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FM 21-20


Washington, DC, 1 October 1998


1. Change FM 21-20, 30 September 1992, as follows:


14-3 to 14-8 14-3 to 14-8.2

14-21 to 14-22 14-21 to 14-22

2. A star (*) marks new or changed material.

3. File this transmittal sheet in front of this publication.

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: proved for public release; distribution is unlimited.



CHAPTER 13 INJURIES APPENDIX B POSITIVE PROFILE FORM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. B-0

Typical Injuries Associated with
Physical Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..13-1 APPENDIX C PHYSICAL FITNESS LOG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. C-I
Other Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..13-2


Methods of Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-1

Over-Forty Cardiovascular Screening APPENDIX E SELECTING THE RIGHT
Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..14-l RUNNING SHOE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..E-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..l4-2
Test Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..l4-2
Duties of Test Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...14-8
APPENDIX F CALCULATION OF V02MAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. F-1
Test Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..i4-9
Test Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..l4-10 APPENDIX G PERCEIVED EXERTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .G-1
Test Sequence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..l4-11
Test Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..l4-18
Scores Above Maximum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..14-19 APPENDIX H THE MAJOR SKELETAL MUSCLES
Temporary Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...14-20 OF THE HUMAN BODY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. H-O
Permanent Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...14-20
Alternate Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...14-20 GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Glossary-1

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References-O
. . ..
BETWEEN THE SEXES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..A-O INDEX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I.ndex-O

Preface On 5 July 1950, U.S. troops, who were unprepared
for the physical demands of war, were sent to battle. The
early days of the Korean war were nothing short of
disastrous, as U.S. soldiers were routed by a poorly
equipped, but well-trained, North Korean People’s Army.
As American soldiers withdrew, they left behind
wounded comrades and valuable equipment their
training had not adequately prepared them to carry
heavy loads.
The costly lessons learned by Task Force Smith in
Korea are as important today as ever. If we fail to
prepare our soldiers for their physically demanding
wartime tasks, we are guilty of paying lip service to the
principle of “Train as you fight.” Our physical training
programs must do more for our soldiers than just get
them ready for the semiannual Army Physical Fitness
Test (APFT’).
FM 21 -20 is directed at leaders who plan and
conduct physical fitness training. It provides guidelines
for developing programs which will improve and maintain physical fitness levels for all Army personnel.
These programs will help leaders prepare their soldiers to meet the physical demands of war. This manual can
also be used as a source book by all soldiers. FM 21-20 was written to conform to the principles outlined in
FM 25-100, Training the Force.
The benefits to be derived from a good physical fitness program are many. It can reduce the number of
soldiers on profile and sick call, invigorate training, and enhance productivity and mental alertness. A good
physical fitness program also promotes team cohesion and combat survivability. It will improve soldiers’
combat readiness.
The proponent of this publication is HQ TRADOC. Send comments and recommendations on DA Form
2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) directly to Headquarters, US Army Infantry
Center, US Army Physical Fitness School (ATZB-PF), Fort Benning, GA31905-5000.
Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men.

i i i
A soldier’s level of physical fitness' fitness in accordance with this manual
has a direct impact on his combat and with AR 350-15 which prescribes
readiness. The many battles in which policies, procedures, and responsibili-
American troops have fought under- ties for the Army physical fitness
score the important role physical fit- program.
ness plays on the battlefield. The
renewed nationwide interest in fitness Leadership Responsibilities
has been accompanied by many re-
search studies on the effects of regular Effective leadership is critical to
participation in sound physical fitness the success of a good physical training
programs. The overwhelming conclu- program. Leaders, especially senior
sion is that such programs enhance a leaders, must understand and practice
person’s quality of life, improve pro- the new Army doctrine of physical fit-
ductivity, and bring about positive ness. They must be visible and active
physical and mental changes. Not only participants in physical training pro-
are physically fit soldiers essential to grams. In short, leaders must lead PT!
the Army, they are also more likely to Their example will emphasize the
have enjoyable, productive lives. importance of physical fitness training
This chapter provides an overview and will highlight it as a key element
of fitness. It defines physical fitness, of the unit’s training mission.
outlines the phases of fitness, and Leaders must emphasize the value
discusses various types of fitness pro- of physical training and clearly ex-
grams and fitness evaluation. Com- plain the objectives and benefits of the
manders and leaders can use this infor- program. Master Fitness Trainers
mation to develop intelligent, combat- (MFTs), graduates of a special course
related, physical fitness programs. taught by the U.S. Army Physical
Physical fitness, the emphasis of Fitness School, can help commanders
this manual, is but one component of do this. However, regardless of the
total fitness. Some of the “others are level of technical experience MFTs
weight control, diet and nutrition, have, the sole responsibility for good
Components of physical stress management, dental health, and programs rests with leaders at every
fitness include weight spiritual and ethical fitness, as well as level.
control, diet, nutrition, the avoidance of hypertension, sub- A poorly designed and executed
stress management, and stance abuse, and tobacco use. This physical fitness program hurts morale.
manual is primarily concerned with A good program is well planned and
spiritual and ethical
issues relating directly to the develop- organized, has reasonable yet chal-
fitness. ment and maintenance of the five lenging requirements, and is competi-
components of physical fitness. tive and progressive. It also has
The Army’s physical fitness train- command presence at every level with
ing program extends to all branches of leaders setting the example for their
the total Army. This includes the soldiers.
USAR and ARNG and encompasses all Leaders should also continually as-
ages and ranks and both sexes. Its sess their units to determine which
purpose is to physically condition all specific components of fitness they
soldiers throughout their careers be- lack. Once they identify the short-
ginning with initial entry training (IET). comings, they should modify their
It also includes soldiers with limiting programs to correct the weaknesses.
physical profiles who must also par- Leaders should not punish soldiers
ticipate in physical fitness training. who fail to perform to standard.
Commanders and leaders must en- Punishment, especially excessive repe-
sure that all soldiers in their units titions or additional PT, often does
maintain the highest level of physical more harm than good. Leaders must

