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Re: i m searching for steel or rebar weight/meter (d)2/162 this is correct but why used here 162 Answer

7850 kg/m3 * # 1 pi/4*(d/1000)^2 = W = weight/meter W = d^2 *{7850*pi/(4*1000^2)} W = d^2 *(1/162.19) Re: How foundation is designed, Column design and beam design Answer fonndation to be # 1 designed according to the total weight of the structures regarding to the safe bearing capacity of soil. column te be designed as per vertical load on the column.this load should be calculated over the column according to the tk of slab,dl,ld,imposed load,impact load such as square area covered by the spacing or span between the columns. beam is designed by this horizondal member load acting at the mid span. design is the vast sylabus.this answer is being basicaly Re: how must steel will use for 1 cubic meter.formula of steel for beam,column,lantern. Answer for columns 2-3% # 3 for slabs 0.5-1.5% for beams 1-1.5% for piles 2-5% Re: how must steel will use for 1 cubic meter.formula of steel for beam,column,lantern.

Answer Generally we are consider # 5 100kgs steel per cum of concrete for calculation which will give the rough quantity of steel required for project. Re: What height of a 3.5 m high 300 x300 mm proposed col. can be casted at a time ? Answer you can cast up to 4 mts of column if # 6 you have reqd supporting system for the same. As for the IS you cannot pour concrete more than 1.5 mts as segregation and self compaction takes place. For the columns you there is no issue as the concrete doesn't drop to the bottom at once. it is interrupted by stirrups all the way. This is based in practical experience and we have got it right. Secondly nowadays there is Mivan Shuttering where you cast the entire slab and column at one stroke. Keep moving with new technology, you will save time and the quality will be better if the mix is homogeneous lesser joints Re: what is steel consumption for high rise building column, beam, slab,footing Answer Based on experience the Consuption for a # 1 Building of 10-15 Storey : Beams 125-140 Kg per cu.m of Concrete Slabs 80-100 Kg per cu.m of Concrete Columns 350-400 kg per cu.m of concrete Footings100-125 Kg per cu.m In general for a Eartquake Resistant Str in Zone 3/4 the steel consumption can vary between 6.5 to 7.5 Kg per sq.feet of Constructed area Re: what are the advantages and disadvantages of using bentonite slurry in bored cast in situ piles, both in terms of design and execution point of view. Answer I think Bentonite slurry used in piles to prevent # 1 seepage and collapse of earth. Advantage of bentonite slurry

1. High viscosity 2. low solids 3. suspended cutting 4. stability of bor holes DisadvantageRetrads setting. the gel strength and viscosity properties of the benonite clay allow for cutting suspension and removal. thus advantage of benonite clay become a disadvantage in the setting of small cutting and sandy surface. 2. it is high swelling clay. the use of benonite clay alone will not be sufficient to prevent hydration and swelling formation. Re: what is plum & mass concrete? Answer In this concrete mix used with plums(large stones) # 2 mixed with concrete. it is used in gravity dams, embankments and below the structures Re: what is plum & mass concrete? Answer plum concrete is usually done where the surface is # 3 uneven and to minimise the costing of concrete.for eg. below footings of residencial bldgs where in a small portion where the slope of ground below single footing is 1:10 to 1:50 in that case to save the cost of concrete plum is usually preffered.This finally leads to minimise the construction cost of building in all. Re: what is the difference between built-up area & carpet area? how to calculate this areas?as there are any formula to calculate these areas? Answer built up area = plinth area. # 2 Area required for building the structure. In short, built-up area = carpet area + area of walls. Carpet area = Usable floor area. Try to find out the area of carpet if you can actually provide a carpet in the built structure Re: HOW TO FIND OUT THE QUANTITY OF STEEL FE415 Answer Sq.of the dia of the bar by 162 x length of the bar then # 2 unit will in kgs it should be Dia of the bar is in mm Length of the bar is in m then only Quantity of steel in kgs

Re: How you will differentiate in field between grade43 and grade53 catagory cement? Answer Grade given here is not the compressive strength but # 6 it is the fineness of the cement.53 grade would be more finer than the 43 grade. so 53 grade cement would generate more heat of hyderation developing strength at rapid rate ,however the final strength of both the grade wiil be same and to be identified with finess only . Re: In case of columns the cover is from main steel or from stirrup & which is the IS code mentioned in it? Answer from main steel and it is mentioned in IS 456-2000 #2
Re: what is difference between fe 415 and fe 500 Answer fe is called ferros it is steel #1 415,500 is the yield stength of the bar so these both defference is only the strength. Re: what is difference between fe 415 and fe 500 Answer max strain in fe415 is 0.0038N/mm2 # 3 max strain in fe500 is 0.0042N/mm2 Re: what is the minimum and maximum water cement ratio Answer .4 to .6 #1 Re: what is anchorage? Why anchoring of reinforcing bars necessary and what are the shapes ? Answer Anchoring of reinforcing bars is necessary when the # 1 development length of the reinforcement is larger than the structure. Anchorage is used so that the steel's intended tension load can be reached and pop-outs will not occur. Anchorage shapes can take the form of 180 or 90 degree hooks. Re: how many days we should curing for plastering,brickwork,concrete?

