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SYNOPSIS

Over recent years, the market for wireless communications has enjoyed tremendous growth. Wireless technology now reaches or is capable of reaching virtually every location on the face of the earth. Hundreds of millions of people exchange information every day using pagers, cellular telephones, and other wireless communication products. With tremendous success of wireless telephony and messaging services, it is hardly surprising that wireless communication is beginning to be applied to the realm of personal and business computing. No longer bound by the harnesses of wired networks, people will be able to access and share information on a global scale nearly anywhere they venture.

he !." #H$ %ndustrial, &cientific, and 'edical (%&') band is poised for strong growth. *ueling this growth are two emerging wireless technologies + Wireless ,ersonal.rea Networking (W,.N) and Wireless /ocal .rea Networking (W/.N). dominant W,.N technology is a short-range wireless technology called 0luetooth. he

1esigned principally for cable-replacement applications, most 0luetooth implementations support a range of up to 23 m and speeds of up to 433 5b6sec for data or synchronous voice transmission. 0luetooth is ideal for applications such as wireless headsets, wireless synchroni$ation of ,ersonal 1igital .ssistants (,1.s) with computers, and wireless peripherals such as printers or keyboards.

INDEX
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AIM

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INRODUCTION
.utomatic communication between various devices within a small area in a house or an office makes it possible to provide uniDue and innovative services to a

professional worker or a small group of workers using portable devices. 0luetooth technology has this potential and is coming along fast and Duick. %t will replace clumsy wires, make information transfer automatic without synchroni$ation cradles and introduce many new applications. echnology visionaries hope that it will do what infra red could not do over the past six years. he proposed 0luetooth solutions (hardware and software-based ) would automatically synchroni$e mobile devices when end Eusers enter their offices or home. %ntel and others are designing the sending and receiving radio freDuency chip sets. &ince the start of this initiative in 2AA@, interest in 0luetooth has grown tremendously signified by 2@33 members of 0luetooth consortium by mid !333. While 0luetooth consortium demonstrated prototype products in the 2AAA-!333, there are no production , Duality end user products using 0luetooth technology as of now, as far as we know. :omponent products (radios and chips) that can be integrated into finished products have started becoming available from ;ricsson and others. However, here is an opportunity for more start-up companies. %r1. is a competing technology and has been implemented in many products for over ?-4 years now but 0luetooth has a few distinct advantages- with ;ricsson6'icrosoft6%ntel team behind it. %n our opinion, there are relative benefits with several competing technologies, there is some overlap too. /et competitive products thrive so that we the users get the best solutions.

WHAT IS BLUETOOTH ?
0luetooth is wireless technology and a short-range radio technology. 0luetooth wireless technology makes it possible to transmit signals over short distances between telephones, computers and other devices and thereby simplify communication and synchroni$ation between devices. %t is a global standard that+

- eliminates wires and cables between both stationary and mobile devices - facilitate both data and voice communication - offers the possibility of ad hoc networks and delivers the ultimate synchronicity between all your personal devices

0luetooth is actually a standard for wireless communications between devices in a personal area network (,.N) using radio freDuency for a short range ( around 23 meters). &o any two device that follow the standard can communicate and exchange data between each other without the need of any connection to be made between them. . group of 0luetooth devices like a mobile phone, a digital camera, a hand held device etc can instantly from a network with each other as soon as they are switched on. >ou could have a mobile phone in your pocket and you could be sending emails using your laptop without making any connection between your laptop and the mobile. >our refrigerator could be placing an order with the supermarket if your milk supply has been exhausted using your mobile phone. 0luetooth technology eliminates the need for numerous and inconvenient cable attachments for connecting fixed computers , mobile phone, mobile computers , handheld devices , digital cameras and even new breed of digital appliances. %t will enable user to connect a wide range of computing and telecommunication devices easily and simply, without the need of buy, carry or connect cables, Duite often proprietary to a specific device. %t delivers opportunities for rapid ad hoc connections, and the possibility of automatic, unconscious, connection between devices . %t creates the possibility of using mobile data in a variety of applications. 0luetooth makes wireless communication and networking between devices in a small locali$ed area of a room or a small office as easy as switching on the light. %n 0luetooth all the connections between devices are instantaneous and invisible and the device can talk even if they are not in line of sight because 0luetooth utili$es a radio based link. >our laptop could send information to a printer in the next room, or your

micro wave could send a message to your mobile phone telling you that your meal is ready. 0riefly, 0luetooth technology uses radio waves in !." #H$ band. herefore, no line of sight is reDuired supports multipoint, not just point to point works in a small confined area 23 to 2= meters apart is able to support speed of 2- ! 'bps today but will offer higher speeds in future chip sets are relatively inexpensive F23 to F !3 today in large Duantities E will go down in future has significant industry support with over 2@33 members in the industry consortium. %n shortly the 0luetooth wireless technology comprises hardware, software and interoperability reDuirements. 0eyond unleashing devices by replacing cables, 0luetooth wireless technology provides a universal bridge to existing data networks, a peripheral interface, and a mechanism to form small private ad hoc groupings of connected devices away from fixed network infrastructures. 0luetooth radio uses a fast acknowledgement and freDuency-hopping scheme to make the link robust, even in noisy radio environments.

WHAT TECHNOLOGY IS IT REPLACING?

0luetooth replaces wires, cables and line of sight remotes. %t allows communication among 0luetooth-enabled devices using a low-power radio freDuency. %t gives its users the freedom of movement (within 73 feet) and does away with the limitations of cord lengths, ports and physical barriers such as walls or doors. %t is ideal for creating ,.Ns (,ersonal .rea Networks).