plan special training to help soldiers Leaders must also make special ef-
who need it. The application of sound forts to provide the correct fitness
leadership techniques is especially training for soldiers who are physi-
important in bringing physically defi- cally substandard. “Positive profiling”
cient soldiers up to standard. (DA Form 3349) permits and encour-
ages profiled soldiers to do as much as
‘COMMAND FUNCTIONS they can within the limits of their
profiles. Those who have been away
Commanders must evaluate the ef- from the conditioning process because
fectiveness of physical fitness training of leave, sickness, injury, or travel
and ensure that it is focused on the may also need special consideration.
unit’s missions. They can evaluate its Commanders must ensure that the Commanders must
effectiveness by participating in and time allotted for physical fitness train- ensure that the time
observing training, relating their fit- ing is used effectively. alloted for physical
ness programs to the unit’s missions, Training times is wasted by the fol- fitness training is used
and analyzing individual and unit APFT lowing: effectively.
performance. • Unprepared or unorganized lead-
Leaders should regularly measure ers.
the physical fitness level of every • Assignment fo a group which us too
soldier to evaluate his progress and de- large for one leader.
termine the success of the unit’s pro- • Insufficient training intensity: it
gram. will result in no improvement.
Commanders should assure that • Rates of progression that are too
qualified leaders supervise and con- slow or too fast.
duct fitness training and use their • Extreme faomality that usually
MFTs, for they have received compre- emphasizes form over substance.
hensive training in this area. An example would be too many
Leaders can learn about fitness train- units runs at slow paces or "daily
ing in the following ways: dozen" activities that look impres-
• Attend the four-week MFT course sive but do not result in impove-
or one-week Exercise Leaders ment.
Course. • Inadequate facilities which cause
long waiting periods between exer-
• Request a fitness workshop from
cises during a workout and/or be-
the Army Physical Fitness School. tween workouts.
• Become familiar with the Army's • Long rest periods which interfere
fitness publications. Important ex- with progress.
amples include this manual, AR
350-15, and DA Pamphlets 350-15, To foster a positive attitude, unit
350-18, and 350-22. leaders and instructors must be knowl-
Commanders must provide adequate edgeable, understanding, and fair, but
facilities and funds to support a pro- demanding. They must recognize
gram which will improve each soldier’s individual differences and motivate
level of physical fitness. They must soldiers to put forth their best efforts.
also be sure that everyone participates, However, they must also emphasize
since all individuals, regardless of rank, training to standard. Attaining a high
age, or sex, benefit from regular exer- level of physical fitness cannot be
cise. In some instances, leaders will done simply by going through the mo-
need to make special efforts to over- tions. Hard training is essential.
come recurring problems which inter- Commanders must ensure that lead-
fere with regular training. e r s a r e familiar with approved

techniques, directives, and publica- Components of Fitness
tions and that they use them. The ob-
jective of every commander should be Physical fitness is the ability to func-
to incorporate the most effective meth- tion effectively in physical work, train-
ods of physical training into a balanced ing, and other activities and still have
program. This program should result enough energy left over to handle any
in the improved physical fitness of emergencies which may arise.
their soldiers and an enhanced ability
to perform mission-related tasks. The components of physical fitness
MFTs can help commanders formu- are as follows:
late sound programs that will attain • Cardiorespiratory (CR) endurance-
their physical training goals, but com- the efficiency with which the
manders must know and apply the body delivers oxygen and nutrients
doctrine. However, since the respon- needed for muscular activity and
transports waste products from the
sibility for physical training is the
commander’s, programs must be based • Muscular strength - the greatest
on his own training objectives. These amount of force a muscle or muscle
he must develop from his evaluation of group can exert in a single effort.
the unit’s mission-essential task list • Muscular endurance - the ability of
(METL). Chapter 10 describes the a muscle or muscle group to per-
development of the unit’s program. form repeated movements with a
sub-maximal force for extended
• Flexibility-the ability to move the
A Master Fitness Trainer (MFT) is joints (for example, elbow, knee) or
a soldier who has completed either the any group of joints through an
four-week active-component, two- entire, normal range of motion.
week reserve-component, or U.S. • Body composition-the amount of
Military Academy’s MFT course work. body fat a soldier has in compari-
Although called “masters,” MFTs are son to his total body mass.
simply soldiers who know about all as-
pects of physical fitness training and
how soldiers’ bodies function. Most Improving the first three compo-
importantly, since MFTs are taught to nents of fitness listed above will have
design individual and unit programs, a positive impact on body composition
they should be used by commanders as and will result in less fat. Excessive
special staff assistants for this purpose. body fat detracts from the other fit-
ness components, reduces perform-
MFTs can do the following:
ance, detracts from appearance, and
• Assess the physical fitness levels of negatively affects one’s health.
individuals and units. Factors such as speed, agility, muscle
• Analyze the unit's mission-related power, eye-hand coordination, and
tasks and develop sound fitness eye-foot coordination are classified as
training programs to support those components of “motor” fitness. These
tasks. factors affect a soldier’s survivability
• Train other trainers to conduct sound, on the battlefield. Appropriate train-
ing can improve these factors within
safe physical training.
the limits of each soldier’s potential.
• Understand the structure and func- The Army’s fitness program seeks to
tion of the human body, especially improve or maintain all the compo-
as it relates to exercise. nents of physical and motor fitness