Answer Any cement based products or structures the minimum # 2 curing period is 7 and maximum 28 days for concrete unless otherwise you are using any curing compound Re: how to calculate cutting length of stirrups bar in beam Answer C=((B-COVER)+(D-COVER))*2+18*d-2*d*NO OF # 6 CORNER's 90 DEGREE BEND WHERE, B= BREADTH OF RECTANGULAR BEAM D= DEPTH OF RECTANGULAR BEAM d= DIA OF BAR Re: how to calculate cutting length of stirrups bar in beam Answer Total lenth - 2*dia of bar*No.of bends #3 Re: What is the Specific gravity of cement?Water? Answer Specific gravity of cement is 3.15 # 4 Specific gravity of water is 1.0 Re: what is tensile strength of {6,8,10,12,16,20}mm dia bar? also there were any formula? Answer The tensile strength is a material property. So it will be # 1 same for all diameters. The tensile strength has to be determined in the laboratory by doing a tension test. Re: What is logic behind the use of Steel bar insted of gold bar? Answer The co-efficient of thermal expansion of steel is almost # 4 equal to concrete. so steel is the suitable material for reinforcement Re: What is logic behind the use of Steel bar insted of gold bar? Answer BECAUSE STEEL HAS HIGH TENSILE STRENGTH # 8 THAN GOLD...AND IT IS MORE STRONG IN TENSION....AND IT IS GOOD CONDUCTOR OF HEAT AND ELECTRICITY....

Re: How foundation is designed, Column design and beam design Answer fonndation to be designed according to the total weight of # 1 the structures regarding to the safe bearing capacity of soil.column te be designed as per vertical load on the column.this load should be calculated over the column according to the tk of slab,dl,ld,imposed load,impact load such as square area covered by the spacing or span between the columns. beam is designed by this horizondal member load acting at the mid span Re: how do we calculate wastage of steel in the site,what r the items to taken into account for wastage calculation? Answer Wastage= Actual consumed-Theoretical consumption #4 % Wastage=(Actual consumed-Theoretical consumption)x100/Actual consumed

Actual Consumed= Total issue- (Stock at site+ Scrap) Total Issue = (Total qty Received from Market+received from other sites-Total qty dispatched to other sites)(+/-)rolling margin Re: The Hinged and Roller support is same or differnt if it is differnt how does it differs Answer Hinge Supports are restrained to Horizontal and Vertical # 2 Movements but they are free to Rotate. hence in a hinged support we get Horizontal and Vertical Reactions but no moment. Roller Support are restrained to only with Vertical Movements and hence we get only a Vertical Reaction. The Horizontal Reaction and Moment is zero. Simple Example for roller support is a book lying on a table. is free to move across the length and bredth of the table and is free to rotate also. but vertical movement is not possible. Eg. for Hinge Support is the Door. we cannot move the

door Vertically or horizontally but it can rotate, making it to open and close Re: HOw to find the depth of foundation? Answer BASICALLY DEPTH OF FOUNDATION IS ALWAYS # 1 DECIDED BY TYPE OF FOUNDATION.IF IT IS SIMPLE SPREAD FOUNDATION THE DEPTH IS 0.9-1.0 AS PER THUMB RULE,IN CASE OF PILE FOUNDATION IF FRICTION PILES ARE PROVIDED 2 MT DEPTH IS SUFFICENT WHILE IF LOAD BEARING PILES ARE PROVIDED U HAVE TO GO DEEP UNTIL A LOAD BEARING HARD STRAUTA IS NOT OBTAINED USUALLY IN RIVERS.IN CASE OF RAFT FOUNDATION ,I THINK LOAD BEARING AREA OF RAFT MATTERS. Re: what is the allowable silt % in river sand for Dam concreting. Answer AS PER IS CODE, IT IS 3% ,BUT CONSIDERING THE # 2 COMPULSION TO USE THE AVAILABLE RIVER SAND IN THE NEAR BY, THIS LIMIT CAN BE INCREASED UP TO 5% ,IF ADVERSE EFFECT IS NOT OBSERVED ON THE STRENGTH OF CONCRET CUBES TESTED BY CONDUCTING TRIAL MIX TEST IN LABORATORY,IT IS UP TO THE DESCRETION OF ENGINEER IN-CHARGE TO AMEND THE LIMITS GIVING DUE WEIGHTAGE TO ALL THE FACTORS AS MENTIONED. Re: What is the basis of choice for cement sand plaster in ratio 1:4 and 1:6 on interior walls of a residential apartment. Answer As you know that 1:4 is rich mortor behalf of 1;6, because # 2 1:4 has 1 part of cemet and 4 part of sand, and in 1:6 has 1 part of cemet and 6 part of sand, so same cement contant but more sand shown that the fine partical more. so when fine parical more it wants more water, and if we add more water in same cement contant the strength will reduce. so

in between 1:4 and 1:6, 1:4 is more power full, instred of 1:6. now interior wall and Outer wall, outer wall is facing more climate effect, like rain wind etc. so we use rich morter in outer wall. Re: How many modular bricks are required for 1 cubic meter of brick masonry? Answer 1/(0.2 x 0.1 x 0.1) # 1 =500 th of modular brick Re: what is the least-count of plane- table,dumpy,theodolite,compass,tachometer? Answer dumpy levey: least count 5mm as it is based on staff # 1 reading thats why least count is 5mm. theodolite: least count is 20" compass: least count is 30' Re: what is porosity?? Answer * Porosity is used to indicate the degeree by which the # 3 volume of a material is occupied by pores. * The ratio of volume of voids to the total volume of the specimen. Re: What is specific gravity & how it is calculated Answer It is the density of solid w.r.t density of # 1 water. Sp. gravity of solid = (weight of solid -Entraped air)/ volume of given solid. Re: how much lenth of a bar increase when it bends at 90 degree. Answer each 90' bend increase # 1 2*dia of bar Re: Any body tell me how can we calculate 1m3 quantity of cement sand aggregrate in kg. Answer Example : concrete 1:2:4 Coarse aggregate =95% of volume =0.95 cum.