0luetooth enabled devices have the ability to Grecogni$eH one another through a series globally adopted radio freDuency standards set by the 0luetooth :onsortium. With this technology, devices can transmit to one another without having to be continuously configured. ;ricssonIs intention was to have the technology adopted across many different industries and products. 'any different types of technology manufacturers have gotten on board. .s a result, 0luetooth now has many far-reaching applications. ,alms

can send documents to printers without wires. 'obile phones can communicate with the B, the oven and HB.: system. world, software needs to be available. he major area of deficiency is in software Once large companies begin to adopt the development using 0luetooth. %n order to really move the technology into the business technology and more importantly recogni$e the need to have 0luetooth as part of their companyIs software packages, products and more applications will begin to experience an increased level of production and the technology will begin to move into the mainstream.

8ecently, increased debate has been whether or not 0luetooth or Wi-*i would win the JwirelessI war. here have been many discussions that one or the other would prevail. %n fact, most likely, they both will exist together. .lthough both are wireless platforms, each has advantages and disadvantages. :urrently, 0luetoothIs demand is in small areas where power, si$e and cost are issues. 0luetoothIs advantages are that it uses relatively little power compared to Wi-*i. he technology itself is also smaller so it can fit in places where Wi-*i cannot, for example mobile phones and headsets. 0luetooth

technology is becoming cheaper and therefore more available for cost-sensitive technology purchasers. .nother important aspect to consider is that Wi-*i is a wireless network access technology, and 0luetooth is truly a wireless communication technology, meaning that users donIt have to go through an access point to gain wireless connectivity.

WHY BLUETOOTH WIRELESS ?


%n phase with the % -boom the mobility among people has constantly grown and wireless technologies for voice and data have evolved rapidly during the past years. :ountless electronic device for home, personal and business use have been presented to the market during recent years but no widespread technology to address the needs of connecting personal devices in ,ersonal .rea Networks (,.N) . he demand for a system that easily could connect devices for transfer of data and voice over a short distances without cables, grew stronger. 0luetooth wireless technology fill this important communication need, with its ability to communicate both voice and data wirelessly, using a standard low- power, low cost technology which can be integrated in all devices and thus enable total mobility. he price will be low and result in mass production. he more units around, the more benefits for the customer.

HISTORY OF BLUETOOTH
0luetooth was invented in 2AA" by /.' ;ricsson of &weden. ;ricsson decide to name their new technology after Harld 0latand (0latand K 0luetooth) who was the king of 1enmark from A"3 ..1. to A@2 ..1. 1uring his rule, he 9nited 1enmark and Norway and brought christianity to &candinavia, hence the inspiration on the name , uniting devices through 0luetooth. he legend sys that he was very fond of blue berries that gave him bluish teeth. %n *ebruary 2AA@ a &pecial %nterest #roup (&%#) was formed with a mission of creating, promoting and implementing 0luetooth. %t consists of ;ricsson and eight other telecommunications and computer industry giants-7:O', %0', %ntel, /ucent, 'icrosoft, 'otorola, Nokia and oshiba, which is today known as &pecial ,romoter #roup. /ater that year they publicly announced their intention to produce a global and royalty Efree specification making it possible for everyone to develop 0luetooth products.

%n Lune 2AAA they released the first 0luetooth specification.

his should have

been the beginning of a new era, with the 0luetooth wireless technology integrated in all possible appliances. 1espite the difficulties companies have already invested large amounts of money in 0luetooth wireless technology and they seem to be convinced that the Cstandard will be accepted and widely used. o-day it has !233 of adopter6associate member companies including all the major companies in the telecom, computer and home entertainment industries . 0luetooth eDuipped appliances has introduced in !332, but the real commercial break through in !33!.

BLUETOOTH PRODUCTS
'any companies have declared that 0luetooth wireless technology will be incorporated into their products. ;specially when components becomes cheaper. %n a forecast made by :ahners %n-stat #roup (Luly!333) the product availability during the next couple of years was defined as three waves. a) H; *%8& W.B; %t is believed to occur around the turn of the year

!3336!332 and will include products like+i) .dopter for mobile phones and adopters (dongles) and

,: card for notebooks and ,:s. ii) High-end mobile phones and notebook ,:s with

integrated 0luetooth communication for the business users. iii) 0luetooth head sets are expected to enter the market by

the first half of !332. iv) :ordless phones, hand held ,:s, and ,1.s will also be included

in this first wave. he first handheld ,:s and ,1.s are expected to enter the market during !332. b) H; &;:ON1 W.B; will in many respects overlap the first.

What we will see here is +i) ,:s with 0luetooth circuitry on the mother board.

ii)

,rinter, *ax machines, digital still camera, and products

for industrial6medical and vertical industries will also being to move in the second wave. iii) here will be some industrial solutions that may

become available as soon the ends of !333 or 2M!332. iv) %n the automotive sector the first 0luetooth options are

expected to appear for the !33! model year ( hand-free mobile phone usage with your regular mobile phone). c) H; H%81 W.B; will include low-cost mobile phones

and lower-cost portable devices and desktop ,:s.

Technical Fea !"e#


0luetooth operates in the !." #H$ %&' band and utili$es 4" 'H$ of the spectrum. his range varies across different countries, based on government regulations. 0luetooth uses a combination of several standards to ensure a robust connection. . $"e%!enc&' h())in* scheme is used to avoid radio interference and add a level of security to 8* connections by using a different freDuency within the available %&' band for each data packet transmission. ;ach piconet is defined by its uniDue freDuency-hopping pattern that is defined by an algorithm based on the master device address.

Ti+e Di,i#i(n D!)le- .TDD/ is actually a fancy way of describing the fact that the
radio unit does not transmit and receive at the same time. 11 means that the radio must set itself to transmit for one time slot, and then switch itself to receive for the next time slot.

S)eech C(0in* (:B&1) is the particular voice data transmission algorithm used by
0luetooth - itNs simply a way of digitally encoding the characteristics of analog data. 0luetooth also uses small data packets, which are protected with *orward ;rror :orrection (*;:) or .utomatic 8epeat 8eDuest (.8M), and :yclic 8edundancy :heck (:8:) for error correction. 'ore information on these algorithms is available at .nywhere>ou#o.com or in the 0luetooth :ore &pecifications.