through sound, progressive, mission- way to allow recovery is to alternate
specific physical training for indi- the muscle groups exercised every
viduals and units. other day, especially when training
for strength and/or muscle endur-
Principles of Exercise ance.
● Overload. The work load of each
Adherence to certain basic exercise exercise session must exceed the
principles is important for developing normal demands placed on the body
an effective program. The principles in order to bring about a training
of exercise apply to everyone at all effect.
levels of physical training, from the
Olympic-caliber athlete to the week- FITT Factors
end jogger. They also apply to fitness
training for military personnel. Certain factors must be part of any Factors for a successful
These basic principles of exercise fitness training program for it to be training program are
must be followed: successful. These factors are Fre- Frequency, Intensity,
● Regularity. To achieve a training quency, Intensity, Time, and Type.
effect, a person must exercise of The acronym FITT makes it easier to Time, and Type;
ten. One should strive to exercise remember them. (See Figure 1- 1.) "FITT".
each of the first four fitness com-
ponents at least three times a week. FREQUENCY
Infrequent exercise can do more
harm than good. Regularity is Army Regulation 350-15 specifies
also important in resting, sleeping, that vigorous physical fitness training
and following a good diet. will be conducted 3 to 5 times per
● Progression. The intensity (how week. For optimal results, command-
hard) and/or duration (how long) ers must strive to conduct 5 days of
of exercise must gradually in- physical training per week. Ideally, at
crease to improve the level of fit- least three exercise sessions for CR
ness. fitness, muscle endurance, muscle
e Balance. To be effective, a pro- strength, and flexibility should be
gram should include activities that performed each week to improve fit-
address all the fitness compo- ness levels. Thus, for example, to
nents, since overemphasizing any obtain maximum gains in muscular
one of them may hurt the others. strength, soldiers should have at least
● Variety. Providing a variety of ac- three strength-training sessions per
tivities reduces boredom and in- week. Three physical activity periods
creases motivation and progress. a week, however, with only one session
● Specificity. Training must be each of cardiorespiratory, strength,
geared toward specific goals. For and flexibility training will not im-
example, soldiers become better prove any of these three components.
runners if their training empha- With some planning, a training pro-
sizes running. Although swim- gram for the average soldier can be
ming is great exercise, it does not developed which provides fairly equal
improve a 2-mile-run time as emphasis on all the components of
much as a running program does. physical fitness. The following train-
● Recovery. A hard day of training ing program serves as an example.
for a given component of fitness In the first week, Monday, Wednes-
should be followed by an easier day, and Friday are devoted to CR
training day or rest day for that fitness, and Tuesday and Thursday are
component and/or muscle group(s) devoted to muscle endurance and
to help permit recovery. Another strength. During the second week, the

Figure 1-1

training days are flip-flopped: muscle can be given to developing muscular

endurance and strength are trained on endurance and strength and to CR
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, and fitness while training five days per
CR fitness is trained on Tuesday and week.
Thursday. Stretching exercises are If the unit’s mission requires it,
done in every training session to en- some muscular and some CR training
hance flexibility. By training continu- can be done during each daily training
ously in this manner, equal emphasis session as long as a “hard day/recovery

day” approach is used. For example, if other muscle groups by jerking, bend-
a unit has a hard run on Monday, ing, or twisting the body. For the
Wednesday, and Friday, it may also average person who wants to improve
choose to run on Tuesday and Thurs- both muscular strength and endurance,
day. However, on Tuesday and Thurs- an 8-12 RM is best.
day the intensity and/or distance/time The person who wants to concen-
should be reduced to allow recovery. trate on muscular strength should use
Depending on the time available for weights which let him do three to seven
each session and the way training repetitions before his muscles fatigue.
sessions are conducted, all components Thus, for strength development, the
of fitness can be developed using a weight used should be a 3-7 RM. On
three-day-per-week schedule. How- the other hand, the person who wants
ever, a five-day-per-week program is to concentrate on muscular endurance
much better than three per week. (See should use a 12+ RM. When using a 12+
Training Program in Chapter 10.) RM as the training intensity, the more
Numerous other approaches can be repetitions performed per set, over
taken when tailoring a fitness program time, the greater will be the improve-
to meet a unit’s mission as long as the ment in muscular endurance. Con-
principles of exercise are not violated. versely, the greater the number of
Such programs, when coupled with repetitions performed, the smaller will
good nutrition, will help keep soldiers be the gains in strength. For example,
fit to win. a person who regularly trains with a
weight which lets him do 100 repeti-
!NTENSITY tions per exercise (a 1OO-RM) greatly
increases his muscular endurance but
Training at the right intensity is the minimally improves his muscular
biggest problem in unit programs. The strength. (See Chapter 3 for informa-
intensity should vary with the type of tion on resistance training.)
exercise being done. Exercise for CR All exercise sessions should include
development must be strenuous enough stretching during the warm-up and
to elevate the heart rate to between 60 cool-down. One should stretch so All exercises sessions
and 90 percent of the heart rate reserve there is slight discomfort, but no should include
(HRR). (The calculation of percent pain, when the movement is taken
stretching during
HRR is explained in Chapter 2.) Those beyond the normal range of motion.
with low fitness levels should start (See Chapter 4 for information on the warm-up and cool-
exercising at a lower training heart stretching.) down.
rate (THR) of about 60 percent of
For muscular strength and endur-
ance, intensity refers to the percentage Like intensity, the time spent exer-
of the maximum resistance that is used cising depends on the type of exercise
for a given exercise. When determin- being done. At least 20 to 30 continu-
ing intensity in a strength-training ous minutes of intense exercise must be
program, it is easier to refer to a used in order to improve cardiorespi-
“repetition maximum” or “RM.” For ratory endurance.
example, a 1O-RM is the maximum For muscular endurance and strength,
weight that can be correctly lifted 10 exercise time equates to the number of
times. An 8-12 RM is the weight that repetitions done. For the average
can be lifted 8 to 12 times correctly. soldier, 8 to 12 repetitions with enough
Doing an exercise “correctly” means resistance to cause muscle failure
moving the weight steadily and with improves both muscular endurance and
proper form without getting help from strength. As soldiers progress, they

