi+e ample warning of the presence of harmful amine +apors. There is no information a+ailable on e=actly how much amine is harmful< but if swallowed< gi+e large quantities of water< induce +omiting and seek prompt medical attention. .mine concentrations of #%A or greater produce se+ere eye burns< and solutions of 1$A cause irritations. -epeated or continued contact with the skin may cause local inEury. 2o harmful effects should normally result from occasional short contacts with lean amine. 5owe+er< rich amine 0rownish color3 is more ha"ardous than lean amine since it contains 5 2'. 0reathing or swallowing rich amine can be Eust as dangerous as breathing high concentrations of 52'. 1. 2. .94/D .LL (42T.(T 6/T5 8Q8' .2D 'N/2. 6ear appro+ed mono-goggles< face shields and chemical glo+es. /2 (.'8 47 8Q8 (42T.(T< 7LK'5 8Q8' /**8D/.T8LQ 6/T5 7-8'5 6.T8- for a minimum of 1$ minutes and seek prompt medical attention. N246 65/(5 L/28' (42T./2 -/(5 D8.. 152' .bsorbers and outlet piping< -ich .mine 7lash Drum and outlet piping< any rich amine sample stations3. /f one of these lines de+elops a leak< do not enter the contaminated area without proper protecti+e equipment.

!.

DMDS $D5#2.>0/ D517/?582% D*D' is a pale yellow liquid which has a strong garlic -like odor and is a skin and eye irritant. /t is a flammable material with a flash point of 1$G(. Kse chemical glo+es and goggles when handling.

309

D*D' is used in the startup of the 5ydrocracker to sulfide fresh catalyst and also used for sulfiding catalyst after catalyst regeneration. 5igh concentrations can deaden the sense of smell and cause headaches< nausea< and irritation to the eyes 7irst .id *easures: /f in eyes< immediately flush with plenty of water. /n case of skin contact< flush with plenty of water. /f swallowed< induce +omiting immediately as directed by medical personnel. /f inhaled< remo+e to fresh air.

(onsult the *'D' in the ()(L )rocess *anual for detailed instructions.

310

C-71.5" (austic< in a 1$ baume solution< is found in the L), Treating 'ection of the 5ydrocracker. (austic is a strong chemical and proper precautions must be taken when in the caustic area. 7ollowing are the characteristics and information on caustic. 7or more details< re+iew the *'D' 1*aterial 'afety Data 'heet3 located in the ()(L )rocess *anual. 'pent (austic is a brown liquid with a rotten egg odor. 7resh caustic is almost a clear liquid. 6hen caustic dries it becomes a powder with the same effects as the liquid described below. - MAY EVOLVE *LAMMABLE VAPORS - POISON - MAY BE *ATAL I* SWALLOWED - CORROSIVE - CAUSES IRREVERSIBLE EYE AND SKIN DAMAGE - MIBING WITH ACID MAY RELEASE HIGHLY TOBIC AND *LAMMABLE HYDROGEN SUL*IDE GAS $H2S% - HEATING OR MIBING WITH ACIDS MAY RELEASE HIGHLY TOBIC HYDROGEN CYANIDE GAS $HCN% - DO NOT ATTEMPT RESCUE WITHOUT SUPPLIED-AIR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION EYE( (ontact with the eyes causes permanent damage< including blindness. SKIN( (ontact with the skin causes permanent damage< including burns and scarring. INGESTION( *ay be se+erely irritating and cause permanent damage to the mouth< throat< and stomach. INHALATION( *ists of this material may cause respiratory irritation. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS O* EBPOSURE( 8ye damage or irritation: may include pain< tearing< reddening< swelling< and impaired +ision. 'kin inEury: may include pain< discoloration< swelling< and blistering. 'ymptoms of se+ere irritation or ulceration of the digesti+e tract may include nausea< +omiting< diarrhea< and< in se+ere cases< collapse< shock< and death. /25.L.T/42: -espiratory tract irritation may include< but may not be limited to< one or more of the following: nasal discharge< sore throat< coughing< bronchitis< pulmonary edema and difficulty in breathing.

311

*IRST AID MEASURES EYE( 7lush eyes with water immediately while holding the eyelids open. -emo+e contact lenses< if worn< after initial flushing< and continue flushing for at least 1$ minutes. ,et immediate medical attention. SKIN( 6ash skin immediately with plenty of water and remo+e contaminated clothing and shoes. ,et medical attention. Discard contaminated clothing and shoes or thoroughly clean before reuse. INGESTION( /f swallowed< do not induce +omiting. ,i+e the person a glass of water or milk to drink and get immediate medical attention. 2e+er gi+e anything by mouth to an unconscious person. INHALATION( /f e=posure to hydrogen sulfide or hydrogen cyanide is possible wear an appro+ed supplied-air respirator. *o+e the e=posed person to fresh air. ,i+e o=ygen. *outh to *outh breathing should be a+oided. .pply antidote therapy. ,et immediate medical attention. P/6. L5#5. C6332".5631 /n many plants the plot battery limit steamout header allows for steaming out of process lines< fuel gas lines< and the relief header from plot battery limit to a -elief Drum.

312

UTILITY CONDITIONS CHENNAI PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED ()(L -87/28-Q-/// )-4W8(T (589-42 /'4(-.(N/2, )-4(8'' *.2.L/< T.*/L 2.DK< /2D/. "#u$% T&pe ,er& -$g. Pressure /!e m -$g. Pressure /!e m 'e%$um Pressure /!e m 1*2 Pressure /!e m 3*$#er "ee%2 !er 4 -P 3*$#er "ee%2 !er 4 1P C**#$(g 5 !er /upp#& C**#$(g 5 !er Re!ur( )$!r*ge( "ue# 8 s "ue# 9$# Pressure, kg/cm2 (g) '$($mum )*rm # ' +$mum 44.8 48.0 54.9 29.5 9.5 2.7 30.5 10.5 3.5 38.0 19.0 4.5 2.5 6.0 3.5 10.0 32.5 12.5 4.0 Temper !ure, C '$($mum )*rm # ' +$mum 379 425 435 2500270 200 / !ur !e% 280 220 170 105 105 33 45 6m7$e(! 40 150 290 240 190

5.0 2.6 0

7.0 3.8 12.0

140

210

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CHEMICAL CONSUMPTION CHENNAI PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED CPC1 R;"<);R=0<<< PR9>;CT C-;,R9) </9CR6C?<)8 PR9C;// '6)61<, T6'<1 )6@A, <)@<6 @'@/ B*r <CR C ! #&s! /u#B$%$(g 15 5! C C us!$c B*r 1P8 5 s.$(g (1s! 3 !c./"*##*2$(g 3 !c.es 4 9(ce per 27 @ &s) )$!r*ge( B*r /! r!up 15 5! C C us!$c B*r Rege(er !$*( (;Der& 2 =e rs) 1e ( 6m$(e /*% 6s. / #! B*r @$ese# / #! @r&er 45 m3 2.2 m3/1.1 m3 120,000 )m3 40,000 )m3/-r (' +.) 1,155 m3 287.7 m3/-r "*r )eu!r #$E !$*( (3& @@C) 30 m3 ()*!e 1)

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314

MODULE 1) TITLE

CPCL HYDROCRACKER UNIT TRAINING EMERGENCIES OBJECTIVES

The participant shall be able to: 1. Display knowledge of unit general emergency guidelines

2. List the main steps to be taken in the e+ent of any emergency !. #. List the immediate steps to be taken upon a -eactor Temperature 8=cursion List the immediate steps to be taken upon Loss of the -ecycle ,as (ompressor

$. List the immediate steps to be taken upon Loss 4f *ake-Kp 5ydrogen to the -eactor 'ection :. List the immediate steps to be taken in the e+ent of a Leak or 7ire in the 5igh )ressure -eaction 'ection

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MODULE 1) TITLE

CPCL HYDROCRACKER UNIT TRAINING EMERGENCIES

E#24!23"0 P46"211 G7582/5321 8mergency situations will occur during the normal operation of the unit. *ost of these situations will be caused by equipment failure< or partial< or complete loss of a plant utility. 6hen an emergency situation de+elops< people operating the plant must make immediate operating decisions to correct or stabili"e the emergency. These decisions are best made by those who ha+e a thorough knowledge of the process and equipment and who ha+e been trained in the basic methods for safely securing the unit. 6ith e=perience and knowledge< the 5ydrocracker unit can be made secure during emergency situations. The following guidelines are pro+ided to enhance the understanding of special design features< and the philosophy and principals of pro+en emergency procedures that< if applied timely and accurately< will minimi"e damage< inEury< or loss of assets. 6hen an emergency occurs< measures must be taken to a+oid: )ersonnel 5a"ards 8quipment Damage 7urnace (oking 8=cessi+e (atalyst (oking and or 7ouling

0ecause the safety of personnel is the most important factor< early decisions should be made that will secure the unit and pre+ent further deterioration of the situation. 'teps frequently taken to mo+e from an emergency situation to a safe situation are: 7urnace firing reduced to only pilot fires. (ompletely e=tinguish if there is an open fire or a gas release. -eactor temperatures under control. *ake-up hydrogen flow is at the desired rate< or has been stopped< depending on the situation. 7eed pump is shut down< unless left running to pro+ide catalyst cooling.

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*ake-up hydrogen compressors are running normally. -ecycle gas compressor is running normally 1or safely shut down in some cases3. -eactor loop emergency depressuring system is a+ailable< or the reactor loop has been depressured to a safe le+el if required. -eactor effluent air cooler fans are running. 'eparator liquid le+els are under control. 6ater inEection has been stopped. .mine systems ha+e been shut down.

D215!3 *2-.7421 R2/-.28 .6 E#24!23"0 S5.7-.5631 There are many design features that ha+e been considered regarding potential emergency situations that could be e=perienced. *aEor features include: .utomatic reactor feed furnace main burners trip on loss of oil or gas feed. 5igh pressure loop emergency depressuring de+ice< with backup instrument air supply. 8mergency electrical power or steam turbine backup to critical equipment. (ontrol +al+e failure positions. 8mergency quick-closing [chopper@ +al+es for equipment isolation in cases of low oil feed flow< low high pressure amine flow< or low inEection water flow. *anual hand-Eack operators on critical automatic +al+es or *49s. .utomatic emergency oil flow to the fractionator feed furnace on loss of feed flow to pre+ent pass stalling. Loss of total oil flow to the fractionator feed furnace< automatically trips the feed furnace to minimum firing. .bility to recycle cold product fractionator bottoms to the reactor feed section to pro+ide cold feed to the /(- first reactor in the e+ent of an e=treme catalyst temperature e+ent.

317

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The 7ire Triangle The >fire triangle? is used to describe the way a fire starts and can be e=tinguished. 'ymbolically it is shown as:
Source of Ignition

Fire Fuel Oxygen

The key elements in+ol+ed in a fire are fuel< o=ygen< and a source of ignition. The presence of all three is required to start a fire. The remo+al of the fuel or the o=ygen will e=tinguish the fire. To describe how heat is generated 1and controlled3 in a hydrogenation reactor< an analogy can be drawn as:
Cataly t

Heat Oil Hy!rogen

/n this >heat triangle? for a hydrogenation reactor< the key elements are oil< hydrogen< and catalyst. The presence of all three is required for the chemical reactions to e+ol+e heat. /ncreased temperature accelerates the heat release. .n uncontrolled heat release in the reactor will cause physical damage to the equipment and catalyst. 8liminating any one of the three factors 1oil< hydrogen< or catalyst3 would stop the reaction and thereby pre+ent the uncontrolled heat release. 5ydrogen is the only factor that can be remo+ed quickly enough to pre+ent an uncontrolled heat release. The other two parts of the triangle< oil and catalyst< cannot be remo+ed quickly.

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/f 9,4 feed to the reactor is stopped< an e=tended period will be required before the oil can be swept< and then stripped< from the catalyst bedsSin other words< the oil will be more or less stagnant on the hot catalyst. /f hydrogenation reactions are not suppressed and ultimately stopped< oil decomposition< resulting in catalyst fouling by coke laydown< will be e=perienced. 6hen possible< to pre+ent coking< a flow of liquid feed must be maintained through the reactors. (atalyst tends to hold its temperature for considerably long periods. (hanges in the reactor oil feed temperature will not show in the reactor outlet temperature for many minutes. The only fast response a+ailable to the operator is to reduce the reactor section pressure and limit hydrogen a+ailability. 0y limiting make-up hydrogen< the a+ailable hydrogen in the reactor section will begin to be significantly reduced immediately. This will limit the hydrogen a+ailable for hydrogenation reactions and the heat release from these reactions will decrease. The o+erall reactor section pressure will also fall as hydrogen is consumed. /f the pressure is not decreasing fast enough< the emergency depressuring +al+e is opened to accelerate the depressuring rate. 5igh temperatures can cause much more damage to catalyst and equipment than low hydrogen partial pressure. .lthough coking and thermal cracking are endothermic reactions< the accompanying e=othermic hydrogenation reactions result in a net heat release that significantly increases temperature< resulting in more thermal cracking and coking. Therefore< in addition to limiting hydrogen a+ailability< it is important to cool reactors as quickly as possible. This is best accomplished by reducing reactor inlet temperatures< using quench< and maintaining oil feed to carry out heat. G2324-/ E#24!23"0 S.2A1 The following describes general initial steps that should be taken to protect the catalyst and equipment from damage during almost any emergency. *ore detailed instructions are presented later. 1. Limit 5ydrogen .+ailability -educing make-up hydrogen remo+es one corner of the >heat triangle<? thereby minimi"ing one of the maEor sources of heat release. The reactor section pressure will drop as e=isting hydrogen is consumed in the reactors. 4pening the emergency depressuring +al+e will reduce the reactor section pressure more rapidly. The lower pressure reduces the rate of the hydrogenation reactions< and as a result< reduces the heat released in the reactors.

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2. -educe 5eat /nput to -eactors -educe the reactor feed furnace firing to pilots< or cut fires completely< and bypass the feed effluent e=changers in order to lower the reactor inlet temperature. Due to the lower temperature< the reaction rate and the heat release in the catalyst are reduced. (ooler oil flowing through the reactors will also pro+ide a better heat sink. Lower furnace temperatures will substantially reduce the risk of coking in the furnace tubes. Do not make large mo+es on the feed effluent e=changer bypasses to a+oid o+erheating the effluent downstream equipment. !. *aintain -ecycle ,as 7low Through the 8quipment *aintaining recycle gas flow helps maintain oil flow through the piping< feed effluent heat e=changers< feed furnaces< and reactors. /f oil resides an e=tended time in the reactors at high temperatures< the e=tent of catalyst coking and fouling increases substantially. -ecycle gas also ser+es as a heat sink to remo+e sensible heat from the reactors. #. 'witch 7eedstocks 'ince the product fractionator bottoms product has already passed through the reactors once< it will release much less heat because of its lower le+els of sulfur and hea+y molecules if recycled to the reactors< instead of fresh 9,4 feed. /n addition< the product fractionator bottoms product reduces the +iscosity of the oil in the reactors< therefore maintaining a good flow distribution< e+en at lower temperatures. Neeping oil flow through the reactors pro+ides an additional heat sink and helps to pre+ent oil from residing too long on the hot catalyst. The startup long-loop circulation line is used for this purpose. .t the time the unit is shut down in response to an emergency< hydrocarbon should be hot stripped from the catalyst before the unit is to be restarted. 5ot gas stripping with recycle gas at F!1$( 1or reactor temperature conditions at time of emergency3 is the optimum way of hot stripping catalyst. 7or serious upsets that require a complete withdrawal of 9,4 feed< (he+ron recommends hot gas stripping for C-12 hours. The time can be decreased if the upset is only of a minor nature. 5owe+er< during the initial unit run< (he+ron ad+ises that their recommendation be followed.

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D292/6A D2.-5/28 P46"287421 ,uidelines for handling se+eral types of emergencies is outlined in the following sections. These guidelines should be used as a basis for preparation of detailed emergency procedures< customi"ed for the specific unit. The operators should memori"e the emergency procedures to ha+e a clear understanding of what will result from each sequence of actions taken. 8mergency procedures should be re+iewed periodically to +erify that the operators could properly respond to all emergencies. 6hen an emergency occurs< immediately proceed with correcti+e actions< and then notify concerned personnel. 2otify all other units that might be affected by the emergency. 6hen practical< and as soon as possible after any emergency< log all facts +ital to the emergency. The emergency guidelines in this section do not co+er e+ery emergency that could ariseL howe+er< the guidelines can be adapted to co+er most situations. /n all cases< steps must be taken to safeguard personnel and to pro+ide ma=imum protection to the operating equipment that might be damaged due to the emergency. /n any emergency< try to determine the full e=tent of the problem so that the necessary actions and only the necessary actions can be taken to possibly a+oid a complete shutdown. 6hen a complete shutdown is required< the normal shutdown guidelines< as outlined in 'ection $.$< should be followed as closely as possible. The emergency guidelines in this section are arranged in two sequential sets of actions: 7irst 'et: /mmediate actions necessary to allow the unit to be brought to a safe position.

'econd 'et: 'econdary actions necessary to allow the unit to be brought to a fully secured position.

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The basic difference between the two sets of actions is as follows: The first set 1safe position3 requires the operating group to take immediate actions to minimi"e the possibility of personnel inEury< equipment damage< and or catalyst damage. The second set 1fully secured position3 allows the operating group enough time to take necessary secondary actions that will prepare the unit either for a full shutdown or for a startup sequence returning to normal operations.

The guidelines are written< as much as possible< to pro+ide a definite cutoff point< whereby an emergency is recogni"ed and the appropriate guideline is adhered to. D6 36. -..2#A. .6 #-53.-53 6A24-.563 6? - 735. -?.24 .>51 A653. >-1 C223 42-">28. /t is possible to inEure people and damage equipment by trying to keep a unit operating that should be shut down. . discussion of emergency cases is presented below. 8ach case is discussed< as if the topic situation is the only e+ent< when in actuality< emergencies are generally a mi=ture of se+eral of the cases. /f the following cases and correcti+e actions are fully understood< adapting the guidelines to fit the situation can control emergencies that de+elop. The cases that will be discussed are: 1. 2. !. #. $. :. ;. Loss of -ecycle ,as (ompressor Loss of *ake-Kp 5ydrogen Loss of -ecycle ,as (ompressor and *ake-Kp 5ydrogen (ompressor Loss of 4il 7eed #.1 Loss of 9,4 7eed to the -eactor 7eed 'urge Drum #.2 Loss of -eactor 7eed )ump -eactor Temperature 8=cursions ,as Leak or 7ire in the 5igh )ressure -eaction 'ection Ktility 7ailures ;.1 Loss of /nstrumentation ;.2 Loss of 8lectric )ower ;.! Loss of (ooling 6ater ;.# Loss of 5igh )ressure 'team 'tartup 7ollowing 8mergency 'hutdowns

C.

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1.

L611 6? R2"0"/2 G-1 C6#A421164

Loss of the recycle gas compressor 12%;-N13 is a serious emergency. .bout three-fourths of the heat of reaction is absorbed by the recycle and quench gas entering the reactors 1the rest is absorbed by the oil and oil +apori"ation3. 6ithout the ability to control reaction temperatures in the reactors< a temperature e=cursion could occur if proper correcti+e action is not taken. To slow down the reactions and limit the heat release in the reactors significantly< the reactors must be cooled and the hydrogen pressure reduced quickly. 6hen this emergency occurs< there are actions that should be taken immediately and simultaneously< while the first attempt to restart 2%;-N1 is being made. /f 2%;-N1 cannot be restarted immediately< further secondary actions must be taken to protect the catalyst and equipment from damage. I##285-.2 A".5631 The following immediate actions< although listed sequentially< should be performed simultaneously. 1. 8nsure the reactor feed furnace@s main burners ha+e automatically >tripped? due to low gas feed flow< and that the main burners are e=tinguished 1pilot fires remain in ser+ice3. 2. -educe the make-up hydrogen intake flow to F2$A 1F1;<%M2 2m! hr3 of the total design make-up flow 1F:C<!;% 2m! hr3 by shutting down unloading the make-up hydrogen compressors and manually adEusting the compressor spillback control +al+e. .lthough make-up hydrogen is a fuel for the reactors< some gas is needed to aid in mo+ing the oil through the reactor sectionL 1;<%M2 2m! hr will limit the temperature rise to about !% (. !. (ontinue oil feed to the reactor section at design rate. 4il feed is the main source of heat remo+al from the feed furnace and reactors.

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#. (lose 2%;-N1@s discharge motor-operated +al+e 1509-2;%$3 to ensure depressuring flow follows the normal flow path through the reactors< and start depressuring the reactor loop by acti+ating one of the parallel emergency depressuring +al+es. The emergency depressuring +al+es are >full-open? ball +al+es< whose opening can be initiated from the control room or from a safe< easily accessible location in the field by hand switches 15'-2:%1 and 5'-2:%23. 6hen one +al+e is opened< the downstream flow orifice 174-2:%1 or 74-2:%2< depending on which +al+e is opened3 restricts the rate of depressuring to F1%.$ kg cm2 during the first minute. The depressuring system is designed to reduce the reactor section pressure from normal operating pressure to 2$A of design pressure within 2%-!% minutes< using a single +al+e. /f the reactor temperatures are increasing< continue depressuring. /f the pressure reduction gained from opening one +al+e does not stop the temperature rise< both +al+es should be opened< but do not e=ceed a depressuring rate of F21.% kg cm2 min.< to a+oid e=ceeding the capacity of the flare system 1)/-2:%2 indicates the pressure on the common e=port flare header3. .lso< do not e=ceed a pressure drop of F1# kg cm2 across the reactors in order to a+oid mechanical damage to the internals. 1This is an unlikely e+ent< which may occur only if the internals are partially plugged.3 N6.2( Totally isolate 2%;-N1 if it is suspected to be leaking gas to the atmosphere. 1. *a=imi"e the bypass rate around the reactor feed effluent e=changers 12%;-8!. 03 and the reactor effluent recycle gas e=changer 12%;-8;3 to reduce heat input to the reactor feed furnace 12%;-713. 7or ma=imum cooling< fully open 2%;-8!. 0@s bypass 1T/(-1C%!3 and close the feed inlet minimum stop +al+e to the mechanical stop. .dEust the 2%;-8;@s three-way inlet +al+e to fully open the bypass port. NOTE( T>51 1>67/8 C2 -""6#A/51>28 1/6:/0 .6 A42923. 6924>2-.53! .>2 86:31.42-# 2D75A#23..

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S2"638-40 A".5631 1. 'top water inEection to the reactor effluent air cooler 12%;-8M3 to eliminate the possibility of water backflowing into the upstream e=changers. *onitor the interface le+el in the (5)' after water inEection is stopped and block in the interface control +al+e if required. 2. *onitor and maintain le+els in the separators and columns as the reactor section pressure drops. 4pen both le+el control +al+es on the (5)' if necessary to remo+e oil. 6hile the abo+e actions are being carried out< an attempt should be made to restart the recycle gas compressor. -ecycle ,as (ompressor 2ot -estarted 6ithin $ *inutes Knless there is e+idence of a temperature e=cursion during the following steps< continue attempting to restart 2%;-N1 with an open spillback< and restore flow carefully to the reactors. 6hen flow is restored< stop cooling and depressuring and return to normal conditions after reactor temperatures are under control. 1. (ontinue depressuring the reactor loop< +ia the emergency depressuring +al+es< stopping at F#% kg cm2 1g3. This pressure should be sufficient to displace oil from the (5)'< low enough to minimi"e reactions< and still high enough to satisfy the recycle gas compressor@s minimum operating suction pressure. 2. /f catalyst temperatures are not under control at #% kg cm2 1g3< 1appear to be increasing3< continue to depressure the reactor section< stopping at F2% kg cm2 1g3. 12ote: .t about 2$A of design it becomes difficult to mo+e liquid through the separator.3 This pressure should be low enough to stop all reactions< howe+er< feed may ha+e to be discontinued at the lower pressure due to the inability to displace liquid from the (5)'. /f temperatures still appear to be increasing< depressure to F%.# kg cm2 1g3 and prepare to introduce utility nitrogen to sweep the catalyst. !. /f at any time during depressuring the hydrocarbon liquid from the (5)' becomes difficult to transfer to the (L)': 4pen the (5)'@s second le+el control +al+e. -educe the low pressure separator system pressure< by reducing the high set point pressure controller@s 1)/(-2M%!3 set point on the (L)' +apor N4 drum 12%;-(123< to increase liquid transfer. /t may also be necessary to adEust the product stripper@s 12%;-(1#3 pressure controller@s set point

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1)/(-#1%#3 to a lower setting to impro+e liquid transfer from the (L)' to 2%;-(1#. #. -educe 1or stop3 the oil feed flow to the /(- first reactor. 0egin to recycle >cold source? product fractionator bottoms to the reactor feed section +ia the long-loop flow controller 17/(-1#%C3. ,radually change feed o+er to ma=imum cold source product fractionator bottoms and minimum fresh feed from offplot. (ontinue purging with once-through make-up hydrogen to cool the reactors to F2:%(. .s soon as it is safe to do so< gradually increase the make-up hydrogen rate to impro+e oil displacement and reactor cooling. 0e prepared to reduce hydrogen again if any reactor temperature begins to trend upward. /f make-up hydrogen was also lost< feed will ha+e to be discontinued sooner than stated abo+e. /n this case< continue depressuring to allow utility nitrogen to be introduced to the downstream side of the closed recycle gas compressor@s discharge *49 1509-2;%$3< +ia the emergency startup nitrogen connection< to once-through sweep the reactors to continue cooling the catalyst to F2:% (. /f conditions dictate< continue to shut down in an orderly manner.

$.

:.

;.

327

-ecycle ,as (ompressor -estarted 6ithin $ *inutes 1. 2. !. #. $. 'tart 2%;-N1 on total spillback. (arefully reestablish recycle gas flow to the reactor section 1taking care not to o+erfill the (5)'3. (onfirm reactor temperatures are under control. /ntroduce additional make-up hydrogen to stabili"e the reactor section pressure. (ontinue with unit restart following refinery established procedures.

-ecycle ,as (ompressor-estarted .fter $ *inutes 1. /f 2%;-N1 has been down for more than $ minutes and is now capable of being returned to normal operation< repressure the reactor section with make-up hydrogen to F#% kg cm2 1g3. 2. 6hen the reactor section pressure is increased to 2%;-N1@s minimum operating suction pressure< restart the compressor with the spillback +al+e 1%%A open. !. 4nce 2%;-N1 is operating satisfactorily< open the discharge *49 1509-2;%$3 and slowly reestablish recycle gas flow through the reactor section< while watching catalyst temperatures closely. 'ince the reactor section may be >oil packed<? proceed cautiously as recycle gas is reintroduced to the reactors. (losely monitor the high and low pressure separator le+els to pre+ent any carryo+er. The reactor bed temperatures should start to cool as heat is remo+ed< but hidden hot spots could result in e=cessi+e reaction rates when recycle gas is restored. #. /f any catalyst temperature increases une=pectedly< use quench gas to bring temperatures under control and stop increasing reactor pressure. /f temperatures cannot be controlled< depressure to remo+e hydrogen< and then repressure and circulate with nitrogen< if possible< to cool the reactors to F2:%(< after which the nitrogen can be displaced by depressuring and repressuring with hydrogen. $. .fter it is confirmed that reactor temperatures are under control< slowly restore the reactor section pressures to feed-in conditions. 4nce the pressure is stabili"ed< the reactor inlet temperatures should be lined out at F!C( below the inlet temperatures at the time the emergency began.

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:. /nspect the unit for leaks and equipment damage. :. -eintroduce feed to the reactor section 1if remo+ed3 at $%A of design rate. 6hen reactor temperatures and downstream separator systems are stable< return to preupset conditions< following the normal startup steps pre+iously discussed. 2. L611 6? M- 2-UA H0846!23

The 5ydrocracker unit cannot continue to run without a steady supply of make-up hydrogen because without make-up hydrogen most of the remaining hydrogen in the high pressure loop would soon be consumed. .s a result< the reactor section pressure< recycle gas purity< and hydrogen partial pressure will decrease. These conditions increase carbon deposition on the catalyst. /f partial loss of make-up hydrogen occurs< operation can be continued if the feed rate to the reactor section is immediately reduced. The feed rate must be reduced without delay to pre+ent the reactor section from depressuring due to consumption of a+ailable hydrogen. To pre+ent e=cessi+e reaction when the feed rate is reduced< reactor temperatures must be decreased at the same time that the feed rate is decreased in order to maintain the same product con+ersion. /f a total loss of make-up hydrogen occurs< the reaction section must be shut down. The main obEecti+e in this situation is to reduce catalyst temperatures as quickly as possible to pre+ent coking. The following steps reduce hydrogen consumption and maintains recycle gas flow. -efer to Logic (hart $-2 at the end of this section. I##285-.2 A".5631 6hen this emergency occurs< the following actions should be taken immediately and simultaneously: 1. 8=tinguish main burners in the reactor feed furnace 1pilot burners remain lit for fast reco+ery if hydrogen is quickly restored3. 2. (arefully bypass the reactor feed effluent e=changers 12%;-8!. 03 and the reactor effluent recycle gas e=changer 12%;-8;3 to reduce heat input to the reactor feed furnace 12%;-713< as needed< to control catalyst temperatures. 7or ma=imum cooling< fully open 2%;-8!. 0@s bypass 1T/(-1C%!3 and close the feed inlet minimum stop +al+e to the mechanical stop. .dEust the 2%;-8;@s three-way inlet +al+e to fully open the bypass port.

329

2. *a=imi"e recycle gas to impro+e cooling 1ma=imi"e recycle gas compressor speed3. !. 'top reactor bleed gas flow 1if any3. #. *a=imi"e quench to the catalyst beds. S2"638-40 A".5631 6hile the abo+e actions are being carried out< an attempt should be made to restore make-up hydrogen to the reactor section. *ake-Kp 5ydrogen 2ot -estored 1. 6hen the low pressure hydrogen supply to the make-up hydrogen compressor suction is lost< the low set point suction pressure controller will fully open the compressor spillback +al+e. .s soon as it is recogni"ed that hydrogen is lost< unload the make-up hydrogen compressors as necessary. 2. /f reactor temperatures are under control 1stable or decreasing3< discontinue oil feed to the reactor section. 8=perience has shown that pressure loss is substantially reduced by quickly discontinuing feed. !. 'top water inEection to the reactor effluent air cooler. #. (ut reactor feed furnace pilot fires< if not already done< and ha+e the outside operator block-in the fuel gas. $. 6hen the (.T is lowered and feed is remo+ed< loop pressure should remain high enough to circulate hydrogen with the recycle gas compressor. *aintain the reactor section at the ma=imum possible pressure. .lternati+ely< if it is not possible to continue to run the recycle gas compressor< or the make-up hydrogen compressors are out of ser+ice< depressure the reactor section and continue cooling the catalyst with once-through nitrogen. :. (ontinue cooling until catalyst temperatures are at F2:% (. ;. /f make-up hydrogen is not a+ailable within C hours< cool the reactor to F2%$( and continue recycle gas circulation.

330

*ake-Kp 5ydrogen -estored 1. .fter make-up hydrogen is restored< purge nitrogen from the reactor section 1if it was introduced3. /ncrease the reactor section pressure< at 1$-2% kg cm2 hr< to M%A of design to allow for the oil feed-in pressure spike. 2. /f the recycle gas compressor was stopped< restart and establish flow to the reactors. !. /f fires in the reactor feed furnace was totally e=tinguished< purge and fire the furnace to heat the reactor inlet< at a rate of 1$-2%( hr< to F!C( below the reactor inlet temperature at the time the emergency began. #. -eintroduce feed to the reactor section at $%A of design rate. 6hen the reactor temperatures and downstream separator systems are stable< return to preupset conditions< following the normal startup steps pre+iously discussed. 3. L611 6? R2"0"/2 G-1 C6#A421164 -38 M- 2-UA H0846!23 C6#A421164

/f both recycle gas and make-up hydrogen compressors are lost< proceed as in the case of loss of the recycle gas compressor. 4. L611 6? O5/ *228

The sudden loss of oil feed is normally not as ha"ardous as loss of recycle gas< howe+er it is possible to damage the catalyst if correct emergency actions are not followed. 6ithout oil feed as a heat sink< and since gas flow alone is not completely effecti+e at sweeping oil from the reactors< high reactor temperatures can occur unless reactions can be significantly slowed or stopped. /n addition< as reactor inlet temperature controllers are often slow to respond to a sudden drop in feed rate< loss of feed may cause a sudden increase in the reactor feed furnace and reactor inlet temperatures. 6hen this emergency occurs< immediate steps must be taken to cool the affected equipment. There is also a possibility that flow maldistribution will cause locali"ed catalyst hot spots to de+elop. 6hen oil feed is lost< the obEecti+e is to get temperatures< which may surge upward< under control.