0luetooth devices may communicate at a range of 23 meters. his range may be extended to 233 meters when using a scatternet topology to transmit messages, or by increasing the radio unitNs transmission power.

0luetooth devices may communicate at a speed of up to 2 'bps, and may maintain simultaneous voice and data connections. 1ata connections may be synchronous or asynchronous, with data rates of "7! 5bps and 4!2 5bps respectively. 9p to three simultaneous voice connections may be maintained at a data rate of ?" 5bps. Boice connections are always synchronous.

HOW BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY WOR1S ?

0luetooth is a high- speed , low power microwave wireless link technology, designed to connect phones, laptops, ,1.s and other portable eDuipment together with little or no work by the user. 9nlike infra-red, 0luetooth does not reDuire line- of Esight

positioning of connected units. he technology uses modifications of existing wireless /.N techniDues but is most notable for its small si$e and low cost. he current prototype circuit are contained on a circuit board 3.Acm sDuare, with a much smaller single chip version in development. he cost of the device is expected to fall very fast, from F!3 initially to F= in a year or two. %t is envisioned that 0luetooth will be included with in eDuipment rather than being an optional extra. When one 0luetooth products comes within range of another, (this can be set to between 23cm and 233cm) they automatically exchange address and capability details. hey can ten establish a 2 megabit6sec ink (up to ! 'bps in the second generation of the technology) with security and error correction, to use as reDuired. he protocols will handle both voice and data, with a very flexible notebook topography. his technology achieves its goal by embedding tiny, inexpensive, short range transceivers into the electronic devices that are available today. he radio operates on the globally- available unlicensed radio band,!."=#H$ (meaning there will be no hindrance for international travelers using 0luetooth-enabled eDuipment), and supports data speed of up to 4!2 5bps, as well as three voice channels. he 0luetooth modules can be either built into electronic devices or used as an adopter. *or instance in a ,: they can be built in as a ,: card or externally attached via the 9&0 port.

!." #H$ 0/9; OO H 8.1%O

0/9; OO H /%N5 :ON 8O//;8

0/9; OO H /%N5 '.N.#;8

DIFFERENT FUNCTIONAL BLOC1 IN THE BLUETOOTH SYSTEM ;ach device has a uniDue "@-bit address from the %;;; @3! standard.

:onnections can be point- to Epoint or multipoint. he maximum range is 23 but can be

extended to 233 meters by increasing the power. 0luetooth device are protected from radio interference by changing their freDuency arbitrarily up to a maximum of 2?33 times a second, a techniDue known as freDuency hopping . hey also use three different but complementary provided. 'oreover, 0luetooth devices wonCt drain precious battery life. 73 micro amps to the active transmitting range of @-73 mili amps . he 0luetooth he radio chip error correction schemes. 0uilt Ein encryption and verification is

specification targets power consumption of the device from a CC holdCC mode consuming consumers only 3.7m. in standby mode, which is less than 7O of power used by a standard mobile phone. he chip also have excellent power saving feature, as they will automatically shift to a low-power mode as soon as traffic volume lessens or stops. 0luetooth devices are classified according to three different power classes, as shown in the following table.

,ower :lass 2 ! 7

'aximum Out put 233mW !.=mW 2mW

,ower !3d0m "d0m 3d0m

0ut beyond untethering devices by replacing the cables, 0luetooth radio technology provides a universal bridge to existing data networks, a peripheral interface, and a mechanism to from small private ad hoc grouping of connected devices away from fixed network infrastructures. 1esigned to operate in a noise radio freDuency environment, the 0luetooth radio uses a fast acknowledgment and freDuency from other scheme to make the link robust. 0luetooth radio modules aviode interference from other signal by hopping to a new freDuency after transmitting or receiving a packet. :ompared With other system operating in the same freDuency band, the 0luetooth radio typically hops faster and uses shorter packets. his makes the 0luetooth radio more robust than

other system . &hort packages and fast hopping also limit the impact of domestic and professional microwave ovens. 9se of *orward ;rror :orrection (*;:) limits the impacts of random noise on long distance links. he encoding is optimi$ed for an uncoordinated environment . 0luetooth guarantees security at the bit level. .uthentication is controlled by the user by using a 2!@ bit key. 8adio signal can be coded with @ bit or anything upto 2!@ bits. he 0luetooth radio transmissions will conform to the safety standards reDuired by the countries where the technology will be used with respect to the affect of radio transmission on the human body. ;missions from 0luetooth enabled devices will be no greater than emissions from industry-standard cordless phone. he 0luetooth modules will not interfere or cause harm to public or private telecommunications network. he 0luetooth base band protocol is a combination of circuit and packet switching. &lot can be reserved for synchronous packets. ;ach packet is transmitted in a different hop freDuency. . packet nominally cover a single slot, but can be extended to cover up five slots. 0luetooth can support an asynchronous data channel, up to three simultaneous synchronous voice channels. Which simultaneously supports asynchronous data and synchronous voice. %t is thus possible to transfer the data asynchronously whilst at the same time talking synchronously at the same time. ;ach voice channel support an asymmetric link of maximally 4!2 kb6s in either direction while permitting =4.? kb6s in the return direction ,or a "7!.? kb6s symmetric link.

Bl!e (( h C(+)(nen #
.ny 0luetooth solution consists of four major components+ antenna68* component, 0luetooth hardware and firmware (baseband and /ink :ontroller), 0luetooth software protocol stack, and the application itself. ;ach of these components is a product in itself, and companies exist that have entire business models based around solving only one of these four areas.

An enna2RF
he antenna and 8* design portion is interesting in that it reDuires a uniDue solution for each device. When purchasing a 0luetooth module for ;ricsson, for instance, the antenna is not provided. 0luetooth silicon manufacturers cannot effectively provide an antenna with the hardware. ;ven single chip solutions reDuire speciali$ed antenna design, depending on the device. .ntenna design reDuires speciali$ed skills to ensure that the 0luetooth radio will operate within its specification.