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Fine aggregate = 50 % of coarse aggregate =0.475 cum. Cement = 50 % of Fine aggregate =0.2375 cum. =0.2375 * 1440 kg./ cum =342 kg

Re: give an example for cantilever structure Answer sunshade is an example for cantilever structure #3 Re: IN SITE HOW WE CAN IDENTIFY ONE WAY SLAB AND TWO WAY SLAB? Answer For easy identification without calculation,In oneway slab # 7 main reinforcement provided in the shorter direction and distribution will be longer side.In two way slab Both side main reinforcement will be there and mainbar also act as a distribution bar Re: Which Cement is good for concrete, Is that grade 33, 43 or 53? Answer OPC 53. #6 Used in RCC and pre-stressed concrete of higher grades, cement grouts, instant plugging mortars etc. where initial higher strength is the criteria Re: From which end do you start deshuttering in a) cantilever portion b) simply supported portion Answer a) cantilever portion: deshuttering from fixed end to free # 1 end b) simply supported: deshuttering from both supported ends to centre Re: Bitumen grades are 30-40,60-70, 80-100. what is mean by 30- 40 Answer the rage 30-40 means the bitumen has having grades # 7 between these two valus and and it is determined by average peneteration value of the test which conducted by the instrument called penetrometer.lower is penetration and higher is viscosity.at 25deg cent

Re: What is the accepted silt content in sand for concreting purpose by volume method? Answer 3% by weight and 5% by volume.....as per IS-383-1978, # 9 and IS-2386-part-3 Re: what is the basic difference between a singly reinforce section & a doubly reinforce section? Answer Singly reinforced section; # 5 Steel at bottom of section to take TENSION force. Doubly reinforced section; Steel is provided at top & bottom zone i.e (Tension & Compression zone resp.)

Reason: Steel provided in top zone reduces cross sectional dimension, section is safe against REVERSAL moment Re: what is the basic difference between a singly reinforce section & a doubly reinforce section? Answer The difference between a singly and doubly reinforced # 8 beam is that, in singly reinforced beam the reinforcement is provided in tension zone only.But in some cases concrete may not be able to withstand the compressive forces acting on it and if applied bending moment is more than the moment of resistance than reinforcement is provided in compression zone also, which means doubly reinforced. Hence in doubly reinforced beam, reinforcement is provided in both tension and compression zone. Re: why reinforcement is not provided at centre for beams r column Answer MAIN PURPOSE OF REINFORCEMENT IN BEAMS IS # 3 TO RESIST TENSION IN THE LOWER FIBRES BELOW THE NEUTRAL AXIS.

AS THE TENSILE STRESS IS 0 AT THE CENTRE AND INCREASES LINEARLY TO THE BOTTOM FIBRE WHICH INDICATES THAT MAX TENSILE STRESS IS AT THE EXTREME FIBRES SO REINFORCEMENT IS NOT PROVIDED AT THE CENTRE Re: among the strectcher, header, english and flemish bond which has greater strength? where these bonds are preferred????? Answer English bond is, upon the whole, to be preferred to Flemish # 1 bond for strength, as it contains a larger proportion of headers. The only advantage claimed for Flemish bond is its appearance, which is preferred by many, and has led to its use in brick buildings of a superior class. In 9-inch walls a better face can be shown on both sides by Flemish than by English bond, as the unequal length of headers causes a rough face when there are many of them. In walls of 1 1/2 brick in thickness the strength is not so much impaired by using Flemish bond, as it is in thicker walls. Re: purpose of binding wire in RCC. Answer To resist SHEAR FORCE, To Hold the MAIN BAR in # 4 proper position, toresist the buristing of Column & Beam Re: how calculate the ms beam weight?Please give me formula details? Answer For find out the wt of # 3 ms beam this formula can be used-(c/s area of beam*length of beam*7850)kg ok Re: whats the difference between young's modulus,stress and pressure.they have same unit Answer yes, all of 3 have same unit (N/mm2)

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1) Young's modulus is the property of material which is the ratio of stress to strain within proportional limit. E = stress/strain (N/mm2) 2) stress is the property of material which is the force of resistance per unit area offered by a body against deformation. Stress = Load/Area (N/mm2) 3) Pressure is the force per unit area. Pressure = Force/Area (N/mm2)

Re: qube strenth in 7nth days test Answer two thirds of desired stength #2 Re: what do you mean by punching shear? Answer 1.you can see clear view of slab and intermediate column # 1 joint after de shuttering, it is the right place to explain punching shear, you know how the slab self load acts, towards the gravity (downwards) at the same time the column located below the slab holds and punch upward this is where the puching shear occurs(the surrounding small area of slab around the column)that's y u can see top and bottom cross rods arround that junction Re: what is the difference between rise and tread? what is its standered size? what is waist slab?what is the standered length of staire-case? also what is the angle between floor and landing? Answer Here in the staire case RISE or RISER means short # 2 vertical portion of the step and TREAD means the short horizintal portion where we put or feet. The standards of the RISE is 15 cm or 6" and that of TREAD is 30 cm or 12". Waist slab means the supporting slab for all the steps which is usually 10 cm (4") to 15 cm (6") thickness. And lastly the angle between the floor and the landing should be 22.5 degrees to get the standard size of the steps otherwide we