331

4.1 L611 6? VGO *228 .6 .>2 R2-".64 *228 S74!2 D47# The liquid holdup in the reactor feed surge drum 12%;-(13 will pro+ide minimal operating time in the e+ent 9,4 feed is lost from offplot. 2%;-(1@s liquid +olume 1liquid holdup3< from a high liquid le+el to a low liquid le+el< di+ided by the design feed rate< equates to F2% minutes of surge in the drum. 4perating 2%;-(1 at F$%A only pro+ides F1% minutes of response time to pre+ent ha+ing to shut down the reactor feed pump. Therefore< the le+el should be operated at a le+el greater than $%A to pro+ide the ma=imum response time. 5owe+er< loss of 9,4 feed< if not restored< will e+entually require shutting down the reactor feed pump due to a low le+el. I##285-.2 A".5631 6hen this emergency occurs< the following actions should be taken immediately and simultaneously: 1. Puickly decrease the reactor temperatures< and reduce the feed rate to $%A of design to e=tend the time a+ailable to correct the problem. .dEust the fractionation and light end section@s operating parameters to maintain on-test products. 2. *a=imi"e recycle gas circulation. !. *aintain reactor loop pressure. S2"638-40 A".5631 6hile the abo+e actions are being carried out< an attempt should be made to restore 9,4 feed to the reactor feed surge drum. 1. 2otify offplot operators about the loss of feed. 2. /f 9,4 feed to reactor feed surge drum cannot be reestablished< shutdown the reactor feed pump and proceed with the guidelines< described below< for loss of reactor feed pump.

332

4.2 L611 6? R2-".64 *228 P7#A Loss of an operating high pressure reactor feed pump is +ery serious and requires quick response by the control room operator to pre+ent potential catalyst damage. /f an operating pump suddenly fails< the spare pump must be quickly put into operation. This means that the spare pump must always be maintained in a ready state 1warmed up and ready to start3. /f the spare pump is started when not properly warmed up< the sudden change in suction fluid temperature can damage the pump< possibly resulting in a seal leak to the atmosphere or wear ring sei"ure. -efer to Logic (hart $-! at the end of this section. I##285-.2 A".5631 6hen this emergency occurs< the following actions should be taken immediately and simultaneously: 1. 8nsure main burners in the reactor feed furnace has automatically >tripped? due to low oil feed flow< and that the main burners are e=tinguished 1pilot fires remain in ser+ice3. Kse quench to cool the reactors to at least !C ( below the temperature they were at before the e+ent began. 2. (arefully bypass the reactor feed effluent e=changers 12%;-8!. 03 and the reactor effluent recycle gas e=changer 12%;-8;3 to reduce heat input to the reactor feed furnace 12%;-713< as needed< to control catalyst temperatures. 7or ma=imum cooling< fully open 2%;-8!. 0@s bypass 1T/(-1C%!3 and close the feed inlet minimum stop +al+e to the mechanical stop. .dEust the 2%;-8;@s three-way inlet +al+e to fully open the bypass port. !. *a=imi"e recycle gas circulation to cool and displace oil from the catalyst. #. 8nsure the emergency isolation +al+e on the oil feed line to the reactor section closed< when the feed flow decreased below the set point of the low flow shutdown settings. S2"638-40 A".5631 6hile the abo+e actions are being carried out< an attempt should be made to restore feed to the reactor section. 1. .s soon as possible< manually close the feed flow control +al+e to better pre+ent any backflow from the high pressure system. 2. .ttempt to restart the reactor feed pump< or spare< on total spillback to the reactor feed surge drum.

333

!. *onitor and maintain le+els in the separators and columns. .s the liquid flow from the (L)' to the fractionator feed furnace begins to diminish< assure that emergency circulation flow from the fractionator bottoms pumps to the fractionator feed furnace has automatically started to maintain the total flow through the furnace abo+e the minimum requirement. #. .s feed is lost and temperatures drop< hydrogen consumption will decline. Knload the make-up compressors as necessary to stay within the spillback system capacity. $. Kse quench to control reactor temperature< if necessary. /f temperatures begin to rise out of control< stop make-up hydrogen and emergency depressure as necessary. Do not e=ceed a depressuring rate of 21.% kg cm2 min. :. 9erify that all uncon+erted oil air cooler fans are in ser+ice and the product fractionator bottoms to offplot does not e=ceed design 1normally FM% (3. (ut back on the fractionator feed furnace outlet temperature< and manually reduce flow through the cooler if necessary. /t is acceptable to let the product fractionator bottoms le+el increase 1within le+el transmitter range3 because flow to the product fractionator from the reactors will e+entually stop. 7eed )ump is 2ot -unning on 'pillback 6ithin 1% *inutes 1. 5old unit condition until the reactor feed pump is ready to run or it is determined to further shutdown the unit. 2. 6ait until reactor temperatures are at least !C ( below where they were at before the feed pump failure and are stable before attempting to restart the feed pump and reintroducing feed to the reactor section. .fter feed is introduced at $%A of design< return to preupset conditions at a feed rate within the limit of the uncon+erted oil air coolers. /ncrease feed rate and con+ersion to where they were at before the e+ent began. 7eed )ump is -unning on 'pillback 6ithin 1% *inutes 1. /f all reactor temperatures are dropping< and it has been less than 1% minutes since the reactor feed pump failure< reintroduce 9,4 feed at $%A of design. 2. -eturn to preupset conditions at a feed rate within the limit of the uncon+erted air coolers. /ncrease feed rate and con+ersion to where they were at before the e+ent began.

334

).

R2-".64 T2#A24-.742 E="7415631

. temperature e=cursion is not likely to occur if proper emergency actions are taken in a timely manner. 5owe+er< if unchecked< it can cause serious damage to the catalyst and reactors. The hydrogenation reactions are e=othermic 1heat producing3L in addition< the reaction rates increase with increasing temperature. /f reactor temperatures are not controlled properly 1furnace temperature< quench gas control< reactor feed effluent e=changer interaction< etc.3< temperature increases will increase the reaction rate< which results in more heat being generated. The net effect is an accelerating temperature rise. . gradual temperature increase is usually called an e=cursion. . faster< rapidly accelerating temperature increase would be called a runaway. /n either case< the emergency actions are the same since an e=cursion can become a runaway with little warning. 'ince the number of catalyst bed thermocouples 1T/s3 are limited< an e=cursion detected by T/s may actually be in the fringe of a region located away from the T/s. The T/s may indicate a slow gradual rise as some of the heat reaches them< but when the e=cursion region e=pands to the T/s< the temperature will rise suddenly and dramatically. /f reaction temperatures get high enough 1F#C%G(3< thermal 1not catalytic3 hydrocracking can result< greatly increasing the heat release. /f thermal hydrocracking occurs to an appreciable degree< reactor bed temperatures can increase to o+er C%%G( within minutes. 2o temperature point in the reactors< bed or skin< should e+er be allowed to e=ceed ##%G(. This pro+ides a 1#G( safety margin below the mechanical design limit of #$#G( to account for possibly higher temperatures where T/s are not located. Therefore< it is important to respond before a temperature reaches ##%G(. /f any temperature increases CG( abo+e its normal le+el une=pectedly< use quench as required. Puench pro+ides cooling for the hot catalyst and should bring temperatures back down. 6hene+er any temperature point approaches #2%(< or continues to increase after attempting to control with quench< it may be an indication of a serious temperature e=cursion that has the potential of becoming a temperature runaway if proper actions are not taken. -efer to Logic (hart $-# at the end of this section.

335

I##285-.2 A".5631 The following immediate actions must be taken to bring reactor temperatures under control to pre+ent a temperature e=cursion from occurring: 1. .ssure that ma=imum quench to the offending reactor bed is already established. (heck that the reactor bed inlet quench +al+es are not sticking and that quench gas is going into the reactor. 2. 6hen quench gas is increased< gas feed to the reactor inlet may decrease. *a=imi"e recycle gas compressor speed to achie+e ma=imi"e recycle gas to cool and displace oil from the catalyst. !. 8=tinguish the reactor feed furnace main burners. The pilot burners remain in ser+ice< but can be e=tinguished if required. #. *a=imi"e the bypass rate around the reactor feed effluent e=changers 12%;-8!. 03 and the reactor effluent recycle gas e=changer 12%;-8;3 to reduce heat input to the reactor feed furnace 12%;-713. 7or ma=imum cooling< fully open 2%;-8!. 0@s bypass 1T/(-1C%!3 and close the feed inlet minimum stop +al+e to the mechanical stop. .dEust the 2%;-8;@s three-way inlet +al+e to fully open the bypass port. $. A. .>51 A653., 5? .>2 .2#A24-.742 2="741563 "6385.563 51 36. 73824 "63.46/ $5.2., .2#A24-.7421 -42 53"42-153!%, 82A4211742 .>2 42-".64 /66A C0 6A2353! .>2 2#24!23"0 82A42117453! 9-/92. Do not e=ceed a reactor section depressuring rate of 21.% kg cm2 min.< or the design pressure differential of 1#.% kg cm2 across any reactor. :. 'top all make-up hydrogen to the reactor loop. ;. (ontinue oil feed to the reactor section at design rate to carry heat out of the reactors.

336

S2"638-40 A".5631 1. /f at any time during depressuring the hydrocarbon liquid from the (5)' becomes difficult to transfer to the (L)': 4pen the (5)'@s second le+el control +al+e. -educe the low pressure separator system pressure< by reducing the high set point pressure controller@s 1)/(-2M%!3 set point on the (L)' +apor N4 drum 12%;-(123< to increase liquid transfer. /t may also be necessary to adEust the product stripper@s 12%;-(1#3 pressure controller@s set point 1)/(-#1%#3 to a lower setting to impro+e liquid transfer from the (L)' to 2%;-(1#. -educe 1or stop3 the oil feed flow to the /(- first reactor.

!. 9erify that all reactor effluent air cooler fans are operating. .ll -eactor Temperatures .re 2ot Knder (ontrol 1. 'top water inEection. 2. 2otify emergency response team of potential equipment failure. !. (ontinue depressuring the reactor loop< +ia the emergency depressuring +al+es< stopping at F#% kg cm2 1g3. This pressure should be sufficient to displace oil from the (5)'< low enough to minimi"e reactions< and still high enough to satisfy the recycle gas compressor@s minimum operating suction pressure. *a=imi"e gas circulation. N6.2( /f catalyst temperatures are not under control at this point< continue with the steps below: #. (ontinue to depressure the reactor loop to the minimum pressure required to operate the recycle gas compressor< and continue to circulate gas through the reactors to cool the catalyst. $. :. 'top the recycle gas compressor and close the discharge *49.

337

;. (ontinue to depressure the reactor loop. C. 6hen the reactor loop pressure is low enough< introduce nitrogen to the downstream side of the recycle gas compressor@s discharge *49< +ia the emergency startup nitrogen connection. 'weep nitrogen through the reactors for final cooling. .ll -eactor Temperatures .re Knder (ontrol 1. 6hen catalyst temperatures in the reactors ha+e cooled to 2:% (< and the reactor section is stable< stop depressuring and maintain the then reactor loop pressure with make-up hydrogen. (losely monitor catalyst temperatures when hydrogen is reintroduced. 2. *aintain the current feed rate to the reactor section. !. 8+aluate reactor bed temperatures to determine if the unit should be returned to preupset conditions. N6.2( /f reactor design temperatures 1#$#G(3 were e=ceeded< irre+ersible damage may ha+e occurred to: -eactor *etal -eactor 4utlet )iping 7eed 8ffluent 8=changers

/n such an e+ent< a thorough metallurgical in+estigation should be made. #. /nspect the unit for leaks. $. /f there is no equipment damage or unit leaks< and the reactor temperatures are stable< the unit can be repressured and reheated. /f feed was stopped< it should be reintroduced at temperatures at least !C ( below the temperature the reactors were at before the emergency began< and the unit slowly returned to preupset conditions.

338

6.

G-1 L2- 64 *542 53 .>2 H5!> P4211742 R2-".563 S2".563

. leak in the high pressure reactor section can be a serious emergency that requires immediate action to pre+ent harm to personnel and equipment. The first mo+es made will determine the e=tent of damage done. 0e decisi+e and act promptly. 6hen a leak occurs in the high pressure reactor section< the entire high pressure section will start to depressure through the leak. These escaping gases can pro+ide fuel for a serious fire. The high pressure leak may result in noise le+els which pre+ent good communication. /t is important to know what to do during such an emergency. -efer to Logic (hart $-$ at the end of this section. I##285-.2 A".5631 *ake the following mo+es simultaneously< with the target being to depressure the high pressure loop and put inert nitrogen into the reactor section as soon as possible. 1. *ain and pilot burner fires in the reactor and fractionator feed furnaces should be immediately e=tinguished. (ool reactor beds quickly with quench< ma=imi"e reactor feed effluent e=changer bypass rate< and continue recycle gas as long as possible to assist cooling. 2. *ake-up hydrogen to the reactor section must be stopped by unloading and shutting down the make-up hydrogen compressors and closing the isolation +al+e in the high pressure hydrogen header. /f possible< depending on the location of the emergency< preparations should be made to operate one of the make-up hydrogen compressors on nitrogen. !. The reactor feed pump must be shut down. 8nsure that the emergency isolation 1chopper3 +al+e on the feed line tripped shut< and close the reactor feed pump discharge +al+e as soon as possible. #. 0egin to depressure the reactor loop to the flare< +ia the emergency depressuring +al+e. $. (all for backup help from refinery fire fighting teams< e+en if there is no fire. /n case of fire< cool surrounding equipment with water.

339

S2"638-40 A".5631 :. 0lock in the main and pilot burner fuel gas supply to all furnaces< and admit snuffing steam into the firebo=es< if safe to do so. ;. *onitor all separator hydrocarbon le+els carefully to pre+ent blowing high pressure gas into the low pressure +essels. C. 'top water inEection by shutting down the operating inEection water pump and ensuring the emergency block 1chopper3 +al+e closed. M. 'hut down the recycle gas compressor when the reactor section pressure is at #% kg cm2 1g3. 1%. 'tart nitrogen to the reactor section when the pressure drops below the utility nitrogen header pressure. *aintain nitrogen flow until all hydrocarbon +apors are displaced from the reactor section. 11. /f the leak has not been contained< maintain a nitrogen flow from the leak location to pre+ent pulling air into the reactor section. 12. .ssuming there is no fire< at this point< it is safe to determine what caused the leak< and to assess damage that may ha+e been incurred.

340

<.

U.5/5.0 *-5/7421

<.1 L611 6? I31.47#23.-.563 /nstrument failure can be from two causesSinstrument power failure or instrument air failure< both of which are unlikely to occur if instrument power is backed up with batteries and an emergency generator< and the instrument air is supplied from two compressorsSone on electricity and the other on steam. The fail-safe position of all control +al+es in the high pressure section essentially blocks-in the section in the e+ent of an instrument air failure. 4ne item demands immediate action. The (5)' le+el control +al+e will fail closed< causing the liquid le+el in the separator to rise rapidly. The control +al+e should be opened manually 1+ia hand-Eacks3 to a+oid liquid carryo+er into the high pressure 5 2' absorber< and possibly recycle gas compressor shutdown due to a high le+el in the recycle compressor N4 drum. The following is a summary of control +al+e failure positions: The reactor quench +al+es and feed effluent e=changer bypass fails in their present position< and then slowly drifts open 17L43. .ll raw oil feed +al+es fail closed. The reactor feed surge drums nitrogen blanketing +al+e fails open and the +ent +al+e to the flare fails closed. The drum will stabili"e at refinery utility nitrogen header pressure. The high pressure oil feed control +al+e and emergency chopper +al+e to the reactor section fails closed. 4perator action is required to bypass the emergency chopper +al+e@s trip de+ice in order to reintroduce feed. The reactor feed pump minimum flow spillback +al+e fails open. /f the emergency chopper +al+e and stop-check +al+e on the feed pump@s discharge fails< full reactor pressure could be di+erted directly to the reactor feed surge drum. The reactor feed furnace and fractionator feed furnace main burner fuel supply trips shut and cannot be reintroduced without a field operator resetting the trip de+ice.

341

The reactor loop emergency depressuring +al+es are failOopen +al+es with spring-return actuators that are held closed by instrument air. .n instrument air +olume bottle< on each emergency depressuring +al+e< has double check +al+es on the instrument air supply line to pre+ent the emergency depressuring +al+e from 1nuisance3 opening on loss of plant instrument air. The air +olume bottle@s air capacity allows at least three +al+e strokes. The electrical controls to each emergency depressuring +al+e include redundant solenoids< both of which must deenergi"e to open the depressuring +al+e. This pre+ents [nuisance@ depressuring if one of the solenoid +al+e@s electrical coils fail< thereby still pro+iding fail-safe operation. /f a fire or other mishap damages the wiring to both solenoids< the unit will be depressured. The make-up hydrogen compressor spillback +al+e fails open and the compressor capacity loaders will unload< stopping hydrogen make-up flow to the reactor section. The recycle gas compressor spillback +al+e fails in place< and then slowly drifts open 17L43.

N6.2( -ecycle gas flow must be maintained at high rates through the reactor feed furnace and reactor quench lines< to ensure proper furnace tubes and reactor cooling. Therefore< final details of design must pro+ide the ability for the recycle gas compressor to continue to operate and circulate gas when instrument air supply is lost. The product stripper o+erhead pressure control +al+e fails closed. The product fractionator o+erhead pressure control system fails< with the fractionator o+erhead condenser bypass +al+e closed and the condenser outlet +al+e open. The fractionator reflu= drum high set point pressure control +al+e to the flare fails closed. 'team generator le+el control +al+es fail in place and then slowly drifts closed 17L(3. .ll separator and column le+el control +al+es fail closed< including water draw le+el controllers. The water inEection chopper +al+e fails closed and requires a field operator to reset the trip de+ice to reopen the +al+e after the emergency. The inEection water pump minimum flow pressure control +al+e fails open.

342

.ll product flow control +al+es fail closed. .ll reflu= and pumparound flow control +al+es in the fractionation section fails open. 'tripping steam control +al+e to the product stripper< product fractionator< and diesel stripper fails closed.

I##285-.2 A".5631 *ost instrumentation failures are of short duration because backup systems acti+ate< such as a backup nitrogen supply or power source. 4nce an instrumentation failure has caused the unit control +al+es to go to a fail-safe position< it is not desirable to ha+e them suddenly return to set point if instrumentation control is returned. 'teps to take during this emergency are as follows: 1. *anually block fuel gas to the reactor and fractionator feed furnaces. 9erify that the main burners are e=tinguished. 2. Loss of instrument air to the make-up hydrogen compressor@s capacity loading-de+ice will unload the compressor. .dEust the capacity loading-de+ice to %A loading to pre+ent a sudden surge of make-up hydrogen to the reactor loop when instrument air pressure is restored. !. 0egin depressuring the reactor section to F#% kg cm2 1g3. The emergency depressuri"ation +al+e@s backup air supply allows the +al+es to be opened from the control room or from a safe< easily accessible location in the field. 'hould the backup instrument air supply be lost< the emergency depressuring +al+es will fully open their fail-safe position. #. *a=imi"e recycle gas compressor speed to achie+e ma=imi"e recycle gas to cool and displace oil from the catalyst. $. 9erify that the oil feed chopper +al+e closed. :. (losely monitor catalyst temperatures. /f any temperature begins to increase out of control< proceed as if it is a temperature e=cursion.

343

S2"638-40 A".5631 ;. .s soon as possible< the control room operator should go on manual control and set the control +al+es to reflect their positions in the field. /f the +al+e failed closed< the controller should be closed in manual mode. 4pening of +al+es 1such as fuel gas3 on a sudden resumption of instrument air pressure could cause an e=plosion in the furnaces 1should the trip solenoid +al+e function incorrectly< etc.3. C. 'hut down the reactor feed pump and close the discharge +al+e. M. 'hut down the inEection water pump and close the discharge +al+e. 1%. *anually control the le+els in the steam generators with the boiler feedwater le+el control +al+e bypasses. To pre+ent o+erfilling< blowdown +al+es may be opened as required. 11. 'hut down the make-up hydrogen compressors. 12. *anually control the le+els in separators and columns with the hand-Eacks or bypasses. /f all le+el indication has been lost it will be difficult to control these le+els. *onitor the local pressure gauges in the low pressure systems for indications of gas blowing through. 1!. The reactor low pressure section@s pressure is manually controlled with the bypass around the high set point pressure controller on the (L)' +apor N4 drum to the flare. 1#. /solate the (5)' and (L)' sour water interface le+el control +al+es. *anually block one +al+e on each letdown manifold. /nstrument .ir 2ot -estored 1$. (ontinue with an orderly unit shutdown.

344

-ecycle ,as (ompressor Lost 1:. /f the recycle gas compressor shuts down during this emergency< do not maintain the reactor loop pressure. (ontinue to depressure at a rapid rate to reach F$% kg cm2 1g3 in order to stop all e=othermic reactions. /f the make-up compressor cannot be restarted and or loaded to sweep the unit at $% kg cm2 with hydrogen or nitrogen< continue to depressure to F%.# kg cm2 1g3. 1;. 6hen the reactor section pressure reaches F%.# kg cm2 1g3< purge the reactor loop with low pressure hydrogen or nitrogen flowing through the unloaded hydrogen make-up compressor. 1C. (ontinue the unit shutdown. /nstrumentation -estored 1M. 6hen instrumentation is restored< the control room operator should take control of +al+es and make control mo+es as necessary. 2%. -eestablish the reactor loop temperatures and pressure< obser+ing the reactor temperature and pressure restrictions< and then reestablish normal operating conditions utili"ing refinery-appro+ed procedures. <.2 L611 6? E/2".45" P6:24 6hen a general refinery power failure occurs< the reaction section must be shut down immediately due to loss of electric pump and compressor dri+ers and one-half of the fans on the reactor effluent air cooler and uncon+erted oil air cooler. The steam-dri+en recycle gas compressor is a+ailable for cooling down the reactor. *aEor equipment that will shut down is: -eactor 7eed )umps *ost .ir (ooler 7ans /nEection 6ater )ump *ake-Kp 5ydrogen (ompressors *ost Low )ressure )rocess )umps

345

8quipment that continues to run on emergency power or is steam-dri+en is: 5alf of the 7ans on the -eactor 8ffluent .ir (oolerS8mergency )ower 5alf of the 7ans on the Kncon+erted 4il .ir (oolerS8mergency )ower -ecycle ,as (ompressorS'team Turbine Dri+en Lube 4il and 'eal 4il 'upply )umps for the -ecycle ,as (ompressorS 'team Turbine Dri+en Lube 4il 'upply )umps for the -eactor 7eed )umps and *ake-Kp 5ydrogen (ompressorsS'team Turbine Dri+en 7ractionator 0ottoms >0? )umpS'team Turbine Dri+en

I##285-.2 A".5631 6hen an electrical power failure is e=perienced< power is normally restored within a few minutes to within a few hoursL howe+er< there is no option other than to take the following immediate steps to protect the unit and begin to prepare for a long-term power outage. /n the reaction section< the emergency is +irtually the same as loss of feed. 1-efer to those guidelines.3 1. 8nsure main burners in the reactor feed furnace has automatically >tripped? due to low oil feed flow< and that the main burners are e=tinguished 1pilot fires remain in ser+ice3. Kse quench to cool the reactors to at least !C ( below the temperature they were at before the e+ent began. 2. *onitor and maintain le+els in the separators and columns. .s the liquid flow from the (L)' to the fractionator section begins to diminish< assure that emergency circulation flow from the fractionator bottoms >0? pump to the fractionator feed furnace has automatically started to maintain the total flow through the furnace abo+e the minimum requirement. !. (arefully bypass the reactor feed effluent e=changers 12%;-8!. 03 and the reactor effluent recycle gas e=changer 12%;-8;3 to reduce heat input to the reactor feed furnace 12%;-713< as needed< to control catalyst temperatures. 7or ma=imum cooling< fully open 2%;-8!. 0@s bypass 1T/(-1C%!3 and close the feed inlet minimum stop +al+e to the mechanical stop. .dEust the 2%;-8;@s three-way inlet +al+e to fully open the bypass port.

346

#. *a=imi"e recycle gas to cool and displace oil from the catalyst. 4bser+e the recycle gas compressor operation closely< since instruments will be deacti+ated if emergency power is not supplied. The loss of half of the reactor effluent air cooler fans may cause the compressor suction temperature to rise. The compressor must be shut down when the suction temperature e=ceeds the ma=imum temperature allowed by the manufacturer. $. 9erify the emergency isolation 1chopper3 +al+e on the oil feed line to the reactor section closed when the feed flow decreased below the set point of the low flow shutdown setting. :. (losely monitor catalyst temperatures. /f any temperature begins to increase out of control< proceed as if it is a temperature e=cursion. S2"638-40 A".5631 ;. The control room operator should switch all temperature< flow< and le+el controllers 1affected by the loss of electric motors or pumps and compressors3 to the manual mode< and set control +al+es to reflect their fail-safe position in the field. C. /f the reactor has not been cooled below 2:% ( before the compressor has to be shut down< it will be necessary to depressure and continue cooling the reactor with make-up hydrogen or nitrogen. )ower /s 2ot -estored M. /f power cannot be restored< proceed with a normal shutdown according to 'ection $.$. )ower /s -estored 1%. 5old system pressure at #% kg cm2 1g3. 11. 9erify that electrical power is restored and reliable. 12. -eturn unit to preupset conditions using refinery-appro+ed procedures.

347

<.3 L611 6? C66/53! W-.24 (ooling water failure will cause: -ecycle gas compressor failure due to loss of the condensing turbine and loss of lube and seal oil cooling. Loss of make-up hydrogen due to loss of cylinder Eacket cooling. 8+entual loss of oil feed due to loss of lube oil cooling for the reactor feed pump. The temperature of the product rundown streams will increase.

)roceed as in the case of loss of make-up hydrogen. /f the reactor feed pump is lost before oil feed has cooled the reactors< continue depressuring to the pressure le+el of the nitrogen header< then cool with nitrogen. <.4 L611 6? H5!> P4211742 S.2-# 'team failure will result in loss of the recycle gas compressor. )roceed with steps described for loss of recycle gas compressor. <.) S.-4.7A *6//6:53! E#24!23"0 S>7.86:31 6ith make-up hydrogen< increase the reactor section pressure to FM%A of normal operating pressure< and establish pressure control consistent with the pressuring restriction outlined in the reactor pressuri"ation section. 6hile pressuring the system< watch temperatures closely. /f any catalyst temperature increases une=pectedly< use quench gas to bring temperatures under control and continue pressuring at a slower rate. /f temperatures cannot be controlled< reduce pressure and continue ma=imum recycle gas circulation. 6hen the reactor temperatures and pressure are lined out< oil feed can be introduced.

348

MODULE 16 TITLE

CPCL HYDROCRACKER UNIT TRAINING GENERAL UNIT OPERATION OBJECTIVES

The participant shall be able to: 1. 2. !. #. List normal unit operator duties Describe safe sampling philosphies Display general knowledge of troubleshooting potential problems Display knowledge of the consequences of de+iation from operating limits

349

MODULE 16 TITLE

CPCL HYDROCRACKER UNIT TRAINING GENERAL UNIT OPERATION N64#-/ OA24-.64 D7.521

OA24-.64 C>2" 1 )ipe and equipment flanges for leaks. )umpsScheck for seal leaks< hot bearings< noisy bearings< +ibration< lubrication 1static or circulating3< cooling water< condition of standby pump< minimum flow system 1if so equipped3< seal flush< proper +al+e lineup< shaft a=ial mo+ement. Dri+er 1steam turbine3Slubrication< hot bearings< noisy bearings< coupling guard in place< sentinel +al+e< steam traps< turbine e=haust relief +al+e< automatic pump start properly set up. Dri+er 1motor3Slubrication< bearing noise< bearing temperature< coupling< (ompressors 1centrifugal3Scirculating lube oil system operating properly< spare lube oil pump set up correctly< cooling system< seal oil system operating properly< compressor lube oil return temperatures in normal range< oil reser+oir le+els< check +ibration sensors. (ompressors 1reciprocating3Scrankcase oil le+el< lube oil pump pressure< cylinder lube oil reser+oir le+el< all cylinder and packing lube pumps working properly< standby lube oil pump set up properly< Eacket water system operating properly< compressor +al+e noise. 7urnacesSfirebo= draft< burner firing pattern< boiler water circulation 1if equipped3< appearance of tubes for hot spots. .ir cooler 1fin-fan3 e=changersSslipping belts< missing belts< noisy motor bearings< header bo= plug leaks. .ll safety protection de+ices in normal position (ontrol +al+e bypasses are closed. /f open< what is the reasonT

O7.1582 R2-853!1 /ncluded in the field operator\s duties of routine sur+eillance is recording of conditions of equipment in the plant. This is done on a regularly scheduled basis< usually e+ery four hours around the clock. The method for recording these data is the ]outside reading sheet]. 4n this sheet are the description and instrument number of the item to be recorded< and its normal operating range. The information recorded on the reading sheets is usually information that is not transmitted into the D(' control system. -ecording and retaining this information may be useful as an indicator of when a part of the process begins to de+iate from normal. /t may be useful in reconstructing e+ents leading to an upset or emergency situation. 350

PLANT MAINTENANCE PROCEDURAL GUIDELINES These procedural guidelines are pro+ided for information only< and (he+ron Lummus ,lobal LL( and its affiliated companies assume no liability whatsoe+er with respect to their use< e=cept as may be pro+ided in applicable written agreements. The facility operator is responsible for the operations and safety of the facility. This section pro+ides general information regarding the following procedural guidelines: 4perating and Testing )rocess )lant .larms and 'hutdowns ,uidelines for 'afe 8quipment /solation 'afe )ractices for 8ntering (onfined 'paces (hemical (leaning of 8quipment (he+ron< as an operator of many hydroprocessing and other refining units< has substantial e=perience in plant maintenance practices and procedures. 'ome of the procedures and philosophies de+eloped from this e=perience as listed abo+e are described generally in the form of guidelines in this section. The information is presented here for the licensee@s use to better ensure safe and efficient operation of the (he+ron hydroprocessing plant. 6e en+ision that the information would be used by the licensee for the de+elopment of detailed procedures for the (he+ron hydroprocessing plant< or for detailed re+iew of and impro+ements to e=isting licensee refinery procedures where applied to the (he+ron hydroprocessing plant. There are< of course< many maintenance procedures in common use which are not included hereinL we ha+e only pro+ided those guidelines which are felt to be of particular +alue to the licensee. (he+ron emphasi"es that the full responsibility for de+elopment and implementation of any licensee procedures and practices rests solely with the licensee< without any liability to (he+ron.