Bl!e (( h Ra0i( an0 Ba#e3an0


he 0luetooth radio is the hardware transceiver unit that implements the 0luetooth radio specification. he purpose of the specification is to provide compatibility between 0luetooth devices that operate in the !." #H$ %&' band, and to define the Duality of the system. *urther information on the 0luetooth radio specifications may be found in the 0luetooth core specification document. he 0luetooth baseband consists mainly of a /ink :ontroller (/:) that carries out baseband protocols and low-layer link routines. ,rotocols defined within the scope of the baseband specification include (among others) physical channels and links, data packet definitions, error correction and detection, logical channels, channel control, and hop selection. *or more information about the 0luetooth baseband specification, see the 0luetooth core specification document. .n example implementation of the 0luetooth radio and baseband is the ;ricsson 0luetooth 'odule. %n addition to the hardware, this module contains the firmware that implements the baseband specifications. .s youNd expect, there are a number of other manufacturers developing 0luetooth modules too.

Bl!e (( h S($ 4a"e P"( (c(l S ac5


he 0luetooth software protocol stack can be thought of as driver code. his code allows the application software to send and receive information from the 0luetooth module. &everal implementations of this currently exist, and vary from #N9 licensed code to commercial products targeted at various operating systems. 'ajor components of the protocol stack are the /ink 'anager (/'), the /ogical /ink :ontrol and .daptation ,rotocol (/!:.,), the Host :ontrol %nterface (H:%), the &ervice 1iscovery ,rotocol (&1,), .udio6 elephony :ontrol, 8*:O'', Human %nterface 1evice (H%1), :,6%,, and other high level protocols. hese are all described in the subseDuent sections.

Lin5 Mana*e" .LM/


he /' manages link setup, link configuration, and link packet control and transfer. he /' also manages link security during the initiali$ation of the connection and throughout its existence (where applicable). he /' handles synchronous and asynchronous packet communication within the piconet, as well as the timing parameters used during communication. he /' also handles master6slave role switching between devices. &niff, hold, and park mode behavior is controlled by the /' too.

N&niffN, NholdN, and NparkN are power saving modes in which a 0luetooth device may operate. hey allow for varying levels of participation and communication within a piconet. he use of each of these modes is broadly determined by the type of device, its function, and overall need for immediate service.

L(*ical Lin5 C(n "(l an0 A0a) a i(n P"( (c(l .L6CAP/
he services provided by /!:., include protocol multiplexing, segmentation and reassembly, and Duality of service. he /!:., protocol architecture is connectionoriented, with connections labeled by a channel identifier. ;ach channel is assumed to be a full-duplex connection, with a Muality-of-&ervice (Mo&) flow specification being applied to each channel direction. ,rotocol multiplexing enables an application to use several higher-layer protocols simultaneously - 8*:O'', :,6%,, etc. his service also passes packets used by the higher layer protocols to the appropriate handlers. ,rotocol identifiers have a one-tomany mapping with channel identifiers. *or example, a master device may provide a :,6%, service and have more than one slave unit using that service. &egmentation and reassembly is a service by which packets from higher layer protocols are segmented into appropriate-si$ed 0luetooth packets and reassembled again after transmission. his service is transparent to the higher layer protocols. he /!:., also negotiates and enforces Muality Of &ervice (Mo&) contracts, which are based on the type of service provided, with a Nbest effortN contract used by default. Mo& regulates the token si$e (bytes), the rate and peak bandwidth (bytes6sec), and other key elements to ensure a robust connection.

H(# C(n "(l In e"$ace .HCI/


he H:% provides a standard interface to the 0luetooth module and link manager services that is independent from the host hardware implementation. his layer provides

transparency between the host controller and the 0luetooth hardware. further defines the interface functions based on which physical bus is used.

here is an

addendum to the H:% specification for each physical bus (9&0, ,:%, 8&!7!, etc.) that

Se",ice Di#c(,e"& P"( (c(l .SDP/


he &1, is the layer that exposes high-level services such as /.N access or printer services to users and other applications. his layer also provides information to implement a plug-and-play solution, such as a laptop computer using a printer. his layer could be implemented using a higher &1, such as Lava L%N%.

A!0i( an0 Tele)h(n& C(n "(l


hese two protocols are linked, because in the 0luetooth specification, telephony :ontrol contains :all :ontrol and .udio :ontrol. participate in the connection. his protocol defines the interface needed to connect and disconnect a call, including signaling the devices desired to elephony audio links are established with synchronous links, and therefore do not go through the same /!:.,-to-/' path that asynchronous links go through. .udio links may be thought of as direct baseband to baseband links.

RFCOMM
8*:O'' provides a protocol to emulate cables with 0luetooth, enabling compatibility with a large base of applications that currently use the serial port as their main communication bus. 8*:O'' conveys all of the 8&!7! control signals, and supports remote port configuration. 8*:O'' borrows from the %r:omm in the %r1. protocol stack.

H!+an In e"$ace De,ice .HID/


H%1 is a protocol that enables the concept of a cordless computer. H%1 describes keyboards, mice and joysticks. his layer would enable plug and play support for such devices when used with a ,:.

TCP2IP
:,6%, over 0luetooth presents a powerful way to link devices. :,6%, is a network and transport layer thatNs widely supported by applications and .,%s across almost every operating system. he problems with using :,6%, over 0luetooth include, among others, handling ad hoc networking, 1N& name resolution, and broadcasting. 0etter profiles for networking with 0luetooth are currently being developed by the &%#

T"an#+i e" Cha"ac e"i# ic#


P(4e" Cla##e#7 ;ach device is classified into 7 power classes, ,ower :lass 2, ! P 7.
Power Class 1: is designed for long range (~100m) devices, with a max output power of 20 d m, Power Class 2: for ordinar! range devices (~10m) devices, with a max output power of " d m, Power Class #: for short range devices (~10cm) devices, with a max output power of 0 d m$

he 0luetooth radio interface is based on a nominal antenna power of 3d0m. ;ach device can optionally vary its transmitted power.;Duipment with power control capability optimi$es the output power in a link with /', commands. %t is done by measuring 8&&% and report back if the power should be increased or decreased.