will make better strength gains by ligaments, and tendons are properly
doing two or three sets of each resis- prepared for exertion. A warm-up
tance exercise. should include some running-in-place
Flexibility exercises or stretches or slow jogging, stretching, and calis-
should be held for varying times de- thenics. It should last five to seven
pending on the objective of the session. minutes and should occur just before
For warming-up, such as before a run, the CR or muscular endurance and
each stretch should be held for 10 to 15 strength part of the workout. After a
seconds. To improve flexibility, it is proper warm-up, soldiers are ready
best to do stretching during the cool- for a more intense conditioning activ-
down, with each stretch held for 30 to ity.
60 seconds. If flexibility improvement Soldiers should cool down properly
is a major goal, at least one session per after each exercise period, regardless
week should be devoted to developing of the type of workout. The cool-
it. down serves to gradually slow the
heart rate and helps prevent pooling of
TYPE the blood in the legs and feet. During
exercise, the muscles squeeze the blood
Type refers to the kind of exercise through the veins. This helps return
performed. When choosing the type, the blood to the heart. After exercise,
the commander should consider the however, the muscles relax and no
principle of specificity. For example, longer do this, and the blood can
to improve his soldiers’ levels of CR accumulate in the legs and feet. This
fitness (the major fitness component in can cause a person to faint. A good
the 2-mile run), he should have them cool-down will help avoid this possi-
do CR types of exercises. These are bility.
discussed in Chapter 2. Soldiers should walk and stretch
Ways to train for muscular strength until their heart rates return to less
and endurance are addressed in Chap- than 100 beats per minute (BPM) and
ter 3, while Chapter 4 discusses flexi- heavy sweating stops. This usually
bility. These chapters will help com- happens five to seven minutes after
manders design programs which are the conditioning session.
tailor-made to their soldiers’ needs.
The basic rule is that to improve
performance, one must practice the Phases of
particular exercise, activity, or skill he Fitness Conditioning
wants to improve. For example, to be
good at push-ups, one must do push- The physical fitness training pro-
ups. No other exercise will improve gram is divided into three phases:
push-up performance as effectively. preparatory, conditioning, and main-
tenance. The starting phases for
Warm-up and Cool-Down different units or individuals vary
depending on their age, fitness levels,
One must prepare the body before and previous physical activity.
taking part in organized PT, unit sports Young, healthy persons may be able
competition, or vigorous physical ac- to start with the conditioning phase,
tivity. A warm-up may help prevent while those who have been exercising
injuries and maximize performance. regularly may already be in the main-
The warm-up increases the body’s tenance phase. Factors such as ex-
internal temperature and the heart rate. tended field training, leave time, and
The chance of getting injured illness can cause soldiers to drop from
decreases when the heart, muscles, a maintenance to a conditioning phase.

Persons who have not been active, The preparatory phase for improv-
especially if they are age 40 or older, ing muscular endurance and strength
should start with the preparatory phase. through weight training should start
Many soldiers who fall into this cate- easily and progress gradually. Begin-
gory may be recovering from illness or ning weight trainers should select about
injury, or they may be just out of high 8 to 12 exercises that work all the
school. Most units will have soldiers in body’s major muscle groups. They
all three phases of training at the same should use only very light weights the
time. first week (that is, the first two to three
workouts). This is very important, as
PREPARATORY PHASE they must first learn the proper form
for each exercise. Light weights will
The preparatory phase helps both also help minimize muscle soreness and
the cardiorespiratory and muscular decrease the likelihood of injury to the
systems get used to exercise, preparing muscles, joints, and ligaments. During
the body to handle the conditioning the second week, they should use pro-
phase. The work load in the beginning gressively heavier weights on each
must be moderate. Progression from a resistance exercise. By the end of the
lower to a higher level of fitness second week (four to six workouts),
should be achieved by gradual, planned they should know how much weight
increases in frequency, intensity, and will let them do 8 to 12 repetitions to
time. muscle failure for each exercise. At
Initially, poorly conditioned sol- this point the conditioning phase be-
diers should run, or walk if need be, gins.
three times a week at a comfortable
pace that elevates their heart rate to CONDITIONING PHASE
about 60 percent HRR for 10 to 15
minutes. Recovery days should be To reach the desired level of fitness,
evenly distributed throughout the week, soldiers must increase the amount of
and training should progress slowly. exercise and/or the workout intensity
Soldiers should continue at this or an as their strength and/or endurance
appropriate level until they have no increases.
undue fatigue or muscle soreness the To improve cardiorespiratory en-
day following the exercise. They durance, for example, they must in-
should then lengthen their exercise crease the length of time they run.
session to 16 to 20 minutes and/or They should start with the preparatory
elevate their heart rate to about 70 phase and gradually increase the run-
percent HRR by increasing their pace. ning time by one or two minutes each
To be sure their pace is faster, they week until they can run continuously
should run a known distance and try to for 20 to 30 minutes. At this point,
cover it in less time. Those who feel they can increase the intensity until
breathless or whose heart rate rises they reach the desired level of fitness.
beyond their training heart rate (THR) They should train at least three times a
while running should resume walking week and take no more than two days
until the heart rate returns to the cor- between workouts.
rect training level. When they can For weight trainers, the condition-
handle an intensity of 70 percent HRR ing phase normally begins during the Soldiers and units
for 20 to 25 minutes, they should be third week. They should do one set of should be encouraged to
ready for the next phase. Chapter 2 8 to 12 repetitions for each of the progress beyond
shows how to determine the THR, that selected resistance exercises. When minimum requirements.
is, the right training level during aero- they can do more than 12 repetitions of
bic training. any exercise, they should increase the

weight used on that exercise by about should be continued throughout his
five percent so they can again do only life.
8 to 12 repetitions. This process An effective program uses a variety
continues throughout the conditioning of activities to develop muscular en-
phase. As long as they continue to durance and strength, CR endurance,
progress and get stronger while doing and flexibility, and to achieve good
only one set of each exercise, it is not body composition. It should also pro-
necessary for them to do more than one mote the development of coordination
set per exercise. When they stop as well as basic physical skills. (See
making progress with one set, they Chapter 10 for guidance in construct-
should add another set on those exer- ing a unit program.)
cises in which progress has slowed. As
training progresses, they may want to Types of Fitness Programs
increase the sets to three to help pro- The Army has too many types of
mote further increases in strength and/ units with different missions to have
or muscle mass. one single fitness program for every-
For maximum benefit, soldiers should one. Therefore, only broad categories
do strength training three times a week of programs and general considera-
with 48 hours of rest between workouts tions are covered here. They are
for any given muscle group. It helps to classified as unit, individual, and special
periodically do a different type of programs.
exercise for a given muscle or muscle
group. This adds variety and ensures UNIT PROGRAMS
better strength development. Unit programs must support unit
The conditioning phase ends when a missions. A single unit may require
soldier is physically mission-capable several types of programs. Some units,
and all personal, strength-related goals such as infantry companies, have gen-
and unit-fitness goals have been met. erally the same types of soldiers and
MOSS. On the other hand, certain
MAINTENANCE PHASE combat--service-support units have
many different types of soldiers, each
The maintenance phase sustains the with unique needs. Commanders can
high level of fitness achieved in the develop programs for their own unit
conditioning phase. The emphasis here by following the principles in this
is no longer on progression. A well- chapter. MFTs know how to help
designed, 45- to 60-minute workout commanders develop programs for their
(including warm-up and cool-down) at units/soldiers.
the right intensity three times a week Commanders of units composed of
is enough to maintain almost any ap- both men and women must also under-
propriate level of physical fitness. These stand the physiological differences
workouts give soldiers time to stabalize between the sexes. These are summa-
their flexibility, CR endurance, and rized in Appendix A. Although women
muscular endurance and strength. are able to participate in the same
However, more frequent training may fitness programs as men, they must
be needed to reach and maintain peak work harder to perform at the same
fitness levels. absolute level of work or exercise.
Soldiers and units should always be The same holds true for poorly-con-
encouraged to progress beyond mini- ditioned soldiers running with well-
mum requirements. Maintaining an conditioned soldiers.
optimal level of fitness should become To overcome this problem in the
part of every soldier’s life-style and case of running, for example, the unit