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4perating and Testing )rocess )lant .larms /n a typical (he+ron hydroprocessing unit there are numerous alarms of different type and design that are pro+ided to enunciate and thereby alert the operating personnel that some operating +ariable ha+e mo+ed from its design operating parameters and deser+es attention and correction. /n order to take full ad+antage of the alarms pro+ided< a continuous alarm maintenance program must be implemented prior to startup of a new plant. . successful alarm maintenance program and the subsequent testing procedures must start with a clearly defined alarm philosophy. This philosophy should state that: 1. 2. .ll alarms are important and deser+e immediate attention when they actuate. .s a day-to-day operating goal< all alarms should run in the >all clear? position. /f an alarm is on< due to some temporary plant condition< it should be adEusted or disabled to a+oid running the plant continually with se+eral alarms on all the time. This can lead to poor sur+eillance of important alarms that may come on and go unnoticed. .ll alarms must be checked 1with limited e=ception3 on a predetermined time inter+al< normally at plant startup and then once each month. .s a goal< all alarm checks should be made from the original trip source and not by software manipulation or other false means. This means that in many cases test fluid connections must be pro+ided in the original design. 0ecause some alarms in a ser+ice that is +ery hot and at high pressure< manipulating the bridle +al+es to test the alarms is considered too ha"ardous to risk testing on a routing basis. This class of alarms should be tested on startup only 1e.g.< hot high pressure separator high le+el alarm3. #. (ommodity testing of alarms is acceptable in some cases. (ommodity testing can be defined as manipulating the normal process +ariable until the alarm trip point is reached. 7or e=ample< a process drum has a water interface that has a high le+el alarm. The control operator can restrict the water flow out of the drum and cause the interface to rise up to the high le+el alarm trip point. This should sound the alarm. The control operator would then return the instrument to normal set point control. /t is important to know the location of the sensing point of each alarm. /n a modern-day refinery with a (-T 1T9 screen3 based digital control system< a large portion of the alarms are >software? alarms. .ny +ariable that comes to the computer can be alarmed by setting the software to measure the de+iation from a set point. This software alarm feature can be both good and bad. /f e+ery +ariable has an alarm and the trip points are set too close to normal +alues< it quickly becomes impossible for the control operator to

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keep track of the alarms and make priority mo+es. ,ood Eudgment must be used when assigning alarms and alarm trip points. 0ecause the alarm set points of software alarms are easily changed< there must be an audit program in place such that alarm set point changes ha+e to go through an appro+al step before they are mo+ed. 'ome alarms are so important that they ha+e separate wires that bypass the computer and come directly to an annunciation panel in the control room. These are called >hard wired alarms? and are usually assigned only to critical process +ariables. They require special testing procedures. :. *ost temperature alarms ha+e a thermocouple in a thermowell as the original sensing point. The only way to accurately test them is to remo+e the thermocouple from the well and place the sensing point of the couple in a controlled hot oil bath with a known temperature. 0ecause these sensing points are +ery reliable they are usually tested during maintenance shutdowns only. .nother group of alarms that ha+e a unique point is the rotating equipment +ibration shutdown alarms. The sensing point on these alarms and shutdowns are pro=imity probes that measure the distance between the probe and the rotating machine shaft. (hanges in the pro=imity indicate +ibration. These alarms are part of the +endor equipment package with their own instrument panels. The following sections further define guidelines for alarm documentation procedures and testing. Typical .larm Descriptions and Testing .ll operating personnel must be fully trained on the description< operation< and testing of each alarm and what will happen if the alarm comes on during plant operation. This training must take place prior to new plant startup. This procedure should ha+e the following information: 1. .larm tag number and name. 8=ample: L.5-;#C< fractionator o+erhead accumulator high-high le+el alarm. Description of the kind of alarm it is: 8=ample: L.5-;#C is not a >hard wired? alarm 1i.e.< it is not a dedicated alarm on a control room alarm panel< it is a >soft wired? alarm appearing only in the digital control system3 that detects a high oil le+el in the fractionator o+erhead accumulator and is actuated by a le+el transmitter on the +essel instrument bridle.

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(ondition: Describe the conditions that possibly caused the alarm. 8=ample: . high le+el in this +essel can be caused by a malfunction of the +essel oil le+el transmitter< le+el controller< control +al+e< or a loss of reflu= pump that is restricting the flow of oil out of the +essel. (orrecti+e .ction: 8=ample: 4pen the le+el controller bypass to reestablish a normal le+el or switch to the spare pump if the main pump shuts down. /n+estigate the problem with the instrumentation or pump. Testing )rocedure: 8=ample: )ut the high le+el shutdown switch on bypass. (lose the block +al+e on the top lead between the instrument bridle and the transmitter and +ent the transmitter to the relief header. This will force the oil le+el up the transmitter and trip the alarm. .fter the alarm trip point is +erified< close the +ent to the relief header and open the top block +al+e to the transmitter and return instrumentation to normal.

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These documents should be written by the plant super+isors and operators who will operate the alarms on a day to day basis. The alarm checklist will be used to record the test status of all the plant alarms. The alarm checklist should include the following data: 1. .larm tag number. 2. .larm name and location. !. Designed trip point. #. . place to record the actual trip point when tested. $. Date and time of the test. :. Disposition of repair work order. ;. -emarks 8=ample: Tag 2o. L.LL-;%; T.5-;!1 2ame (5)' Low Le+el 2o. 1 -^-/nlet Design Trip ;%A #$% .ctual Trip ;!A 12$ Test Date ; 1C MM ; 2 MM 'ignature D. 6. 0rown ). ,. 'mith -epair 2one 6ork 4rder /n -emarks 4N 2eeds -epair

354

4peration of .utomatic 'hutdowns and .larms . typical (he+ron hydroprocessing unit will be equipped with automatic alarms and shutdown de+ices on +arious pieces of equipment. These de+ices are an important part of the plant@s operating philosophy. 'ince it has been decided that they will actuate automatically< it is important that a firm procedure for operating and testing these de+ices be in place. These de+ices are normally designed with a bypass switch that will disable the instrumentation. /t is important to know that these bypasses are pro+ided for maintenance and testing of the instruments. They are not to pre+ent shutdowns during plant operation. The alarm operating procedures should say that the bypass switches on these instruments will only be used for maintenance and testing. 'pecial Low 7low 'hutdown 'afety De+ice on 5igh )ressure 7eed (ontrol 9al+es 0ecause the high pressure feed control +al+es separate the low pressure section from the high pressure reactor section< precautions must be taken to pre+ent backflow from the high pressure section into the low pressure feed section. . one-quarter turn< full flow ball +al+e with supporting instrumentation is pro+ided as a safety de+ice. This +al+e ser+es as the primary protection de+ice. 0ecause this low flow shutdown de+ice must be tested while the plant is in operation< specific testing procedures must be de+eloped and followed when testing. *aEor -otating 8quipment .larms *ost maEor rotating equipment comes from the +endors with their own local mounted alarm panel. These panels will house all the alarms and other instrumentation that will support the equipment. /t is important that operating and testing procedures for this panel be de+eloped. /t is also necessary that the instruments be designed with the ability to test the alarms and shutdowns while the machine is operating. 8ach maEor piece of equipment such as a hydrogen recycle compressor or high pressure feed pump should ha+e its own startup checklist. )art of this checklist is the alarm checklist. )rior to each startup of a maEor piece of equipment during the precommissioning check out< each alarm on the machine should be tested to ensure that the alarms are working as intended. 7or e=ample< if the low lube oil alarms and shutdown on the hydrogen recycle compressor are not working properly and the lube oil pump fails< costly and time consuming damage will occur to the compressor. (hecking the alarms prior to each startup will help ensure that this does not happen.

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,uidelines for 'afe )rocedures for /solating 8quipment for /nspection or -epair This discussion suggests methods for isolating equipment in the refinery. )roper isolation methods are designed to protect against accidental inEury to personnel and damage to refinery property. 0efore starting any type of repair< equipment must be properly isolated and positi+e +erification achie+ed such that no ha"ardous energy sources e=ist< and the correct permits must be issued and signed. 5a"ardous energy is classified as any source of electrical< mechanical< hydraulic< pneumatic< chemical< thermal or other energy. 2ote that this section co+ers only isolation. 8ntry requirements are discussed in 'ection C.! of the ()(L )rocess *anual. Definitions LOCKOUT/TAGOUT: The installation of a lockout de+ice and tag in order to isolate ha"ardous energy in accordance with the refinery instruction. LOCKOUT DEVICE: 4ne that utili"es a positi+e means such as a lock< to hold an energy isolating de+ice in a safe position and pre+ent the energi"ing of a machine or piece of equipment. /ncluded are blank flanges 1blinds< boilermakers3 and bolted slip blinds. LOCKOUT BOARD 64 STATION: This is where lockout tagout status information is displayed. 'ome units may ha+e lockout station in the plant at equipment which is routinely locked and tagged out. These stations can also pro+ide a con+enient storage area and protect the lockout de+ices from the natural elements. BLIND LIST: This is the official document that records when a blind is installed and when it is remo+ed. The document allows for complete audit of the blind status with the signature of the responsible person doing the audit. BLIND BOARD: The Lockout Tag 'ystem begins with each blind being represented by two tags with identical numbers. The two tags are tied to the flange that will be blinded. 6hen the blind is installed one tag mo+es from the flange to the blind board. 6hen the blind is remo+ed the other tag comes to the blind board.

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SERVICING AND/OR MAINTENANCE O* E+UIPMENT: This includes acti+ities such as constructing< installing< setting up< adEusting< inspecting< modifying< and maintaining and or ser+icing equipment. ,enerally< 4perations owns the equipment and is responsible for the initial isolation. *aintenance is responsible for +erifying isolation and controlling the isolation de+ices before they begin ser+icing the equipment. TAGS: . system that easily identifes 1e.g. multi-colored3 employee departments< crafts< and the acti+ity undertaken for that particular piece of equipment. 'pecial /solation )rocedures The discussion abo+e refers to equipment commonly used in the refinery. 'pecial isolation procedures must be de+eloped for the safe isolation of speciali"ed equipment not co+ered by this instruction< equipment that is not capable of being locked out< and comple=< one of a kind equipment. These procedures should be de+eloped as a Eoint effort by 4perations and *aintenance personnel. .s procedures are de+eloped< they should be made a+ailable in an operations procedures book located in the control room. 8=isting equipment that cannot be locked out must be modified the ne=t time it is shutdown for repairs so that it can be repaired. .ll new equipment or maEor reno+ations of equipment must be capable of being locked out with the capability of positi+e +erification that all ha"ardous energy sources are isolated. Lockout and +erification capability must be built into the design of any new or reno+ated equipment. )lanning for unit shutdowns must take this into consideration. 'pecial Testing )rocedures 'peciali"ed testing and positioning procedures are required for equipment that must be energi"ed to be tested. These procedures also be de+eloped as a Eoint effort between 4perations and *aintenance. They should be a+ailable in an operations procedures book. 8=amples of these situations include turbine o+erspeed trips< hot alignment< and troubleshooting electrical circuits. )eriodic .udits )eriodic audits should be held to assure that safe refinery isolation procedures continue to be implemented properly and that employees in+ol+ed are familiar with their responsibilities. The auditor should be from outside of the in+ol+ed work groups.

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Locks .ll padlocks used by 4perations for isolation of equipment should ha+e unique keys. .ll *aintenance employees should use their personally assigned padlocks. -esponsibility for /solating 8quipment for -epair (leaning equipment and preparing for isolation should be the responsibility of the shift super+isor 1shift operating foreman3 of the area where the work is to be performed. 6here+er possible< a physical lockout de+ice 1and tags3 must be used< with rare e=ception. /n cases where it is not possible< a multiple tagout system with detailed written procedures can be used pro+ided it affords the same le+el of protection obtained by using physical lockout de+ice. The procedure must ha+e .rea 'uperintendent appro+al and all personnel in+ol+ed must be trained in its use. /solation 'teps I16/-.563 S.2A1 C0 OA24-.5631 4perations personnel will shutdown< isolate< depressure< and clean up equipment for release to *aintenance. .ll block +al+es used to isolate equipment will be chain locked closed and tagged. 4ne lock and chain may be used to isolate more than one +al+e on the same Eob if it does not create a safety ha"ard. V245?5"-.563 6? I16/-.563 C0 M2">-35"1 /t is the responsibility of each mechanic to report to the 5ead 4perator or operator of the assigned plant before working on any equipment. /f more than one mechanic is going to work on the same Eob< .LL must report. 4perations will discuss with each mechanic all of the energy sources< isolation of these sources and any other special ha"ards in the work area. 8ach mechanic will check to +erify the isolation of the equipment with the head operator or plant operator. 9erification techniques can be a combination of the following items but not limited to these items: a walk through of the affected work area by all workers< checking the deenergi"ation of electrical circuit by pushing the start button on the start stop station< checking depressuri"ation through bleeder +al+es< and checking chained isolation block +al+es. )ositi+e +erfication must be achie+ed prior to work being started. /f +erification cannot be achie+ed through normal methods< a written procedure detailing special +erification methods will be required.

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.fter any special ha"ards of the work area ha+e been satisfactory described and potentially ha"ardous energy has been controlled< each mechanic assigned to work on the equipment will place a proper mechanic@s tag on the shank of their personal lock. 7or +erification of equipment under confined space entry< refer to 'ection C.!. Tagging of 'tart 'top 'tation by *echanics 6hene+er a start stop station e=ists< a proper mechanic@s tag must be hung on each start stop station by one of the mechanics working on the Eob. This will be a +isual sign showing that deenergi"ation of the start stop has been +erified. 4nly one tag needs to be hung but 8.(5 mechanic must still +erify that the energy has been controlled either through witnessing the push of the start stop button or by pushing it themsel+es. Tags on start stop stations may be remo+ed by another mechanic only when the mechanic is no long working on the Eob through shift change or Eob reassignment. 'hift (hange by *echanics /f the mechanic must lea+e the Eob before it is completed because of a Eob reassignment or shift change< they will remo+e their personal lock and attach the tag on the lockout clip. This tag will alert 4perations personnel that the Eob is not complete e+en though no mechanic@s lock is installed. 9erification of /solation by 2ew *echanics 0efore work can continue on the equipment< the newly assigned mechanic will report to the 5ead 4perator or operator of the area. /f more than one mechanic is going to work on the same Eob< .LL must report. 4perations will discuss with each mechanic all of the energy sources< isolation of these sources and any other special ha"ards in the work area. The pre+ious tag on the clip should be discarded. . mechanic@s tag should remain on the lockout clip until work is completed. 2o mechanic@s tag with lock will be remo+ed by anyone e=cept the mechanic that installed it. 7or re+erification of equipment under confined space entry< refer to 'ection C.!.

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Wob (ompletion 6hen all is complete and all mechanics ha+e properly remo+ed their personal lock and tag from the lockout clip< the operator will check the Eob. /f satisfied that all work is complete and the Eob area has been cleaned up< the operator and mechanic will sign off the (L8.2 up and .((8)T8D portion of the work order and proceed to put the equipment back in ser+ice. 2o switch or other isolation control de+ices will be returned to ser+ice and turned to the >on? position with any mechanic@s tag still on it. Locks and chains will be returned to the lockout board or centrali"ed lockout station for future use. 8lectrical /solation 6hen electrical equipment is in+ol+ed< an /J8 mechanic will either open the switchgear or +erify it is properly opened in the presence of a 5ead 4perator or plant operator. .t that time 4perations will install on the switchgear their tag and lock. .fter assuring that the ha"ardous energy has been controlled< each mechanic assigned to work on the equipment will attach their personal lock and tag to the field lockout clip. 2o tag with a lock will be remo+ed by anyone e=cept the mechanic that installed it. 2o switch or other isolation control de+ices will be turned to the >on? position with any mechanics tag still on it 1e=cept for a 'tart 'top station for deenergi"ation +erification3. .t the completion of the Eob and after all other tags and locks ha+e been remo+ed by each mechanic< the /J8 mechanic will remo+e the tag and lock. The /J8 mechanic will rack in the switchgear or close any disconnecting means in the presence of an operator. *echanical /solation 0olted blinds and blank flanges 1blinds< boilermakers3 are considered a lockout de+ice and must be properly tagged with a mechanics tag. Tags on blinds may be remo+ed by another mechanic only when that mechanic is no longer working on the Eob through shift change or Eob reassignment.

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)'9s are not an isolation de+ice. 6hene+er possible< )'9s should be blocked or blinded on the inlet and outlet side. /f a block +al+e does not e=ist on the inlet side< )'9s may be blinded on the inlet side pro+ided there is positi+e +erification that the inlet side is depressured. /f block +al+es do not e=ist< the following must be followed when installing blinds on the process side of the )'9 which is li+e on the relief side: 1. 2. !. #. )ositi+e +erification is achie+ed that the inlet side of the )'9 is depressured. . work permit signed by the .rea 4perating 'uperintendent 1or designee3. 7resh air breathing equipment is used for blind installation. .n operator with a unit radio stands by during installation.

0linding 8quipment for -epair 8quipment to be repaired or opened for inspection must be completely blinded. .ll equipment which will be entered must be completely isolated. 'mall screwed lines shall be disconnected and plugged. .ll disconnects and blinds should be as close as possible to the equipment< preferably at the flange and connections immediately adEacent to the equipment. 6hen equipment is connected by welded lines containing welded +al+es< double block and bleeder systems may be used for isolation pro+ided the following conditions are met: 1. 0lock +al+es on such opened lines are locked in the >closed? position and tagged. 2. 0leeders are locked in the >open? position and tagged. !. . procedure is established and detailed in the plant operating standards to test the +al+es and bleeders and ensure that no leakage occurs beyond the block +al+es and that bleeders are not plugged. 6hen se+eral pieces of equipment must be isolated as a unit< all of the interconnected equipment must be open to the atmosphere and made safe before any indi+idual piece may be worked on. .ll blinds installed for isolation must be properly tagged< logged recorded per an equipment blind list.

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/nstalling 0linds 0linding of some equipment can be the most ha"ardous part of the repairs. .ll equipment must be isolated and depressured and then positi+e +erification of isolation and depressuring accomplished prior to blinds being installed. 'ome equipment must be cleaned up before blinds are installed. /solation block +al+es must be chained and locked to install blinds e=cept for speciali"ed procedures as appro+ed by the .rea 'uperintendent. The following precautions should be noted: 1. 2e+er allow air to be pulled into any piece of equipment before it is free of hydrocarbons. This could cause ignition. .fter equipment has been cleaned up< ne+er allow it to cool down without a +ent being open to a+oid pulling a +acuum. *ost equipment is not designed for a +acuum. 8quipment being opened may contain pyrophoric iron sulfide which could ignite when e=posed to air. /t may be necessary to keep the pyrophoric iron sulfide wet until it can be remo+ed safely. THINK and assess any potential danger before any equipment is opened for blinding. 6hen blinding any line or +essel containing 5 2'< fresh air breathing equipment must be used. 0lind Lists O 'hift 'uper+isor -esponsibility 0lind lists must be updated< re+iewed< appro+ed< signed< and dated by a 'hift 'uper+isor or designated representati+e before issuing. .ll re+isions to a blind list must be appro+ed by a 'hift 'uper+isor or designated representati+e including any blinds required by *aintenance for hydrotesting. (onsider unfinished work before pulling a blind. -emember that tags on blinds may be remo+ed by another mechanic only when that mechanic is no longer working on the Eob through shift change or Eob reassignment. 0lind lists shall be re+ised to reflect all changes made in Eob scope or additional work. 0efore putting the equipment back in ser+ice< 4perations will +erify that the proper gasket is installed in all flanges opened during maintenance and will hammer test the bolts for tightness.

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0lind Lists and Tags 5ead 4perator -esponsibility The responsibilities of the 5ead 4perator or designated 'afety 4perator should include but are not limited to: 1. 2. !. #. $. :. Kpdate and initial blind before requesting appro+al from the 'hift 'uper+isor or designated representati+e. *aintain an orderly master file of appro+ed and acti+e blind lists. .ppro+e start of blinding and unblinding of all equipment by signing and updating the mechanic@s copy of the blind list. Neep the master blind list and blind board up-to-date when required. 8nsure that all special instructions on the blind list are met. 8nsure that qualified operating personnel are assigned to monitor the opening of flanges< especially those in ser+ices considered potentially ha"ardous.

Two-Tag 0lind 'ystem )rior to plant turnarounds or other times when more than one blind is required< the 'hift 'uper+isor shall require use of the two-tag blind system that incorporates the use of a numbered tag board in addition to the master blind list. The *aintenance 7oreman must be notified before work starts if the two-tag system is to be used. This system better assures that all blinds are remo+ed prior to returning equipment to ser+ice. This system works as follows: 1. Two identically numbered tags are prepared for each blind and hung together on the piping adEacent to the flange to be blinded. These numbers must correspond to the blind list identification number. .+oid hanging tags on stud because they may be lost when studs are remo+ed for blinding. 10lind tags will be bright orange. .ll other tags for identification of +al+es< )'9 leaks< etc.< will be green.3 The first tag is remo+ed from the piping when the blind is installed and stapled on the blind board in the appropriate numbered space. The operator initials and dates the master blind list< signifying the blind has been installed.

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The second tag is remo+ed from he piping when the blind is pulled. The tag is then stapled to the second numbered space pro+ided on the blind board. The operator initials and dates the master blind list< signifying the blind has been pulled. The tag board and master blind list must always agree. 6hen a blind is required for more than one Eob and appears on more than one blind list< a note must be made on all blind lists stating that this blind also isolates other +essels.

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.ppro+al to 4pen 8quipment for /nspection 4nly the 'hift 'uper+isor or designated representati+e may gi+e appro+al to open equipment. This appro+al shall be gi+en only after the equipment has been tested< blinded and adequately prepared for opened 1by pumping out< steaming< water washing or other methods as called for in operating standards or plant orders3. 8quipment may be remo+ed from ser+ice for e=ternal inspection without blinding under the following conditions: 1. 2. !. #. The equipment must be isolated by block +al+es with no leakage. .ll block +al+es must be isolated. The equipment must be depressured and safe to open. 4pen only one inspection point at a time to better assure that entry is not inad+ertently made. 2o personnel entry allowed. )ersonnel entry is considered to ha+e occurred as soon as any part of the entrant@s body breaks the plane of an opening 1e=. a manway or flange3 into a permit-required confined space. 6hen applicable< proper protection must be pro+ided for indi+iduals adEacent to the opening. Two people are present at all times. 4ne to perform the inspection and one to act as an >on site? safety person. The open equipment must not be left unattended unless tagged >Danger< D4 24T 8nter.? /t is preferred that the equipment be closed up. 8quipment must be >tested? per 'hift 'uper+isor@s instructions.

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.dditional details for specific pieces of equipment follow. 7ired 7urnaces 0linding of feed and transfer lines is not necessary prior to entering the fire bo= for inspection as long as no hot work repairs are to be made< no circulation is going through the tubes and the tubes are at low pressure. ,as burner lines< steam smothering lines< and all other lines must be blinded before entering. /solating )umps )umps being released for mechanical work may be isolated by blinding< or block +al+es with bleeders< 1double block +al+es preferred3. /f a pump is not blinded< +al+es will be locked and tagged out and a procedure de+eloped prior to work being started. The procedure must be appro+ed by the 'hift 'uper+isor and *aintenance 'uper+isor. )ositi+e +erification of isolation must still be achie+ed. /f any of the block +al+es leak< isolation blinds must be installed and properly tagged unless doing so creates a greater ha"ard. 6here there is no leakage of block +al+es to or from the pump case< all block +al+es will be chain locked closed and proper tags installed. 6here the pump impeller and housing are remo+ed and the pump case is left in place< and there is no leakage into the pump case< a >blank? may be fit o+er the case opening. This blank is machined to the proper si"e pressure rating and installed on the pump case with a gasket< with the case drain +al+e open and tagged. )umps that are used to pump corrosi+e to=ic material will be blinded on all lines to and from the pump. This would include< but not be limited to pumps that are in caustic< acid< 25!< and D8. ser+ice. 'torage Tank /solation 6hen blinding tanks for entry< all connections to or from the tank will be blinded or isolated by dropping tank +al+es or disconnecting spools. 0linds and spools must be properly tagged by 4perations. /solating 5eat 8=changers. 6hen a leak is known or suspected< transfer of stocks between shell and tube side must be assumed. This is of particular importance where L),< 5 2'< or other ha"ardous material is in+ol+ed.

365

0linding sequence will be specified in writing on both the 0lind List and 6ork 4rder. 0linds will be installed on the most ha"ardous side first as determined by the 'hift 'uper+isor or designated representati+e. .ll blinds must be properly tagged by 4perations. To minimi"e the ha"ard of installing blinds< the e=changer should be cleaned by steaming< water-washing< chemical cleaning< etc.< as well as possible before installing blinds. To minimi"e the ha"ard of installing blinds< the e=changer should be cleaned by steaming< water-washing< chemical cleaning< etc.< as well as possible before installing blinds. 6here two or more e=changers are in uninterrupted series< they may be cleaned up and blinded for repairs as a single unit. 0linds and tags will be installed on all times to and from e=changers before proceeding with testing or repairs. Do not test e=changers before installing blinds< as this could cause +al+e failure. 0linds installed must be able to withstand the pressure test. /solation of )iping )iping must be completely isolated prior to repairs including opening and plugging any small lines which could introduce gas or liquid to the work area. This would include remo+ing or opening control +al+es or anything connected to piping being worked on. .ll block +al+es used to isolate piping for repair must be chain locked closed and tagged. /f no leakage of the block +al+es e=ist and with agreement between the 'hift 'uper+isor and *aintenance 7oreman< blinds may not be necessary e=cept as follows: 1. 6hen repairing piping in ha"ardous ser+ice such as L),< 5 2'< or any other material that would be considered ha"ardous< blinds must be installed on all branch lines of the piping to be repaired. 6hen >5ot 6ork? is going to be performed< blinds are required. 8=ceptions must be appro+ed by the .rea 'uperintendent. 0leeder lines and bleeder block +al+es used to depressure piping should recei+e careful attention. /n many ser+ices< the bleeder +al+e and line may become plugged. /n no case should a wire be sued to clear a plugged line or +al+e. Kse a hydraulic ram or a bleeder reamer to remo+e any plugging material.

2. !.

366

/solating (olumns and Drums /solation blinds must be installed and properly tagged as close to the column or drum as safely practical and in manner to ensure that no liquid or +apor can be trapped between the blind and column or drum during cleanup procedure. Double blocks and bleeders should ne+er be used for isolating columns or drums for entry if there are flanges a+ailable for blinding. The 'hift 'uper+isor and *aintenance 7oreman 1or designated representati+es3 together shall e=ternally inspect the equipment to be entered and agree that equipment to be entered has been safely isolated and tested. 2o one shall enter enclosed equipment unless it is properly permitted and the permit attached to point of entry. 7urther requirements for internal entry are discussed in 'ection C.! of the ()(L )rocess *anual. /solating (ooling Tower 7ans and .ir-(ooled 8=changers 0ecause of the comple=ity of the remote controls and other ha"ards connected with the repairs of this equipment< the following precautions must be taken: 1. 2. The *aintenance 7oreman assigned to make the repair must re+iew the Eob with the 'hift 'uper+isor< assigned operator< and mechanic. /f the equipment is running< it must be shut down. .n /J8 mechanic will open the switchgear and physically disconnect electrical wiring at the main breaker or at the motor< whiche+er is safer and more practical. /J8 will install a lock and tag. .fter any special ha"ards of the work ha+e been e=plained by 4perations to the mechanic and positi+e +erification of isolation and control of the energy source1s3 has been achie+ed< each mechanic must put this personal lock and tag on the lockout clip. 7an blades will be tied off with rope to be sure blades will not rotate while making the repairs. )rior to work in the fan throat< the cell will be checked for hydrocarbon< 5 2'< and chlorine to be sure of safe working conditions. 'afe practices for isolating< entering< and working in confined spaces must be met 1'ee 'ection C.! of the ()(L )rocess *anual.3 .nyone going into the fan throat shall be equipped with safety harness and life lines. (ooling tower or air conditioner slats pro+ide only minimum weight support.

!. #.

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367

/solating 'team or .ir Dri+ers /f the steam or air line block +al+es to and from the turbine are not leaking< they may be isolated with chains< locks< and tags. 0linds will be required if the block +al+es leak. /nstall boilermakers on open end lines. /solating 8lectric Dri+ers 6hen making pump repairs or remo+ing the electric motor for repairs< the motor breaker will be opened or electric wires disconnected< electrically insulated< and properly tagged. /solating -eciprocating (ompressors *inor repairs such as co+er gasket< +al+e replacement< and bearings inspection may be performed without blinding pro+ided: 1. The compressor can be isolated by block +al+es that do not leak. -emember that )'9s are not an isolation de+ice. 0lock +al+es to and from the compressor are chain locked closed and tagged. !. The motor is isolated. #. .ll cylinders are depressed through bleeders and bleeders are left open and tagged. N6.2: /f some compressors cannot be isolated safety because of high pressure or the presence of ha"ardous gas due to +al+e leakage< a special procedure must be written Eointly by 4perations and *aintenance. /solating 7ield /nstrumentation for -emo+al 6hen field instruments need to be remo+ed< the root +al+es must be blocked and leads depressured. The root +al+es must be chain locked closed and tagged by 4perations. 4n these or other small +al+es a small linked chain 1commonly called >sash?3.

368

8=ceptions -emo+al of a *aintenance tag or lock by 4perations can only be done when that employee is not in the refinery with the Eoint appro+al of the 4perating 'hift 'uper+isor< -efinery 'hift (oordinator and the mechanic@s 'uper+isor or the *aintenance 7oreman 4n-(all. .ll efforts must be made to contact the employee whose lock and tag will be remo+ed. 5owe+er< if contact is not made before remo+al of the de+ice then the employee@s 'uper+isor or *aintenance 7oreman 4n-(all will ensure that the affected employee was notified of the remo+al and the reason it was necessary at the start of the employee@ ne=t shift. .ny other e=ceptions to these rules must be appro+ed by the .rea 'uperintendent and documented by the 4perating 'hift 'uper+isor. 'afe )ractices for 8ntering and 6orking in (onfined 'paces This section describes the responsibilities of the super+isors and prescribes the minimum safety procedures to be followed for personnel entering and working in (427/28D ').(8': .ll requirements of safe procedure for isolating equipment for inspection or repair as pre+iously discussed must be satisfied prior to an entry. Definitions CON*INED SPACE: . space that: 113 is large enough so configured that an employee can physically enter and perform assigned work< 123 has limited or restricted means for entry or e=it 1for e=ample: tanks< +essels< storage bins< pits< etc.3< and 1!3 is not designed for continuous employee occupancy and either: 1a3 does not ha+e e=isting +entilation sufficient to remo+e dangerous air contaminants< or 1b3 is a hole< pit< or tank roof< etc.< with sides higher than $ feet. DANGEROUS AIR CONTAMINANT CONCENTRATION : .tmosphere presenting a threat of death< inEury< acute illness or disablement due to the presence of flammable< to=ic< or otherwise inEurious or incapacitating substances. ENGUL*MENT: The surrounding and effecti+e capture of a person by a liquid or finely di+ided 1flowable3 solid substance that can be aspirated to cause death by filling or plugging the respiratory system or that can e=ert enough force on the body to cause by strangulation< constriction< or crushing. ENTRAPMENT: The space has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphy=iated by inwardly con+erging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and taper to a smaller cross-section.

369

ENTRY $CON*INED SPACE ENTRY: 8ntry occurs when a person< or any part of a person@s body< passes through the plane of an opening into a space which meets the definition of a >(onfined 'pace.? .n 8ntry is classified either as a >,eneral 8ntry? or a >'pecial 8ntry? based on the condition of the internal atmosphere or other risk factors. GENERAL ENTRY: 8ntry classification used when: 113 conditions do not require use of supplied breathing air or 123 there is a possibility for engulfment or entrapment without a ha"ardous atmosphere. SA*E OBYGEN RANGE: .tmosphere containing at least 1M.$A o=ygen and no more than 2!.$A o=ygen. SPECIAL ENTRY: 8ntry classification used when supplied breathing air is required because: 113 the o=ygen in the atmosphere is less than 1M.$A or greater than 2!.$A and or 123 the presence of a ha"ardous material or chemical that could be harmful or life threatening. N6.2( .2 /28-T 82T-Q /' . 5/,5LQ (42T-4LL8D .2D *4-8 -8'T-/(T/98 TQ)8 47 >')8(/.L? 82T-Q .2D '54KLD 08 4KTL/28D /2 4T58- -87/28-Q /2'T-K(T/42'. 1-efer to .ppendi= C-//.3 Training .ll employees in+ol+ed in the Eob shall be trained in the following areas to meet minimum guidelines 1the safety engineering group should o+ersee standby attendant training3: Nnowledge of the ha"ards that may be faced during the entry including the signs or symptoms and consequences of the e=posure to dangerous air contaminants. (ontinuously maintain an accurate head count of entrants in the special permit entry +essel. Nnow the proper procedure for summoning rescue and other emergency ser+ices. Take proper action to prohibit unauthori"ed entry. 0e trained in the use of and can properly wear self-contained breathing apparatus as well as other safety equipment.

