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Code: 9A03501

1
(Mechanical Engineering)

B.Tech III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14 THERMAL ENGINEERING II Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks
(Steam tables are permitted in the examination hall)

Max Marks: 70

***** 1 (a) (b) What is the effect of reheating of steam on (i) specific power output, (ii) cycle efficiency and (iii) steam rate? A steam power station uses the following cycle. Steam at boiler outlet 150 bar, 550C. Reheat at 40 bar to 550C condenser at 0.1 bar. Assuming ideal processes, estimate the quality of steam at turbine exhaust, cycle efficiency. Sketch and describe a Cochran boiler. What are its special features? What are the essential features of a good boiler? In a propulsion nozzle, gases expand from 400 kPa and 700 K to a back pressure of 99 kPa at the rate of 20 kg/s, coefficient of discharge is 0.98 and nozzle efficiency is 95%. Find the throat and exit areas of the nozzle. For gases, = 1.3 and Cp = 1.10 kJ/kg. Assume that the inlet velocity is negligible. One stage of an impulse turbine consists of a row of nozzles and one row of moving blades. The steam enters the nozzles at a pressure of 15 bar, dry saturated, with a velocity of 130 m/s. The pressure drops along the nozzles to 9 bar. The nozzles have discharge angle of 20 and the steam passes into the blades without shock. If the velocity coefficient for nozzles is 0.9. Determine for maximum efficiency conditions: The blade angles for equiangular blades. The blading efficiency. The stage efficiency. Explain the working of a single-stage reaction turbine. Sketch pressure and velocity variations along the axis of the turbine. Show the expansion on h-s chart. Explain the working of a shell-and-tube type surface condenser. Explain the working of a cooling pond with a diagram. Differentiate between closed cycle and open cycle gas turbine plant. Define effectiveness of a regenerator. For the combustion of 420 kg of petrol, a flying missile has a range of 240 km, an average velocity of 576 km/h and a propulsive force of 2700 N. The maximum temperature rise in the combustion chamber is 815C. The diameter of the discharge nozzle is 30 cm. The altitude of the flight is 610 m, where the atmospheric pressure is 0.944 bar. The calorific value of the fuel is 42,000 kJ/kg. Cp for exhaust gases can be taken as 1.16 kJ/kgK. Calculate: (i) air-fuel ratio. (ii) exhaust gas temperature and their velocity relative to missile. (iii) propulsive efficiency. (iv) overall efficiency of the unit.

2 (a) (b) 3

(a) (b) (c) 5

6 (a) (b) 7 (a) (b) 8

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Code: 9A03501

2
(Mechanical Engineering)

B.Tech III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14 THERMAL ENGINEERING II Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks
(Steam tables are permitted in the examination hall)

Max Marks: 70

***** 1 (a) (b) Why Rankine cycle is preferred for larger power generation? Saturated steam at 18 bar abs. enters the turbine of a steam power plant and expands to a condenser pressure of 0.8 bar. Determine the Rankine efficiency. Define the chimney efficiency and find out expression for the same. Find the height of chimney necessary to produce a draught of 30 mm of water column. The atmospheric air temperature is 217C. Air fuel ratio is 13.5. What will be the power required if induced draught fan is used for producing the above draught? Fuel consumption is1500 kg/hr. Discuss the process of super saturation in steam nozzles with the help of enthalpy-entropy diagram. Define degree of super saturation and degree of under-cooling. Explain in detail the physical significance of abrupt change in Wilsons line. A simple de-Lavel steam turbine nozzle ring is supplied with 200 kg/h of dry steam at 10 bar. The exhaust pressure is 0.6 bar. The nozzle angle is 20 and nozzle efficiency is 85%. The blade outlet angle is 28 and blade speed is 200 m/s. The blade velocity coefficient is 0.78. The power loss due to fan action and disc friction is 1.5 KW. The losses reappear as heat. Calculate: (i) net output at the shaft. (ii) dryness fraction of steam in exhaust passage when speed is small. (iii) the dryness fraction of steam as it leaves the turbine rotor blading. What is nozzle control governing? Why is it not used in reaction turbines? What is 50% reaction? What are the characteristics of 50% reaction? What is the chief function performed by an air pump? Explain briefly with a neat sketch any one of the following: (i) Bucket pump. (ii) Rotary pump. (iii) Wet jet pump. In a constant pressure open-cycle gas turbine, air enters at 1 bar and 20C and leaves the compressor at 5 bar. Using the following data: temperature of gases entering the turbine = 680C; pressure loss in combustion chamber = 0.1 bar; isentropic efficiency of compressor = 85%; isentropic efficiency of turbine = 80%; combustion efficiency = 85%. For air, Cp= 1.024 kJ/kg K, = 1.4. Find:(i) the quantity of air circulation, if plant develops 1065 kW (ii) heat supplied per kg of air circulation (iii) thermal efficiency of cycle. Mass of fuel may be neglected. Explain using a neat sketch, the principle of operation of ram jet engine.