should use ability group runs rather Training emphasizes progressive
than unit runs. Soldiers in a given conditioning of the whole body. To
ability group will run at a set pace, minimize the risk of injury, exercises
with groups based on each soldier’s must be done properly, and the inten-
most recent 2-mile-run time. Three sity must progress at an appropriate
to six groups per company-sized unit rate. Special training should be consid-
are usually enough. Within each ered for soldiers who fail to maintain
group, each soldier’s heart rate while the unit’s or group’s rate of progres-
running should be at his own THR. sion. Commanders should evaluate
When the run is not intense enough to each basic trainee who falls below
bring one or more of the soldiers to standard and give him individualized,
THR, it is time for those soldiers to special assistance to improve his defi-
move up to the next ability group. ciencies.

Ability group running does two Additional training should not be

things more effectively than unit runs: used as punishment for a soldier's
1) it lets soldiers improve to their
highest attainable fitness level; and, 2) inability to perform well.
it more quickly brings subpar per- More PT is not necessarily better.
formers up to minimum standards. Chapter 11 describes how to develop
physical training programs in IET units.
It also allows soldiers to train to
excel on the APFT which, in turn, Advanced Individual Training (AIT)
helps promotion opportunities. Hold-
ing a fit soldier back by making him Although AIT focuses on technical
run at a slow, unit-run pace (normally and MOS-oriented subjects, physical
less than his minimum pace for the 2- fitness must be emphasized throughout.
mile run on the APFT) hurts his Most soldiers arriving from basic train-
morale and violates the principle of ing are already well into the condition-
training to challenge. ing phase. Therefore, AIT unit training
should focus on preparing soldiers to
initial Entry Training (lET) meet the physical requirements of their
initial duty assignments. (See TRA-
The training program in basic train- DOC Reg. 350-6, Chapter 4.)
ing (BT) brings soldiers up to the level Walking, running, and climbing
of physical fitness they need to do during unit training contribute to
their jobs as soldiers. However, the physical fitness, but they are not enough.
program requires good cadre leader- Physical training in AIT requires con-
ship to ensure that it is appropriate, tinued, regular, vigorous exercise which
demanding, and challenging. stresses the whole body and addresses
all the components of fitness.
Trainees report to active duty at By the end of AIT, soldiers must
various levels of physical fitness and meet APFT standards. With good pro-
ability. During basic training they grams and special training, all healthy By the end of AIT,
pass through the preparatory into the AIT graduates should easily be able to soldiers must meet
conditioning phase. During “fill” pe- demonstrate that they, possess the re-
riods and the first week of training, quired level of physical fitness. APFT standards.
the focus is on learning and develop-
ing the basics of physical fitness.

TOE and TDA Units–Active fitness. MFTs can help develop indi -
Component vidual fitness programs.

There are many types of units in the SPECIAL PROGRAMS

Army, and their missions often require
different levels of fitness. TOE and The day-to-day unit PT program
TDA units must emphasize attaining conducted for most soldiers may not
and maintaining the fitness level re- be appropriate for all unit members.
quired for the mission. Some of them may not be able to ex-
The unit’s standards may exceed the ercise at the intensity or duration best
Army’s minimums. By regulation suited to their needs.
(AR 350- 15), the unit’s standards can At least three groups of soldiers may
be established by the unit’s commander, need special PT programs. They are as
based on mission requirements. follows:
TOE and TDA Units--Reserve • Those who fail the APFT and do
Components not have medical profiles.
• Those who are overweight/overfat
The considerations for the active
according to AR 600-9
component also apply to reserve com-
ponents (RCS). However, since mem- • Those who have either permanent
bers of RC units cannot participate or temporary medical profiles.
together in collective physical training Leaders must also give special con-
on a regular basis, RC unit programs sideration to soldiers who are age 40 or
must focus on the individual’s fitness older and to recent arrivals who cannot
responsibilities and efforts. Com- meet the standards of their new unit.
manders, however, must still ensure Special programs must be tailored
that the unit’s fitness level and indi- to each soldier’s needs, and trained,
vidual PT programs are maintained. knowledgeable leaders should develop
MFTs can give valuable assistance to and conduct them. This training
RC commanders and soldiers. should be conducted with the unit, If
this is impossible, it should at least
INDIVIDUAL PROGRAMS occur at the same time.
There must be a positive approach
There must be a Many soldiers are assigned to duty to all special fitness training. Soldiers
positions that offer little opportunity who lack enough upper body strength
positive approach to to participate in collective unit PT to do a given number of push-ups or
programs. Examples are HQDA, enough stamina to pass the 2-mile run
all special fitness should not be ridiculed. Instead, their
MACOM staffs, hospitals, service school
t r a i n i n g . staff and faculty, recruiting, and ROTC. shortcomings should be assessed and
In such organizations, commanders must the information used to develop indi-
develop leadership environments that vidualized programs to help them
encourage and motivate soldiers to remedy their specific shortcomings. A
accept individual responsibility for their company-sized unit may have as many
own physical fitness. Fitness require- as 20 soldiers who need special atten-
ments are the same for these personnel tion. Only smart planning will pro-
as for others. Section chiefs and indi- duce good programs for all of them.
vidual soldiers need to use the funda- Commanders must counsel soldiers,
mental principles and techniques out- explaining that special programs are
lined in this manual to help them attain being developed in their best interests.
and maintain a high level of physical They must make it clear that standards