370

)rotecti+e 8quipment During either general or special entries< requirements for protecti+e equipment such as goggles< glo+es< chemically-resistant clothing< etc.< will be based on conditions inside the confined space as well as which ha"ardous materials are present in or around it. *aintenance and 4perations super+isors must agree on the proper protecti+e equipment required for a Eob. /f there is any doubt about the need to use a particular piece of protecti+e equipment< 'afety 8ngineering shall be in+ol+ed in the decision on the proper equipment. -espiratory )rotection )ersons entering and or working in spaces requiring a general entry permit are not required to use supplied air equipment. The workers may be required to use cartridge type respirators for +arious reasons on difference occasions but such use should not be considered to eliminate a ha"ardous chemical problem. 'pecial 8ntries: 8ntry into confined spaces requiring the use of supplied air equipment shall be considered a special entry. /f the special entry is characteri"ed as an >/mmediate Danger to Life and 5ealth? entry< an emergency air supply system 1escape bottle3 must be pro+ided. )ersonnel shall be on standby< dressed in appropriate proper protecti+e equipment< for access in the e+ent of an emergency. .ll personnel wearing supplied air must be properly qualified to use the equipment prior to entering a confined space. *iscellaneous 'afety )recautions 8nter through side openings 1hori"ontal3 whene+er possible. >5ori"ontal entries? occur at openings 2 m 1: ft3 or less abo+e the work le+el. .ll other entries are considered >+ertical? in nature. . full body harness and lifeline must be worn on al +ertical entry situations and any >special? entries requiring use of supplied-air respiratory equipment. N6.2: 'afety harnesses and lifelines are required for all confined space welding Eobs regardless of entry type 1hori"ontal or +ertical3. /t is the responsibility of the employee@s super+isor entering a confined space to see that the full body is properly worn and used during a +ertical entry. The lifetime must be: 1. .ttached to safety harness at all times. 2. .nchored outside the confined space to an obEect substantial strength to support the employee in the e+ent of a fall.

371

!. *ade of rope at least 1! mm 11 2-in.3 in diameter and ha+ing a tensile strength of at least 2#%% kg 1$#%% lb3 or equi+alent strength steel cable. #. 6orn during all +ertical entries. . mechanical hoist or similar de+ice can be pro+ided for +ertical entries< since the strength of a standby person may be relied upon to remo+e a disable worker. /n confined spaces 1i.e.< reactors3 where+er ladders e=ceed ;.! m 12# ft3 in length and are not protected by cages< fall protection de+ices should be used. 'uch equipment should consist of a body harness attached to a self-retracing lifeline on a >safety block.? 'tandby .ttendant The following requirements shall apply to all standby attendants: 1. 'tandby attendants are required for all >'pecial? entries and any confined space welding Eob and their required presence shall be specified on the entry permit by the 4perations 'hift 'uper+isor. The si"e and nature of each Eob will determine the number necessary. 8ach standby attendant shall be properly instructed on emergency procedures required for the particular Eob. 2. The attendant@s primary duty is to stand by to monitor the breathing air supply and remain within sight and hailing distance of workers using the breathing air equipment. !. 'tandby .ttendant Training: The standby attendant shall recei+e the same training as described in 'ection C.!.2. (ommunications . means of communications must be maintained throughout the entry. The standby attendant is responsible for maintaining communications with personnel inside the +essel. 8ffecti+e means of communication which may be used are +isual contact< +oice< hand signals or radio. 'tandby attendants must be equipped with a means of summon help if stationed at an ele+ated location or in a remote area 1e.g. radio or air horn3. )rior to entry a means of communications shall be understood by all personnel in+ol+ed in the entry< particularly the standby attendant and personnel entering the +essel.

372

8lectrical 8quipment Lighting and electrical equipment used within the confined space must be protected by a ground fault circuit interrupter 1,7(/3 if +oltage e=ceeds 12 +olts. -esponsibility for )reparing (onfined 'pace for 8ntry )reparation of a confined space for entry is the responsibility of the 4perations 'hift 'uper+isor. 8stablished procedures outlined in federal regulations< operating standards< refinery instructions< and standing or current plant orders must be followed. /solating 8quipment for ,eneral 8ntry .ll equipment which will be entered must be completely isolated. .ll lines to and from the equipment must be blinded. 'mall screwed lines must be disconnected and plugged. .ll disconnects and blinds should be as close as possible to the confined space< typically at the closest flange. Large +essels with multiple internals should ha+e a forced +entilation system in place and in use during a general entry. .ll +essels not being pro+ided forced +entilation must be considered a special entry and a standby attendant is required. /solation by Double 0locks and 0leeds 6hen equipment is connected by welded lines containing welded +al+es< double block and bleeder systems may be used for isolation pro+ided the following conditions are met: 1. 2. !. 0lock +al+es on such opened lines are locked in the > "/6128? position and tagged. 0leeders are locked in the >6A23? position and tagged. . procedure is established and detailed in the plant 4perating 'tandards to test the +al+es and bleeders and ensure that no leakage occurs beyond the block +al+es. .rea 'uperintendents appro+es of procedure.

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373

;. /n the e+ent a +essel is isolated solely by lockout tagout procedures< or double block and bleeders< a standby attendant is required for entry. The 'uperintendent@s signature is required on the entry permit if this type of isolation is uses. 6hen se+eral pieces of equipment must be isolated as a unit< each piece of the interconnected equipment must be open to the atmosphere and made safe for entry before any indi+idual piece may be entered. *o+ing -otating 8quipment 8quipment which contains power-dri+en mi=ers< blenders< agitators< fans< etc.< must not be entered until the power source is physically isolated by locking the electrical disconnecting means in the ?off? position and disconnecting the motor leads< breaking air lines< etc. 9isual /nspection of 8quipment The 'hift 'uper+isor or his designated representati+e< and the *aintenance 'uper+isor or company representati+e in charge of the work should make a +isual inspection from outside the confined space to determine what special precautions must be taken before entry. 8ngineering and /nspection are responsible for design changes< equipment modifications< alterations< and inspection of equipment as needed to ensure the safety of operating personnel and equipment. 4n all equipment containing radiations sources 1le+el indicators< etc.3< the 4perations 'hift 'uper+isor shall ensure that the -efinery -adiation 'afety 4fficer is ad+ised. -esponsibility for Testing The 'hift 'uper+isor is responsible for determining the type and frequently of testing for safe entry and that all the completed tests meet the requirements for safe entry of the confined space. .s a minimum< all confined spaces must be tested for e=plosi+e +apors and o=ygen at the start of each shift. .dditional tests may be specified by the super+isor depending on conditions. 'ee .ppendi= C-/ for guidance. .ll tests shall be made by personal fully qualified to operate testing equipment properly interpret the test results. 'ee .ppendi= C-/ for the person or group authori"ed to make initial tests for entry< test methods and safe limits for each test. /n general< the initial testing is done by the refinery safety department.

374

'ubsequent Testing Tests requiring instruments not normally kept at operating locations shall be performed by the refinery safety department as outlined in .ppendi= C-/. ,as testing equipment normally kept at operating locations shall be tested and calibrated per the manufacturer@s recommendations prior to each use or once per day as appropriate. .fter initial entry tests ha+e been performed< subsequent test may be delegated by the refinery safety department to the 'hift 'uper+isor or designated representati+e. 4nce all subsequent tests ha+e been completed on the +essel< the authori"ed person making the test shall sign the back of the entry permit in the appropriate column. /f the person making the test is not the 'hift 'uper+isor on duty< the person making the tests shall sign and the 'hift 'uper+isors shall initial in the appropriate space on the back of the entry permit. 8ntry Tags The use of entry tags is an important safety practice and is mentioned here in some le+el of detail to emphasi"e this point. The following information is pro+ided for information only< an (he+ron Lummus ,lobal LL( and its affiliated companies assure no liability whatsoe+er with respect to their use< e=cept as may be pro+ided in applicable written agreements. The facility operator is responsible for the operations and safety of the facility. >Danger O Do 2ot 8nter? Tags >D.2,8- O D4 24T 82T8-? tags will be posted by 4perations at all entrances to confined spaces in the following situations: 6hen first opened prior to testing. 6hen they are not to be entered. 6hen an unsafe condition arises and entry permits are remo+ed. 6hen a means of access to a +essel has been opened< and an entry permit has not been placed at the opening< a temporary co+er or barrier shall be promptly placed by *aintenance personnel at this opening. The >D.2,8- O D4 24T 82T8-? tag will be attached by 4perations personnel. This will protect employee entry should the tag fall off and the entry presumed permissible. These tags are informational and will remain posted until testing is performed and an entry permit is hung at each point of entry.

375

>,eneral 8ntry )ermits? >,eneral 8ntry )ermits? will be used for situations where breathing air is not required. .fter entry tests ha+e been run and results appro+ed< remo+e >D.2,8- O D4 24T 82T8-? tags and hang the >,eneral 8ntry )ermit? at each place of entry. The tag must be completed by an 4perating 'hift 'uper+isor or designated representati+e. The permit must show equipment number< date< tag e=piration time and any other entry requirements which apply such as test frequency types of protecti+e clothing. The following procedures apply when workers enter into equipment: 1. Tests for atmospheric contaminants< o=ygen deficiency< and any other special tests should be made at inter+als sufficient to ensure a safe atmosphere with a minimum of once per shift. The 4perations 'hift 'uper+isor shall be responsible for setting the frequently on the special tests. 6ork may continue while subsequent tests are performed. )roper signatures must be placed on the back of the entry permit when the tests are complete and no known ha"ards e=ist.

2. !.

>'pecial 8ntry )ermits? >'pecial 8ntry )ermits? will be used when entry situations require the use of breathing air. .fter entry ha+e been run and results appro+ed for a special entry< remo+e >D.2,8- O D4 24T 82T8-? tags and hang the >'pecial 8ntry )ermit? at each entry point. 8+ery effort must be made to minimi"e special entry access points. 8ach permitted access must be protected by a standby attendant while personnel are inside this +essel. >'pecial 8ntry )ermits? must be used whene+er fresh air breathing apparatus is required. 8=amples: 4=ygen content is below 1M.$A or abo+e 2!.$A< or e=posure to harmful substances is possible. These permits must be completed by an operating 'hift 'uper+isor or designated representati+e. 8ntry tests shall be performed as specified by the 4perations 'hift 'uper+isor. /n addition< test for e=plosi+e limits shall be made frequently enough to ensure a non-e=plosi+e atmosphere. Test results shall be recorded on the permit.

376

'tandby attendants are required at each permitted access to monitor personnel inside the +essel. . mean of communications< understand by all personnel in+ol+ed in the entry< must be established with rapid access to emergency personnel. . plan must be written to re+iew special entries and procedures re+ised if: 1. 2. !. #. $. .ny unauthori"ed entry in a special area occurred. The detection of a ha"ard not co+ered by the permit was disco+ered. The detection of a condition prohibited by the permit occurred. The occurrence of an inEury or near-miss during the entry happened. . change in the use or configuration of the +essel since that last special entry occurred.

/f any of the e+ents shown abo+e occurred< a ree+aluation of the procedures must be made within 1 year of entry by the 4perations area where the e+ent occurred. The procedure should be retained for future use to eliminate the problem. )rior to entering a +essel requiring the use of fresh air breathing apparatus< a safety meeting will be help by 4perations and the items critical to the safe entry and the work to be performed shall be written down and signed. )ersonnel in+ol+ed in the entry shall attend this meeting. 'igning and )osting of 8ntry Tags 6hen all the conditions specified on an entry permit are met< the 'hift 'uper+isor or designee will then sign< date and show the time at the bottom of each entry tag. The entry tags shall ten be securely fastened at each place of entry in plain sight. 2o confined space shall be entered unless a +alid entry permit< signed by the 'hift 'uper+isor< is posted at all places of entry and all conditions including up-todate testing ha+e been met.

377

-esponsibility for *en /nside (onfined 'paces The 'hift 'uper+isor is fully responsible for the safety of the confined space in which the workers are located. The maintenance super+isor or company representati+e in charge of a task is responsible for the safe e=ecution of the Eob and thoroughly checking preparations before ordering work to start. -emo+al of 8ntry Tags 6hen Knsafe (onditions .rise /f an unsafe condition should arise at any time after a confined space has been certified safe to enter< the person disco+ering the unsafe condition shall immediately notify all workers to lea+e the confined space< remo+e all entry permits and hang >D.2,8- O D4 24T 82T8-? tags in their place. The 'hift 'uper+isor shall then be notified and entry permits shall not be posted again until the unsafe condition is remo+ed< the space retested and appro+ed for entry. Temporary barriers across the openings must be again set in place to pre+ent accidental entry along with the >D4 24T 82T8-? tags. 5a"ard .ssessment 5a"ardous conditions may e=ist or de+elop prior to entry or while working in confined spaces. 4perating and *aintenance 'uper+isors should thoroughly assess each space for such ha"ards or conditions. Woint meetings should be held to discuss these ha"ards conditions. 'ome items 'uper+isors and the person initiating the permit should consider are listed below: 1. 2. !. #. $. :. ;. (an contaminants be release due to deposits or as a result of chemical cleaningT /s equipment properly isolatedT /s there an adequate number of sufficiently-si"ed openings for entry into enclosed or confined spacesT /s +entilation requiredT (an the equipment be tested using e=tendible probes or will supplied air or self-contained breathing equipment be requiredT 'hould continuous monitoring gas testing be requiredT (an atmosphere conditions change within the space due to work performed 1catalyst dumping< welding< etc.3T

378

8mergency .ction )lan 4perations personnel shall be responsible for ad+ising the maintenance super+isor or company representati+e of any operating emergency which may arise in the area. . written emergency action plan must be pro+ided for each 'pecial (onfined 'pace 8ntry and /nert (onfined 'pace 8ntry. *aintenance and 4perations should Eointly de+elop the plan. The plan must co+er the actions that must be taken to ensure employee and contractor safety from fire and other emergencies. .s a minimum< an emergency action plan must include: C63.53!23"0 P/-3 List the types of emergencies which could occur inside and outside the space and state the actions to be taken< if actions are not stated in 4perating 'tandards or other written procedures. E9-"7-.563 -38 R21"72 P/-3 1. 2. !. #. $. :. ;. C. M. 8mergency escape procedures. 8mergency escape routes defined. )rocedures to account for all employees after the emergency e+acuation ha+e been completed. -escue and first air response procedures. )rocedures for reporting fires and other emergencies. 2ames or Eob titles listed for persons or departments that can be contacted for assistance or information. 8mployee notification system to alert employees and rescuers 1such as portable air horn or radio3. The types of e+aluation equipment to be used in an emergency. . sufficient number of persons designated and trained to assist in the safe and orderly emergency e+acuation of employees. This training must be completed prior to implementing the emergency action plan.

379

)ro+iding *eans of 8scape 6hen two or more e=its are a+ailable< at least two of the e=its shall be opened for use when personnel are working inside the confined space. 8ach e=it opening must be properly tagged. (losing 8quipment O -emo+al of 8ntry Tag 6hen work is complete and the equipment is ready for closure< final inspections shall be made by the 'hift 'uper+isor or designated representati+e 15ead 4perator or 'afety 4perator3 and the *aintenance 'uper+isor or company representati+e in charge. The 'hift 'uper+isor or designated representati+e shall then gi+e appro+al to close the equipment and stand by to remo+e all entry permits while the equipment is being closed. The 'hift 'uper+isor shall assure all items on the close-up sheet are checked off. R2#69-/ 6? EB/538 E3.40F T-!1 .fter the confined space is closed and blinds are ready to be pulled or lines connected< the 'hift 'uper+isor or designated 5ead 4perator shall remo+e the >0L/2D 82T-Q? tags when the blind is pulled or a line is connected. 8=ceptions 8=ceptions to these confined space entry rules must be appro+ed by the .rea 'uperintendent. 4ther /mportant -eferences .ll personnel in charge of or working in (427/28D ').(8' should be familiar with these additional safety instructions which should be pro+ided by the -efinery 'afety ,roup regarding: 5ydrogen 'ulfide .reas 0linding and /solating 8quipment for /nspection or -epair 5andling -adioacti+e *aterials Kse of 4=y-.cetylene in 9essels )ermits for /gnition 'ources Treatment of /ndustrial /nEuries 5andling of To=ic and (orrosi+e *aterials /nert .tmosphere )rocedures

380

(hemical (leaning of 8quipment This section contains general guidelines for chemical cleaning of equipment< and a specific procedure for soda ash washing since it is a common practice during hydrocracker turnarounds. The following are guidelines which may be useful in de+eloping unit-specific procedures by the refiner. These guidelines are not a substitute for actual< detailed procedures. 6ork )lanning -esponsibility The o+erall responsibility for the safe planning and safe performance of the chemical cleaning work shall rest with the superintendent of the area in+ol+ed. The superintendent shall arrange with each shift super+isor in+ol+ed to assign a head operator on each shift to function as a chemical cleaning coordinator. The coordinator must be familiar with the plant and trained in the safety requirements of chemical cleaning. The sole responsibility of the coordinator will be to follow the chemical cleaning work. The responsibilities of the superintendent of the area in+ol+ed include: 1. 'ee that all persons other than chemical cleaning contract personnel are kept out of the chemical cleaning >roped off? area while acid< caustic< or sol+ent is being circulated. 8nsure that all personnel in+ol+ed in chemical cleaning wear lead acetate 52' detectors. *ake sure that a permanent or portable safety shower is within 1$ m 1$% ft3 of work area. /f no permanent shower is a+ailable< the refinery shall furnish temporary facilities. 8nsure that an alarm horn is a+ailable for use by coordinator and contractors. The emergency signal indicating to=ic gas release or serious leakage of solution is one long blast. .ll clear signal is a series of short blasts.

2. !.

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381

The chemical cleaning coordinator shall see that the contractor@s chemical cleaning crew: 1. Kses ropes to isolate the areas and posts >(.KT/42 O (58*/(.L (L8.2/2, O N88) 4KT? signs before circulation is started. (ontractor shall furnish ropes and signs. 5as one 'cott .ir-)ak per person and an *'. 5 2' detector and that they demonstrate that they know how to use them. 5as in their possession< obtained from the chemical cleaning coordinator< a sample that will allow them to demonstrate to the coordinator that they can identify 5 2' by smell and that they can operate the *'. detector and e+aluate the reading when the detector is used on the sample. Knderstands and follows written chemical cleaning orders. 6ears required protecti+e clothing and safety equipment< furnished by contractor. Takes tests< and records results on samples requested by process engineering and transmits this record to the chemical cleaning coordinator.

2.

!. #. $.

The responsibilities of the plant engineer include: 1. 2. Design permanent connections for chemical cleaning equipment when such connections are necessary. )repare all piping drawings and sketches when required for new and temporary facilities and pro+ide an appro+ed copy of the sketches to the chemical cleaning coordinator. Determine feasibility of proposed work and consult with operations on all Eobs being performed for the first time. 8stimate cost of proposed work< including cost of temporary piping. 8nsure that chemicals used are compatible with the materials of construction and equipment being chemically cleaned. /ssue sketches related to chemical cleaning. 8nsure proper disposal of used cleaning solutions. 8stablish test pressure for the system. )repare specifications< detailed chemical cleaning procedures< and the contract for all new work. The detailed chemical cleaning procedures will be an appendi= of and will be attached to the work order co+ering chemical cleaning.

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382

(hemical cleaning ad+isors will be pro+ided by the /nspection and )rocess 8ngineering Departments. They shall knowledgeable of chemical cleaning methods and ha+e a full understanding of chemical cleaning solutions and ha"ards. (hemical cleaning ad+isors shall agree on and arrange for laboratory analysis< both before cleaning is started and< if necessary< after work is completed. )recautions During .fter (leaning T6=5" G-121 .ll necessary precautions must be taken to pre+ent formation of breathing ha"ards resulting from the generation of dangerous gases during the cleaning process from the temporary equipment 1tank system< temporary piping3. 5ydrogen 'ulfide ,as 5ydrogen sulfide gas 152'3 may be generated by reaction of acid cleaning solutions with scale deposits in process equipment. 6hen equipment is cleaned with acid solution< use an *'. 52' detector and always approach from the upwind side. 1-efer to 'ection M.% for ha"ards associated with 5 2'.3 /f an emergency situation de+elops due to escaping hydrogen sulfide gas< obser+e the following principle for safety: 1. 2. !. #. 7irst get out and warn all others to stay clear. 'ummon help before attempting a rescue. Do not attempt to rescue anyone unless equipped with 'cott .ir-)ak. Do not< under any circumstances< try to determine the concentration of hydrogen sulfide gas by its odor. /f its presence is suspected< test with an appro+ed hydrogen sulfide gas detector. /n case a man is o+ercome< summon help< get him into the fresh air at once< and begin artificial respiration. Kse an inhalator when a+ailable. 'ummon a doctor as soon as possible< but do not stop artificial respiration. .ny person o+ercome by gas must be kept warm< e+en during artificial respiration. Kse anything a+ailable for this purpose< such as emergency blankets< coats etc. Neep out gaseous areas and keep others out unless wearing a 'cott .ir)ak. 'tay on the upwind side of the area as long as the condition e=ists.

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383

5ydrogen (yanide ,as The *'. detector will not discriminate between 5(2 and 5 2' and the mi=ed gases will gi+e an additi+e result. ,enerally< when 5(2 is produced in cracking processes< 52' will also be present in much larger quantities and the 5 2' precautions and test will pre+ail. E=A/61563 -38 *542 H-@-48 7lammable gases may also be generated from the use of hydrocarbon sol+ents. 4bser+e the following precautions: 1. 6hen chemicals are being utili"ed< do not permit a source of ignition in the immediate chemical cleaning area. Do not permit welding< open fires< smoking< or any other open source of ignition within 1$ m 1$% ft3 of the chemical cleaning area when flammable sol+ent is being used. /f sol+ent leakage is detected< or any other ha"ardous condition e=ists< the truck engine 1needed for circulation3 shall be shut down. ,round the chemical cleaning unit to the equipment being cleaned< when using sol+ents other than water-based solutions for cleaning. Neep sol+ent tank 1if used3 under nitrogen purge.

2. !.

P4211742 R2/52? Do not >bottle up? equipment< piping< or hose containing chemical solutions. 8=cess pressure may result from hydrogen< hydrogen sulfide 15 2'3< or carbon dio=ide 1(423 generated by the action of cleaning solutions on scale. There shall be no +al+es in the caustic scrubber system between the circulation N4 drum and the caustic scrubber. O.>24 H-@-481 Do not center attention on one ha"ard only. /f a ha"ardous gas is generated during an acid cleaning operation< ne+er concentrate on the gas ha"ard to the e=clusion of the e=isting acid ha"ard. -emember also that an acid spill will likely be accompanied by a ha"ardous gas releaseSremain aware of all ha"ards on the Eob. )ockets of to=ic gas can remain trapped in the system e+en after chemical cleaning is finished and 'cott .ir-)aks and protecti+e clothing shall be worn when pulling blinds< etc.< to return unit to ser+ice.

384

C/2-353! ED75A#23. (ontractor@s equipment for chemical cleaning should consist of a truck-mounted two-tank system with a circulating pump. 4ne tank ser+es as a combination circulation N4 drum. The other +essel is a caustic scrubber for to=ic gases 15 2' or 5(23. The acid tank will ha+e a +ent +al+e and gauge on top that reads both +acuum and pressure. The caustic scrubber will be equipped with a +ent to atmosphere that cannot be closed off. Temporary steel piping and fittings shall be used to connect the equipment to the +icinity of the truck. 'hort lengths of neoprene-lined< wire-reinforced 1%.$ kg cm 2 1g3 11$% psig3 working pressure hose shall be used as make-up to truck equipment. The use of steel pipe shall be wai+ed and hose used for the entire requirement only with the appro+al of the superintendent of the area in+ol+ed. Disposal of (hemicals The acid solution and neutrali"ing solution will normally be disposes of in chemical o=idation 1(4D3 tanks. 2otify the en+ironmental specialist of anticipated amounts of chemicals in+ol+ed in dumping to confirm this prior to arri+al of chemical cleaning contractor. 'pent caustic from the scrubber should not be allowed to come into contact with acidic material as this will liberate 52'. The spent caustic will be pumped to sulfide caustic storage. S68- A1> W-1>53! ,eneral ,uidelines for 'oda .sh 6ashing 'odium carbonate 1soda ash3 washing is done to help protect austenitic stainless steels from polythionic acid stress corrosion cracking 1)T.'((3 and chloride stress corrosion cracking 1(/'((3 when e=posure to air and moisture is probable. /t is not necessary to soda ash wash carbon< low alloy< or ferritic stainless steels< as they are not susceptible to either of these mechanisms. (he+ron strongly belie+es in circulating alkaline neutrali"ing solutions per 2.(8 -) %1;% as part of the shutdown cleanup prior to e=posing the austenitic stainless equipment to air. )T.'(( has not been a maEor concern where stabili"ed grades of stainless steel are used in hydroprocessing units. 0ecause of the requirement for resistance to naphthenic acid< !1:L is required in the high temperature area prior to the reactor. The areas where )T.'(( of !1:L is a concern are discussed below. 8+en with the potential for )T.'(( of the !1:L< (he+ron belie+es that the maEor benefit of circulating an alkaline neutrali"ing solution is its ability to remo+e chloride salts.

385

Degradation *echanisms P6/0.>5635" A"58 S.4211 C64461563 C4-" 53! )T.'(( occurs in austenitic stainless steels that ha+e become sensiti"ed by e=posure to temperatures abo+e ;$%o7. 7or unstabili"ed stainless steels< sensiti"ation can occur in as short a time as during welding or stress relief. Low carbon grades of stainless steel 1!%#L< !1:L3 will pro+ide about 1% hours of sensiti"ation resistanceL they can be welded and stress relie+ed without becoming sensiti"ed. 'tabili"ed grades of austenitic stainless steels 1!21 or !#;3 can pro+ide thousands of hours of resistance to sensiti"ation. )olythionic acids form during shutdowns by the reaction of sulfide corrosion products with o=ygen and water. The actual cracking occurs during the shutdown when the piping or equipment is relati+ely cool. There are four ways to pre+ent )T.'((: 1. 2. !. #. Kse stabili"ed stainless steels like !21 or !#; that ha+e had a stabili"ing heat treatment. )re+ent contact with air 1inert gas blanket3. )re+ent contact with moisture 1dehumidifiers< desiccant< dryout fires3. 'oda ash wash piping and equipment that will be e=posed to air or moisture.

N6.2: 'oda ash washing is only a pre+entati+e method when properly applied. 'oda ash washing neutrali"es polythionic acids and lea+es a sodium carbonate film that will neutrali"e additional acids as they form. . soda ash wash< without subsequent water rinse< will retard cracking for 2-! days. .fter that< the soda ash wash must be repeated to replenish the protecti+e sodium carbonate film.

386

C>/64582 S.4211 C64461563 C4-" 53! (/'(( attacks austenitic stainless steels e=posed to a combination of chlorides< liquid water< temperatures o+er 1#%o7< and tensile stress. /n refinery en+ironments< only stainless steels and nickel alloys containing more than !%A nickel will be immune to (/'((. Knlike )T.'((< use of stabili"ed grades of stainless steels like !21 and !#; will not pre+ent (/'((. (/'(( can be pre+ented by e=cluding air and moisture< or by stress relief. /t is generally belie+ed that most of the damage done by (/'(( occurs during heat-up< when residual water is boiled off< concentrating the chloride salts and causing cracks to form in the steel. 'oda ash washing helps pre+ent (/'(( by not only remo+ing chloride deposits but also by maintaining an alkaline en+ironment that reduces the tendency for (/'(( to occur in case any residual salt remains after cleaning. /n addition< the low concentration of sodium nitrate added to the soda ash solution is a specific (/'(( inhibitor. G2324-/ G7582/5321 ?64 S68- A1> W-1>53! 'oda ash washing is the least effecti+e way to reduce the potential for )T.'(( or (/'((< but it is frequently the only option a+ailable. /s soda ash washing is required< follow the procedure in 'ection C.#.$.$. )iping and equipment should be soda ash washed before allowing any air< water< or steam to enter the system. 2ormally< a soda ash wash will not be followed by a water wash. 5owe+er< there are e=ceptions to this rule. 4ne is for badly fouled heat e=changers. 'ince e+en a good soda ash wash will not penetrate hea+y deposits< the tubes must be hydroblasted as soon as possible after e=posing the material to the atmosphere. The e=changer bundle should be kept under a nitrogen blanket until it can be hydroblasted. /f possible< use a weak soda ash solution 11A3 to hydroblast. /f soda ash is not a+ailable for hydroblasting< the bundle should be soda ash washed again or nitrogen blanketed after hydroblasting. 1.nother e=ceptions described under )oint 2o. : in 'ection C.#.$.$.3 .s acids slowly form though o=idation of sulfide scale< the thin soda ash film is gradually consumed in neutrali"ing the acids. 6hen materials susceptible to )T.'(( will be e=posed to the atmosphere for e=tended periods of time< the soda ash wash must be repeated e+ery ! days.

387

5ydrostatic testing of stainless steel piping or equipment should be conducted using a soda ash solution. Drain equipment and piping prior to startup. (hlorides are also introduced into a hydroprocessing unit shutdown ash washing. /f the solution is not completely drained dry< it will e+aporate during startup< resulting in concentration and the deposition of chloride salts. D542".5631 ?64 SA2"5?5" H0846A46"21153! ED75A#23. R2-".641 (he+ron does not recommend soda ash washing of reactor fabricated with !#; '' internals and !#; '' cladding. -eactor internals made of !#; '' do not sensiti"e during fabrication or operation and are not subEect to polythionic acid cracking. 6hile the internals could be subEect to chloride stress corrosion cracking< our e=perience has shown that this is normally not a problem in reactor ser+ice. /f the catalyst in the reactor is wet dumped< then the large e=cess of water 1used to eliminate flashing3 dilutes any chlorides present and washes them away. /n addition< the reactor is thoroughly dried before catalyst loading< so no residual water is left to reactor with any remaining chlorides. /n dry dumping< little or no water is used for the actual catalyst unloading and any water used to clean the reactors after dumping is remo+ed before loading catalyst. Therefore< any water in the reactor from the system before heat-up and the risk of (/'(( is low. E=">-3!241 (he+ron recommends soda ash washing of stainless steel heat e=changer tubes prior to startup. 'oda ash washing of stainless tube e=changes for pre+ention of chloride stress cracking is the primary benefit of soda ash washing in systems where the piping has been stress relie+ed. 6ashing e=changers may require including connecting piping in the loop if the e=changer cannot be isolated. The purpose is to protect against (/'((L therefore the soda ash solution must be the last liquid in contact with the tubes before heating. /t is essential that the soda ash solution be completely drained to pre+ent caustic stress corrosion cracking. 8=changer bundles constructed of stainless steel are susceptible to (/'(( because there is usually some residual stress from inserting of tubes as the bundles is assembled and the process stream can lay down salts in cre+ices and other places that are hard to wash. )T.'(( is not a concern for the heat e=changers because the ser+ice temperature is lower than the sensiti"ation temperature for either the !21< !#;< or !1:L in the e=changers.

388

*743-"2 T7C21 The following guidelines apply to hori"ontal tubes. (he+ron recommends nitrogen blanketing the tubes when not in ser+ice< but if the tubes will be e=posed to the atmosphere for maintenance< soda ash washing should be performed to pre+ent )T.'((. This is particularly important for the !1:L tubes specified for the reactor feed furnace because !1:L is more susceptible to sensiti"ation than are the stabili"ed grades. )T.'(( can also occur during shutdown on the outside of furnace tubes from atmospheric condensation mi=ing with sulfide scales formed by low le+els of sulfur in the feed furnace. Therefore< dryout fires< space heaters< or dehumidifiers in the firebo= are recommended during shutdown to pre+ent condensation on the furnace tubes. /f these measures cannot be taken< then soda ash washing the outer surface of the tubes is necessary. Dryout fires also help pre+ent moisture condensation inside the tubes. 9ertical tubes should not be soda ash washed< since they cannot be properly drained. /n this case< other methods of stress corrosion cracking pre+ention must be used. P5A53! 'oda ash washing is required for the Type !21 stainless steel piping that has not been stress relie+ed and for !1:L regardless of whether or not it has been stress relie+ed. Low point drains and piping dead legs deser+e special attention. 'ince water collects at these areas< any chlorides in the system tend to concentrate at these points during heat up. .lso< the soda ash itself may cause caustic cracking if concentrated. 7or this reason< it is essential to open drains before starting a catalyst dryout step< and during unit startup< to allow water to drain. Due to their susceptibility for cracking< low point connection welds should be selected in accordance with ,eneral 2ote ; in Drawing -.-2%12!1. /f drains are replaced or added< the practice in ,2-; should be followed.