M(0!la i(n Cha"ac e"i# ic#+

he 0luetooth radio module uses #*&5 (#aussian

*reDuency &hift 5eying) where a binary one is represented by a positive freDuency deviation and a binary $ero by a negative freDuency deviation. 0 is set to 3.= and the modulation index must be between 3.!@ and 3.7=. S)!"i(!# E+i##i(n#+ he spurious emission, in-band and out-of-band, is measured with

a freDuency hopping transmitter hopping on a single freDuencyQ this means that the synthesi$er must change freDuency between receive slot and transmit slot, but always returns to the same transmit freDuency. Ra0i( F"e%!enc& T(le"ance+ he transmitted initial center freDuency accuracy must be R4= kH$ from *c. he initial freDuency accuracy is defined as being the freDuency accuracy before any information is transmitted. Note that the freDuency drift reDuirement is not included in the R4= kH$.

Recei,e" Cha"ac e"i# ic#


Sen#i i,i & Le,el+ better. In e"$e"ence Pe"$("+ance+ he interference performance on :o-channel and adjacent he receiver must have a sensitivity level for which the bit error rate (0;8) 3.2O is met. *or 0luetooth this means an actual sensitivity level of -43d0m or

2 'H$ and ! 'H$ are measured with the wanted signal 23 d0 over the reference sensitivity level. On all other freDuencies the wanted signal shall be 7 d0 over the reference sensitivity level. O! '($'Ban0 3l(c5in*+ he Out of band blocking is measured with the wanted signal he interfering signal shall be a continuous

7 d0 over the reference sensitivity level.

wave signal. he 0;8 shall be less than or eDual to 3.2O. In e"+(0!la i(n Cha"ac e"i# ic#+ he reference sensitivity performance, 0;8 K 3.2O,

shall be met under the following conditions.

%he wanted signal at fre&uenc! f 0 with a power level ' d over the reference sensitivit! level$ ( static sine wave signal at f 1 with a power level of )#* d m ( luetooth modulated signal at f 2 with a power level of +#* d m

Ma-i+!+ U#a3le Le,el+ input power.

he maximum usable input level the receiver shall operate

at shall be better than E!3 d0m. he 0;8 shall be less or eDual to 3,2O at E!3S d0m

RSSI7 Recei,e" Si*nal S "en* h In0ica (" .O) i(nal/ +

. transceiver that wishes to

take part in a power-controlled link must be able to measure its own receiver signal strength and determine if the transmitter on the other side of the link should increase or decrease its output power level. . 8eceiver &ignal &trength %ndicator (8&&%) makes this possible. he way the power control is specified is to have a *(l0en "ecei,e )(4e" he lower threshold level corresponds to a received power he upper "an*e. his golden receive power is defined as a range with a lower and higher threshold levelsand a high limit. between -=? d0m and ? d0 above the actual sensitivity of the receiver. instructions to alter the U power are carried in the /', link

threshold level is !3 d0 above the lower threshold level to an accuracy of T6- ? d0. he

CONNECTION ESTABLISHMENT
his section describes the basic procedure to be followed by two or more 0luetooth devices to start a connection between themselves. :onsider the following scenario. . person walks in to a hotel lobby and want to access her e-mail over her

0luetooth enabled device, which could be a laptop or a ,ersonal 1igital .ssistance. What would see have to do< 1epending on the implementation, she would be clicking on a menu on an e-mail application icon. following steps + a) In%!i"& + he device on reaching a new environment would he device would automatically carry out the

automatically initiated an enDuiry to find out what access points are within its range. his will results in the following events + %) %%) b) Pa*in* 7 .ll nearby access point responds with their addresses . he device picks one out of the responding devices . he device will invoke a base band procedure called

paging. his results in synchroni$ation of the device with access point, in terms of its clock offset and phase in the freDuency hop, among other reDuired initiali$ation . c) Lin5 e# a3li#h+en 7 he /', will now established a link with the

access point. .s the application in this case is e-mail, an .:/ link will be used. Barious set up steps will be carried out as described below.

d)

Se",ice 0i#c(,e"& 7

he /', will use the

&1, to discovers what

services are available from the access point, in particular whether e-mail access or access to the relevant host is possible from this access point or not. /ets us assume that the service is available, other wise the application can not proceed further. he information regarding the other services offered at the access point may be presented to the user . e) L6CAP Channel 7 With information obtained from &1,, the device

will create an /!:., channel to the access point. his may be directly used by the application or another protocol like 8*:O'' may be run over it. f) RFCOMM Channel 7 1epending on the need the e-mail application an

8*:O'' or other channel will be created over the /!:., channel. his feature allows existing application developed for serial ports to run with out modification over 0luetooth platforms . g) Sec!"i & 7 %f the access point restrict its access to a particular set

of user or otherwise offers secure mode communication to people having some prior registration with it, then at this stag, the access point will sent security reDuest for CpairingC. his will be successful if the user knows the correct ,%N code to access the service. Note that the ,%N is not transmitted over the wireless channel but another key generated from it is used, so that the ,%N is difficult to compromise. ;ncryption will be invoked if secure mode is used. h) PPP 7 .ssuming that a ,,, link is used over serial modem as in dial up

networking, the same application will now be able to run ,,, over 8*:O''. his link will allow the user to log in to his e-mail account. i) Ne 4("5 P"( (c(l# 7 he networks protocols like :,6 %,, %,U,

.ppletalk can now send and receipt data over the link . %n the above procedure, user interaction is reDuired only at the usual login for his e-mail and additionally for the security to be implemented. he remaining steps are automatic. he above procedures now be described in detail to demonstrate the connection establishment process. he explanation of the above procedure reDuire a brief description the device clock in 0luetooth .