will be enforced. Next, they should quantity, of the workout should be
coordinate closely with medical per- emphasized. Two-a-day sessions, un-
sonnel to develop programs that fit the less designed extremely well, can be
capabilities of soldiers with medical counter-productive. More PT is not
limitations. Each soldier should then always better.
begin an individualized program based
on his needs. Overweight Soldiers
MFTs know how to assess CR en-
durance, muscular strength and Designers of weight loss and physi-
endurance, flexibility, and body cal training programs for overweight
composition. They can also develop soldiers should remember this: even
thorough, tailor-made programs for though exercise is the key to sensible
all of a unit’s special population. weight loss, reducing the number of
calories consumed is equally impor-
APFT Failures tant. A combination of both actions is
Although it is not the heart of the The type of exercise the soldier does
Army’s physical fitness program, the affects the amount and nature of the
APFT is the primary instrument for weight loss. Both running and walking
evaluating the fitness level of each burn about 100 calories per mile. One
soldier. It is structured to assess the pound of fat contains 3,500 calories.
muscular endurance of specific muscle Thus, burning one pound of fat through
groups and the functional capacity of exercise alone requires a great deal of
the CR system. running or walking. On the other hand,
Soldiers with reasonable levels of weight lost through dieting alone in-
overall physical fitness should easily cludes the loss of useful muscle tissue.
pass the APFT. Those whose fitness Those who participate in an exercise
levels are substandard will fail. Sol- program that emphasizes the develop-
diers who fail the APFT must receive ment of strength and muscular endur-
special attention. Leaders should ana- ance, however, can actually increase
lyze their weaknesses and design pro- their muscle mass while losing body
grams to overcome them. For ex- fat. These facts help explain why
ample, if the soldier is overweight, exercise and good dietary practices
nutrition and dietary counseling may must be combined.
be needed along with a special exercise Unit MFTs can help a soldier deter-
program. DA Pam 350-22 outlines mine the specific caloric requirement
several ways to improve a soldier’s he needs to safely and successfully lose
performance on each of the APFT excess fat. They can devise a sound,
events. individualized plan to arrive at that
When trying to improve APFT per- reduced caloric intake. Likewise, unit
formances, leaders must ensure that MFTs can also develop training pro-
soldiers are not overloaded to the point grams which will lead to fat loss
where the fitness training becomes without the loss of useful muscle tissue.
counterproductive. They should use Generally, overweight soldiers should
ability groups for their running pro- strive to reduce their fat weight by two
gram and, in addition to a total-body pounds per week. When a soldier loses
strength-training program, should in- weight, either by diet or exercise or
clude exercises designed for push-up both, a large initial weight loss is not
and sit-up improvement. When deal- unusual. This may be due to water loss
ing with special populations, two very associated with the using up of the
important principles are overload and body’s carbohydrate stores. Although
recovery. The quality, not just the these losses may be encouraging to the

soldier, little of this initial weight loss program as they can. Appropriate ac-
is due to the loss of fat. tivities should be substituted to re-
Soldiers should be weighed under place those regular activities in which
similar circumstances and at the same they cannot participate.
time each day. This helps avoid false Chapter 2 describes some aerobic
measurements due to normal fluctua- activities the soldier can do to main-
tions in their body weight during the tain cardiorespiratory fitness when he
day. As a soldier develops muscular cannot run. Chapter 3 shows how to
endurance and strength, lean muscle strengthen each body part. Applying
mass generally increases. Because muscle this information should allow some
weighs more per unit of volume than strength training to continue even
fat. caution is advised in assessing his when body parts are injured. The
progress. Just because a soldier is not same principle applies to flexibility
losing weight rapidly does not neces- (Chapter 4).
sarily mean he is not losing fat. In fact, Medical treatment and rehabilita-
a good fitness program often results in tion should be aimed at restoring the
gaining muscle mass while simultane- soldier to a suitable level of physical
ously losing fat weight. If there is fitness. Such treatment should use
reasonable doubt, his percentage o f appropriate, progressive physical ac-
body fat should be determined. tivities with medical or unit supervi-
Soldiers with Profiles MFTs can help profiled soldiers by
explaining alternative exercises and
This manual stresses what soldiers how to do them safely under the
can do while on medical profile rather limitations of their profile. MFTs are
than what they cannot do. not, however, trained to diagnose in-
DOD Directive 1308.1 requires that, juries or prescribe rehabilitative exer-
“Those personnel identified with medi- cise programs. This is the domain of
cally limiting defects shall be placed in qualified medical personnel.
a physical fitness program consistent The activity levels of soldiers usu-
with their limitations as advised by ally decrease while they are recovering
medical authorities.” from sickness or injury. As a result,
AR 350-15 states, “For individuals they should pay special attention to
with limiting profiles, commanders their diets to avoid gaining body fat.
will develop physical fitness programs This guidance becomes more impor-
in cooperation with health care per- tant as soldiers grow older. With
sonnel.” medical supervision, proper diet, and
The Office of the Surgeon General the right PT programs, soldiers should
has developed DA Form 3349 to ease be able to overcome their physical
the exchange of information between profiles and quickly return to their
health care personnel and the units. On normal routines and fitness levels.
this form, health care personnel list,
along with limitations, those activities
Age as a Factor in Physical
that the profiled soldier can do to
maintain his fitness level. With this Fitness
All profiled soldiers
should do as much of information, the unit should direct
the regular fitness profiled soldiers to participate in the Soldiers who are age 40 and older
activities they can do. (An example of represent the Army’s senior leader-
program as they can,
DA Form 3349 is in Appendix B.) ship. On the battlefield, they must
along with substitute All profiled soldiers should take lead other soldiers under conditions of
activities. part in as much of the regular fitness severe stress. To meet this challenge