have to increase or decrease the riser or tread. Re: WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN "WORKING STRESS METHOD" AND "LIMIT STATE METHOD"? Answer In working stress,Stresses in an element is # 8 obtained from the working loads and compared with permissible stresses.The method follows linear stressstrain behavior of both the materials.Material capabilities are under estimated to large extent.moreover Ultimate load carrying capacity cannot be predicted accurately. Whereas in limit state method, stresses are obtained from design loads and compared with design strength.In this method, it follows linear strain relationship but not linear stress relationship (one of the major difference between the two methods of design).The ultimate stresses of materials itself are used as allowable stresses.The material capabilities are not under estimated as much as they are in working stress method. Partial safety factors are used in limit state method. Re: what should be the minimum diameter of chairs in renforced concrete slab or raft roundation? Answer That should be not less than 10 m m #2 Re: where lap is provided in colom? Answer As per I.S. 13920 Vertical bars of Columns shall be lapped # 1 in regular zone (Mid-height ) only and it should be staggered i.e. not more than 50% of bar can be lapped at one section. In addition to that minimum clear vertical distance between lapped bars shall be 0.25 times lap length. Re: stub column means Answer Stub column is one which does not hav footing & Pedestal # 2 support(Reinforcement), which is rises from Beams or Slabs for upper levels... and also know as floating Columns

Re: WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AUTO & DUMPY LEVEL Answer Auto Level & Dumpy level are the types of levelling # 6 instruments. Dumpy level is the older version, in which the staff is visible in riverse direction. Where as the auto level is newer version of Dumpy level in which the staff Reading is visible normally. Re: a simple instrument used for the measurement of colour in water is called Answer tintometer #3 Re: Is there a way to know the aprox shuttering qty if vol of concrete is known? any thumb rule? Answer Generally for high rise building shuttering is taken as 3.5 # 1 times of floor area but in case where there are Post tension slab the ratio is taken as 3 Re: limit value of bulking of sand Answer it is 5% of total value #1 Re: why we are doing post tensioning in beams and slabs. it is economical compare to rcc? how? Answer Post tensioning in RCC is done to achieve more space by # 2 reducing beam depths and increasing column spacing. this helps in creating a hall or a large space workshop etc without any column in between. P.T. is no where cheaper than RCC rather P.T. is a costlier way of construction but still it is preferred to achieve more space or else increasing the span (as if in Bridges). Re: why we are doing post tensioning in beams and slabs. it is economical compare to rcc? how? Answer Dear Friend, #1 It is very economical as compared to RCC.

1.) Early Post-Tensioning allows the formwork to be stripped and re-deployed quickly. Significant saving on material, up to 30% on concrete alone with longer spans, fewer columns & thinner slabs producing lighter overall structure and reducing foundation cost. 2.) Joint free ground slabs up to 10000 mイ and true & level floor ideal for automated ware housing and super markets. 3.) A facility to span over poor ground conditions with full resistance to mining subsidence. 3.) Water proof floors to eliminate unsightly staining of concrete fascias. Thinner slabs give more head room. 4.) Flexibility- Internal layout flexibility is greatly increased, making it much easier to place or reposition partitions with formwork stripping and redeploying quickly and with less steel & concrete construction work is faster than R.C.C. construction. 5.) Spans up to 50% longer than those using RCC can be constructed with fewer support columns. 6.) Offers resistance to cracking and water seepage due to limited deflection and highly compressive characteristics of prestressed concrete structure. 7.) In Post Tensioned slabs, slab is always tested for stresses that are supposed to be come on slab. 8.) Thinner Slabs post tensioned slabs of thin concrete plates may be used to reduce storey height in multistory buildings. Re: how is shear resisted in a structure? Answer shear is resisted by providing shear reinforcements called # 2 stirrups. even if the section is safe in shear, nominal shear reinforcements are provided as per IS 456:2000. Re: what is specific gravity of soil?

Answer Specific gravity is defined as the ratio of the unit weight # 7 of soil solids to unit weight of water. The Specific Gravity is needed for various calculations purposes in Soil Mechanics, e.g. void ratio, density and unit weight. For Sandy soil, i.e. soils mostly made of quartz, Specific Gravity can be accurately estimated to be about 2.65, whereas for silty and clayey soils, it may vary from 2.6 to 2.9. Re: WHY DO WE PROVIDE DEVELOPEMENT LENGTH AND EXTRA BARS AT TOP Answer Development length is provided for ancorage stress or to # 2 provide anchorage length (bonding stress)of steel in concrete.steel bars are provided as per failure pattern of the structure if steel is not present to take tension.At ends /supports due to fixity negative moment is developed which is resisted my steel at top. the top extra length should exceed the inflection point between negative and posetive moment. Re: corrosion of reinforcement bars due to chloride attack and its equation Answer Corrosion is the oxidation of a metal in a normal # 1 atmospheric condition owing to the excessive presence of moisture and oxygen in the air. Corrosion of the metal is a very natural and rapid phenomenon in areas of high humidity, places close to the sea or in the presence of saline water. Gaseous emissions in industrial area also cause corrosion of the metal. Chloride Attack Chloride causes de-passivation of steel, leading to corrosion. Re: how many cement bag in 1m*m*m Answer .0354 m3 is equivalent to one bag of cement (50kgs) # 7 For one m3, dry weight of cement in kgs = 1440. So that in bags it is = 28.8 bags(1 bag=50kgs) Re: what is the spacing required for chairs for reinforcing in raft footing. Answer As per IS 456:2000, the maximum spacing chair is

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1m and closer may spacing as per recquired