BLUETOOTH SECURITY

he 0luetooth system is intended to be used as a uniform interface to all of a personCs information sources and will thus expected to transfer sensitive personal data. &ecurity of the data is thus understandably an important issue. *urther, 0luetooth devices are expected to be omnipresent and at some places the access to these devices by public users may have to be restricted. his call of or authentication procedure to be provided.

.s the channel used is wireless and the packets being transmitted are available to all members of a piconet, the security initiali$ation should not send any information that can allow an unauthori$ed device to know the secret authentication keys. *urther, the mechanism should be appropriate for a peer-to peer environment. he methods adopted by the 0luetooth standards take care of these issues. he scheme used is referred to as the challenge response scheme. he application may itself encrypt its data for added security. hat can add to the safety of the data, but the most of the authentication is based on the link level security procedures as it is difficult to achieve uniformity in that step at the application level. The 3a#ic # "!c !"e he procedures for security use four values + the device address, a private authentication key, private encryption key and a random number. .s the key have to be secret, they can not be obtained by inDuiry. he exchange procedures will be described below. he security procedure reDuires a secret ,%N to be known to the user for accessing a particular device. he main steps in the procedure are+

(a)

.n initiali$ation key is generated using the ,%N, the

length of the ,%N, a random number and the device address, he dependence on the device address makes its more difficult for a fraudulent device to try a large number of ,%Ns as each has to be tried with different device address. (b) .n authentication procedure is carried out using the he verifier unit sends a random number

challenge response we scheme.

generated by a specific process for the authentication. his random number is such that a claimant device which has the correct initiali$ation key and the reDuire device address, will be able to produce a response number which is known to the verifier. verifier. his response number is sent back checked by the

(c )

he claimant may also carry out a verification on the verifier using a

similar procedure as above. (d) ;ach 0luetooth has a unit key, installed in its non volatile memory. he

device now uses the initiali$ation key to encrypt this unit key and sends it to the other device which decrypts it using the initiali$ation key exchanged earlier. (e) he second device may add its own unit key to the unit key of the first

device and generate a combination link key if both the devices is treated as the link key. he link key is communicate to the first device. he initiali$ation key is discarded.

(f)

.n encryption key is know generated from the link key, a random number

and another number obtained from a fixed procedure. 0oth the devices can generate this encryption key as all the reDuired information is known to both devices. his key with some modification as described later, is used to encrypt data payloads.

he link key is remembered. %f another link is to be established between the two devices at later time, this link key ca be directly used. his eliminates the need to send keys over the channel again. hus, data can transmitted securely with minimum user interaction.

APPLICATIONS
0luetooth has tremendous potential in moving and synchroni$ing information in a locali$ed setting. ,otential for 0luetooth applications is huge, because we transact business and communicate more with people who are close by than with those who are far away- a natural phenomenon of human interaction. along. 0y installing a 0luetooth network in the office we can do away with the complex and tedious task of networking between the computing devices, yet have the power of connected devices. No longer would be bound to fixed locations where you can connect to the network. ;ach 0luetooth device could be connected to !33 other devices making the connection of every device with every other possible. &ince it supports both point to point and point to multipoint. %t will virtually make the maximum number of simultaneously linked devices unlimited. he 0luetooth technology connects all your office peripherals wirelessly. he following list represents only a small set of potential application-in future more imaginative applications will come

:onnect your ,: or notebook to printers, scanners and faxes without the ugly and trouble

some cable attachments. >ou can increase your freedom by connecting your mouse or the keyboard wirelessly to your computer. %f your digital cameras are 0luetooth enabled, you can send video images from any location to any location without the hassle of connecting your camera to the mobile phone on the wire line phone. 0luetooth allows us to have three way phones. .t home, your phone function as a portable phone ( fixed line charged). When you are on the move, it functions as a mobile phone (cellular charge). .nd when your phone comes within range of another mobile phone with built in 0luetooth wireless technology it functions as a walkie-talkie ( no telephony charge). %n meetings and conference you can transfer selected documents instantly with selected participants, and exchange electronic business cards automatically, without any wired connections. :onnect your wireless headset to your mobile phone, mobile computer or any wired connection to keep your hands free for more important task when you are at the office or in your car. Have .utomatic 'essage 1elivery + :ompose e-mail on your portable ,: while you are on an airplane. .s soon as you have landed and switched on your mobile phone, all message are immediately sent. 9pon arriving at your home the door automatically unlocks for you, the entry way lights comes on, and the heat is adjusted to your pre-set preferences. %0' researchers are working on a number of personal devices like a Watch ,ad that could be connected with other devices through 0luetooth. he Watch ,ad is very thin and contains @'0 of 8.'. hey are also working on a version of :yber phone

called :yber phone- that can project data on to a small mirror. he cyber phone can show as much information as a small ,.1 because of high resolution B#. screen. >ou enter the airport-waiting lounge, eDuipped with 0luetooth-enabled %nternet ports. Bia the ports, you and other guests use 0luetooth-enabled laptops. ,1.s, and other devices to access your office or home-based servers via the airline server. 9sing voice over %,, you also make CCfreeCC %nternet voice calls courtesy of your airline.

Application Examples:
2. . 0luetooth-mouse could be used at a further distance from a monitor, and while moving about in the room. !. . 0luetooth-keyboard could be used further away from the monitor. his would reduce eye-strain for persons who are long-sighted. %ncreasing the distance would also reduce exposure to electromagnetic radiation from the monitor. 7. . 0luetooth-keyboard could also be used to address more than one computer, in a dynamic, switchless manner. ". 9se e-mail while your portable ,: is still in the briefcaseV When your portable ,: receives an e-mail, youNll get an alert on your mobile phone. >ou can also browse all incoming e-mails and read those you select in the mobile phoneNs display. =. . travelling businessman could ask his laptop computer to locate a suitable printer as soon as he enters a hotel lobby, and send a printout to that printer when it has been found, and replied in a positive manner. ?. :able-less connection to printers and faxes. 4. :able-less connection to digital cameras and video projectors. @. :ordless connection from cell phone to handsfree headset. A. 0luetooth interface to office ,0U. 23. 1ial-up networking and automatic e-mail. 22. 9se cell phone as office cordless phone. 2!. 9se of ,: or ,1. as handsfree phone. 27. .utomatic exchange of files, electronic business cards, calendars etc.