389

G7582/5321 ?64 S68- A1> W-1>53! P5A53! -38 ED75A#23. 1. 2. *i= soda ash solution as follows: 2A Trisodium )hosphate 1Deoiling Detergent3 2A 'odium (arbonate 1'oda .sh3 %.$A 'odium 2itrate 1(/'(( /nhibitor3 %.2A 6etting .gent 1'urfactant3 M$.!A 6ater (hloride content of the dry sodium carbonate must be less than $%% ppm. (hloride content of the water must be less than 2$ ppm. (hloride content of the total solution shall not e=ceed 1%% ppm. 5eat the water to 1%%o7 to increase soda ash solubility. /f water is too cold< soda ash will drop out of solution and deposit in equipment. The metal skin temperature should be below 1;% o7 before circulating the solution. The inner surfaces of the system shall be fully co+ered by the solution. 6here possible< +apor pockets and dead spaces shall be eliminated. !. (irculate the solution through the piping and equipment for a minimum of 2 hours. /f possible< re+erse the flow after 1 hour for ma=imum cleaning benefit. (heck chloride le+el after 2 hours circulation is complete. /f chloride le+el e=ceeds 2%% ppm< recharge and circulate for 1 hour. -epeat until chloride le+el does not e=ceed 1%% ppm. /f the p5 starts to fall below M< it is a good indicator that the soda ash is being neutrali"ed by acids and needs to be changed. The soda ash solution form a thin layer of deposit on piping and equipment. 5owe+er< if there is e+idence that large amounts of soda ash ha+e collected and deposited< such as in low point areas< then the system should be rinsed with [clean water@ and totally drained. 1'odium is a poison to the catalyst and can also cause stress corrosion cracking if allowed to concentrate when heating up the plant.3 .fter the equipment has been worked on and cleaned it should be nitrogen purged and blanketed.

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390

7eed 7ilter (leaning 4+er the course of long use< or after a period of hea+y or unusual solids loading 1as can occur during plant commissioning3< the filter elements may become so badly plugged that normal backflushing may not return them to the design clean pressure drop. The feed filter elements may need to be cleaned periodically if the automatic backwashing is not completely effecti+e. 7or wedge-wire filter elements< the most effecti+e method for cleaning the elements is ultrasonically with an added surfactant. /f required< another alternati+e is high pressure hydroblasting. .fter cleaning< inspect elements with a magnifying glass to re+eal any remaining plugging. Knaided +isual inspection is not effecti+e. /nspection should be done on dry elements. 4nce an effecti+e cleaning procedure has been established< it can usually be counted on to produce repeatable results. Therefore< on subsequent cleanings< all elements need not be thoroughly inspected< relying on spot inspections. /f frequent cleaning of elements is required< we suggest the purchase of a spare set of elements.

391

. ) ) 8 2 D / ^ C-/ T8'T/2, 74- '.78 82T-Q This .ppendi= suggests a brief description of tests required for safe entry< indicated the person or group authori"ed to make the test< the method to be used< and establishes safe limits for each test before entry into a confined space is permitted without respiratory protection. 2ote that the safe limits presented below are suggestions. *ore stringent limits may be applied as required by local refinery standards. To pre+ent the escape of large quantities of flammable +apors or to=ic gases into the work area< preliminary test for these ha"ardous materials should be made before opening the confined space. 1. 7L.**.0L8 4- 8^)L4'/98 9.)4-' Test (onducted 0y: /nitial Test 'ubsequent Tests *ethod Ksed: 'afe Limits: 4^Q,82 D87/(/82(Q 1423 Test (onducted 0y: /nitial Test 'ubsequent Tests *ethod Ksed: 4=ygen .naly"er - -efinery 'afety Department - 'hift 'uper+isor< Designated 5ead 4perator< or 'afety 4perator (ombustible ,as /ndicator *a=imum %.1 or 1%A L.8.L. - -efinery 'afety Department - 'hift 'uper+isor< Designated 5ead 4perator< or 'afety 4perator 1Lower 8=plosi+e Le+el3

392

0reathing .ir (oncentration ,uidelines for 8ntries .ll 'paces: 1M.$A to 2!.$A 42 regular entry< fresh air equipment for personnel not required. ,reater than 2!.$A 42 4- L8'' T5.2 1M.$A 42 considered special entry. 'elf-contained breathing apparatus or fresh air equipment with egress bottle required for all who enter confined space. Less than 1:A 42 considered an /mmediately Dangerous to Life and 5ealth 1/DL53 atmosphere for personnel. Less than $A 42 content considered an inert entry under all circumstances. 5QD-4,82 'KL7/D8 152'3 Test (onducted 0y: /nitial Test 'ubsequent Tests *ethod Ksed: 'afe Limits: T4T.L 5QD-4(.-042 Test (onducted 0y: /nitial Test 'ubsequent Tests *ethod Ksed: 'afe Limits: (.-042 *424^/D8 1(43 Test (onducted 0y: -efinery 'afety Department *ethod Ksed: Draeger Detector Tubes 'afe Limits: *a=imum $% ppm 'KL7K- D/4^/D8 1'423 Test (onducted 0y: -efinery 'afety Department *ethod Ksed: Draeger Detector Tubes 'afe Limits: *a=imum 2 ppm Draeger Detector Tubes 1)etrol. 5ydrocarbons 1%% a3 *a=imum $%% ppm - -efinery 'afety Department - 'hift 'uper+isor< Designated 5ead 4perator< or 'afety 4perator 52' ,as Detection /nstrument *a=imum 1% ppm - -efinery 'afety Department - 'hift 'uper+isor< Designated 5ead 4perator< or 'afety 4perator

393

082V828 Test (onducted 0y: -efinery 'afety Department *ethod Ksed: ,( O 'yringe *ethod 'afe Limits: *a=imum 1 ppm 1.bo+e 1 ppm -equires -espiratory )rotection3 T4T.L .-4*.T/(' 1Toluene< %-< m-< and p-^ylene3 Test (onducted 0y: -efinery 'afety Department *ethod Ksed: Draeger Detector Tubes 'afe Limits: *a=imum 1%% ppm T8L 1Tetraethyl Lead3 .DD/T/98 Test (onducted 0y: -efinery 'afety Department *ethod Ksed: *odel 1$% Telmatic .ir 'ampler 'afe Limits: 2 ug (ubic 7t 1*icrogram per (ubic 7t3 _ %.%;$ mg m ! .25QD-4K' .**42/. 125!3 Test (onducted 0y: -efinery 'afety Department *ethod Ksed: Draeger Detector Tubes 'afe Limits: *a=imum 2$ ppm )Q-4)54-/( /-42 'KL7/D8 Test (onducted 0y: 'hift 'uper+isor< Designated 5ead 4perator< or 'afety 4perator 9isual /nspection *ethod Ksed: 9isual /nspection 'afe Limits: )yrophoric iron sulfide may be present in +essels< pipelines or tanks which ha+e contained sulfur-bearing stocks. 6hen it dries out in contact with air< it may glow becoming a source of ignition and to=ic '42 fumes. 6here such deposits are suspected< it is important that +essel residues be kept moist until the +apor content of the +essel@s atmosphere has been reduced to %.1% L.8.L. or less. /f necessary< water fog may be applied to the deposits in order to minimi"e ignition ha"ard.

394

4^/D8' 47 2/T-4,82 124^3 Test (onducted 0y: -efinery 'afety Department *ethod Ksed: Draeger Detector Tubes 'afe Limits: *a=imum ! ppm .(/D (.K'T/( )5824L Test (onducted 0y: -efinery 'afety Department *ethod Ksed: p5 or Litmus Test )aper 'afe Limits: 2one established. )rotecti+e equipment requirements +ary from compound to compound. 9ery low 11.%-!.%3 and +ery high 111.%-1#.%3 p5@s require special consideration and equipment. T8*)8-.TK-8 Test (onducted 0y: 'hift 'uper+isor< Designated 5ead 4perator< or 'afety 4perator *ethod Ksed: Kse Thermometer 5a+ing a 2ominal -ange of 1%-M! o( 1$%2%%o73 'afe Limits: *a=imum are temperature #Mo( 112%o73. Temperatures abo+e #Mo( 112%o73 should preclude entry unless special measures< appro+ed by both the *aintenance ,eneral 'uper+isor and the .rea 'uperintendent< are taken to protect workers. 8=amples: /ncreasing +entilation to cool workers< limiting time in confined spaces< or pro+iding >cool +ests.?

395

. ) ) 8 2 D / ^ C-// ,K/D8L/28 74- 64-N/2, /2'/D8 5QD-4(-.(N8- -8.(T4-' K2D8- .2 /28-T .T*4')58-8 G-eference ()(L )rocess *anual E+UIPMENT METALLURGY AND INSPECTION I31A2".563 *42D723"521 Typical inspection frequencies for critical equipment in the /socracker are summari"ed in Table ;-/. These frequencies are intended as a general guideline only. They represent (he+ron@s own practice and or general industry practice for similar equipment. Kltimately< the responsibility for e=tent and frequency of inspection lies with the owner. /nspection inter+als should be modified based on your plant e=perience and indi+idual operation and maintenance needs. 7or the reactors and other high pressure equipment< inspection frequencies will +ary depending on the si"e and orientation of defects that might be found during initial inspection. . comprehensi+e fitness-for-ser+ice analysis could alter the recommended inspection frequency for a particular piece of equipment. 9ariations in feed composition or unit operating conditions from design conditions can also lead to the need to change the inspection frequency. 7eed composition affects the le+els of hydrogen< hydrogen sulfide< ammonia< and chlorides present in the reactor and downstream of the reactors. This will lead to differences in corrosion rates and crack susceptibility. 'imilarly< operating temperature of furnace tubes< for e=ample< can ha+e a significant effect on creep life should o+erheating occur. During a routine turnaround< inspection personnel should take the opportunity to inspect equipment that< based on the pre+ious e=perience< is most susceptible to corrosion or mechanical failure. /t is normal to look at all the equipment during the first turnaround and then establish or modify frequencies such as those listed in Table ;-/. /n cases where corrosion is fairly uniform< corrosion half-life sometimes is used as a parameter for setting inspection inter+als. /nter+als are usually planned so that at least half the corrosion allowance remains at the ne=t scheduled shutdown. 8ach inspection point should be re+isited at the half-life point< if not sooner< to determine if the corrosion rate has changed. This method is particularly useful in the high temperature side of the plant where hydrogenhydrogen sulfide corrosion dominates.

396

'ee .)/ $1% and .)/ $;% for additional recommendations on inspection inter+als. R2-".641 This section discusses potential corrosion and other metallurgical concerns for the reactors and recommends specific components to be inspected. H5!> T2#A24-.742 H0846!23 A..-" 5ydrogen attack alone is essentially not a problem as long as the reactor is operated within the pressure temperature limits of .)/ )ublication M#1. 6hen the .)/ )ublication M#1 limits are e=ceeded or material with insufficient alloy is inad+ertently used< microfissures will form. These microfissures will grow into a large crack if they are not detected in time. (he+ron recommends the following to minimi"e the potential for high temperature hydrogen attack: )ositi+e material identification techniques. /f inspection re+eals microfissures or cracks due to high temperature attack< the unsuitable material should be replaced. 7or 2-1 # (r-1 *o operate no closer than 1#G( to the .)/ M#1 cur+e 7or 2-1 # (r-1 *o-1 # 9< ! (r-1 *o-1 # 9-Ti-0< and ! (r-1 *o-1 # 9-(b-(a< (he+ron@s current practice is to limit these materials to #:CG(. 5owe+er< in most cases< equipment attached to these materials will limit operation to a lower temperature.

H0846!23-A1151.28 C4-" 53! 8+en at normal operating conditions< hydrogen can cause growth of pree=isting cracks in materials that are resistant to high temperature hydrogen attack at normal operating conditions. (racking can also occur at the lower temperatures 1below 1#MG(3 that occur during startup and shutdown. The lower temperature crack growth is caused by temper embrittlement plus hydrogen. 1'ee 'ection ;.#.;.3 The low temperature crack growth is a function of strength of the material< the degree of temper embrittlement< and the number of heat-up and cool-down cycles to which the material has been e=posed. 6hile actual test data are limited< (he+ron@s e=perience to date indicates that low temperature crack propagation has not been significant.

397

/f cracks are detected< their cause should be determined. /f the cracks are determined to be due to high temperature attack< the unsuitable material should be replaced as mentioned abo+e. (on+ersely< if the cracks are determined to be due to other than high temperature attack< they should be measured regularly to follow the crack growth. . >fitness-for-ser+ice? e+aluation that analy"es crack si"e and orientation< stress state< and fracture toughness of the material is appropriate. These analyses require significant engineering support for proper results. R2-".64 C6#A6323.1 The following components ha+e been identified o+er the years to suffer from +arious metallurgical problems and should be focal points for e+ery reactor inspection. G-1 2. G46692 C4-" 53! The !#; stainless steel o+erlays at the gasket ring groo+e areas ha+e occasionally cracked. This is due to stress at the corners of the ring groo+e acting on the stainless steel which has become embrittled from the effects of hydrogen and the formation of sigma phase in the stainless steel. 'igma is a brittle metallurgical phase which forms at $M!-M2;R(. ,asket ring cracks tend to follow along the corners of the groo+e and may penetrate the base metal. ,asket groo+es may also crack in stainless o+erlays due to chloride stress corrosion cracking. (hloride cracking appears to be related to how often the plants cycleL plants with higher shutdown frequencies are more susceptible. (racks in austenitic stainless steels from chlorides are normally branched in appearance. They also do not necessarily follow the groo+es. 6hene+er flanges or manways are opened< gasket ring groo+es should be liquid penetrant tested to look for cracks of the !#; stainless o+erlay. /f cracks are detected by liquid penetrant testing< shear wa+e ultrasonic inspection may be required to determine the depth of penetration of the cracks. T4-0 S7AA64. W2/81 Type !#; stainless steel tray supports and any other !#; stainless components welded before final stress relief are subEect to embrittlement caused by sigma phase formation. /n addition< such areas are often highly stressed by thermal e=pansion differences.

398

D7453! .>2 ?541. 1>7.86:3, these areas should be spot liquid penetrant 1)T3 e=amined for cracking from hydrogen embrittlement or sigma embrittlement. 7uture inspection frequency should be based on the results of this initial spot e=amination. /f nothing unusual is found in the initial inspection< a good practice would be continuation of spot e=amination on each subsequent shutdown so that all attachments are e=amined within the first 1% years of operation. 8mbrittlement is less of a problem for recent reactor tray rings that ha+e less stainless buildup and where the last weld o+erlay pass was completed after final stress relief. B6..6# H2-81 (racks ha+e occurred in the bottom cone support area of some reactors. /t is belie+ed that the cause of stainless steel o+erlay cracking is internal attachment and or o+erlay base metal differential e=pansion stresses acting upon hydrogen-charged sigma embrittled stainless. 4nce cracks penetrate the (r-*o base metal< similar stresses acting upon hydrogen-charged< temper-embrittled base metal can sometimes cause cracks to propagate. This appears to be primarily a problem with older generation reactors built before the mid-;%@s. 5owe+er< e+en for newer reactors< pulling the support cone and inspecting occasionally is recommended. -ecommended inspection frequencies are gi+en in Table ;-/. N6@@/2 A..-">#23. W2/81 4ther users in industry ha+e found no""le attachment welds cracked due to hydrogen in conEunction with creep cracking. 6e recommend you shear wa+e ultrasonic test 1'6KT3 after $ years and thereafter e+ery 1$-2% years< unless there are indications found in the initial inspection which indicate a more frequent inspection inter+al is warranted. T>24#6:2// S7AA64.1 /nspect by )T at the toe of the fillet welds at the o+erlay surface. This is especially critical if the thermowell has been distorted due to catalyst loads. T>24#6:2//1 /nspect by )T at fillet weld of insert to thermowell Eust prior to catalyst loading.

399

S 54. A..-">#23. W2/81 9isually inspect skirt attachment welds e+ery $ years. 6e recommend you '6KT after 1% years and thereafter e+ery 1$ years unless there are indications found in the initial inspection< which indicate a more frequent inspection is warranted. H5!> P4211742 E=">-3!24 E3"/617421 5igh pressure e=changers should be periodically inspected for wear or galling of the threads. -ecommended inspection frequencies are gi+en in Table ;-/. P5A53! B4-3"> C6332".5631 0ranch connections are particularly susceptible to corrosion due to the changes in conditions that occur at these locations. (orrosi+e streams flowing from branch connections ha+e caused unanticipated locali"ed corrosion in some refineries. . common reason for corrosion to occur in branch connections is cold branch line fluids causing water condensation in the main line and subsequent local corrosion. Dead leg branch connections are also known locations for locali"ed corrosion. H5!> T2#A24-.742 H0846!23 A..-" 5eat conduction or process flow through branch connections such as bypass lines and startup or shutdown lines ha+e caused temperatures higher than intended in the branch lines. The high pressure loop is the most critical area for this type of inspection. This area has the greatest potential for hydrogen attack and the greatest potential for a catastrophic fire if a leak occurs. *aterials were selected for the /socracker that are immune to high temperature hydrogen attack at the design operating conditions. 6here there is a piping specification break< especially carbon steel to alloy< the temperature should be monitored during the run until it is established that the carbon steel does not operate abo+e the threshold for hydrogen attack as defined in .)/ M#1. 8=amples are the recycle hydrogen tie-in points at the feed piping and the quench hydrogen piping at the reactors. 0e aware that check +al+es can often leak< leading to une=pected temperatures or hydrogen partial pressures in carbon steel piping.

400

R2-".64 E??/723. A54 C66/24 $REAC% .lthough high alloy tubes were selected for the -8.(< they may be subEect to corrosion by deposition of ammonium bisulfide 125 #5'3 salts formed from the combination of 25! and 52' in the reactor and or ammonium chloride 125 #(l3 salts formed by the combination of 25! and 5(l 1from the chlorides in the feed3. The sublimation range for ammonium bisulfide is generally about ::-M! (. The sublimation of ammonium chloride begins at higher temperatures generally about 1M1-2%#R(. Therefore< 25#(l will begin to sublime upstream of the -8.(. 5owe+er< some ammonium chloride will continue to sublime as the temperature decreases. -8.( corrosion is minimi"ed by limiting the chlorides in the feed and in the make-up hydrogen< by use of high alloy material< by proper design for balanced flow< and by continuous inEection of water at the air cooler inlet. (orrosion in the air cooler tubes may become a problem if ammonium bisulfide or ammonium chloride salts are allowed to build up. The salt blocks flow in a few tubes and thereby increases +elocities and increases the potential for corrosion in the other tubes. The blocked tubes themsel+es are subEect to pitting corrosion. The air cooler itself should be opened after the first shutdown and 1%A of the tubes e=amined using /-/' KT or 8ddy current. /f problems are found< the frequency for reinspection will depend on the type of problem found. /f no problems are found after the first shutdown< the air cooler should be inspected in $ years. .gain< if problems are found< the frequency for reinspection will depend on the type of problem found. /f no problems are found after $ years< the frequency may be e=tended to 1% years. .ll inlet and outlet piping from the wash water point to the (5)' should be checked periodically. The recommended approach is to use spot KT. /n addition< the pipe should be scanned at ells and tees as well as at locations of obstructions such as thermowells that may cause locali"ed turbulence and increased corrosion. /f corrosion is found< radiography should be used to +erify the e=tent of degradation. 6e recommend the inlet outlet high alloy piping be inspected at the first shutdown and then e+ery $ years or less depending on the findings.

401

S674 W-.24 P5A53! 'our water piping from the (L)' should be checked periodically for corrosion from ammonium bisulfide< especially before it is diluted with other water streams. Turbulent areas are most susceptible to corrosion. 6e recommend that the high alloy piping be inspected at the first shutdown and then e+ery $ years or less depending on the findings. (he+ron@s recommended inspection practice for carbon steel high pressure sour water piping is as follows: 6here the ammonium bisulfide concentration is less than CA in the water< inspect the piping downstream of the control +al+e using radiography after the first 2 years. /f no problems are found< e=tend the frequency to e+ery $ years. 6here the ammonium bisulfide concentration is greater than CA in the water< inspect the piping downstream of the control +al+e and all other turbulent areas 1such as elbows< reducers< etc.3 using radiography after the first year. /f no problems are found< e=tend frequency to e+ery $ years. W2. H2S I31A2".563 (arbon steel in the colder sections of the plant is susceptible to cracking from wet 52'. The 2.(8 -) %2M: entitled >,uidelines for Detection< -epair< and *itigation of (racking of 8=isting )etroleum -efinery 9essels in 6et 52' 8n+ironments? should be used as a guideline for inspection. . typical inspection sequence would be to grit blast a 1$%-mm band to white metal on either side of the welds in preparation for wet fluorescent magnetic particle 167*T3 inspection. 1,rit blast with a material that gi+es a shallow surface profile< such as Du)ont@s 'tarblast.3 4ften cracks due to wet 52' stress cracking are shallow enough to be ground out without welding on the +essel. 7lapper wheels are effecti+e for remo+ing +ery shallow cracks. 7or cracks that are deeper than the corrosion allowance< consult .)/ $1% or .)/ $;% to de+elop a plan of action. '6KT is used for crack si"ing. . more sophisticated fitness-for-ser+ice treatment may be required to determine if cracks can be left in place.

402

The following equipment are usually included in a wet 52' inspection program: -ecycle (ompressor N4 Drum (L)' 9apor N4 Drum -ich .mine 7lash Drum )roduct 'tripper Top 5ead )roduct 'tripper -eflu= Drum )roduct 7ractionator Top 5ead )roduct 7ractionator -eflu= Drum Deethani"er Top 5ead Deethani"er -eflu= Drum 'ponge 4il .bsorber 'ponge 4il .bsorber -eflu= Drum Debutani"er Top 5ead Debutani"er -eflu= Drum

P4687". S.45AA24 O924>2-8 S01.2# The top head of the product stripper and the o+erhead piping< +essels< and e=changer shells are subEect to corrosion from ammonium bisulfide salts that may be carried into the fractionation system with water. The area downstream of the product stripper o+erhead air cooler is particularly prone to corrosion. This area is also subEect to cracking from wet 52'< which can be worsened when ammonium bisulfide is present. 'ee 'ection ;.2.: for wet 52' discussion. /nspect the piping onstream using KT. A#532 C64461563 (arbon steel piping in rich amine is subEect to corrosion if flow rates are greater than 1.C m s and where streams are turbulent. (heck especially Eust downstream of the stainless steel section at the pressure letdown +al+es out of the high pressure absorber. The D8. concentration should not e=ceed !%A at %.: mols mol of 52' loading.

403

ED75A#23. M2.-//74!0 This section discusses the material selections made for the equipment in the reaction section of the /'4(-.(N/2, Knit and describes special corrosion pre+ention measures taken to ensure good operation. Drawing -.-2%12!1< referred to here< is located in 9olume /// of the 8ngineering Design )ackage. C-4C63 S.22/ *uch of the equipment in the /'4(-.(N/2, Knit has been fabricated from carbon steel. 'ome special requirements for carbon steel were recommended< as follows: 1. .ll carbon steel welds in +essels< e=changers< and piping should ha+e been hardness tested during fabrication B2%% 052 10rinell 5ardness 2umber3 ma=imumD to assure sulfide stress corrosion cracking 1''(3 resistance. Likewise< carbon steel compressor components should ha+e been limited to 2%% 052 and M%<%%% psi 1:2% *)a3 yield strength to assure ''( resistance. .ll carbon steel +essels with more than !C mm wall thickness 1!2 mm if not preheated3 should ha+e been stress relie+ed in accordance with the requirements of the .'*8< 'ection 9/// )ressure 9essel (ode. .ll welds in carbon steel piping with more than 1M mm wall thickness should ha+e been stress relie+ed in accordance with requirements of the .'*8 (ode for )ressure )iping< >)etroleum -efinery )iping<? 0!1.!. ,2-1; in the >,eneral 2otes on *aterials of (onstruction<? Drawing 2o. -.-2%12!1 contains more detail on postweld heat treatment 1)65T3 and stress relief. 6elds and cold-formed parts in caustic ser+ice should ha+e been stress relie+ed< if: 113 the caustic concentration is greater than !%A< at #!G( or abo+eL 123 the caustic concentration is less than !%A caustic< at :%G( or abo+eL or 1!3 the equipment or piping is steam traced. .ll cold-formed pressure +essel heads< formed transition sections< and K-tube heat e=changer bundles should ha+e been stress relie+ed< regardless of process fluid or operating temperature 1'ee /tem # in ,2-1; for e=ceptions.3 Chevron specifies stress relief of cold-formed parts and PWHT for all welds in DEA piping and vessels. For tan s! PWHT is onl" specified for heating coils and the plate where the coil penetrates.

2.

!.

#.

5.

404

L6: A//60 S.22/1 (hrome-moly steels containing 1.%-M.%A chromium and %.$-1.%A molybdenum ha+e been used for pressure parts of shell< channel< head< and no""les of the following equipment: The (hennai )etroleum (orporation Limited 8quipment 7irst -eactor 'econd -eactor -eactor 7eed 8ffluent 8=changer 5ot -eactor 8ffluent ()L' Liquid 8=changer -eactor 8ffluent 'team ,enerator /nter--eactor 8ffluent 7ractionator 7eed 8=changer -eactor 8ffluent -ecycle ,as 8=changer 8quipment 2o. 2%;--1 2%;--2 2%;-8!. 0 2%;-8# 2%;-8$ *aterial 2-1 # (r - 1 *o 'hell<1<2 5eads1<2 2-1 # (r - 1 *o 'hell<1<2 5eads1<2 2-1 # (r - 1 *o 'hell<1 (hannel1 2-1 # (r - 1 *o (hannel1 2-1 # (r - 1 *o (hannel< 1-1 # (r - 1 2 *o Tubes J Tubesheet 2-1 # (r - 1 *o (hannel1

2%;-8:

2%;-8;

2-1 # (r - 1 *o 'hell< 1-1 # (r - 1 2 *o Tubes J Tubesheet

405

2otes: 1. These are clad with !#; '' weld o+erlayL howe+er< (he+ron does not take this into account when selecting material for resistance to hydrogen attack. 2. .lternati+e materials include 2-1 # (r - 1 *o - 1 # 9< ! (r - 1 *o - 1 # 9-Ti-0< and ! (r - 1 *o - 1 # 9-(b-(a. Low alloy steel has been selected for this equipment to pre+ent damage from hydrogen attack by e=posure to hydrogen at high temperature and pressure. (arbon steel is susceptible to hydrogen attack damage at temperatures abo+e 2%#G(< including a 2CG( safety factor< when in contact with high hydrogen partial pressure streams similar to those found in the /socracker. 8quipment fabricated from 1-1 # (r - 1 2 *o low alloy steel is susceptible to damage abo+e 2:%G(< including a 2CG( safety factor. 8quipment fabricated from 2-1 # (r - 1 *o is used up to ##%G(< including a 1#G( safety factor. (aution must always be e=ercised to assure that a lower grade steel is not accidentally substituted for one of the low alloy steels in the abo+e list. .ll high-strength< low-alloy steels that are subEected to a moist 5 2' en+ironment should be limited to M%<%%% psi 1:<!2$ kg cm23 yield strength and hardness less than -ockwell (22 to pre+ent ''(. These materials are mainly found in the hydrogen recycle< make-up< and offgas compressors. (ommon failure items are flange bolting from leaks and +al+e parts such as stems. 6elds of low alloy steels should be limited to a macrohardness of 21$ 052 to assure weld strength does not greatly e=ceed base metal strength and to guard against hydrogen sulfide stress cracking. ,2-1: of the >,eneral 2otes on *aterials of (onstruction<? Drawing 2o. -.-2%12!1< contains more information on )65T and hardness of low alloy welds. A71.235.5" S.-53/211 S.22/ The austenitic stainless steels used in the /socracker contain a nominal 1CA chrome and CA nickel. The following equipment contains austenitic stainless steels:

406

The (hennai )etroleum (orporation Limited ED75A#23. 7irst -eactor ED75A#23. N6. 2%;--1 M-.245-/ !#; 6eld 4+erlay on 'hell J 5eads !#; /nternals !#; 6eld 4+erlay on 'hell J 5eads !#; /nternals !%CL 6eld 4+erlay on 'hell J 5eads !%#L /nternals< 6ear )late< Donut 0affle< 'hroud -ing 'upports !%CL 6eld 4+erlay in 7eed .rea 0etween )artition and 0affle )lates !%#L /nternals !%CL 6eld 4+erlay on 'hell J 5eads !%#L /nternals !%#L (lad 'hell J 5eads !%#L /nternals< 6ear )late< Donut 0affle< 'hroud -ing 'upports !%CL 6eld 4+erlay in 7eed .rea 0etween )artition and 0affle )lates !%#L /nternals !%CL 6eld 4+erlay on 'hell J 5eads !%#L /nternals !%#L (lad 'hell J 5eads !%#L /nternals

'econd -eactor

2%;--2

(old 5igh )ressure 'eparator

2%;-(2

5igh )ressure (entrifugal 'eparator 5igh )ressure 52' .bsorber

2%;-(!

2%;-(#

(old Low )ressure 'eparator

2%;-(M

(L)' 9apor (entrifugal 'eparator (L)' 9apor 52' .bsorber

2%;-(1%

2%;-(11

7uel ,as 52' .bsorber

2%;-(2$

407

ED75A#23. 6ater 6asher 6ater 6asher 7eed Drum -eactor 7eed 7urnace 7ractionator 7eed 7urnace -eactor 7eed 8ffluent 8=changer 5ot -eactor 8ffluent (L)' Liquid 8=changer /nter--eactor 8ffluent 7ractionator 7eed 8=changer

ED75A#23. N6. 2%;-(#% 2%;-(#2 2%;-71 2%;-72 2%;-8!. 0

M-.245-/ !%#L (lad 'hell J 5eads !%#L (lad 'hell J 5eads !1:L )rocess Tubes !21 )rocess Tubes !#; 6eld 4+erlay on 'hells !1:L 6eld 4+erlay on (hannels !1:L Tubes and Tubesheets !#; 6eld 4+erlay on (hannel !21 Tubes and Tubesheets !#; 6eld 4+erlay on 'hell !21 Tubes and Tubesheets

2%;-8# 2%;-8:

.ustenitic stainless steel was selected for this equipment because of its good resistance to high temperature hydrogen sulfide corrosion or erosion-corrosion by wet 52'. The corrosion rate on stainless steel in the high temperature section should not e=ceed %.2$ mm year. /f carbon steel or chromium steel had been used at these locations< corrosion rates could ha+e e=ceeded 2.$ mm year. 7urther discussion of high temperature hydrogen sulfide corrosion can be found in ,2-! and ,2-# of the >,eneral 2otes on *aterials of (onstruction<? Drawing 2o. -.-2%12!1.

408

SA2"5?5" M2.-//74!5"-/ -38 C64461563 C63"2431 C>/64582 S.4211 C64461563 C4-" 53! .ll austenitic stainless steels 1including stabili"ed grades !21 and !#;3 are susceptible to chloride stress corrosion cracking 1(l'((3. (l'(( can occur in refinery applications when stainless steels containing high residual or applied stresses are e=posed to an aqueous chloride-containing en+ironment at temperatures o+er :%R(. 6hen specified< stainless steels should be stress relie+ed to reduce their residual stresses and< thus< their susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking. /n refinery en+ironments< only stainless steels and nickel alloys containing more than #%A nickel< such as /ncoloy C2$< will be nearly immune to (l'((. The source of chlorides can be related to the process or come from the e=ternal en+ironment. P46"211 C>/645821 (hlorides can enter the /'4(-.(N/2, process in two ways. They can be present in the feed< to the e=tent of se+eral parts per million< and in the make-up hydrogen< if the hydrogen comes from a catalytic reformer. /n either case< the result is the formation of ammonium chloride which is deposited in the heat e=changers downstream of the reactors. (l'(( during operation is unlikely since liquid water must be present. There is some chance that (l'(( may occur during shutdowns if the equipment is e=posed to air 1o=ygen3 and moisture. 8=cluding air and moisture such as with nitrogen blanketing or dryout fires will pre+ent (l'((. 'oda ash washing helps pre+ent (l'(( in three ways: 1. 2. !. 'oda ash works like a detergent to remo+e chloride deposits. 'oda ash raises the p5 to reduce the tendency for (l'((. . low concentration of sodium nitrate added to the soda ash solution is a specific (l'(( inhibitor.

5eat e=changers should be kept dry and inert gas blanketed during shutdowns if the system need not be opened to the air for cleaning and maintenance. /f the e=changers are to be opened< they should first be chemically cleaned using a 2A soda ash solution containing sodium nitrate and a wetting agent. This not only remo+es most of the chlorides< but maintains a slightly alkaline en+ironment that is less likely to cause chloride cracking in the e+ent that a small residue of salt remains after cleaning. 'ee 'ection C.# for more details on soda ash washing.