and set a good example, these leaders The assessment phase of a program
must maintain and demonstrate a high is especially important for those age 40
level of physical fitness. Since their and over. However, it is not necessary
normal duties may be stressful but or desirable to develop special fitness
nonphysical, they must take part regu- programs for these soldiers. Those who
larly in a physical fitness program. The have been exercising regularly may
need to be physically fit does not continue to exercise at the same level as
decrease with increased age. they did before reaching age 40. A
People undergo many changes as program based on the principles of ex-
they grow older. For example, the ercise and the training concepts in this
amount of blood the heart can pump manual will result in a safe, long-term
per beat and per minute decreases conditioning program for all soldiers.
during maximal exercise, as does the Only those age 40 and over who have
maximum heart rate. This lowers a not been exercising regularly may need
person’s physical ability, and per- to start their exercise program at a
formance suffers. Also, the percent of lower level and progress more slowly
body weight composed of fat generally than younger soldiers. Years of inac-
increases, while total muscle mass de- tivity and possible abuse of the body
creases. The result is that muscular cannot be corrected in a few weeks or
strength and endurance, CR endur- months.
ance, and body composition suffer. A As of 1 January 1989, soldiers reach-
decrease in flexibility also occurs. ing age 40 are no longer required to get
Men tend to maintain their peak clearance from a cardiovascular screen-
levels of muscular strength and endur- ing program before taking the APFT.
ance and CR fitness until age 30. Only a medical profile will exempt
After 30 there is a gradual decline them from taking the biannual record
throughout their lives. Women tend to APFT. They must, however, have
reach their peak in physical capability periodic physical examinations in ac-
shortly after puberty and then undergo cordance with AR 40-501 and NGR
a progressive decline. 40-501. These include screening for
Although a decline in performance cardiovascular risk factors.
normally occurs with aging, those who
stay physically active do not have the Evaluation
same rate of decline as those who do
not. Decreases in muscular strength To evaluate their physical fitness
and endurance, CR endurance, and and the effectiveness of their physical
flexibility occur to a lesser extent in fitness training programs, all military
those who regularly train these fitness personnel are tested biannually using
components. the APFT in accordance with AR 350-
Soldiers who are fit at age 40 and 15. (Refer to Chapter 14.) However,
continue to exercise show a lesser commanders may evaluate their physi-
decrease in many of the physiological cal fitness programs more frequently
functions related to fitness than do than biannually.
those who seldom exercise. A trained
60-year-old, for example, may have SCORING CATEGORIES
the same level of CR fitness as a
sedentary 20-year-old. In short, regu- There are two APFT categories of
lar exercise can help add life to your testing for all military personnel Ini-
years and years to your life. tial Entry Training (IET) and the Army

Safety is a major consideration
The APFT standard for basic train- when planning and evaluating physi-
ing is a minimum of 50 points per cal training programs. Commanders
event and no less than 150 points must ensure that the programs do not
overall by the end of basic training. place their soldiers at undue risk of
Graduation requirements for AIT and injury or accident. They should ad-
One Station Unit Training (OSUT)
require 60 points per event. dress the following items:
Safety is a major •Environmental conditions (heat/
consideration when Army Standard cold/traction).
planning and evaluating • Soldiers' levels of conditioning ( low/
All other Army personnel (active high/age/sex).
physical training and reserve) who are non-IET soldiers
programs •Facilities (availability/instruction/
must attain the minimum Army stan-
dard of at least 60 points per event. To repair).
get credit for a record APFT, a medic- •Traffic (routes/procedures/forma-
cally profiled soldier must, as a mini- tions).
mum, complete the 2-mile run or one •Emergency procedures (medical/
of the alternate aerobic events. communication/transport).
The objective of physical training
in the Army is to enhance soldiers’
abilities to meet the physical demands
of war. Any physical training which
results in numerous injuries or acci-
dents is detrimental to this goal. As in
most training, common sense must
prevail. Good, sound physical training
should challenge soldiers but should
not place them at undue risk nor lead
to situations where accidents or inju-
ries are likely to occur.

To provide enough energy-producing
oxygen to the muscles, the following
Cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness, events occur:
sometimes called CR endurance, aero- • Greater movement of air through
bic fitness, or aerobic capacity, is one the lungs.
of the five basic components of physi- • Increased movement of oxygen from
cal fitness. CR fitness is a condition in the lungs into the blood stream.
which the body’s cardiovascular (cir- • Increased delivery of oxygen-laden
culatory) and respiratory systems blood to the working muscles by the
function together, especially during heart's accelerated pumping action.
exercise or work, to ensure that ade- • Regulation of the blood vessel's size
quate oxygen is supplied to the work- to distribute blood away from inac- CR fitness is needed for
ing muscles to produce energy. CR tive tissue to working muscle.
fitness is needed for prolonged, rhyth- • Greater movemen t of oxygen from prolonged, rhythmic use
mic use of the body’s large muscle the blood into the muscle tissue. of the body's large
groups. A high level of CR fitness • Accelerated return of veinous blood
permits continuous physical activity muscle groups.
to the heart.
without a decline in performance and
allows for rapid recovery following
fatiguing physical activity.
Activities such as running, road
marching, bicycling, swimming, cross-
country skiing, rowing, stair climbing,
and jumping rope place an extra demand
on the cardiovascular and respiratory
systems. During exercise, these sys-
tems attempt to supply oxygen to the
working muscles. Most of this oxygen
is used to produce energy for muscular
contraction. Any activity that con-
tinuously uses large muscle groups for
20 minutes or longer taxes these sys-
tems. Because of this, a wide variety
of training methods is used to improve
cardiorespiratory endurance.

Physiology of Aerobic Training

Aerobic exercise uses oxygen to

produce most of the body’s energy
needs. It also brings into play a fairly
complex set of physiological events.