2". 1ancing couples at a dance hall could receive the music through their headsets and pick the dance of their choice (a bit far-fetched, perhaps, but who knows< &ome day....).

he 1-/ink 10 -2!3 9&0 0luetooth .dapter enables short-range wireless data connectivity between computers and 0luetooth enabled devices. ,ersonal digital assistants, cellular phones, and other devices can connect wirelessly with your 'ac. %n a nutshell, 0luetooth unplugs your digital peripherals and makes cable clutter a thing of the past. 0luetooth is an open specification for wireless data transmission that operates on the globally available !."#H$ radio freDuency. 0luetooth devices can communicate with each other within a 73-foot range.

AD8ANTAGES OF BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY


;liminates need of cable replacement- 8eceiving and sending information using mobile devices becomes practical using 0luetooth technology. he need for lengthy P entangling cables for connectivity is eliminated. 1ata accessing made simple and fast- .ccess to other networks is made simple using 0luetooth technology. :onnecting to the %nternet using your mobile phone can be established using 0luetooth-enabled wirebound-connection. hese kind of connections is mad possible by configuring P connecting to different types of connection through a 0luetooth connection.

Networking E *ast and secure networking is made possible using 0luetooth connectivity vi$, devices can be enabled to automatically exchange information as soon as they are in range of each other. %n the near future almost all mobile devices will be incorporated with 0luetooth technology. he companies in CC%ndia offshore networkCC have the collaboration with the leading telecommunication companies who are the back bone of this technology. 0eing a part of the 0luetooth family makes the companies in %ON :orporation that much more competent and ready for implementing project using this technology. &pecifically , 0luetooth devices communicate by way of standard radio

freDuency incorporated in a software driver and a chip . he chip, which is being added to some @3O of the worldCs new cell phones, can also be added to a desktop or a laptop as a plug in peripheral. .t comdex, the technology is creating a bu$$ because manufactures are in a fren$y to build small, portable devices that will free computer users from their desktop machines. %n shortly the benefit of 0lue ooth echnology is given below.

Fa# e" c(nnec i,i & an0 S)ee0


The Blue Tooth Technology facilitates fast low-power microwave wireless link technology. It is moulded to connect phones, laptops, PDA s and other porta!le e"uipment with less effort. #upport speeds are of $-% &!ps today, !ut are capa!le of offering higher speeds in future.

C(# e$$ec i,e


Blue tooth technology makes use of ine'pensive and small si(ed, modified version of )A* techni"ues. The present manufacturing cost of +%,, is e'pected to fall in the coming years.

M!l i'P(in lin5


-onnections from a !lue tooth device can !e made point-to-point or multi-point. The range of the device can !e raised to $,, meters from $, meters !y using power.

N( line ($ #i*h i# nee0e0


The Blue Tooth technology makes use of invisi!le radio waves .%./ 01( !and2, which creates instantaneous automatic radio link. This eliminates, the use of numerous and inconvenient ca!le attachments.

Sa,e# P(4e"
Blue tooth device utili(es a hold mode consuming 3, micro amps to the active transmitting range of 4-3, milliamps. The radio chip needs, 35 less power used !y standard mo!ile phone .,.3 ma in stand !y mode2. And !ased on traffic volume, the chips automatically shift to low power mode6 there!y saving power. Based on power, the !lue tooth devices are classified as three power class $,,mw, %.7mw, and $mw whose ma'imum outputs are %,dB&, /dB&, and ,dB& respectively.

Uni,e"#al lin5
Blue tooth radio makes its link ro!ust in a noisy radio fre"uency environment through its fast acknowledgment and fre"uency - hopping scheme. Blue tooth needs shorter packets and hops faster. It also offers a glo!al !ridge to the prevailing data networks, a peripheral interface, and a mechanism to form small private ad hocs grouping of connected devices away from the fi'ed network infrastructures.

Sec!"e 0a a an0 #a$e "an#+i##i(n


Blue tooth radio transmissions confirm to safety standards, in matters relating to its effects on human !ody. It does not cause any nuisance to other telecommunication networks or to humans, either. It also guarantees security and authentication !y using $%4-!it key. 1aving understood the long standing success of Blue Tooth Technology, it is upto you to make a decision a!out creating a phenomenal success in your software !usiness ventures.

DISAD8ANTAGES OF BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY

1$

luetooth is ,! its nature not designed to carr! heav! traffic loads$

!.
#$ "$

%t would thus not be a suitable technology for replacing /.N-, W.N- and
-or is it, ,! its nature, suita,le in server+,ased applications$ %he emphasis in luetooth is on mo,ile, re+configura,le computeri.ed units that need

0ackbone cables.

sporadic contact with each other$

FUTURE FOR BLUETOOTH

'ost predication point to a slow roll out of 0luetooth products during !332 and a significant pick up thereafter. :ahners %n &tat sees a global market for 0luetooth chips of F "33m in !332, implying that at least !3m 0luetooth-enabled devices will find buyers. hey predict that 2." billion 0luetooth enabled devices will we shipping annually by !33=. hose numbers are comparable to the predications of the %nternational 1ata :orporation. 0luetooth has a good future ahead because it meets a basis need of connectivity in close proximity , is the result of initiatives of nine leading communications and computer industry vendors including companies like 7-:O' , ;ricsson, /ucent, %0', %ntel, 'icrosoft, Nokia, oshiba etc. &ince the formation of the original group, more than 2@33 manufacturers worldwide have joined the initiative worldwide. .ccording to one market research report, 0luetooth technology is expected to be built in to over 233 millions devices before the end of !33!. .ccording to still another report from market research firm :ahners %n-&tat #roup, there will be over ?43 millions 0luetooth enabled devices worldwide by !33=.