409

E=.243-/ S674"2 C>/645821 (hlorides can also be a problem if present in the hydrotest or wash water< or if leached out of the insulation< or if condensed out of the seacoast atmosphere. .ll hydrostatic test and wash water should contain a ma=imum of $% ppm chloride. .fter testing< the equipment should be carefully rinsed and dried to pre+ent deposition of chloride salts in cre+ices. .ll insulation co+ering stainless steel piping< etc.< should ha+e a low or nil chloride content. .ustenitic stainless steel piping should be protected from chlorides in seacoast atmospheres either by stress relie+ing or by e=ternal coating. The feed furnaces can be susceptible to (l'(( if water is allowed to stay in the tubes following water washing. (hlorides in this water will concentrate when the furnace is fired and chloride cracking of the tubes may occur. 6ater must be remo+ed from the tubes before startup by air-blowing or< on +ertical tube furnaces< by oil circulation. 7urther discussion of (l'(( can be found in ,2-; and ,2-22 of the >,eneral 2otes on *aterials of (onstruction<? Drawing 2o. -.-2%12!1. P6/0.>5635" A"58 S.4211 C64461563 C4-" 53! )olythionic acids 152'=4:3 are produced from sulfide scales in piping and equipment during shutdowns< when these scales are e=posed to air and water at ambient conditions. )olythionic acids can rapidly crack austenitic stainless steels that ha+e been >sensiti"ed? to intergranular cracking< when applied or residual tensile stresses are also present. The cracking occurs during shutdowns when the piping or equipment is relati+ely cool< but may not be detected until the system is pressuri"ed upon startup. .ustenitic stainless steels become sensiti"ed by e=posure to temperatures abo+e about ;$%R7 1!MMR(3. The time required to sensiti"e the stainless steel depends on the grade of steel and the length and temperature of e=posure. The family of stabili"ed stainless steel grades including Types !21 and !#; 1and a high nickel grade< /ncoloy C2$3 are the least susceptible to sensiti"ation. 'tabili"ed grades of austenitic stainless steels can pro+ide thousands of hours of resistance to sensiti"ation< so they can be welded< stress relie+ed< and operated at ele+ated temperatures for se+eral hours without becoming susceptible to polythionic acid cracking. 7or e=ample< Type !21 or !#; stainless steels can be operated continuously at temperatures up to #:CR( and #M:R(< respecti+ely< without sensiti"ation< pro+ided they are thermally stabili"ed heat treated when the ser+ice temperature e=ceeds #$#R(.

410

Types !#; and !21 stainless steels were selected for use in the /socracker because of this sensiti"ation resistance. The low carbon grades of stainless steels 1!%#L and !1:L3 will pro+ide about C% hours of sensiti"ation resistance so they can be welded and stress relie+ed without becoming sensiti"ed. Therefore< it is particularly important that any !1:L reactor feed piping that operates abo+e #%%R( and the !1:L reactor feed furnace tubes be protected during downtime. The unstabili"ed stainless steels 1!%# and !1:3 are easily sensiti"ed in a short time< such as during welding or stress relief. There are four ways to pre+ent polythionic stress corrosion cracking 1)T.'((3: 1. 2. !. #. Kse stabili"ed stainless steels like !21 or !#; which are resistant to sensiti"ation. )re+ent contact with air--use a nitrogen gas blanket. )re+ent contact with moisture--use dehumidifiers< desiccants< and dryout fires. 'oda ash wash piping and equipment before e=posure to air or moisture to neutrali"e the sulfur acids.

'oda ash washing neutrali"es polythionic acids and lea+es a sodium carbonate film that will neutrali"e additional acids as they form. Details on soda ash washing of stainless steel equipment is gi+en in 'ection C.#.

411

A##6357# B517/?582 C64461563 1. .mmonium bisulfide is formed when ammonia 125 !3 combines with hydrogen sulfide 152'3 and precipitates as a solid below about 121G(. 6ater inEection is recommended immediately upstream of the -8.( 12%;-8M3 for control of ammonium bisulfide 125#5'3 deposition. The quantity of water inEected at the effluent air cooler inlet is calculated to assure that flow is sufficient to saturate the gas stream and control the ammonium bisulfide concentration in the (5)' water stream. .t least 2$A of the inEected water should remain as liquid water to a+oid first-drop condensation corrosion. 8nough water should be inEected to keep the ammonium bisulfide concentration in the sour water at or below 12 wt A< which is the ma=imum concentration that (he+ron recommends for the duple= 22%$ air cooler. 2. These e=changers and the inlet piping should be designed for bulk flow +elocities of !.%-M.% m s since erosion-corrosion can occur in high +elocity areas. /nlet piping into these e=changers should be balanced in order to assure equal +elocities and distribution of water and inhibitors into all e=changers< and dead legs should be minimi"ed to a+oid the potential for pitting by stagnant ammonium bisulfide solutions. !. Kltrasonic measurements of the piping thickness around the high pressure gas coolers should be taken to assure erosion< corrosion is under control. A#532 C64461563 -38 A#532 S.4211 C64461563 C4-" 53! 8=cessi+e corrosion in an amine system can be caused by a number of interrelated factors including process design< operation practices< materials of construction< and serious solution contamination. /n amine piping< fluid +elocities should be limited to 1.C m s. .t higher +elocities< corrosion rates increase< resulting in more particulate iron sulfide corrosion products in the amine. The foaming tendency of dirty amine is regarded as a bigger problem than the decreased piping life at higher +elocities. 6hen high +elocities are required< such as to a+oid pulsation problems< stainless steel piping is used. (orrosion of stainless steel by amine is minimal and +elocity limits are not required. -ich amine systems contain high concentrations of 52'< and thus are subEect to the special requirements for 52' ser+ice and sulfide stress cracking which were discussed pre+iously in 'ections ;.!.1 and ;.!.2. S7/?582 S.4211 C4-" 53! $W2. H2S C4-" 53!% This topic is discussed in 'ection ;.!.2 and in ,2-C of the >,eneral 2otes on *aterials of (onstruction<? Drawing 2o. -.-2%12!1.

412

H5!> T2#A24-.742 H0846!23 A..-" This topic is discussed in 'ection ;.!.2 and in ,2-2 of the >,eneral 2otes on *aterials of (onstruction<? Drawing 2o. -.-2%12!1. T2#A24 E#C45../2#23. Low alloy steel hea+y wall equipment operating in the embrittling temperature range 1abo+e !#!R( for 2-1 # (r - 1 *o steel and abo+e !MMR( for 1-1 # (r - 1 2 *o steel3 should employ operating procedures to a+oid pressuri"ing such equipment abo+e 2$A of the design pressure when the metal temperature is below !CG(. This pressure corresponds to 2%A of the hydrostatic test pressure which< under .'*8 'ection 9///< Di+ision 2< is 1.2$ times the design pressure. *ore information concerning Temper 8mbrittlement is contained in ,2-1C of the >,eneral 2otes on *aterials of (onstruction<? Drawing 2o. -.-2%12!1. H0846!23 O7.!-1153! 6hen a reactor is in ser+ice a small amount of hydrogen continually diffuses from the inside of the reactor through the wall to the atmosphere. The equilibrium concentration that the hydrogen in the wall reaches depends on the temperature and the hydrogen partial pressure. The higher the temperature and hydrogen partial pressure< the higher the equilibrium concentration of hydrogen in the wall. During reactor cooldown< the solubility of hydrogen in the reactor steel decreases. /n addition< the hydrogen diffusion rate in the reactor steel is a function of temperature. .s the temperature drops< the rate of hydrogen diffusion decreases. .s a consequence< a rapid cooldown can result in a 15!35?5"-3. concentration of hydrogen remaining entrapped in the reactor wall. /t is desirable to minimi"e the amount of hydrogen remaining in the reactor wall subsequent to the unit shutdown. The entrapped hydrogen can cause e=isting fabrication defects to grow. /t can also cause cracking and separation 1disbonding3 of stainless steel o+erlay from the reactor base material. /ndustry e=perience indicates that the potential for hydrogen induced damage increases as the tensile strength of the reactor material increases. 7or this reason the modern reactor specifications< including the specifications for your reactors< ha+e limitations on the ma=imum tensile strength. /t is not practical to totally eliminate the residual hydrogen in the reactor wall after shutdown. 5owe+er< there are two common methods of reducing the concentration of the entrapped hydrogen. 4ne method is to reduce or eliminate hydrogen from the reactor feed while maintaining a constant and a relati+ely high temperature. This method is

413

commonly known as isothermal outgassing. The hold time for isothermal outgassing +aries depending on the desired reduction in hydrogen concentration. /sothermal outgassing is time consuming and can significantly add to the reactor shutdown cycle. . less rigorous method< predominately used in the industry< is to control the cooling rate during shutdown. This allows a significant amount hydrogen to diffuse out of the reactor wall while the reactor is gradually being cooled. 7or this reason (he+ron has specified a strict cooling rate requirement that should be obser+ed during all normal shutdown operations. /n the past< (he+ron had supplied a comprehensi+e guideline to its licensees for determining the need for isothermal outgassing. /t has been (he+ron@s e=perience and recent industry e=perience that isothermal outgassing is not required for modern reactors constructed to strict fabrication requirements. This statement assumes that the reactor has been subEected to a comprehensi+e post-fabrication nondestructi+e inspection. /t has also been the industry e=perience that as a reactor ages< there is increased potential for a nondetectable fabrication defect to grow. There is also a potential for a surface o+erlay defect< generated in ser+ice< to penetrate into the base material. (onsidering the current industry knowledge< it is (he+ron@s position that controlled cooldown either by itself or in conEunction with isothermal outgassing will not totally pre+ent growth in defects. 7or the reason mentioned abo+e< (he+ron recommends that a "6#A42>231592 -38 A245685" inspection program be implemented to detect flaw formation or growth. There ha+e been significant ad+ancements in nondestructi+e detection of flaws in hea+y wall pressure +essels< such as hydroprocessing reactors. /t is important to use an inspection firm that employs modern tools and has significant e=perience in detection and interpretation of flaws in hydroprocessing reactors. 8ach licensee< based on its own operating and maintenance philosophy< should formulate its inspection frequency program. Table ;-/ is based mostly on (he+ron@s operating units and can be used as a guide to de+elop such a program. /f a defect is detected during inspection< (he+ron recommends that the user conduct a fitness-for-ser+ice assessment before the unit is returned to ser+ice. 7itness-for-ser+ice assessment will determine if a flaw needs to be repaired or if the +essel can be returned to ser+ice while the defect is periodically monitored. /f the latter course of action is chosen< the need for more rigorous outgassing 1such as the additional step of isothermal outgassing3 could be considered.

414

ED75A#23. T0A2 G2324-/ 9essels (olumns 5eat 8=changers 5eaters )iping

I31A2".563 *42D723"0 The shorter of: 1% years or corrosion half-life. The shorter of: 1% years or corrosion half-life. The shorter of: 1% years or corrosion half-life. The shorter of: $ years or corrosion half-life. 8stablish per .)/ $;% guidelines.

C6##23.1 Kse .)/ $1% as a general guide. Kse .)/ $1% as a general guide. Kse .)/ $1% as a general guide.

415

ED75A#23. T0A2 Particular Areas of Interest V2112/13

I31A2".563 *42D723"0

C6##23.1

E=A24523"2 #-0 5385"-.2 .>-. 6.>24 92112/1 C2 -8828 .6 .>51 /51.. 7irst opportunityL subsequent inspection as determined by findings using 67*T /nspection. Look for wet 52' cracking using 67*T and '6KT.

-ecycle (ompressor N4 Drum< ()L' 9apor N4 Drum< )roduct 7ractionator Top 5ead< )roduct 7ractionator -eflu= Drum< Deethani"er Top 5ead< Deethani"er -eflu= Drum< 'ponge 4il .bsorber< 'ponge 4il .bsorber -eflu= Drum< Debutani"er Top 5ead< Debutani"er -eflu= Drum -ich .mine 7lash Drum< )roduct 'tripper Top 5ead< )roduct 'tripper -eflu= Drum R2-".641 Tray 'upport 6elds (atalyst 'upport (one .ttachment 6elds 6ire *esh 1'creen3 Thermowell 0oss

7irst opportunityL subsequent inspection as determined by findings using 67*T /nspection.

Look for general metal loss and wet 52' cracking using KT< 67*T< and '6KT. 'pot 1)T if stainless cladL 67*T if bare wall3. 9T )T )T from inside. 9T 9T )T )T from inside. 9T: Look for bent thermowells or supports. )T thermowells and supports if bent.

8+ery shutdown. .ll welds in a 1%-year period. 8+ery shutdown. 7irst shutdown after $ years< e+ery 1% years thereafter. 8+ery shutdown. 8+ery shutdown. 7irst shutdown after $ years<# e+ery 1% years thereafter.
#

Thermowell

8+ery shutdown

416

ED75A#23. T0A2 ,asket -ing ,roo+es

I31A2".563 *42D723"0 8+ery shutdown 8+ery time flange is opened. 9T )T )T

C6##23.1

2o""le and *anway 4D 6elds 2o""le and *anway /D -adius ,irth and Longitudinal 6elds 'kirt .ttachment 6eld 15ot 0o=3

7irst shutdown after $ years<# e+ery 1$-2% years thereafter. 7irst shutdown after 1% years< # e+ery 1$ years thereafter. 7irst shutdown after 1% years< # e+ery 1$ years thereafter. 7irst shutdown after $ years< # e+ery $ years thereafter. 7irst shutdown after 1% years< # e+ery 1$ years thereafter.

67*T and '6KT )T '6KT 9T )T 67*T and '6KT 9T including 4D strapping< KT at areas: return bends< tees< thermowells< etc. 0oroscope tube ends and conduct /-/' KT or 8ddy current inspection of 1%A of tubes. 9T e=amine closure threads for galling and wear.

-eactor 7eed 7urnace

8ach shut down after spot crudes containing naphthenic acid are used. 4therwise the shorter of: $ years or corrosion half-life. 7irst shutdown and then in $ years or less depending on the findings< then e+ery 1% years or less depending on the findings 8+ery time bundles are pulled.

8ffluent .ir (ooler Tubes

5igh )ressure 8=changer 8nclosures

417

ED75A#23. T0A2 )iping 8ffluent .ir (ooler /nlet and 4utlet )iping /nEection 6ater )iping

I31A2".563 *42D723"0 7irst shutdown and then e+ery $ years or less depending on the findings .s recommended in .)/ $;%.

C6##23.1 KT: look for turbulent areas: ells< tees< thermowells< etc. KT: inspect from break tank to no""lesL look at turbulent areas. KT: look for turbulent areas: ells< tees< thermowells< etc.

(arbon 'teel 'our 6ater )iping Type !21 '' )iping Type !1:L )iping

-T flashing and turbulent areas e+ery 2 years.

8stablish per .)/ $;% guidelines. Look for distortion< high stress areas. 7irst shutdown and each shut down after spot crudes containing naphthenic acid are used. 4therwise follow .)/ $;%. 6ithin first catalyst run: monitor if process temperatures change upward for e=tended time periods. Qearly Look for erosioncorrosion in turbulent areas *easure metal temperature of (' piping against .)/ M#1 cur+es. KT: Look for turbulent areas< ells< tees< thermowells< etc.

0ranch (onnections

)iping (5)' Liquid to (L)' 2otes:

1. The following terms are used in the Table ;-/: 9T: 9isual e=amination. 67*T: 6et fluorescent magnetic particle inspection is a sensiti+e crack detection technique used especially to find surface cracks near +essel and column welds. This technique is recommended for those +essels that are e=posed to >wet 52'? or amines< and so are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. )T: Dye penetrant testL a less sensiti+e method often used to find stress corrosion cracks in austenitic stainless steels such as Types !#;< !21< or !%#L.

418

'6KT: 'hear wa+e ultrasonic testing< used to characteri"e both surface and subsurface cracks in +essel wallsL can be done on-stream for +essels that operate under :$G(. '6KT is often used to determine the length and depth of larger cracks that are first detected using 67*T. '6KT of reactors should be performed using the calibration procedures described in (he+ron@s reactor specification. 8ddy (urrent: .nother air cooler tube inspection technique that is similar in appearance and in method to /-/' KT< but that uses eddy current to measure the tube thickness. Ksed as a screening tool prior to /-/' KT. . technician familiar with the technique must interpret the data. /-/' KT: Ksed to determine thickness of air cooler tubes< this ultrasonic de+ice is inserted into the tube ends and rotates to measure nearly the entire tube /D. . technician familiar with the technique must interpret the data. 0oroscope: .n optical fiber de+ice connected to a monitor to aid in +isual inspection of small spaces. This is particularly useful for air cooler tube ends near ferrules 1especially the effluent air cooler3. .nother application is inspection of reactor support cone screens. 2. The following .)/ and 2.(8 documents are commonly used as a general guideline for determining inspection frequencies for piping and equipment. They also contain useful information about which areas of refinery plants tend to ha+e a higher risk of corrosion or that are sometimes o+erlooked< such as deadlegs and inEection points in piping. .)/ $1%: >)ressure 9essel /nspection (odeS*aintenance /nspection< -ating< -epair< and .lteration.? .)/ $1% contains guidance on determining retirement thickness for pressure +essels< including locali"ed corrosion such as pitting and groo+ing. .)/ $;%: >)iping /nspection (odeS/nspection< -epair< .lteration< and -erating of /n-'er+ice )iping 'ystems<? includes detailed guidelines for setting inspection inter+als for piping and for classifying piping according to corrosion se+erity. .)/ $;2: >/nspection of )ressure 9essels<? is a general guide to orient inspectors to refinery equipment and modes of degradation. 2.(8 -ecommended )ractice -)%2M:-M:: >,uidelines for Detection< -epair< and *itigation of (racking of 8=isting )etroleum -efinery 9essels in 6et 5 2' 8n+ironments.?

419

!. Kse 2.(8 6et 52' -ecommended )ractice as a guide. #. (he+ron refineries ha+e sometimes adEusted their inspection frequency of reactor components based on the frequency of unit shutdowns and startups. 7or your information< some clients ha+e used the following in order to estimate equi+alent-year factors: Two startup-shutdown cycles are equi+alent to 1 year of normal operation. 4ne upset emergency shutdown is equi+alent to ! years of normal operation. 1 year of operation below #2;G( and 1#1 kg cm 2 is equi+alent to %.: year of normal operation.

420

DE*INITIONS This section defines most of the units< abbre+iations< technical terms< and slang used in this manual. U35.1 The following units and unit abbre+iations are commonly used with regard to the 5ydrocracker and its operation. G.)/ Degree .)/. Ksed to describe the density of liquid hydrocarbon streams at 1$.:( 1:%G73. Denser streams like residuum ha+e a low .)/ gra+ity number while lighter streams like gasoline ha+e a high .)/ gra+ity. .)/ gra+ity is related to specific gra+ity by the following equation:
6P< = 141.5 131.5 /pec$B$c 8r D$!&

0)4D

0arrels )er 4perating Day. Ksed to describe the flow rate of oil streams. 4ne barrel contains #2 K.'. gallons or %.1$M m! 1$.:1# cubic feet3. .n >operating? day refers to a day on which the plant is operating. These barrels are corrected to standard conditions of 1$.:( 1:%G73. /f the oil is a different gra+ity or flowing at a different temperature than the orifice meter design< the meter reading must be corrected. 'ometimes feed rates are e=pressed per >calendar? day 10)(D3< which a+erages the rate o+er the whole year< including downtime. 0arrels )er 'tream Day. The same as 0)4D 10arrels )er 4perating Day3. Degree 0aum`. Ksed to describe the gra+ity of caustic solutions. . 2$R0` solution contains about 1M.2 wt A caustic and has a specific gra+ity of 1.2%C. (entipoise. . unit of +iscosity. 6ater has a +iscosity of 1.%% c) at 2%G(. (enti'toke. . unit of kinematic +iscosity. (entistoke +iscosity of a fluid is the centipoise +iscosity di+ided by the density of the fluid. 6ater has a kinematic +iscosity of 1.%% c't at 2%G(.

0)'D R0`

c) c't

421

kcal

Nilocalorie. Ksed to describe a quantity of heat. /t takes 1 kcal to heat 1 kg of water 1G( and about $$: kcal to +apori"e 1 kg of water into 1 kg of steam 11 kcal _ %.2!M%1 kW3. Nilograms per 'quare (entimeter .bsolute. Ksed to e=press pressures relati+e to total +acuum B% kg cm 2 1a3D used in calculating meter correction factors and compression ratios. .tmospheric pressure at sea le+el is 1.%!! kg cm2 1a3. Nilograms per 'quare (entimeter ,auge. Ksed to e=press gauge pressures 1pressure abo+e atmospheric pressure3. This is the pressure shown on the face of a pressure gauge. To determine absolute pressure< add 1.%!! to the reading on a pressure gauge. Nilograms per 5our. Ksed to describe the mass flow rate of a stream. Nilogram-*ole. Ksed to describe a quantity of compounds or mi=ture of compounds equal in weight to its a+erage molecular weight. 7or e=ample< 1 kg-mole of o=ygen 14 2< molecular weight _ !2.%3 weighs !2.% kg< while 1 kg-mole of butane 1(#51%< molecular weight _ $C.13 weighs $C.1 kg. Nilowatt. Ksed to describe the power 1rate of energy usage3 of an electric motor or other electrical de+ice. Liters per *inute. Ksed to describe the flow rate of liquid streams at process conditions such as pump suction. Knlike 0)4D or 0)'D< these units are not corrected to standard conditions. (ubic *eters per 5our. Ksed to describe the flow rate of liquid streams at either standard or process conditions. /n this proEect< m! hr refers to flow at process conditionsL m! hr a 1$.:( refers to flow at standard conditions. *illimeters of *ercury. 1The chemical symbol for mercury is 5g.3 Ksed to e=press absolute pressures< especially for +acuum systems. .tmospheric pressure at sea le+el is ;:% mm 5g. . total +acuum is % mm 5g absolute or ;:% mm 5g +acuum.

kg cm2 1a3

kg cm2 1g3

kg hr kg-mole

k6 L *in.

m! hr

mm 5g

422

** kcal hr 2m!

*illion Nilocalories per 5our. Ksed to describe the rate of heat transfer in an e=changer or fired heater. 2ormal (ubic *eter. Ksed to describe a quantity of gas which would occupy 1 cubic meter at %G( and ;:% mm 5g. 22.# 2m! of a gas is equi+alent to 1 kg-mole. Thus< 22.# 2m! of o=ygen 1423 weighs !2.% kg. 4ne normal cubic meter is equi+alent to about !;.! '(7. 2ormal (ubic *eter per (ubic *eter of 4il. Ksed to describe a relati+e gas-to-oil ratio< especially hydrogen consumption or recycle gas ratio. 4ne normal cubic meter of gas per cubic meter of oil is equi+alent to about $.M2 '(70. )arts )er 0illion. 1%%% ppb is equal to 1 ppm. )arts )er *illion. Ksed to e=press a small weight concentration of liquids 1ppmw3 or +olume concentration of gases 1ppm+3. /t takes 1%<%%% ppm to make 1A. 'tandard (ubic 7eet. Ksed to e=press gas +olume at standard conditions of 1$.:( 1:%G73 and atmospheric pressure at sea le+el. 'tandard (ubic 7eet )er 0arrel of 4il. Ksed to describe a relati+e gas-to-oil ratio< especially hydrogen consumption or recycle gas ratio.

2m! m!

ppb ppm

'(7

'(70

423

ACC4295-.5631 The following abbre+iations are from refinery processing in general and hydrocracking in particular. .T7 0.T .+iation Turbine 7uel. . cut which generally boils between 121G( 12$%73 and 2C$G( 1$#$73. 0ed .+erage Temperature. The arithmetic a+erage of the inlet and outlet le+el a+erage temperatures 1L.Ts3 of a gi+en catalyst bed. 0oiler 7eedwater. 'pecially treated and deaerated water which is low in dissol+ed solids and o=ygen and used to make steam in a boiler. (atalyst .+erage Temperature. The weighted a+erage of the 0.Ts. 8ach indi+idual 0.T is weighted by the fraction of the total acti+e catalyst in that bed. (old 5igh )ressure 'eparator. (old Low )ressure 'eparator. +apor

076

(.T

(5)' (L)'

D8. Diethanolamine. . chemical used to absorb 52' from a stream. D*D' D C:

Dimethyl Disulfide. . chemical 1(5!''(5!3 used to sulfide fresh catalyst. .n .'T* test method used to determine the boiling point distribution of a cut with an end point lower than about !;%G(. .n .'T* test method used to determine the boiling point distribution of a cut with an end point higher than about !;%G(. 8nd-of--un. The point in time when the catalyst has fouled so much that catalyst replacement or regeneration is required.

D 11:%

84-

424

/D /(L.T L5'9

/nside Diameter. /socracker or /'4(-.(N/2,. Le+el .+erage Temperature. .+erage temperature at a le+el in a catalyst bed. Liquid 5ourly 'pace 9elocity. The ratio of reactor feed rate 1m! hr at standard conditions3 to catalyst +olume 1m !3. Knit of measure is in+erse hours 1l hr3. Liquefied )etroleum ,as. )rimarily propane and butanes with small amounts of ethane and pentane. *iddle-of--un. . point in time midway between '4- and 84-. *otor 4perated 9al+e. . +al+e with a motor operator. )artial )ressure of 5ydrogen or a+erage partial pressure 1denoted with a line o+er the p3. 7or (he+ron@s kinetic estimates< the hydrogen partial pressure in the reactor is calculated by assuming all oil molecules are +apori"ed. The a+erage partial pressure in the reactor generally refers to the linear a+erage of the inlet and outlet. 1'ee 'ection 1!.% for an e=ample.3 -eid 9apor )ressure. . measure of the +apor pressure of a light hydrocarbon stock< used especially with gasolines and gasoline blending stocks. 'tart-of--un. The point in time when the catalyst is fresh or newly regenerated. 'our 6ater 'tripping. The sour water treating facilities. True 0oiling )oint. The boiling point of a pure liquid at atmospheric pressure.

L), *4*49 b 52pp or p52

-9)

'4'6' T0)

425

T84T'4T&

(atalyst .+erage Temperature when the catalyst is at 8ndof--un. (atalyst .+erage Temperature when the catalyst is at 'tart-of--un or fresh conditions. >T-'tar.? . temperature used to characteri"e feeds. /t is intended to appro=imate the initial cut point of the feed. /t is the intersection of a line drawn through the T0) !%A and $%A points and the % L9 A a=is. 1'ee 'ection 1!.% for illustration.3 Tangent to Tangent Length. Length of cylindrical sections of columns< +essels< and reactors. 9acuum ,as 4il. .n oil which is taken as a sidecut from a crude +acuum column. (on+ersion 0elow T&. The amount of product boiling below T&< minus the e=pansion. 1'ee 'ection 1!.% of the ()(L )rocess *anual for illustration.3

T-T 9,4 ^1T&3

426

T2">35"-/ T24#1 The following technical terms are useful in understanding the operations of the 5ydrocrackerL most are used in this manual: .mmonia . molecule 125!3 which is formed by reaction of hydrogen with organic nitrogen molecules in the feed. .mmonia forms a basic solution in water and helps to absorb hydrogen sulfide. . class of molecules which contain one or more ben"ene rings. /n the hydrotreating process< some of the feed aromatics are saturated to naphthenes by hydrogenation. . class of molecules which contain a +ery high number of unsaturated rings and high le+els of metals< sulfur< and nitrogen. Puantitati+ely measured as material insoluble in hot heptane. . set of boiling point data used to describe a mi=ture of molecules. . test method used to obtain an assay of a mi=ture whose hea+iest molecule boils at about !;%G(. . test method used to obtain an assay of a mi=ture whose hea+iest molecule boils higher than !;% (. . cut which generally boils between about 1!%G( and 2:%G(. *aldistribution of liquid and +apor flow in a catalyst bed such that sections of the bed are bypassed by liquid. . high pressure stream drawn from or >bled off? from the reactor loop recycle gas stream to control loop pressure or recycle gas purity. . flat plate inserted between flanges in a pipe to pre+ent flow. . synonym for gate +al+e. The temperature at which the +apor pressure of a liquid equals the system pressure. The boiling point refers to atmospheric pressure if no pressure is stated.

.romatics

.sphaltenes

.ssay .'T* D C: .'T* D 11:% .+iation Turbine 7uel 0ed (hanneling 0leed ,as

0lind 0lock 9al+e 0oiling )oint

427

0oiling -ange 0ottoms 0ubble )oint

The range of temperatures o+er which a mi=ture boils< usually at atmospheric pressure. The liquid stream which lea+es the bottom of a distillation column. The temperature at which the +apor pressure of a mi=ture Eust equals the system pressure 1same as boiling point3. 'o called because this is the temperature at which the first >bubble? of +apor forms as the mi=ture is heated. . substance which accelerates the rate of a reaction but which remains basically unchanged after the reaction is complete. The desulfuri"ation< denitrification< demetalation< saturation< or hydrocracking 1depending on the type of catalyst3 ability of a catalyst at a particular temperature. The greater its degree of con+ersion for a gi+en temperature< the more >acti+e? a catalyst is. The total time a single catalyst charge is in ser+ice from startup until 84- is reached. . substance which partially destroys the ability of a catalyst to speed up a reaction. -emo+al and replacement of the top layer of catalyst in the first reactor bed. This is performed when deposits se+erely plug the upper catalyst layer< imposing a pressure drop across the first bed. . basic compound< such as 2a45< in a water solution that is used to neutrali"e acids< or to absorb 52' from L), streams. The percentage of pure cetane in a blend of cetane and alpha-methyl-naphthalene which matches the ignition quality of a diesel fuel sample. This quality< specified for middle distillate fuels< is analogous to the octane number for gasolines.

(atalyst

(atalyst .cti+ity

(atalyst Life (atalyst )oison (atalyst 'calping 1'kimming3

(austic

(etane 2umber

428

(heck 9al+e

. +al+e which permits flow in the forward direction but not in the re+erse direction. B.lso called a nonreturn +al+e 12-93.D . stream which is drawn from the side of a distillation column< cooled below its bubble point then returned to a tray further up the column to partially condense some of the upflowing +apor. .lso known as a pumparound. . thin< protecti+e layer of corrosion-resistant metal bonded to the surface of another metal with less corrosion resistance. . fine steel mesh pad used to promote the separation of water from oil. Deposits of carbon-rich material which slowly accumulate on the catalyst from undesirable side reactions and reduce its acti+ity. The process by which coke is deposited on catalyst or process equipment and piping. . tall +ertical +essel containing trays or packing used for distillation or absorption. The part of a fired heater immediately abo+e the firebo= in which most of the heat is transferred by con+ection rather than radiation. The amount of feed material which becomes light products in the reactor. 1'ee 'ection 1!.% for illustration.3 .n undesirable reaction between the metal of a +essel wall or pipe and certain chemicals which gradually >eats? away enough metal to require replacement. 4ne of the products from a distillation column. . light cut contains low boiling components and comes from the upper section of the column. . hea+y cut contains high boiling components and comes from the lower section of the column.

(irculating -eflu=

(ladding

(oalescer )ad (oke

(oking (olumn (on+ection 'ection

(on+ersion (orrosion

(ut

429

(ut )oint

The boiling point corresponding to the intersection of the cumulati+e composite assay cur+e drawn between two adEacent cuts and a +ertical line connecting the start and end points of the two cuts. The process by which metal-bearing molecules react with hydrogen to form metal sulfides. The sulfides are deposited on the catalyst surface. . fine steel mesh pad placed at the top of a +essel Eust below the +apor outlet to coalesce and remo+e tiny liquid droplets or mist entrained in the rising +apor. The process by which nitrogen is remo+ed from hydrocarbon compounds by reaction with hydrogen to form ammonia. The process by which sulfur is remo+ed from hydrocarbon compounds by reaction with hydrogen to form hydrogen sulfide. The temperature at which a mi=ture of +apor molecules first forms a drop of liquid when it is cooled. . cut which generally boils between about 1$%G( and !:%G(< used to power automobile< truck< or marine engines. The e=it or high pressure end of a pump or compressor. The process of separating a mi=ture of molecules into two or more boiling ranges by contacting upflowing +apor with downflowing liquid. Two consecuti+e block +al+es< separated by a short length of pipe with a third block +al+e off a tee. Ksed to gi+e positi+e isolation between two systems. The third usually kept open to detect if there is a leak of the two main +al+es. . measure of furnace firebo= gauge pressure usually measured in inches of water. . typical draft is 1! mm of water at the burners of a fired heater< which means that the pressure inside the firebo= near the burners is 1! mm of water less than atmospheric. 5igher draft means lower pressure 1higher gauge reading

Demetallation

Demister )ad

Denitrification

Desulfuri"ation

Dew )oint Diesel

Discharge Distillation

Double 0locks and 0leeder +al+e is through either Draft

430

Dropout 'pool

. short length of pipe with flanges at both ends to permit easy remo+al. Ksed for positi+e isolation of two systems. .lso known as a remo+able spool 1-'3. The stream lea+ing the bottom of the reactor. The aging process of reactor metal< particularly weld metal< in which prolonged e=posure to high temperatures causes the metal to deteriorate slightly and become brittle. . chemical reaction which absorbs heat. The last and highest temperature reported in an assay which indicates the boiling point of the molecules boiling when the assay was stopped. The physical phenomenon of a mist or fog of liquid droplets being transported in a +apor stream. /n a chemical system< the state of affairs in which a chemical reaction and its re+erse reaction are taking place at equal +elocities< so the concentrations of reacting substances remains constant. .ir which enters a furnace o+er and abo+e the amount theoretically required for complete< stoichiometric combustion of the furnace fuel. . chemical reaction which gi+es off heat 1e.g.< hydrocracking3. The section of a fired heater where the burners are located and where heat is transferred to the tubes by radiation. The radiant section. The lowest temperature at which an oil gi+es off enough +apor to make a small flash when a flame is passed o+er it. The lowest temperature at which the +apor of an oil can ignite. The section of a distillation column where the feed enters and flashes into separate +apor and liquid streams.