Re: How to increse bearing capacity in soils (Stabilisation of soils) Answer U can increase it by good compaction, the problem shows # 7 up when excess water added to the soil, coz over saturated soil loses weight and some of its key ingredients, specially Silica. So, u should add the OWC = optimum water content; which u get it from Proctor test. However; adding cementious materials improves the Strength of he soil. but usually in Pavement Construction, Compaction is no# 1 solution, but if fails then replacing the existing soil with Rock Fill will be the solution. By the way, u can use pile foundation in such cases. Re: How to increse bearing capacity in soils (Stabilisation of soils) Answer By consolidation, compaction, injecting cement slury, # 1 injecting bitumin in soil. Re: wat is meant by aerocon bricks? Answer Suitable for both load bearing non load bearing walls #4 Ideal for multi-storeyed buildings Most suitable for air-conditioned buildings Suitable for all fire-rated application Outstanding advantages 1. Light-weight 1/3rd the density of clay bricks Ideal material for additional floors in existing buildings Economic design: Saving in cement steel

Enables faster construction Suitable for low-soil bearing capacity & seismic zones Facilitates construction of unplanned tills anywhere anytime Re: how do we calculate quantity of cement , sand and aggregates in 1 m3 of M30 grade concrete ? Answer M30- cement=1/4*1.54=0.385*28.8=11bags # 3 sand-0.385*1=0.385cum agregate 0.385*2=0.77cum Notes;why we multiply by 1.54 dry dencity=1.54*wet denciti in conct.work Re: difference between MS rod & TMT rod? Answer MS(Mild Steel) bars have low tensile strength bars, and # 3 are generally preferred for lighter loads, whereas TMT (Thermo Mechanically Treated ) bars have high tensile strength and are preferred for important structures with heavy loads Re: where you provide overlap on column? Answer Column laps should not be provided within confining zone. # 4 Confining area is 500mm above floor and 500mm below beam bottom. Re: where you provide overlap on column? Answer h/3 above floor & h/3 below slab. # 5 ex- if h=4mtr. then 1.33 above floor & 1.33 below slab. Re: How we decide the the load combinations for design of RCC structures? Answer your questuion is how to decide the load # 3 combinations................load combinations mainly depends on the site. in general dl+ll is common for all types of structures.eartquake loads are considered the site is in earthquake zone.if the site on high altitudes where

the wind pressure acts wind loads are to be added.in all tha cases dl+ll is common and the rest depends on the site conditions......... Re: Dear sir, What is the procedure for total station?How to calculate? Answer TOTAL STATION IS AN INSTRUMENT TO DO SURVEY # 1 WITH CO-ORDINATES. TOTAL STATION USES FOR GRID MARKING , LEVEL MARKING, BASICALLY IT IS A SURVEY INSTRUMENT ABOVE THE THEOD & LEVELING INSTRUMENT Re: why 1.25 factor is to be multiplied to cylindrical strength of concrete while getting the equvalent cubical strength of concrete? Answer 1.standard cube has a ht/width ratio of 1 and std cyl has # 3 the same ratio of 2 . cube registers a higher compressive str than cyl which is approx 1.25 times more hense the multiplications . Re: How to findout safe bearing capacity after stabilization of soil by method of the confinde method. Answer plate load test #1 Re: At which place Construction joint should provide in slab and Beam at the time of casting. Answer L/3 of span. #1 Re: Can anyone tell me the thumb rule for calculating structural steel quantity? Answer App. steel quantities for Steel multi storey buildings may # 1 be assumed as below: 3-4 storey building- 35-40 kg/m^2 6-8 storey building 40-50 kg/m^2 The dead weight of truss,inclusive of bracings may be assumed as about 10% of the weight it is going to support. Formula for app. weight of truss is(when LL less than 2 kN/m^2) w = 53.7 + 0.53 A

where A is the area of one bay. Re: what is the meaning of TMT Bar and what is benifit of these Bars? Answer TMT means Thermo Mechanically Treated. These bars # 1 have the better characterisation like Yield strength,Ductility and Bendability. Re: How the reconcilation of the steel can be done? Answer It is the ratio of the materials supplied by the client and # 3 consumed by the contractors. Eg:- Client: Steel 40 tons Contractors: Consumed 35 tons Should have to show other 5 tons on site or used for what purpose, that is reconciliation. Re: how will i find leakage in underground? Answer just pouring water on the underground floor will let u know # 1 if there is any leakage there With Leakage in underground bubbles will start rising from the water. Re: what is the significance of bending moment in a structure? Answer the points where bending moments are maximum are # 2 points of maximum stress , therfore these points require more reinforcement with steel to counter the stresses . Whereas at points where stresses are less , curtailment of steel can be done . Re: What are the deshuttering time for Salb Beam Column RCC Wall Footing Staircase Answer For columns, walls, vertical form works : 16-24 hrs # 3 Soffit formwork to slabs : 3 days (props to be refixed after removal)

Soffit to beams props : 7 days props to refix after removal. Spanning up to 4.50m : 7 days Spanning over 4.50m : 14 days Staircase : 5 days Footing : 16-24 hours Re: What is minimum tensile strength required for structural steel works ? Answer 200 kn/mm2 #1 Re: what happened if the diameter of capillary tube is double then the capillary rise will be Answer LESS #1 Re: state the functional requirement of a retaining wall Answer A retaining wall is a structure that holds back soil or # 3 rock from a building, structure or area. Retaining walls prevent downslope movement or erosion and provide support for vertical or near-vertical grade changes. Cofferdams and bulkheads, structures that hold back water, are sometimes also considered retaining walls Re: In case of a beam ,main steel is provided along the longer span because, bending moment is directly proportional to length but why in case of one way slab main steel is provided along shorter span while as bending takes place along longer span?comment Answer to avoid cofusion provide reinforcement in direction # 7 perpendicular to flexural crack. in case of slab---- yield line is parellel to longer span, hence reinforcement is provided parellel to shorter span.

in case of beam flexural crack occures parallel to cross section ( not parallel to length of the beam). hence reinfocement is provided horizontally parralel to length.