2 (a) (b)

5 (a) (b) 6

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Code: 9A03501

3
(Mechanical Engineering)

B.Tech III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14 THERMAL ENGINEERING II Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks
(Steam tables are permitted in the examination hall)

Max Marks: 70

***** 1 (a) (b) 2 (a) (b) Explain why reheat cycle is not used for low boiler pressures. What are the desirable properties of a fluid for use as working substance in a steam engine plant? What do you understand by the term boiler draught? What are the various types of draughts used in usual practice? How much air is used/kg of coal burnt in a boiler having chimney of 35 m height to create a draught of 20 mm of water, when the temperature of flue gas in the chimney is 370C and the boiler house temperature is 34C. Does this chimney satisfy the condition of maximum discharge? Show that the maximum discharge of fluid per unit are through a nozzle takes place when the ration of the fluid pressure at the throat to the inlet pressure is (2/n + 1)n/(n-1) where n is the index of adiabatic expansion. In an impulse turbine, the steam issues from the nozzle with a speed of 600 m/s and blade speed is 120 m/s. The velocity is compounded by passing the steam through a ring of moving blades, through a ring of fixed blades and finally through a ring of moving blades. The nozzle angle is 18 and the blade exit angles and relative velocity coefficients are the following: Blades Exit angle Velocity coefficient First row moving blades 20 0.8 Fixed-row blades 25 0.85 Second-row moving blades 30 0.9 Find the diagram efficiency under these conditions and power output for steam flow rate of 5 kg/s. What would be the maximum possible diagram efficiency for given steam inlet velocity and nozzle angle? Give a comparison between impulse turbine and reaction turbine. What is by-pass governing? Compare it with throttle governing. Differentiate between low-level and high-level jet condensers. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a high-level jet condenser? The air enters the compressor of an open cycle constant pressure gas turbine at a pressure of 1 bar and temperature of 20C. The pressure of the air after compression is 4 bar. The isentropic efficiencies of compressor and turbine are 80% and 85% respectively. The air-fuel ratio used is 90:1. If flow rate of air is 3 kg/s. Find: (i) power developed (ii) thermal efficiency of the cycle. A turbo-jet engine consumes air at the rate of 60.2 kg/s when flying at a speed of 1000 km/h. Calculate: (i) exit velocity of the jet when the enthalpy change for the nozzle is 230 kJ/kg and velocity coefficient is 0.96. (ii) fuel flow rate is kg/s when air-fuel ratio is 70:1 (iii) thrust specific fuel consumption (iv) thermal efficiency of the plant when the combustion efficiency is 92% and calorific value of fuel used is 42000 kJ/kg.

5 (a) (b) 6 (a) (b) 7

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Code: 9A03501

4
(Mechanical Engineering)

B.Tech III Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14 THERMAL ENGINEERING II Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks
(Steam tables are permitted in the examination hall)

Max Marks: 70

***** 1 Superheated steam at 10 bar absolute and 300C admitted into the cylinder of steam engine expands isentropically to a pressure of 0.7 bar. The pressure then falls at constant volume to a back pressure of 0.28 bar. Determine (i) modified Rankine efficiency (ii) steam consumption per kWh (iii) mean effective pressure (iv) heat removed in the condenser per kg of steam (v) loss of work due to incomplete expansion (vi) if the cylinder diameter and strokes are 30 cm and 58 cm respectively. What would be the new stroke if the steam is allowed to expand without any restriction upto the condenser pressure? What is the use of preheater in high pressure boiler? Explain the working of a economiser with a neat sketch. Steam at a pressure of 10 bar and 0.9 dry discharges through nozzle having throat area of 450 mm2. If the back pressure is 1 bar. Find (i) final velocity of the steam (ii) cross-sectional area of the nozzle at exit for maximum discharge. Explain with the help of a neat sketch a single-stage impulse turbine. Also explain the pressure and velocity variations along the axial direction. A reaction turbine has drum diameter of 2.15 m at a speed of 750 rpm with 14.5 kg/s of steam consumption. The height of the blade at a certain location is 0.16 m while the discharging angle is 25. The pressure at this place is 4 bar and dryness fraction is 0.97. Estimate the power developed in the particular ring by assuming the turbine efficiency of 75%. Also find the heat drop while the steam passing over the pair of blades. The following data relate to a two-pass surface condenser: Steam condensed = 1540 kg/h Temperature of cooling water when it enters the condenser = 15C Temperature of cooling water when it leaves the condenser = 30C Vacuum in the condenser = 675 mm of Hg Barometer reading = 750 mm of Hg Temperature of the condensate = 32C Quality of exhaust steam = 0.92 Water velocity in the tubes = 2.6 m/s, Outside diameter of tubes = 2.8 cm Thickness of tubes = 0.03 cm, Heat transfer coefficient = 3.35 kJ/h/cm2/C. Determine: (i) area of the tube surface required (ii) no. of tubes (iii) length of tubes Explain with a sketch the working of a constant pressure open cycle gas turbine. In what way the actual cycle differs from the theoretical cycle? What is meant by jet propulsion system? Derive efficiency of a diffuser. Show it on h-s plot.

2 (a) (b) 3

8 (a) (b)

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