8ffluent 8mbrittlement

8ndothermic -eaction 8nd )oint

8ntrainment 8quilibrium

8=cess .ir

8=othermic -eaction 7irebo=

7lash )oint

7lash Vone

431

7looding

. condition in a distillation column where the liquid and +apor rates are so high that either massi+e amounts of liquid are carried upward with the +apor 1+apor rate is too high3 or liquid backs up in the downcomers and spills out on the trays abo+e. The gas stream containing fired heater combustion products which flows through the con+ection section and up the stack. The rate at which catalyst temperature must be increased with time to hold the target product le+el constant. (atalyst temperature is increased to offset loss of acti+ity due to coking and metals deposition on the catalyst. . name used for a distillation column which makes three or more cuts. The temperature at which the first wa= crystals become +isible when a light oil 1usually Eet or naphtha3 is chilled. (atalyst which has not yet been deacti+ated by coke or catalyst poisons. 7eed which has not yet passed through the reactor. . +al+e designed to be either fully open or fully closed. /n the open position< the +al+e will cause essentially no pressure drop. 'ignificant +al+e trim erosion can occur if a gate +al+e is used to regulate flow. . +al+e designed to regulate the flow rate of a stream. /t causes a substantial pressure drop< e+en in the open position. The highest boiling molecules in a mi=ture. The high boiling molecules of the naphtha cut. The hydrocracker hea+y naphtha cut generally boils between M$G( and 1!%G(. /t is normally used to make gasoline< often after being processed in a catalytic reformer.

7lue ,as

7ouling -ate

7ractionator 7ree"e )oint 7resh (atalyst 7resh 7eed ,ate 9al+e

,lobe 9al+e

5ea+y 8nds 5ea+y 2aphtha

432

5ot 'pots

.reas of a catalyst bed in which large amounts of heat are released due to maldistribution of liquid and +apor feed across the bed. /n areas of low flow< the oil is reacted under more se+ere conditions and o+ercracking and coking can result. (atalyst in hot spot areas is deacti+ated much more rapidly than under design operating conditions. . class of molecules which contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms. /n practice< molecules which contain only trace le+els of sulfur< nitrogen< or metals are also called hydrocarbons. (rude oil and its refined products are hydrocarbons. . process in which large molecules are cracked into smaller ones accompanied by a large consumption of hydrogen such that the products are richer in hydrogen than the feed. The process of adding hydrogen to a compound either to saturate it or to crack it into two or more compounds. Defined by (he+ron -esearch and Technology (ompany as the partial pressure of hydrogen in the reactor assuming all the components of the oil feed are +apori"ed. The a+erage hydrogen partial pressure is the arithmetic mean of inlet and outlet hydrogen partial pressures. . chemical 152'3 which is formed by reaction of hydrogen with organic sulfur molecules in the feed. . highly to=ic gas. . process in which oil feed is desulfuri"ed< denitrified< demetali"ed< saturated< and mildly cracked in the presence of e=cess hydrogen and a catalyst. 6ater inEected into the effluent +apor air cooler to absorb ammonium salts from the effluent. The top of the water layer and the bottom of the oil layer in a separator. The trade name of the hydrocracking process licensed by (he+ron Lummus ,lobal.

5ydrocarbon

5ydrocracking

5ydrogenation 5ydrogen )artial )ressure

5ydrogen 'ulfide

5ydrotreating

/nEection 6ater /nterface Le+el /'4(-.(N/2,

433

/so 2ormal -atio Wet Nerosene Ninematic 9iscosity

The ratio of isoparaffins 1branched chain3 to normal paraffins 1straight chain3. 4ften used interchangeably with kerosene. 6ithin this manual< it is synonymous with .T7. 4ften used interchangeably with Eet. The +iscosity of a fluid di+ided by its density. The +iscosity in c) di+ided by the density in g cc equals the kinematic +iscosity in centistokes 1c't3. 5igh pressure gas 1mostly hydrogen3 lost from the high pressure section through loose connections or through the recycle gas compressor seals. The lowest boiling molecules in a hydrocarbon mi=ture. Typically butane and lighter molecules. The lightest boiling molecules of the naphtha cut. The hydrocracker light naphtha cut generally boils between !%G( and M$G( 1($-M$G( cut3. .ny sulfided catalyst which has been in hydrocarbon ser+ice. 5igh purity hydrogen 1M$-1%%A3 produced by reacting hydrocarbons with steam in a hydrogen plant. The reaction products are hydrogen and carbon o=ides. *ercaptans is a common name for thiols< a class of hydrocarbon molecules containing sulfur. The chemical structure of a mercaptan contains a sulfur atom bonded to one carbon atom and one hydrogen atom. These compounds typically ha+e a no=ious odor. 5ighly poisonous compounds which are produced by reaction between catalyst metals and carbon mono=ide in the recycle gas. (arbonyls form at temperatures less than 2%$G(. /f a reactor is to be opened following a shutdown< (4 must be purged to below 1% ppm in the recycle gas before cooling the reactor below 2%$G(. . unit of pressure used to define absolute pressures below 1 atmosphere.

Leaks

Light 8nds Light 2aphtha

Li+e (atalyst *anufactured 5ydrogen

*ercaptans

*etal (arbonyls

*illimeters of

434

*ercury 2aphtha 2aphthenes 2ickel (arbonyl 4ctane 2umber of a 4lefins 4n (ontrol

;:% mm of mercury represents a pressure equal to 1 atmosphere. . cut which generally boils between !%G( and about 1;%G( and is used to make gasoline. . class of molecules which contain one or more saturated rings but no unsaturated rings. . metal carbonyl B2i1(43#D which is one of the most to=ic substances known to man. 1'ee 'ection M.%.3 . term numerically indicating the relati+e antiknock +alue gasoline. 'traight- or branched-chain hydrocarbon compounds which contain one or more unsaturated bonds. . situation in which a controller is modulating a control +al+e stem position to match a process +ariable with the desired set point. The situation is >off control? when the control +al+e goes fully open or fully closed. . special +al+e which gi+es e=ceptionally tight shutoff. . measure of the e=tent of o+er+apori"ation of the fractionator feed as it enters the flash "one. The liquid passing through the flash "one from the tray abo+e. The +apor stream lea+ing the top of a column. 1a3 1Distillation3 - The spread between two assay temperatures of two adEacent cuts. The most common spread is the difference between the M$A point of the lighter cut and the $A point of the hea+ier cut. 1b3 17eed3 The +olume percent of feed that boils less than T&. The phase during catalyst regeneration in which coke and sulfur are o=idi"ed 1burned off3 by reaction with o=ygen.

4rbit 9al+e 4+erflash 4+erflash Liquid 4+erhead 4+erlap

4=idation

435

p5

. scale for describing how acidic or basic a solution is. 2eutral water has a p5 of ;.%. 'olutions with p5 below se+en are ten times more acidic for each lower p5 number. 'olutions with p5 abo+e se+en are ten times more basic for each higher p5 number. 8=ample: . solution with a p5 of M.% is 1%% times more basic than a solution with a p5 of ;.%. 1a3 . specially formed ring 1)all ring3 or other shaped obEects used to promote effecti+e contact between liquid and +apor in a column. 1b3 . de+ice used to seal the shafts of +al+es and pumps. 'traight- or branched-chain hydrocarbon compounds with no unsaturated bonds or rings. The proportionate share of the total +apor pressure attributed to a gi+en molecular compound in a mi=ture of compounds. 1'ee 'ection 1!.%.3 The lowest temperature at which an oil will flow. 6ithin this manual< it is synonymous with circulating reflu=. . stream used to cool areas of a fractionator to aid in product separation. 'team that is inEected into a firebo= to pre+ent the possibility of an uncontrolled fire. . word used to describe a solid material 1for e=ample< iron sulfide3 capable of spontaneous ignition when e=posed to the air. The portion of recycle gas which is inEected between catalyst beds to control the temperature of the reactants. . solution used during regeneration to cool the acid gases through their dew point and neutrali"e them before any se+ere corrosion occurs. The section of a fired heater contained in the firebo= in which most of the heat is transferred by direct radiation 1from the flames3 rather than by con+ection.

)acking

)araffins )artial )ressure

)our )oint )umparound

)urge 'team )yrophoric

Puench ,as Puench 'olution

-adiant 'ection

436

-eboiler

. fired heater or heat e=changer which partially +apori"es some of the column bottoms to generate +apor for stripping. The portion of the recycle compressor discharge which is not used as quench gas. . phase during catalyst regeneration in which metal sulfates formed during the o=idation phase are partially reduced by controlled reaction with hydrogen. This pre+ents temperature runaway during subsequent catalyst sulfiding. The portion of the condensed o+erhead +apor which is returned to the top tray of the column. The process of restoring the acti+ity of the catalyst. . graph showing the (.T as a function of time onstream. . hydrocarbon compound in which all carbon atoms are connected by single bonds. . liquid product drawn from the side of a distillation column. The temperature of the outside of a fired heater tube wall or reactor wall. . test used to indicate the tendency of a Eet fuel to smoke upon combustion. . term used to characteri"e any stream containing 52' or sulfur or any equipment processing such a stream. The specific gra+ity of a liquid or solid is the ratio of its density to the density of water at a specified reference temperature. The specific gra+ity of a gas is the ratio of its density to the density of air at the same temperature and pressure as those of the gas.

-ecycle ,as -eduction

-eflu= -egeneration -un )lot 'aturate 'idecut 'kin Temperature 'moke )oint 'our 'pecific ,ra+ity

437

'pent (atalyst 'pillback

(atalyst which has lost its acti+ity and which will be discarded or regenerated. . stream which >spills back? from compressor 1or pump3 discharge to suction to ensure that the compressor 1or pump3 operates abo+e a minimum flow rate. The process which strips light hydrocarbons from a product stream to meet storage requirements. . system is in steady state when there is no accumulation or depletion of heat or mass 1i.e.< the total mass flowing into a system is equal to the total moss flowing out of the system< and the temperature of the system is constant3. . +al+e which functions as a check +al+e when the handwheel is unscrewed and as a closed block +al+e when the handwheel is screwed down. .n oil stream which has not undergone any cracking or other chemical modification. . product from crude distillation. . distillation column which is used to remo+e the light ends from a cut by reboiling or steam stripping. The entrance or low pressure end of a pump or compressor. . process in which the highly acti+e metals deposited on a base metal catalyst are con+erted from o=ides to metal sulfides< which promotes smoother< more stable hydrotreating reactions. .n element contained in some of the feed molecules which gets con+erted to hydrogen sulfide in the reactor. . product similar to .T7 that also boils between 1!%R( and 2:%R( with slightly different product specifications. 1a3 . condition of highly unstable operation of a centrifugal compressor due to low flow. 1b3 . +olume in the bottom of a +essel used to hold liquid. . stream containing no hydrogen sulfide or sulfur.

'tabili"ation 'teady 'tate

'top-(heck 9al+e

'traight--un 14il3

'tripper 'uction 'ulfiding

'ulfur 'uperior Nerosene 'urge

'weet

438

Tail

The difference between the end point of a cut and the nominal final cut point or the difference between the start point of a cut and the nominal initial cut point. . condition in which a high temperature leads to a high reaction rate which< in turn< leads to a higher temperature and so on. This can only happen if the reaction is e=othermic. . rapidly accelerating temperature e=cursion. 'tructural damage produced in metal equipment 1such as reactors3 by heating or cooling the equipment too quickly. . reboiler in which the process fluid mo+es due to the density difference of the inlet and outlet fluid caused by partial +apori"ation. . characteristic distillation cur+e for an oil which relates the +olume fraction in which a component +apori"es to its atmospheric boiling point. The cur+e is usually represented by a series of temperatures< tn< where t is the atmospheric distillation temperature at n L9 A distilled. . period of downtime used for general maintenance or catalyst handling operations.

Temperature 8=cursion

Temperature -unaway Thermal 'hock Thermosiphon -eboiler

True 0oiling )oint (ur+e 1T0) (ur+e3

Turnaround

Knstabili"ed 2aphtha 2aphtha which has a high content of butane and other light gases 1hydrocarbons and 52'3 such that its -9) is too high to permit safe storage. 9al+e Tray . type of tray used in a distillation column which has many small caps which slide up and down in holes through the tray. This gi+es a higher turndown ratio than the more common sie+e tray. The pressure e=erted by a liquid in a closed system. The +apor pressure increases with increasing temperature. 6hen the temperature gets high enough that the +apor pressure equals the system pressure< that temperature is called the bubble point and the liquid begins to boil.

9apor )ressure

439

9iscosity

The resistance of a fluid to flow. The unit of +iscosity is the )oise. . more con+enient unit is 1 1%%th of a )oise< the centipoise 1c)3. 6ater has a +iscosity of 1 c) at 2%G(. 6ater inEected into the effluent air cooler to >wash out? ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. 6ithin this manual< it is synonymous with inEection water. . condition in a distillation column where the tray pressure drop is so low 1from low +apor rate3 that some of the liquid flows through the holes in the tray instead of flowing o+er the outlet weir into the downcomer. The percentage of a gi+en product formed in the reactor relati+e to the fresh feed.

6ash 6ater

6eeping

Qield

440

C>2#5"-/ S0#C6/1 The following standard chemical symbols are used in this manual: (a (5!''(5! (4 (42 7e 5g 52 524 52' 154(52(523225 *g *o 2a 25! 25#(l 25#5' 25#45 2i 2i1(43# 22 42 (alcium Dimethyl Disulfide 1D*D'3 (arbon *ono=ide (arbon Dio=ide /ron *ercury 5ydrogen 6ater 5ydrogen 'ulfide Diethanol .mine 1D8.3 *agnesium *olybdenum 'odium .mmonia .mmonium (hloride .mmonium 0isulfide .mmonium 5ydro=ide 2ickel 2ickel (arbonyl 2itrogen 4=ygen

441

9 6

9anadium Tungsten

442

TABLE 2-I DESIGN FEED INSPECTIONS CHENNAI PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED CPC1 R;"<);R=0<<< PR9>;CT C-;,R9) </9CR6C?<)8 PR9C;// '6)61<, T6'<1 )6@A, <)@<6 "ee% /pec$B$c !$*(s "ee%s!*ck /*urces Fu #$!& /pec$B$c !$*(s @$s!$## !$*(, 6/T' @ 1160, C /! r! 10C 30C 50C 70C 90C ;(% P*$(!, ' +. 6P< 8r D$!& /pec$B$c 8r D$!& 6sp. #!e(es, 5! C, ' +. <r*(, ppm )$!r*ge(, ppm2 /u#Bur, 5! C ?$(em !$c ,$sc*s$!& ! 50C, c/! ?$(em !$c ,$sc*s$!& ! 100C, c/! ?$(em !$c ,$sc*s$!& ! 200C, c/! ?$(em !$c ,$sc*s$!& ! 250C, c/! CCR, 5! C )$cke# G , ( %$um, ppm /R ,89 C@A/,@A 4 3*m7 & -$g./Pers$ ( 8u#B Cru%es ,3 ,89 ,$s7re ker A($!

320 380 415 4400460 490 540 585 20.8034.8 0.82500.929 0.010 0.0 1000 2.8

300 324 378 402 435 473 500 20.7 0.93 0.020 5 2000 5.0 46.3 9.6

0.601.65 0.401.1 0.6 1.0

1.0 9

443

TA"LE #$II MA%E$UP H&DRO'EN (UALIT& CHENNAI PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED CPC1 R;"<);R=0<<< PR9>;CT C-;,R9) </9CR6C?<)8 PR9C;// '6)61<, T6'<1 )6@A, <)@<6 P r me!er -&%r*ge( Pur$!&, '*#e C C9 G C92, '*#e )$!r*ge(, '*#e 5 !er, '*#e C.#*r$(e G C.#*r$%es, '*#e 'e!. (e, '*#e C -&%r*ge( /pec$B$c !$*( 99.5 ('$(.) 20 ppm (' +.) 50 ppm (' +.) 50 ppm (' +.) 1 ppm (' +.) 3 # (ce

444

TA"LE #$III IN)ECTION *ATER (UALIT& CHENNAI PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED CPC1 R;"<);R=0<<< PR9>;CT C-;,R9) </9CR6C?<)8 PR9C;// '6)61<, T6'<1 )6@A, <)@<6 -2/, ppm )-3, ppm 9+&ge( C*(!e(!, pp7 (5!) C.#*r$%e C*(!e(!, ppm (5!) 6c$%$!&, p)*(D*# !$#e Res$%ue, ppm (5!) 1000 (' +.) 1000 (' +.) 15 (' +.) 50 (' +.) 7.5 ('$(.) 2 (' +.)

445

TA"LE #$I+ CHEMICAL CONSUMPTION CHENNAI PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED CPC1 R;"<);R=0<<< PR9>;CT C-;,R9) </9CR6C?<)8 PR9C;// '6)61<, T6'<1 )6@A, <)@<6 @'@/ B*r <CR C ! #&s! /u#B$%$(g 15 5! C C us!$c B*r 1P8 5 s.$(g (1s! 3 !c./"*##*2$(g 3 !c.es 4 9(ce per 27 @ &s) )$!r*ge( B*r /! r!up 15 5! C C us!$c B*r Rege(er !$*( (;Der& 2 =e rs) 1e ( 6m$(e /*% 6s. / #! B*r @$ese# / #! @r&er 45 m3 2.2 m3/1.1 m3 120,000 )m3 40,000 )m3/-r (' +.) 1,155 m3 287.7 m3/-r "*r )eu!r #$E !$*( (3& @@C) 30 m3 ()*!e 1)

)*!e: 2. C*(! c! De(%*r B*r ppr*pr$ !e !&pe (% 2e$g.!. ,*#ume %*es (*! $(c#u%e sp ce 7e#*2 7*!!*m ! (ge(!.

446

TA"LE #$+ CATAL&STS CHENNAI PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED CPC1 R;"<);R=0<<< PR9>;CT C-;,R9) </9CR6C?<)8 PR9C;// '6)61<, T6'<1 )6@A, <)@<6 C ! #&s! T&pe 8r %$(g <CR 122H/3 <CR 134/6F <CR 1261 <CR 126) <CR 126 <CR 114H" (/upp*r!) "$rs! Re c!*r, m3 37.3 82.2 0 0 30.1 4.7 /ec*(% Re c!*r, m3 0 0 73.1 12.8 86.0 3.2

447

TA"LE #$+IA ESTIMATED PRODUCT &IELDS AND INSPECTIONS $ SOR CHENNAI PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED CPC1 R;"<);R=0<<< PR9>;CT 0 C-;,R9) </9CR6C?<)8 PR9C;// '6)61<, T6'<1 )6@A, <)@<6 "ee%: 90C /R ,89, 10C ,3 ,89 C se: /9R @$s!$## !$*(, C T3P /T/5 10/30 50 70/90 95/99 300/33 0 348/38 7 445 490/54 6 556/58 5 "ee% Pr*per!$es ;#eme(! # 6ss & <mpur$!$es 6P< 8r D$!& 20.8 /u#Bur, 5! C 3.03 6sp. #!e(es, ppm /pec$B$c 8r D$!& 0.929 )$!r*ge(, 1102 )$ G ,, ppm ppm <r*(, ppm

110 1.8 0.5

Pro!uct &iel! , Start$of$Run Pr*%uc! 5! C 1, C (1) (1) -2/ 3.21 )-3 0.13 C1 0.25 C2 0.39 C3 0.67 1.23 $C4 0.73 1.20 (C4 0.73 1.16 1$g.! 3.40 4.7 ) p.!. 5.10 6.21 -e D& 23.69 27.07 ) p.!. 21.75 23.99 ?er*se(e 42.43 46.33 @$ese# 3*!!*ms C5G 96.37 108.3 T*! # 102.48 111.89 Pro!uct In -ection , Cu! Cu! P*$(!s, C 1$g.! ) p.!.

T*! # "ee% R !e I 1.85 '' 'TP6 (112C *B @es$g() T*! # "ee% R !e I 37,400 3P/@ C.em$c # -&%r*ge( C*(sump!$*( I 256 )m3/m3 C.em$c # -&%r*ge( C*(sump!$*( I 1,520 /C"3

-e D& ) p.!.

?er*se(e/6 T"

@$ese# 2600370

3*!!*ms 370G

448

6P< 8r D$!& @e(s$!& J15C

6/T', C /T 10 50 90 ;P /u#Bur, ppm 'erc p! ( /u#Bur, ppm )$!r*ge(, ppm P r BB$(s, 1, C 66 30 (;s!$m !e%) 32 62 ) p.!.e(es, 1, C 2 8 (;s!$m !e%) 6r*m !$cs, 1, C (;s!$m !e%) "# s. P*$(!, C /m*ke P*$(!, mm Ce! (e <(%e+ (@ 613) "reeEe P*$(!, C P*ur P*$(!, C ,$sc*s$!& J 40C, c/! ,$sc*s$!& J 100C, c/! ,$sc*s$!& J 020C, c/! 5 !er, ppm 'e! #s, ppm 9c! (e )um7er, ;s!$m !e% 75/76 64/62 R9)C/'9)C R,P, kg/cm2 0.8 (' +.) 0.8 (' +.) )*!e: 1. =$e#%s re e+presse% s perce(! ges *B Bres. Bee%.

C5095 79.0 6700675 @ 86 23 36 49 79 91 K5 10 (' +.) K1

954130 54.0 7630768 @ 86 102 107 114 128 147 K5 10 (' +.) K1

1300260 42.5 8120817 @ 86 142 161 193 238 266 10 (' +.)

36.5 8200870 @ 86 229 268 302 348 376 10 (' +.)

34.8 8500855 @ 1160 337 394 473 548 562 K50 (' +.) K1 (' +.)

22

38 ('$(.) 21 (0)51

35 ('$(.) 55 ('$(.) 3 (' +.) 2 !* 5 4.2

8 500 (' +.) K0.1

449

TA"LE #$+I" ESTIMATED PRODUCT &IELDS AND INSPECTIONS . EOR CHENNAI PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED CPC1 R;"<);R=0<<< PR9>;CT 0 C-;,R9) </9CR6C?<)8 PR9C;// '6)61<, T6'<1 )6@A, <)@<6 "ee%: 90C /R ,89, 10C ,3 ,89 C se: ;9R "ee% Pr*per!$es ;#eme(! # 6ss & <mpur$!$es @$s!$## !$*(, C T3P 6P< 8r D$!& 20.8 /u#Bur, 5! C 3.03 6sp. #!e(es, ppm /T/5 300/33 /pec$B$c 8r D$!& 0.929 )$!r*ge(, 1102 )$ G ,, ppm 0 ppm 10/30 348/38 <r*(, ppm 50 7 70/90 445 95/99 490/54 6 556/58 5 Pro!uct &iel! , En!$of$Run Pr*%uc! 5! C 1, C (1) (1) -2/ 3.21 )-3 0.13 C1 0.45 C2 0.66 C3 1.00 1.83 $C4 1.21 2.0 (C4 1.10 1.75 1$g.! 3.60 4.97 ) p.!. 5.10 6.20 -e D& 23.60 26.89 ) p.!. 20.02 22.03 ?er*se(e 42.42 46.24 @$ese# 3*!!*ms C5G 94.75 106.32 T*! # 102.51 111.90 Pro!uct In -ection , Cu! Cu! P*$(!s, C 6P< 8r D$!& 1$g.! ) p.!. C5095

110 1.8 0.5

T*! # "ee% R !e I 1.85 '' 'TP6 (112C *B @es$g() T*! # "ee% R !e I 37,400 3P/@ C.em$c # -&%r*ge( C*(sump!$*( I 1,550 /C"3 C.em$c # -&%r*ge( C*(sump!$*( I 262 )m3/m3

-e D& ) p.!. 954130 450

?er*se(e/6 T" 1300260

@$ese# 2600370 36.5

3*!!*ms 370G 34.8

@e(s$!& J15C

6/T', C /T 10 50 90 ;P /u#Bur, ppm 'erc p! ( /u#Bur, ppm )$!r*ge(, ppm P r BB$(s, 1, C 66 30 (;s!$m !e%) 32 62 ) p.!.e(es, 1, C 2 8 (;s!$m !e%) 6r*m !$cs, 1, C (;s!$m !e%) "# s. P*$(!, C /m*ke P*$(!, mm Ce! (e <(%e+ (@ 613) "reeEe P*$(!, C P*ur P*$(!, C ,$sc*s$!& J 40C, c/! ,$sc*s$!& J 100C, c/! ,$sc*s$!& J 020C, c/! 5 !er, ppm 'e! #s, ppm 9c! (e )um7er, ;s!$m !e% 75/76 64/62 R9)C/'9)C R,P, kg/cm2 0.8 (' +.) 0.8 (' +.) )*!e: 1. =$e#%s re e+presse% s perce(! ges *B Bres. Bee%.

79.0 6700675 @ 86 23 36 49 79 91 K5 10 (' +.) K1

54.0 7630768 @ 86 102 107 114 128 147 K5 10 (' +.) K1

42.5 8120817 @ 86 142 161 193 238 266 10 (' +.)

8200870 @ 86 229 268 302 348 376 10 (' +.)

8500855 @ 1160 337 394 473 548 562 K50 (' +.) K1 (' +.)

22

38 ('$(.) 21 (0)51

35 ('$(.) 55 ('$(.) 3 (' +.) 2 !* 5 4.2

8 500 (' +.) K0.1

451

TA"LE #$+II P ge 1 *B 5 PRODUCT PROPERTIES CHENNAI PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED CPC1 R;"<);R=0<<< PR9>;CT C-;,R9) </9CR6C?<)8 PR9C;// '6)61<, T6'<1 )6@A, <)@<6 C1P/ 9BBg s -2/, '*# ppm 6mm*($ , '*# ppm -2, '*#e C C1 C2 C3 $C4 (C4 C5 + -29 C.#*r$%e C*(!e(! /p*(ge 9$# 67s*r7er 9BBg s -2/, '*# ppm 6mm*($ , '*# ppm -29, '*#e C C1 C2 C3 $C4 (C4 C5 + -2 1P8 -2/, '*# ppm C*pper /!r$p C*rr*s$*( (1 -r J 38LC ) 'erc p! ( /u#Bur, 2ppm (C5/$C5, '*#e C "ree 5 !er , p*r Pressure J 65LC, kg/cmM (g) , p*r$E !$*( J 2LC N 6!m. Pressure, C ;!. (e (% 1$g.!er, 5! C A(s !ur !e% -C )*!e: R (ges cr*ss s! r!0 !* e(%0*B0ru(.

20 ppm (' +.) 5.0 ppm (' +.) 70.5079.2 14.4020.3 3.204.9 1.402.0 0.500.8 0.400.6 0.100.4 0.5C 1 (' +.) 27030 ppm 0.0 ppm 0.8 32.2034.8 27.6032.9 9.5010.7 000.1 0.0 0.901.0 19.7029.0 )$# )*. 1 (' +.) 5 (' +.) 1 (' +.) )$# 16.8 ('$(.) 95 ('$(.) 2 (' +.) 1 5! C (' +.)

452

TA"LE #$+II P ge 2 *B 5 PRODUCT PROPERTIES CHENNAI PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED CPC1 R;"<);R=0<<< PR9>;CT C-;,R9) </9CR6C?<)8 PR9C;// '6)61<, T6'<1 )6@A, <)@<6 1$g.! ) p.!. @e(s$!& J 15LC, kg/mO T3P Cu! P*$(!, LC 6/T' @$s!$## !$*( (@ 86), LC /T 5 10 30 50 70 90 95 ;P P9)6 /u#Bur C*(!e(!, 2ppm 'erc p! ( /u#Bur, 2ppm )$!r*ge( C*(!e(!, 2ppm R9)C/'9)C 'e! #s C*(!e(! R,P, kg/cmM ( ) -e D& ) p.!. @e(s$!& J 15LC, kg/mO T3P Cu! P*$(!, LC 6/T' @$s!$## !$*( (@ 86), LC /T 5 10 30 50 70 90 95 ;P P9)6 /u#Bur C*(!e(!, 2ppm 'erc p! ( /u#Bur, 2ppm )$!r*ge( C*(!e(!, 2ppm R9)C/'9)C 'e! #s C*(!e(! 453

6700675 C5495 23 29 36 42 49 66 79 84 91 66/0/32/2 K5 10 (' +.) K1 75/76 0 0.8 (' +.) 7630768 954130 102 106 107 111 114 119 128 133 147 30/0/62/8 K5 10 (' +.) K1 64/62 0

R,P, kg/cmM ( ) 6/T' @ 86, 90C Rec*Der&

0.8 (' +.) 125

454

TA"LE #$+II P ge 3 *B 5 PRODUCT PROPERTIES CHENNAI PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED CPC1 R;"<);R=0<<< PR9>;CT C-;,R9) </9CR6C?<)8 PR9C;// '6)61<, T6'<1 )6@A, <)@<6 6D$ !$*( Tur7$(e "ue# @e(s$!& J 15LC, kg/mO T3P Cu! P*$(!, LC 6/T' @$s!$## !$*( (@ 86), LC /T 5 10 30 50 70 90 95 ;P 6/T' @ 86 10C Rec*Der&, LC 6/T' @ 86 "3P, LC "# s. P*$(!, LC, 67e# /u#Bur C*(!e(!, 2ppm C*pper /!r$p C*rr*s$*( (2 -r J 100LC) "reeE$(g P*$(!, LC /$#Der /!r$p C*rr*s$*( 6r*m !$cs C*(!e(!, ,*# C ) p.!. #e(e C*(!e(!, ,*# C 'erc p! ( /u#Bur, 2ppm 5 !er T*#er (ce, m1 ,$sc*s$!& J 020LC, c/! /m*ke

7750830 1300260 142 154 161 176 193 212 238 249 266 205 (' +.) 300 (' +.) 38 ('$(.) 10 (' +.) )*. 1 (' +.) (0) 51 0.0 (' +.) 22 (' +.) 3 (' +.) 3 (' +.) 1 (' +.) 8 (' +.) 21 ('$(.)

455

TA"LE #$+II P ge 4 *B 5 PRODUCT PROPERTIES CHENNAI PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED CPC1 R;"<);R=0<<< PR9>;CT C-;,R9) </9CR6C?<)8 PR9C;// '6)61<, T6'<1 )6@A, <)@<6 /uper$*r ?er*se(e @e(s$!& J 15LC, kg/mO T3P Cu! P*$(!, LC 6/T' @$s!$## !$*( (@ 86 ), LC /T 5 10 30 50 70 90 95 ;P 6/T' @ 86 Rec*Der& J 200LC, C 6/T' @ 86 "3P, LC "# s. P*$(!, LC, 67e# /m*ke P*$(!, mm /u#Bur C*(!e(!, 2ppm C*#*r / &7*#! C*pper /!r$p C*rr*s$*( (3 -r J 50LC)

8120817 1304260 142 154 161 176 193 212 238 249 266 20 ('$(.) 300 (' +.) 35 ('$(.) 21 ('$(.) 10 (' +.) 10 ('$(.) )*. 1 (' +.)