Re: how much length will be deducted when a reinforcement steel bending? Answer (2xDia. of bar) deducted for 90 bend #2 Re: what is the difference between arch dam and gravity dam. Name a gravity dam in India Answer In acrh dam the load is distributed on both the side of # 1 dam as well as load is transfered in circular form on the ground. where as in gravity dam load is transfered strait to the ground. and kakrapar dam on river tapi is the exampal of the gravity dam. Re: how the sand fail? Answer In shear as well for quick sand condition. #2 Re: what"s the minimum content cement allowed in RCC? Answer 410kg m40 # 7 350kg m30 320kg m20 300kg m15 180kg m10 Re: what is the functional requirement of cement plaster in RCC members & masonry?? Is it Manditory to do plastering on all RCC members(beams, Columns, Slabs)? in what places plasterring could be kept as an optional one??? Answer 1.For Architectural work(neat & good appearance), # 1 weathering coarse etc. 2.Not required. 3.Above falls ceiling, industril structure ,coar wall,stair wall, techinicl galary, pump room , all service rooms etc (cost controle can also be done). Re: why we are using 190x90x90 mm of brick size? Answer we are using standard size of brick 19*9*9cm # 2 because as we know mortar should be 10mm so that with mortar size brick should be 20*10*10cm which is easy for calculating No. of bricks in

structure......... Re: WHATS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN UNIAXIAL COLUMN & BIAXIAL COLUMN GIVE EXAMPLE? Answer The column having axial load acted in such a way that, # 1 1.It is eccentric about one axisof the plane column then it is called uniaxial column. 2.If the load is eccentric about both the axes in the plane of column then it is called biaxial column Re: What are the functions of grout inside tendon ducts? Answer 1.to avoid the hogging # 2 2.to avoid the lateral , longitudinal buckling 3.to prevent from corrosion, slip of tendon 4.for maintain the tension in tendon 5.to increase the friction force between tendons and ducts to maintain the tension fore .. if friction fore reduced some time tendon will go back original position which means no fore in tendon it leads structural failure ..it will not take load.. etc Re: castigliano's theorems are based on Answer Castigliano's theorem is exactly based on strain energy # 3 principle ,which gives the deflection & load acted ata point . From castigliano's 1st theorem ...., we can get the deflection at a point of the body, by getting derivative of strain energy wrt. the load acted at that point. From castigliano's 2nd theorem ...., we can get the load at a point by getting the derivative of total strain energy wrt. the deflection at that point. There are 5 zones in india 1) Zone 2 is least or no danger 2) Zone 3 is little danger 3) Zone 4 is medium danger 4) Zone 5 is danger zone 5) Zone 6 very dangerious Mostly zone 6 is near himalaya region & they got from Fault

plate location around the countries. They based on tectonic behavior of plates. Re: how to do connection between steel beam (I-Section) with R.C.C column?? Answer welding and insert plate and bolting method #2 Re: How calculate Load Bearing Capacity of Soil? Answer #2 plateload test is performed for load bearing capacity of soil.

Re: why we are placing the beam under the plinth wall? Answer #1 Look beams are the dstributing load to the column. it united the columns. it take loads of wall, slab and distribute to column.

Re: why breadth of beam is shorter than (or equal to )its depth? Answer #4 To resist a given bending moment and also to keep deflections small, it has been stated that the deepest beam is the most suitable. If, however, the depth is made too great in proportion to the breadth, the beam may buckle sideways due

to a column effect as the result of compressive stresses in the top fibres. Re: Why shear forces are usually neglected in column design? Answer #1 Because column is the compression member

Re: what is the thickness mortar between two bricks Answer #2 According to morth it should be less than equal to 12mm. (RPPL)

Re: which concrete grade has highest strenth and what is its comosition? Answer #9 when the grade of concrete is more mix proportion becomes less nd the strength can be increased.m80 is the highest strength concrete but in india only up to m40 grade concrete is used. but in foreign country m120 grade concretes are also used for heavy structure

Re: What is yield strength of steel? Answer #2 Maximum load that the steel can tolerate without the onset of Plastic deformation.

Re: What type of foundation preferred in sandy soil ? Answer #2 pile or raft

Re: Water absorption for stone and first class stone bricks? Answer #1 Absorption value of stone is less then .5% and for stone bricks also same. Normal first class clay bricks water

absorption should not more than 20%. for Flyash bricks water absorption is between 8 to 12%. Re: which one is strong? field weld or shop weld? Answer #5 no definitely shop weld is more efficient than feild weld because factor of saftey for shop weld is 1.25 and for field weld is 1.5 so depending upon the factor of saftey we will calculate the load carriying capacity of the paticular member so that the load carriying capacity for shop weld is comparitively more than field weld .

Re: what is pile foundation? Answer #2 pile foundations are one of the types of deep foundations. they are used in case soft/silty/clayey type of soils. As in such case of soils going for normal foundations may not be possible either from economical point of view or may not be possible at all in case u want to construct near seashore etc., these are the foundations which transfer load to greater depths, where there is strong strata / load reaching that point is minimal. these are pipe shaped, we have different types of pile foundations.