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.s a result of success of W., (Wireless .pplication ,rotocol ) , adoption of smart phones and hand held devices, 0luetooth will have tremendous effects on everyday life. 0luetooth is one of the key technologies that can make the mobile information society possible, blurring the boundaries between home, the office, and the out side world. he seamless connectivity promised by 0luetooth makes it possible to explore a range of interactive and highly transparent personali$ed services which were even difficult to dream of because of the complexity involved in making various devices talk to each other. .lready many 0luetooth pilot product have rolled into the market backed by big vendors, which is very healthy sign for the acceptance of the technology. he support for 0luetooth is not limited to companies developing 0luetooth enabled product only. 0luetooth applications can have far reaching impacts on many other industries as well. 0luetooth technology adoption is expected to be wide spread through out the computer and telecommunication industry. %mplementation of 0luetooth technology is expected to grow the market for personal mobile devices and indirectly increase airtime usage for wireless data. Over the long term, manufacturer will also benefit from the ability to replace multiple connection ports with a single 0luetooth module, gaining economics at the production level . he 0luetooth &%# has define

favourable adoption terms, including open, royalty-free availability of the specification and is playing an important role in spreading the technology.

APPLICATION IN DEFENCE
'any companies have declared that 0luetooth wireless technology will be

incorporated into their products, especially when components becomes cheaper. .pplication for defence related eDuipments have always been of prime importance to

major companies like 'otorola and ;ricsson. *ield of communication has developed in a major way in the defence sectors. he parameter restriction created by the essence of low power transmission and security will slow down the introduction of defence related eDuipment in the market. .rmoured vehicles would be one of the major beneficiaries arising out of the introduction of 0luetooth technology since lack of space due to the presence of large volume of cables and wires would drastically reduce. %f market pundits are to be believed there will be more 0luetooth devices available than one can imagine.

CONCLUSION
0luetooth ,excels at connecting devices irrespective of their location and can even CtalkC through walls. With potential like that, it is no wonder that 0luetooth is set to become the fastest adopted technology in history.

%t is set to revolutioni$e the personal connectivity market by providing freedom from wired connection. %t is a specification that provides radio links between mobile computers, phones and other devices. When this technology is used with communication protocols like #,8& and W.,, mobile data communication will increase dramatically. echnology will eventually sky rocket in to the next millennium. 0y !33", 4=O of all mobile devices will supports 0luetooth. he advantage is that vendors can build it into their devices. With a low cost to consumers 0luetooth seems like a logical answer to wireless communication. he fast hopping scheme to the free freDuency it runs of f of, 0luetooth is a win-win situation for the user. We believe that 0luetooth will revolutioni$e the way business is done today. %f the &%# produces these products Duick enough and markets this technology in the right way, it is believed that expectations of those who are directly correlated with it. %n the future, 0luetooth is likely to be standard in tens or millions of mobile phones, ,:s, laptops and a whole range of other electronic devices. .s a result, the market is going to demand new innovative applications, value added services, end-end solution and much more. he possibilities opened up really are limitless, and because the radio freDuency used is globally available. 0luetooth can offer fast and secure access to wireless connectivity all over the world. With potential like that, it is no wonder that the 0luetooth is become the fastest-adopted technology in the history. 0luetooth will exceed the

ABBRI8IATION
.:/ *;, #8,& %, %0' K K K K K .synchronous :onnection /ess. *orward ;rror :orrection. #eneral 8adio ,ocket &ervice. %nternet ,rotocol. %nternational 0usiness 'achine.

%&' %;;; %r1. /', /!:., ,1. ,.N ,%N ,,, &%# &1, :, W.,

K K K K K K K K K K K K K

%ndustrial &cientific and 'edical. %nstitute of ;lectronic and ;lectrical ;ngineers. %nfrared 1ata .ssociation. /ink 'anagement ,rotocol. /ogical /ink :ontrol and .doption ,rotocol (//:.,). ,ersonal 1igital .ssistant. ,ersonal .rea Network. ,ersonal %dentification Number. ,oint-to-,oint ,rotocol. &pecial %nterest #roup. &ervice 1iscovery ,rotocol. ransport :ontrol ,rotocol. Wireless .pplication ,rotocol.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
2.We3 #i e# 7 a/ Bl!e (( h . c(+ 3/ N(5ia . c(+ c / SIG . c(+ 0/ E"ic##(n . c(+

e/ L!cen . c(+ 6. P!3lica i(n# 7 a/ Bl!e (( h @enni$e" B"a& Cha"le# F S !"+an 3/ C(++!nica i(n En*inee"in* c/ 0/ e/ EME @(!"nal Elec "(nic $(" &(! Bene$i U+e#h Sinha .A!* 699</ . N(, 699=/ . N(, 699=/

Acknowledgement

.cDuiring higher Mualification for growth in ;lectronics field has been one of my long esteemed desires ..t this juncture, when it is becoming possible, We express our gratitude to all those have encouraged and helped us in this endeavor. We take this opportunity to offer our sincere P grateful thanks to our guides HMT D S B(h"a *aculty of ;lectronics, ;';, for their support and guidance whose rich experience and valuable suggestions were of immense help in the successful completion of this self study.

We would also like to thank my colleagues for their guidance in completing this self study successfully. We express my sincere thanks for excellent lab facilities, library and %nternet facilities available at campus.

Hav S. K. Moorthy Hav S N Sahu Hav S.V Jani Hav Shish Pal

Re+a"5# 3& ADS

Re+a"5# 3& DS

Re+a"5# 3& HOD