456

TA"LE #$+II P ge 5 *B 5 PRODUCT PROPERTIES CHENNAI PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED CPC1 R;"<);R=0<<< PR9>;CT C-;,R9) </9CR6C?<)8 PR9C;// '6)61<, T6'<1 )6@A, <)@<6 -$g. /pee% @$ese# @e(s$!& J 15LC, kg/mO 6/T' @ 86, 95C Rec*Der&, LC 6/T' @$s!$## !$*( (@ 86), LC /T 5 10 30 50 70 90 95 ;P Ce! (e )um7er (6/T' @ 613) "# s. P*$(!, LC, 67e# /u#Bur C*(!e(!, 2ppm P*ur P*$(!, LC ?$(em !$c ,$sc*s$!& J 40LC 5 !er C*(!e(!, Dppm A(c*(Der!e% 9$# @e(s$!& J 15LC, kg/mO 6/T' @ 1160, LC /T 5 10 30 50 70 90 95 ;P /u#Bur C*(!e(!, 2ppm )$!r*ge( C*(!e(!, 2ppm ?$(em !$c ,$sc*s$!& J 100LC CCR C*(!e(!, 5! C 'e! #s C*(!e(!, 2ppm

8200870 360 (' +.) 229 257 268 287 302 320 348 360 376 55 ('$(.) J ;9R 35 ('$(.) 10 (' +.) 3 (' +.) 2 !* 5 500 (' +.) 8500855 337 378 394 437 473 511 548 557 562 K50 (' +.) K1 4.2 K0.1 K0.1

457

458

TA"LE #$+III "ATTER& LIMIT CONDITIONS CHENNAI PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED CPC1 R;"<);R=0<<< PR9>;CT C-;,R9) </9CR6C?<)8 PR9C;// '6)61<, T6'<1 )6@A, <)@<6 Inco/ing Strea/ /R ,89 -*! C*#% ,3 ,89 -*! ' ke0Ap -&%r*ge( 5 s. 5 !er 1e ( 6m$(e 15C C us!$c Outgoing Strea/ "ue# 8 s 1P8 1$g.! ) p.!. /!*r ge/'/ T (ks -2 A($! T (ks -2 A($! -e D& ) p.!. '/ ReB*rmer ReB*rmer T (ks /!*r ge/1/@ -e %er ?er*se(e/6T" @$ese# A(c*(Der!e% 3*!!*ms "CCA /!*r ge <"9 /!*r ge "CCA C1P/ , p*r /*ur 5 !er /*ur 8 s R$c. 6m$(e -&%r*ge( 3#ee% /pe(! C us!$c P. se 1 1 1 , 1 1 1 P. se , 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 , 1 , , , 1 , 1 /*urce Cru%e A($! /!*r ge ,$s7re ker -&%r*ge( P# (! @' 5 !er 6m$(e Rege(er !*r Cru%e A($! /*urce 2070C25 2070C41 2070;30 2070;30 2070824 6/3 2070C44 2070;31 2070;31 2070;17 2070C36 2070;21 2070;21 2070;21 2070C12 2070C13 2070C13 2070C6 2070C43 2070C6 2070C7 2070C43 Pressure, kg/cm2 (g) 12.0 12.0 12.0 20.0 8.0 12.0 4.0 Pressure, kg/cm2 (g) 4.0 14.0 7.0 4.0 8.0 5.0 5.0 7.0 6.0 6.0 7.0 5.0 9.0 30.0 5.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 Temper !ure, C 170 80 170 40 6m7$e(! (40) 40 40 Temper !ure, C 40 40 40 40 55 161 40 40 40 40 80 150 150 40 40 40 66 50 66 62 50

459

/#*p

, r$*us

6.0

40480

460

TA"LE #$I0 UTILIT& CONDITIONS CHENNAI PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED CPC1 R;"<);R=0<<< PR9>;CT C-;,R9) </9CR6C?<)8 PR9C;// '6)61<, T6'<1 )6@A, <)@<6 "#u$% T&pe ,er& -$g. Pressure /!e m -$g. Pressure /!e m 'e%$um Pressure /!e m 1*2 Pressure /!e m 3*$#er "ee%2 !er 4 -P 3*$#er "ee%2 !er 4 1P C**#$(g 5 !er /upp#& C**#$(g 5 !er Re!ur( )$!r*ge( "ue# 8 s "ue# 9$# Pressure, kg/cm2 (g) '$($mum )*rm # ' +$mum 44.8 48.0 54.9 29.5 9.5 2.7 30.5 10.5 3.5 38.0 19.0 4.5 2.5 6.0 3.5 10.0 32.5 12.5 4.0 Temper !ure, C '$($mum )*rm # ' +$mum 379 425 435 2500270 200 / !ur !e% 280 220 170 105 105 33 45 6m7$e(! 40 150 290 240 190

5.0 2.6 0

7.0 3.8 12.0

140

210

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461

TA"LE #$0 PROCESS CONDITIONS ISOCRAC%IN' REACTORS CHENNAI PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED CPC1 R;"<);R=0<<< PR9>;CT C-;,R9) </9CR6C?<)8 PR9C;// '6)61<, T6'<1 )6@A, <)@<6 "res. "ee% R !e, 3P9@ (112C *B @es$g() "res. "ee% R !e, '' 'TP6 1-/,, 1/-r ()*!e 1) 8r*ss C*(Ders$*(, ,*# C T*! # C ! #&s! 1$Be, =r Re c!*r Pressure, kg/cm (g) /9R/;9R <(#e! 9u!#e! 6Der ge -&%r*ge( P r!$ # Pressure, kg/cm2( ) Re c!*r Temper !ure, C /9R/;9R <(#e! 9u!#e! ' +$mum 8 s !* 9$# R !$* ! Re c!*r <(#e!, )m3/m3 )um7er *B Re c!*rs )*!e: 1. ;+c#u%es supp*r! c ! #&s!.
2

37,400 1.85 0.8 54 5 (5$!. Rege(er !$*() 2070R1 172.5/176.0 169.0/169.0 145 378/396 411/429 440 845 1 1 2070R2 167.4/167.4 163.9/163.9 135 378/396 411/429 440

462

TA"LE #$0I UNITS OF MEASUREMENT CHENNAI PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED CPC1 R;"<);R=0<<< PR9>;CT C-;,R9) </9CR6C?<)8 PR9C;// '6)61<, T6'<1 )6@A, <)@<6 A($!s *B me sureme(! use% re g$De( 7e#*2: P r me!er Temper !ure Pressure (8 uge) Pressure (67s*#u!e) , cuum "ur( ce @r B! /!*r ge T (k Pressure 5e$g.! (' ss) "#*2$(g ' ss "#*2$(g 1$Pu$% /! (% r% 1$Pu$% "#*2$(g , p*r "#*2 *B /!e m /! (% r% , p*r 1$Pu$% Re# !$De @e(s$!& 1$Pu$% @e(s$!& , p*r "#*2$(g @e(s$!& -e ! R !e P*2er -e ! Tr (sBer C*eBB$c$e(! T.erm # C*(%uc!$D$!& ;(!. #p& /pec$B$c -e ! ,$sc*s$!& ?$(em !$c ,$sc*s$!& ;Pu$pme(! @$me(s$*(s P$pe 1e(g!. P$pe @$ me!er Tu7e /$Ee P#*! P# ( @$me(s$*(s ,esse# )*EE#e /$Ee ,e#*c$!& /*u(% Pressure /urB ce Te(s$*( A($! C kg/cm2 (g) kg/cm2 ( ) mm *B -g mm *B 5C mm *B 5C kg kg/-r m3/-r J "#*2$(g Temper !ure m3/-r J 15C )m3/-r kg/-r )m3/-r J 0C (% 1.033 kg/cm2 ( ) /p. 8r. TC/15C kg/m3 kg/m3 106 kc #/-r *r ''kc #/.r k5 kc #/-r0m20C kc #/-r0m0C kc #/kg kc #/kg0C cP c/! mm mm <(c. <(c. mm <(c. m/s %3(6) @&(es/cm 463

C*mp*s$!$*(

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465

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"$#!er, 2070T1

/ mp# /$Ee, m 1000 250 50 50 1000 125 125 50 100 500

*$(! 5$!. /R

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70C6 70C9

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/ mp# /$Ee, m )6 )6 )6 500 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 100 1000 100 750 1000 250 )6

70;17

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1*c !$*( 70;30

'e sureme(! 8r D$!& @$s!$## !$*( R,P 9c! (e )um7er 'erc p! (s 8r D$!& @$s!$## !$*( 'erc p! (s P/9/)/6 9c! (e )um7er C*mp*s$!$*( -2/ (C5/$C5 "ree 5 !er 'erc p! ( /u#Bur C*pper /!r$p C*rr*s$*( (1 -r J 38C) , p*r Pressure J 65C , p*r$E !$*( J 02C (% 6!m. Pressure C*mp*s$!$*( C*mp*s$!$*( C*mp*s$!$*( -2/ C*mp*s$!$*( -2/ C*mp*s$!$*( C*mp*s$!$*( 8r D$!& @$s!$## !$*( C*mp*s$!$*( -2/ p3R pC*mp*s$!$*(

Tes! 'e!.*% ()*!e 3) 6/T' @ 1298 6/T' @ 86/@ 2887 6/T' @ 323 6/T' @ 2699/@ 2700 6/T' @ 3227 6/T' @ 1298 6/T' @ 86 *r 6/T' @ 2887 6/T' @ 3227 6/T' @ 6293 6/T' @ 2699/@ 2700 6/T' @ 2650 8 s Tec. Tu7e *r ;Pu$D #e(! 6/T' @ 2163 ()*!e 8) 6/T' @ 2713 8 s Tec. Tu7e *r ;Pu$D #e(! 6/T' @ 1838 6/T' @ 1267 6/T' @ 1837 6/T' @ 2650 8P6 2286 ()*!e 7) 8P6 2286 6/T' @ 4084 8P6 2286 CT' 502/6/T' @ 4658 8P6 2286 8P6 2286 6/T' @ 1298 6/T' @ 2887 CT' 402 6/T' @ 5705/@ 6021 CT' 5036 CT' 5012 CT' 5036 CT' 402

70;31

70C25

70C41

70C21

/ mp# /$Ee, m 1000 250 1000 1000 125 1000 250 125 50 1000 )6 )6 50 11.4 ( )6 50 )6 100 )6 125

70C21

)6 )6

70C21 70C24 70C24

125

70C27

1000 50

70C21

P0022

,0020 70C22

125 125 1000 125

)*!es: 1. 6( #&s$s (*! (*rm ##& rePu$re% 7u! m & 7e (ee%e% !* eD #u !e perB*rm (ce *r B*r p*ss$7#e !r*u7#es.**!$(g pr*cess s!u%$es. 2. @ur$(g s.u!%*2( !.$s mus! 7e %*(e pr$*r !* c**#$(g re c!*r 7e#*2 205C. 3. CT' I C.eDr*( Tes! 'e!.*% 4. /ep r !e -2/ ( #&s$s rePu$re% *(#& $B c*mp*s$!$*( # ( #&ses %*es (*! $(c#u%e -2/.

472

5. 6#!.*ug. !.$s me!.*% !es!s !.e %e!erm$( !$*( *B -2/ $( 2 !er s!re ms, $! $s #s* pp#$c 7#e B*r (& Pue*us s!re m suc. s @;6. 6. / mp#es (% BrePue(c& 2$## 7e %e!erm$(e% 7& 2.$c. pr*%uc! $s 7e$(g pr*%uce%. 7. 8 s Pr*cess$(g 6ss*c$ !$*(. 8. '*%$B$e% B*r Pu (!$B$c !$*( *B (C5 (% $C5. )6 I )*! 6pp#$c 7#e

473

TA"LE 2$III SAMPLE SCHEDULE FOR CATAL&ST SULFIDIN' CHENNAI PETROLEUM CORPORATION LTD3 CPCL REFINER&$III PRO)ECT CHE+RON ISOCRAC%IN' PROCESS MANALI4 TAMIL NADU4 INDIA 'e sureme(! -2/ -&%r*ge( -2/ 9+&ge( 9+&ge( C*mp*s$!$*( 9+&ge( 9+&ge( pT*! # @$ss*#De% /*#$%s -&%r*ge( pT*! # @$ss*#De% /*#$%s Tes! 'e!.*% 8 s!ec. Tu7e *r ;Pu$D #e(! ()*!e 1) 8 s!ec. Tu7e *r ;Pu$D #e(! ()*!e 2) ()*!e 2) ()*!e 1) ()*!e 2) Ase 9+&ge( 6( #&Eer ! ' $( Re c!*r <(#e! 6/T' @ 1296065 ()*!e 2) CT' 5010 *r 6/T' @ 1888067 6/T' @ 2504 6/T' @ 1296065 ()*!e 2) 6/T' @ 1888067

/ mp#e P*$(! 1*c !$*( @*2(s!re m *B Rec&c#e 8 s C*mpress*r @$sc. rge

@*2(s!re m *B 2070;9 Aps!re m *B 2070C32 Aps!re m *B 2070"1 Rec&c#e 8 s /pec$B$c 8r D$!& 6( #&Eer Rec&c#e 8 s 1$(e Aps!re m *B 2070;36/3 9u!#e! *B R2 @*2(s!re m *B 2070;36/3 Fue(c. Rec$rcu# !$*( 1$(e @*2(s!re m *B C-P/ "ur( ce <(#e! Fue(c. Rec$rcu# !$*( 1$(e @*2(s!re m *B C-P/

9(ce/C*(!$( Re c!* 9(ce/3 C*(!$( C*(!$( 6s )ee 6s )ee C*(!$( C*(!$( 9(ce/9(ce/2 C*(!$( 9(ce/2

)*!es: 1. Ase c*(!$(u*us ( #&Eer (6<02701) !* me sure .&%r*ge( c*(ce(!r !$*( (% spec$B$c gr D$!&. C.eck ( #&Eer 7& $(%epe(%e(! # 7 ( #&s$s *(ce/2 .*urs. 2. Ase c*(!$(u*us ( #&Eers !* me sure *+&ge( (% p- %ur$(g rege(er !$*(. C.eck ( #&Eers 7& $(%epe(%e(! # 7 ( #&s$s ! #e s! *(ce/s.$B!.

474

TA"LE 5$I P ge 1 *B 3 CATAL&ST SPECIFICATIONS CHENNAI PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED CPC1 R;"<);R=0<<< PR9>;CT C-;,R9) </9CR6C?<)8 PR9C;// '6)61<, T6'<1 )6@A, <)@<6 @$ me!er, mm S4.23 2.82 + 2.31 2.54 1.59 2.12 S4.23 T*! # RePu$reme(!s B*r Re c!*rs 2070R1, 2070R2 kg m3 @rums 16,130 75,022 113,348 12,525 69,547 7,075 37.3 82.2 116.0 12.8 73.10 8.0 203 551 667 494 438 50

C ! #&s! T&pe @eme! ##$E !$*( (% 8r %$(g <CR 122H/3 -&%r*!re !$(g <CR 134/6F -&%r*cr ck$(g <CR 126 <CR 1261 <CR 126) /upp*r! <CR 114H"

/. pe /p.ere 6s&m Fu % C&#$(%er C&#$(%er C&#$(%er Tr$#*7e

)*!es: 1. 6 5C c*(!$(ge(c& *Der Pu (!$!$es s.*2( 7*De s.*u#% 7e *r%ere% !* e(sure c*mp#e!e #* %$(g. 2. T&p$c # (e! c ! #&s! 2e$g.!s per %rum (% es!$m !e% #* %e% %e(s$!$es re: C ! #&s! <CR 134/6F <CR 126 <CR 1261 <CR 126) <CR 114H" <CR 122H/3 6#c* T 162 kg per @rum 1* %e% @e(s$!$es, kg/m3 136.1 913 170.1 977 158.8 951 170.1 977 136.1 896 79.4 432 0 2,160

8r*ss %rum 2e$g.!s re ppr*+$m !e#& 22 kg .e D$er !. ( (e! 2e$g.!s. 3. 1* %$(g rePu$reme(! $s 7 se% *( 150 mm # &er *B supp*r! c ! #&s! 7*De supp*r! scree( B*r e c. 7e% *B e c. re c!*r. /upp*r! c ! #&s! !* 150 mm 7*De !*p *B c*(e $( 7*!!*m 7e% *B e c. re c!*r. 6## 7e%s #* %e% !* 2$!.$( 150 mm *B !.e 7u77#e c p !r &. 4. ,*#ume s.*2( s #* %e% 7& @e(se me!.*% B*r: <CR 134/6F, <CR 126, <CR 1261, <CR 126). ,*#ume s.*2( s #* %e% 7& /*ck me!.*% B*r <CR 122H/3 (% <CR 114H". 475

5. "$## 7*!!*m %ump p$pe 2$!. 6#c* T162 *r ePu #. 6. <(!er7e% c ! #&s! %ump p$pes m & 7e B$##e% 2$!. 6.3 mm cer m$c 7 ##s. 7. C ! #&s! 2e$g.!s re 7 se% *( up% !e% #* %$(g $(B*rm !$*( (% %$BBer s#$g.!#& Br*m !.*se $( !.e ;@P.

476

TA"LE 5$I CATAL&ST SPECIFICATIONS CHENNAI PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED CPCL REFINER&$III PRO)ECT CHE+RON ISOCRAC%IN' PROCESS MANALI4 TAMIL NADU4 INDIA 207 3.6 XAre a= 10. 5 ! "ut ICR ICR "ut 5 .6 1.6 *1 +* (') 1)( 13 13 ICR #CR "ut *.6 30.1 1.6 *1 *' +* ') *) 1)( 13 1' 13 1** 1'3 10 ICR ICR ICR Su

Design Catalyst Loading

Actual

Cat "ut #CR #CR "ut #CR #CR "ut #CR #CR #CR

No

Loa Req 0.15

Req

Lo

Cat

Dr

Cat

De

Cat

Cat

Cat

Loa

1$6% 3$1

&o &o

3.55 3'.3 0.15 0.15 1.6

(3 +*

16) 1)(

'*. 13

03 10

1$* 3$1

De &o

5.00 0.15 0.15

35 10

1$* 1$1 3$1

De De &o &o

.+ .+6 0.15

&u, 1$(%

477

TA"LE 5$I CATAL&ST SPECIFICATIONS CHENNAI PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED CPCL REFINER&$III PRO)ECT CHE+RON ISOCRAC%IN' PROCESS MANALI4 TAMIL NADU4 INDIA 207 3.6 XAre a= 10. 5 ! "ut ICR ICR "ut 1 .+ *' 1 ) 1' ICR

Design Catalyst Loading

Actual

Cat "ut #CR #CR "ut #CR

No

Loa Req 0.15

Req

Lo

Cat

Dr

Cat

De

Cat

Cat

Cat

Loa

1$1 3$1

De &o

+.1+

+6.0

*' +*

+3) 1)(

1' 13

(*( 10

0.15 1.60 0.15

1$1

De

1.

(*(

#CR #CR &u

1$1 3$1 1$(%

De &o &o

6.*6

'3.1

*5 +*

6*) 1)(

15 13

(3+ 10

ICR #CR Su

0.15 1.60

478

TA"LE 5$# T&PICAL ANAL&SES OF CATAL&ST DUMPIN' *ATER CHENNAI PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED CPCL REFINER&$III PRO)ECT CHE+RON ISOCRAC%IN' PROCESS MANALI4 TAMIL NADU4 INDIA @$ss*#De% 'e! #s, ppm )$ , '* C* "e Cr /$92 6# /uspe(%e% /*#$%s, ppm /e!!#e 7#e /*#$%s, m1/1/-r "$s. T*+$c$!&, T1m96, C1

12 16 K1 K1 K1 K1 17 0.1 72 2.3 68

)*!e: 1. 68C c ! #&s! 2 !er s mp#e G 32C Bres. 2 !er k$##e% 50C *B !.e !es! B$s. $( 960.*ur 7$* ss &. Source: Richmond TKC Reac or Ca a!"# Dum$% Se$ em&er '()'*

479

CALCULATIONS T.ere re seDer # $mp*r! (! p r me!ers %escr$7$(g .&%r*cr cker perB*rm (ce 2.$c. re (*! D $# 7#e s s$mp#e $(s!rume(! me sureme(!s. T.$s sec!$*( %escr$7es !.e me!.*%s !* 7e use% !* c #cu# !e !.ese p r me!ers. ;+ mp#e c #cu# !$*(s re $(c#u%e% 2.ere ppr*pr$ !e. 'e!r$c c*(Ders$*(s re s.*2( *( T 7#e 130<. Cataly t A6erage Te/-erature T.ere re !.ree s!eps !* c #cu# !e C6T. T.e c #cu# !$*( pr*ce%ure rePu$res g !.er$(g !emper !ure $(B*rm !$*( Br*m !.e re c!*r !.erm*c*up#es. T.e !erm$(*#*g& %eB$($!$*(s (% s!eps re s.*2( 7e#*2. 16T: Le6el A6erage Te/-erature $s !.e Der ge !emper !ure ! g$De( e#eD !$*(. T.e re c!*rs s.*u#% . De e$g.! 7e% !.erm*c*up#es ! g$De( e#eD !$*(. 6 16T (ee%s !* 7e c #cu# !e% B*r e c. e#eD !$*( $( !.e c ! #&s! 7e%s. 16T, LC I TT<(1) G T<(2) G T<(3) G T<(4) G T<(5) G T<(6) G T<(7) G T<(8)U/8 5.e( c #cu# !$(g !.e 16T use *(#& re#$ 7#e re %$(gs ! ( ePu # e#eD !$*(, (% %$sc r% (& u(re#$ 7#e re %$(gs. ;+ mp#es *B u(re#$ 7#e re %$(gs re !.*se Br*m !.erm*c*up#es !. ! re k(*2( !* 7e *BB0c #$7r !$*( *r !. ! pr*D$%e u(s! 7#e re %$(gs !. ! re pr*De( (*! !* 7e c use% 7& !.e pr*cess. 36T: "e! A6erage Te/-erature $s %eB$(e% s !.e Der ge *B ## 16TQs *B g$De( 7e%. 6 36T (ee%s !* 7e c #cu# !e% B*r e c. *B !.e !.ree c ! #&s! 7e%s $( !.e B$rs! re c!*r (% e c. *B !.e !2* c ! #&s! 7e%s $( !.e sec*(% re c!*r. 36T, LC (V) I T<(#e! 16T (V) G 9u!#e! 16T (V)U/2 2.ere V I 3e% )um7er C6T: Cataly t A6erage Te/-erature B*r e c. re c!*r $s %e!erm$(e% 7& Der g$(g e c. 7e% 36T B!er 2e$g.!$(g !.em 7& !.e D*#ume Br c!$*( *B c!$De c ! #&s! $( e c. 7e%. T.e ! 7#e 7e#*2 s.*2s !.e 2e$g.!$(g B c!*rs !* 7e use% !* %e!erm$(e !.e C6T B*r e c. re c!*r. C6T, LC I T36T(1) + 1U G T36T(2) + 2U G T36T(3) + 3U

480

"*r !.e %es$g( re c!*r #* %$(gs, !.e Br c!$*(s re s B*##*2s: ,*#ume "r c!$*( 6c!$De C ! #&s! $( ; c. 3e% 1 "$rs! Re c!*r (2070R1) /ec*(% Re c!*r (2070R2) 0.01 0.50 2 0.46 0.50 3 0.53

<( %%$!$*( !* !emper !ure Der ges, %e#! 7e% !emper !ures re #s* useBu# B*r eD #u !$(g !.e *per !$*( *B !.e u($!. W3e% @e#! TsX re s$mp#& !.e %$BBere(ce 7e!2ee( !.e 7e% $(#e! (% *u!#e! 16Ts (% re ( $(%$c !$*( *B .*2 muc. re c!$*( $s ! k$(g p# ce $( !.e 7e%. WR %$ # @e#! TsX re c #cu# !e% s !.e %$BBere(ce 7e!2ee( !.e m +$mum (% m$($mum re#$ 7#e !emper !ure re %$(gs ! #eDe# (% re me sure *B !.e Pu #$!& *B !.e B#*2 %$s!r$7u!$*( cr*ss !.e re c!*r. 6(*!.er 2 & !* ( #&Ee B#*2 %$s!r$7u!$*( $s !* c #cu# !e !.e %$BBere(ce 7e!2ee( !.e !*p (% 7*!!*m T<s #*(g !.e s me r %$ # *r$e(! !$*( *B !.e re c!*r. <B !.ere $s #*2 *r .$g. !emper !ure %$BBere(!$ # !.r*ug. Der!$c # p# (e #*(g !.e s me r %$ # *r$e(! !$*(, !.ere m & 7e u(eDe( B#*2 %$s!r$7u!$*( $( !. ! c ! #&s! 7e%.

481

Hy!rogen Partial Pre ure T.e .&%r*ge( p r!$ # pressure (p-2) represe(!s !.e c*(ce(!r !$*( *B .&%r*ge( $( !.e re c!*r. 6#!.*ug. $( re #$!& (*! ## !.e m ss $( !.e u($! $s $( !.e D p*r p. se, B*r !.$s D r$ 7#e C.eDr*( uses !.e s$mp#$B&$(g ssump!$*( !. ! $! $s. T.$s pr*D$%es e se $( c #cu# !$*(, (% $( pr c!$ce . s s.*2( !* 7e su$! 7#e B*r % ! !r ck$(g, c*rre# !$*(, (% %es$g( 2*rk. "*r r*u!$(e p# (! m*($!*r$(g (% B*r pr*gr mm$(g $(!* pr*cess m*($!*r$(g c*mpu!er, $! $s ccep! 7#e !* m*($!*r *(#& !.e re c!*r $(#e! .&%r*ge( p r!$ # pressure. <(#e! .&%r*ge( p r!$ # pressure c ( 7e c #cu# !e% B*##*2$(g !.ese s!eps: 1. ;s!$m !e !.e m*# r r !e *B *$# Bee%. 2. T.e m*# r B#*2 r !es *B rec&c#e g s p#us m ke0up g s Br*m me!er re %$(gs re (ee%e%. C*rrec! !.ese B*r *BB0%es$g( c*(%$!$*(s *B !emper !ure, pressure, (% spec$B$c gr D$!& ! !.e me!er *r$B$ce s rePu$re%. 3. C #cu# !e !.e m*# r B#*2 r !e *B .&%r*ge( (-2) ! !.e $(#e! Br*m !.e .&%r*ge( ( #&Eer *( !.e rec&c#e g s p#us m ke0up .&%r*ge( s!re m (% m*# r B#*2s Br*m /!ep 2. 4. @e!erm$(e !.e p r!$ # pressure *B .&%r*ge( ! re c!*r $(#e! 7& mu#!$p#&$(g !.e re c!*r $(#e! pressure (% !.e r !$* *B .&%r*ge( m*# r B#*2 !* !*! # g s p#us *$# m*# r B#*2 ($.e., !*! # m*#es ! re c!*r $(#e!) s s.*2( $( !.e e+press$*( 7e#*2:

p- 2 , kg / cm 2 ( ) = Re c!*r <(#e! Pressure, kg / cm 2 ( ) +


;+ mp#e

'*#es *B - 2 ! Re c!*r <(#e! T*! # '*#es (8 s + 9$#) ! Re c!*r <(#e!

T.e B*##*2$(g e+ mp#e c #cu# !es !.e re c!*r $(#e! .&%r*ge( p r!$ # pressure 7 se% *( %es$g( /9R c se c*(%$!$*(s. T.e s!re ms re Br*m !.e s!re m % ! s.ee! (ReD. 1), (% !.e c*mp*(e(! % ! s.ee! (ReD. 0). 1. @e!erm$(e !.e m*# r r !e *B *$# Bee% (/!re m 111): "ee% R !e (/! (% r% C*(%$!$*(s) "ee% 8r D$!& (/! (% r% C*(%$!$*(s) "ee% '*#ecu# r 5e$g.! '*# r R !e *B 9$# "ee% '*#e/378.0 kg I I I I 249.2 m3/-r 929.1 kg/m3 378.0 kg/kg0'*#e 249.2 m3/-r + 929.1 kg/m3 + 1 kg0

I 612 kg0'*#e/-r

482

2. '*# r B#*2 r !e *B rec&c#e g s !* !.e B$rs! re c!*r (/!re m 128): Rec&c#e 8 s R !e '*# r R !e *B Rec&c#e 8 s I 210,490 )m3/-r I 210,490 )m3/-r / 22.405 )m3/kg0'*#e I 9,395 kg0'*#e/-r

3. '*# r B#*2 r !e *B .&%r*ge( ! re c!*r $(#e!: '*#e C -2 Rec&c#e 8 s /!re m '*# r R !e *B -2 ! Re c!*r <(#e! I 93.8 '*#e C I 0.938 * 9,395 kg0'*#e/-r I 8,813 kg0'*#e/-r

483

4. @e!erm$(e p-2 ! re c!*r $(#e!: Re c!*r <(#e! Pressure, kg/cm2 ( ) '*# r R !e *B -2 ! Re c!*r <(#e! T*! # '*#es ! Re c!*r <(#e! (/um *B 9$# G 8 s '*# r R !es) I 173.5 I 8,813 kg0'*#e/-r I 612 kg0'*#e/-r G 9,395 kg0'*#e/-r I 10,007 kg0'*#e/-r
p- 2 , kg/cm 2 ( ) =173.5 kg/cm 2 ( ) + =152.8 kg/cm 2 ( ) 8,813 kg '*#e/-r 10,007 kg '*#e/-r

T.e p-2 ! !.e re c!*r *u!#e! $s c #cu# !e% $( !.e s me m ((er. T.e Der ge .&%r*ge( p r!$ # pressure $s c #cu# !e% s:
p- 2 = p- 2 <(#e! + p- 2 9u!#e! 2

484

Con6er ion C*(Ders$*( $s me sure *B .*2 . r% !.e c ! #&s! $s 2*rk$(g. WT0/! rX *r T* $s use% !* c. r c!er$Ee !.e Br*(!0e(% *B !.e Bee% 7*$#$(g curDe. <! $s esse(!$ ##& ( es!$m !e *B !.e !rue 7*$#$(g p*$(! (T3P) $($!$ # cu! p*$(! *B !.e Bee% (% $s muc. m*re ccur !e p r me!er !* use $( c #cu# !$(g B$rs!0s! ge c*(Ders$*( !. ( !.e s! r!$(g T3P *B !.e Bee%. T* $s %e!erm$(e% gr p.$c ##& 7& s$mp#& p#*!!$(g !.e T3P Bee% curDe, %r 2$(g s!r $g.! #$(e 7e!2ee( !.e 30C (% 50C p*$(!s, (% e+!r p*# !$(g !. ! #$(e 7 ck !* 0C. T* c*u#% 7e s$mp#& c #cu# !e% Br*m !.e 30C (% 50C p*$(!s 2$!.*u! p#*!, 7u! prep r !$*( *B p#*! *B !.e Bee% $s preBerre% s* !. ! p*ss$7#e err*rs $( !.e %$s!$## !$*( ( s $(%$c !e% 7& ( u(usu # curDe s. pe) c ( 7e $%e(!$B$e%. 6 s!ep2$se me!.*% B*r c #cu# !$(g V(T*) $s prese(!e% 7e#*2. T.e T3P %$s!$## !$*( ss &s *B 7*!. Bee% (% pr*%uc! re rePu$re% $( *r%er !* c #cu# !e c*(Ders$*(. )*!e !. ! 6/T' %$s!$## !$*(s 2$## (ee% !* 7e c*(Der!e% !* T3P %$s!$## !$*(s. (/ee "$gure 1301 B*r c*(Ders$*( me!.*%.) 1. P#*! !.e Bee% T3P curDe. 2. 1*c !e T* s !.e $(!ercep! *B T3P0 +$s 2$!. #$(e !.r*ug. !.e Bee% T3P 30C (% 50C p*$(!s. 3. @e!erm$(e !.e D*#ume e+p (s$*(, , *B Bee% !* pr*%uc!. T.e D*#ume e+p (s$*( %epe(%s (*! *(#& *( !.e c!u # c*(Ders$*( 7u! #s* *( !.e c*(%$!$*( *B !.e c ! #&s!. C5G D*#ume e+p (s$*( $s gre !er ! s! r!0*B0ru( !. ( ! e(%0*B0 ru(. T.e B*##*2$(g es!$m !e% e+p (s$*( B c!*rs m & 7e use% !* s$mp#$B& !.e c #cu# !$*(s:

485

@es$g( C se C ! #&s! C*(%$!$*( /9R ;9R 4.

8.3 6.3

6%Yus! !.e pr*%uc! T3P %$scuss$*( !* cc*u(! B*r !.e e+p (s$*( cc*r%$(g !* !.e B*rmu# : 100 G 6%Yus!e% 1, C I + A( %Yus!e% 1, C 100

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486

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