Re: What is called dummy column, & what its uses ? Answer #1 A column constructed for site ease purpose. It may not considered in the design phase or A column designed in not

to take any load at the end of construction it will take load during construction only. In some cases it will be removed after completion of main structure. Re: How to calculate crank length? How to calculate hook length? Answer #5 .3l l-The total length of slab

Re: Minimum spacing of 2- bars in column, beam, slab Answer #3 Minimum Distance Between Individual Bars main reinforcing bars shall usually be notless than the greatest of the following: The following shall apply for spacing of bars: a)The horizontal distance between two parallel Minimum Distance Between Individual Bars main reinforcing bars shall usually be notless than the greatest of the following:

1. The diameter of the bar if the diametera are equal, 2. The diameter of the larger bar if the diameters are unequaI, and 3. 5 mm more than the nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate. Greater horizontal distance than the minimum specified in (a) should be provided wherever possible. However when needle vibrators are used the horizontal distance between bars

of a group may be reduced to two-thirds the nominal maximum size of the coarse aggregate, provided that sufficient space is left between groups of bars to enable the vibrator to be immersed. Where there are two or more rows of bars, the bars shall be vertically in line and the minimum vertical distance between the bars shall be 15 mm, two-thirds the nominal maximum size of aggregate or the maximum size of bars, whichever is greater. Maximum Distance Between Bars in Tension Unless the calculation of crack widths shows that a greater spacing is acceptable, thefollowing rules shall be applied to flexural members in normal internal or external conditions of exposure. a) Beams - The horizontal distance between parallel reinforcement bars, or groups, near the tension face of a beam shall not be greater than the value given in Table 15 depending on the amount of redistribution carried out in analysis and the characteristic strength of the reinforcement. Slabs

The horizontal distance between parallel main reinforcement bars shall not be more than three times thl effective depth of solid slab or 300 mm whichever is smaller. The horizontal distance between parallel reinforcement bars provided against shrinkage and temperature shall not be more than five times the effective depth of a solid slab or 450 mm whichever is smaller. Re: Which one is the main bar in a square slab (2m x 2m) Answer #5 there are two types of slab one is one way and second is two way if the size of slab is 2m*2m the ratio of length/width is less than 2. so it is called two way slab and two way slab are designed by assuming both direction main. so both bar are main.

Re: SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAMS Answer #2 SIMPLY YOU CAN SAY -RESTORING MOMENT IS CALLED BENDING MOMENT OR AT THE CROSS SECTION OF BEAM ALGEBRIC SUM OF MOMENT OF FORCES ON RIGHT OR LEFT SIDE OF THE SECTION IT MAYE BE sanging or hogging SHEAR FORCE:sum of the all unbalanced vertical forces to the right or left of section acting at the cross section of beam is called sher force. Re: difference between deep and shallow well? Answer depth<5m shallow

#1

depth>5m deep

Re: what is the defination of an ideal fluid? Answer #1 An ideal fluid is one which has no friction(viscosity) during its movement.

Re: how to estimate the earthwork,earth-filling for an isolated foundation Answer #1 size of footing x depth of footing = earthwork qty a x b x d = qty total earthwork - isolated footing qty = earth filling

Re: Why bent up bars provided in R.C.C slab Answer #5 it is actually economization of material. normally, for fixed ended beams positive (sagging) moments are present at the mid span and negative (hogging) moments at the supports. so bottom steel is required at the mid span and top steel resists negative moments at the supports. a bent-up is provided to take the steel on the top at supports as bottom steel is not normally required at at the supports (only nominal steel is sufficient). hope it'd help!

Re: which percentage is maximum in good quality cement? Answer #2 calcium oxide (Cao)it is about 65-67%

Re: WHAT IS MEANT BY 'ZERO VALUE'IN QUANTITY SURVEYING. Answer #2 Difference between BOQ cost (As per agreement) and Actual cost (after getting the project)

Re: what is the meaning of laitance Answer #1 in cement conc., if water cement ratio excess in conc. then during the period of casting , aggregate goes down and cement slurry goes up. this process is called laitance

Re: What is meant by End contractions Answer #1 The end contact surfaces of any waterway openings like in Notches,Weirs,Canals etc. which causes reduce of quantity of flow or Discharge is called END CONTRACTIONS

Re: define silt? Answer #3 partical size .002mm to .075mm

Re: for what perpuse we use CBR test in road project? Answer #1 The california bearing ratio test is penetration test meant for the evaluation of subgrade strength of roads and pavements. The results obtained by these tests are used with the empirical curves to determine the thickness of pavement and its component layers. This is the most widely used method for the design of flexible pavement.

Re: 1) is maximum size of aggregate ristricted to 20 mm for M- 50 grade concrete? If yess or no code the authority? Answer #2 No,Aggregate size is indipendent of concrete grade.we can use still higher size of aggregate.aggregate size is depending on the minimum cover & spacing of reinforcement in the structures like beam,retaining wall,column

etc.This is so because aggregate should pass through the two bars. define the engineering property of a soil. make a list of list property(properties) Answer #1 Engineering properties of a soil are those which are used while designing in or with the given soil. For clays, the engineering properties are Cohesion, internal friction, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, Shear modulus etc and for sands also they are the same except cohesion, of course.

Re: How to provide spacer bar in barbending work,parallel to bar or inclined to bar? What is the reason? Answer #2 spacer bar to be provided in beams perpendicular to the beam main bars.if we put parallel to the bar,we require more no of bars and it may slips also.

Can anybody explain with the help of sketeches that what are 2legged , four legged & 6legged stirrups and how to calculate cut length of diamond ring(stirrups)? Answer #1 1) Single stirrup beam called 2legged. 2) Double stirrup beam called 4legged. 3) Triple stirrup beam called 6legged

Re: what is chicken mesh?explain its use Answer #4 chicken mesh is a net made up of galvanised iron, fiber. it is generally used in between joint of rcc and brickwork to avoid cracks. coefficient of expansion of concrete and brick is diffrent, and brickwork get shrink due to its weight and shrinkage cracks generate between rcc amd brickwork.

How Mney Layers in 8mm plywood Answer #2 4 layers

Re: what is DLC Answer #3 DLC means Dry Lean Concrete DLC is subbase for concrete pavements the minimum cement content in the lean concrete shall not be less than 150 kg/cum of concrete (as per MORTH)

Re: what is SHEAR WALL ? why and where it is provided. Answer #8 Shear wall is a wall designed to resist lateral forces acting in its own plane.It is necessary to make these structures safe against lateral load produced due to wind, earthquake.The shear wall should be placed at a point by coinciding center of gravity and centroid of the building.

Re: How do you to separate Marble and Granite. What are difference between them? Answer #2 Granite is greater in strength and resistant to stains,acids,scratches,heat,etc...whereas marble have lesser strength and sensitive to acidic products in comparison.

Re: What is the significance of Hook's in stirrups. Answer #2 Hooks provided for Bond between Concrete and steel. It prevent slippage of steel from the concrete. But remember, Hooks are used in Plain Bars only. In case of Ribbed Bar(Twisted), Hooks are useless. as the Twisted Lug and Deformations satisfying the bondage, the hooks are unneceary and not adopted.

Re: WHAT IS POINT OF CONTRAFLEXURE ? Answer #5 'contra' means opposite. 'flexure' means bending. The physical meaning is 'Contra flexure is a point where the hogging of the beam changes to sagging or vice versa'. Also the point where the bending moment changes its sign, i.e. where bending becomes zero while changing from positive to

negative or negative to positive value. Re: What is Flat/Canceled beam, What is difference between them? can bear same load? kindly suggest me Answer #1 flat or conceiled beams are generally known as hidden beams it can bear the load according the design. Example PT Slab

Re: What will be compressive strength of bricks , Hollow blocks, Solid blocks Answer #2 common building bricks-5n/mm2 2 nd class bricks-7n/mm2 1 st class bricks-14n/mm2

Re: how calculate bench mark errors Answer i think answer is #1 sigma f.s.- sigma b.s.= Last r.l.- first r.l. Re: what is bond strength of concrete Answer an extra length of bar should be provided for interchanging #1 the stresses from steel to concrete and vice versa is called ond strength of concrete Re: How many steel is require in one sqft area? Answer It depends upon the height of the building. If the structure is G + 3 the steel consumption is about 2.5 kg #5 per sq.ft. If the structure is tower of 15 storeys the steel consumption can be as high as 6 kg per sq.ft. For towers which are 25 storeys high steel consumption is 7.5 kg per sq.ft. Re: What is a BBS?Find out the cutting length for a 300*300 column with 40 mm cover? Answer let 8mm dia is used 4x220+2(10x8)-5(2x8)= 960mm #5 where, 300-2x40= 220 2 times 10x dia for hook

5 times 2x dia for bends hence cutting length of bar for ring is 960mm Re: what is difference between bending and twisting Answer Bending means changings takes place in # 3 cross sectional dimensions, that may be compression or tension, contraction or expansion Twisting means rotating about it's own axis from the fixed point Re: which is greater moment at centre or fixed end moment for a fixed beam with udl Answer moment is greater at end wl*l/12 and at centre wl*l/24 #4 Re: what is curtailment in rebars Answer Curtailment is a theoretical point where some of the # 1 reinforcement is cut-off along the span of the beam where the bending moment reduces, given that the remaining reinforcement will be able to support the reduced bending moment. Re: how to placeing reinforcement in slab? Answer by the drawing of the slab the reinforcement is placed # 1 within a certain spacing calculated in design.the reinforcement bar is placed in a bar one side crank and one side straight alternative Re: what is lap length? why it is required? Answer In the construction of RC buildings, due to the # 2 limitations in available length of bars and due to constraints in construction, there are numerous occasions when column bars have to be joined. A simple way of achieving this is by overlapping the two bars over at least a minimum specified length, called lap length. The lap length depends on types of

reinforcement and concrete. For ordinary situations, it is about 50 times bar diameter. Further, IS:13920-1993 prescribes that the lap length be provided ONLY in the middle half of column and not near its top or bottom Re: i have a bar of 36 dia in column, what is the lap length? Answer as per indiaqn standards the bars above 32mm dia bars # 4 are to be welded not lapped. its a twisting questions in interviews Re: What is specific gravity & how it is calculated Answer It is the density of solid w.r.t density of # 1 water. Sp. gravity of solid = (weight of solid -Entraped air)/ volume of given solid. Re: why there is need to provide shear reinforcement?give the basic reason? Answer As the concrete is weak in shear and at ends/supports # 1 the shear force is maximum so their is a chance of sliding/ shearfailure of structural parts as beams at ends. so steel is provided to bear this shear force and prevent shear failure.( i.e. at ends cocrete is prevented to slide in the vertical direction )