The best way to determine aerobic can be slowed by taking part in a
capacity is to measure it in the labora- regular exercise program.
tory. It is much easier, however, to es- Certain medical conditions also
timate maximum oxygen uptake by impair the transport of oxygen. They
using other methods. include diseases of the lungs, which
It is possible to determine a soldier’s interfere with breathing, and dis-
CR fitness level and get an accurate abling heart conditions. Another is
estimate of his aerobic capacity by us- severe blocking of the arteries which
ing his APFT 2-mile-run time. inhibits blood flow to the heart and
(Appendix F explains how to do this.) skeletal muscles.
Other tests - the bicycle, walk, and step Smoking can lead to any or all of the
tests - may also be used to estimate above problems and can, in the long
one’s aerobic capacity and evaluate and short term, adversely affect one’s
one’s CR fitness level. ability to do aerobic exercise.
Aerobic exercise is the In the presence of oxygen, muscle
cells produce energy by breaking down FITT Factors
best type of activity for carbohydrates and fats. In fact, fats
are only used as an energy source when As mentioned in Chapter 1, a person
attaining and oxygen is present. Hence, aerobic must integrate several factors into any
maintaining a low exercise is the best type of activity for successful fitness training program to
attaining and maintaining a low per- improve his fitness level. These fac-
percentage of body fat. centage of body fat. tors are summarized by the following
A person’s maximum aerobic capac- words which form the acronym FITT.
ity can be modified through physical Frequency, Intensity, Time, and Type.
training. To reach very high levels of They are described below as they
aerobic fitness, one must train hard. pertain to cardiorespiratory fitness. A
The best way to improve CR fitness is warm-up and cool-down should also
to participate regularly in a demanding be part of each workout. Information
aerobic exercise program. on warming up and cooling down is
Many factors can negateively affect given in Chapters 1 and 4.
one's ability to perform well aerobi-
cally. These include the following:
• Age. Frequency refers to how often one
• Anemia. exercises. It is related to the intensity
• Carbon monoxide from tobacco smoke and duration of the exercise session.
Conditioning the CR system can best
or pollution.
be accomplished by three adequately
• High altitude (reduced oxygen pres- intense workouts per week. Soldiers
sure). should do these on alternate days. By
• Illness (heart disease). building up gradually, soldiers can get
• Obesity. even greater benefits from working
out five times a week. However,
• Sedentary life-style.
leaders should recognize the need for
Any condition that reduces the body’s recovery between hard exercise peri-
ability to bring in, transport, or use ods and should adjust the training in-
oxygen reduces a person’s ability to tensity accordingly. They must also be
perform aerobically. Inactivity causes aware of the danger of overtraining
much of the decrease in physical fit- and recognize that the risk of injury
ness that occurs with increasing age. increases as the intensity and duration
Some of this decrease in aerobic fitness of training increases.

INTENSITY one can be sure that the intensity is
enough to improve his CR fitness level.
Intensity is related to how hard one
exercises. It represents the degree of
effort with which one trains and is
probably the single most important
factor for improving performance. Un-
fortunately, it is the factor many units
Changes in CR fitness are directly
related to how hard an aerobic exercise
is performed. The more energy ex-
pended per unit of time, the greater
Percent MHR Method
the intensity of the exercise. Signifi-
cant changes in CR fitness are brought
With this method, the THR is fig-
about by sustaining training heart
ured using the estimated maximal heart
rates in the range of 60 to 90 percent
rate. A soldier determines his esti-
of the heart rate reserve (HRR). In- mated maximum heart rate by sub-
tensities of less than 60 percent HRR
tracting his age from 220. Thus, a 20-
are generally inadequate to produce a
year-old would have an estimated
training effect, and those that exceed
maximum heart rate (MHR) of 200
90 percent HRR can be dangerous.
beats per minute (220 -20 = 200).
Soldiers should gauge the intensity
of their workouts for CR fitness by
determining and exercising at their
training heart rate (THR). Using the
THR method lets them find and pre-
scribe the correct level of intensity
during CR exercise. By determining
one’s maximum heart rate, resting
heart rate, and relative conditioning
level, an appropriate THR or intensity
can be prescribed.
One’s ability to monitor the heart
rate is the key to success in CR
training. (Note: Ability-group run-
ning is better than unit running be-
cause unit running does not accommo-
date the individual soldier’s THR. For
example, some soldiers in a formation
may be training at 50 percent HRR When using the MHR method, one
and others at 95 percent HRR. As a must compensate for its built-in weak-
result, the unit run will be too intense ness. A person using this method may
for some and not intense enough for exercise at an intensity which is not
others.) high enough to cause a training effect.
The heart rate during work or exer- To compensate for this, a person who
cise is an excellent indicator of how is in poor shape should exercise at 70
much effort a person is exerting. percent of his MHR; if he is in
Keeping track of the heart rate lets one relatively good shape, at 80 percent
gauge the intensity of the CR exercise MHR; and, if he is in excellent shape,
being done. With this information, at 90 percent MHR.

Percent HRR Method

A more accurate way to calculate

THR is the percent HRR method. The
range from 60 to 90 percent HRR is the
THR range in which people should
exercise to improve their CR fitness
levels. If a soldier knows his general
level of CR fitness, he can determine
which percentage of HRR is a good
starting point for him. For example, if
he is in excellent physical condition, he
could start at 85 percent of his HRR; if
he is in reasonably good shape, at 70
percent HRR; and, if he is in poor
shape, at 60 percent HRR.
Most CR workouts should be con-
ducted with the heart rate between 70
to 75 percent HRR to attain, or main-
tain, an adequate level of fitness. Soldiers
who have reached a high level of
fitness may derive more benefit from
working at a higher percentage of
HRR, particularly if they cannot find
more than 20 minutes for CR exercise.
Exercising at any lower percentage of
HRR does not give the heart, muscles,
and lungs an adequate training stimu-
Before anyone begins aerobic train-
ing, he should know his THR (the heart
rate at which he needs to exercise to get
a training effect).

As shown, the percentage (70 per- During aerobic exercise, the body
cent in this example) is converted to will usually have reached a "Steady
the decimal form (0.70) before it is State" after five minutes of exercise,
multiplied by the HRR. The result is
then added to the resting heart rate and the heart rate will have leveled off.
(RHR) to get the THR. Thus, the At this time, and immediately after ex-
product obtained by multiplying 0.70 ercising, the soldier should monitor his
and 131 is 91.7. When 91.7 is added to
the RHR of 69, a THR of 160.7 results. heart rate.
When the calculations produce a frac- He should count his pulse for 10
tion of a heart beat, as in the example, seconds, then multiply this by six to get
the value is rounded off to the nearest his heart rate for one minute. This will
whole number. In this case, 160.7 let him determine if his training inten-
BPM is rounded off to give a THR of sity is high enough to improve his CR
161 BPM. In summary, a reasonably fitness level.
fit 20-year-old soldier with a resting For example, use the THR of 161
heart rate of 69 BPM has a training BPM figured above. During the 10-
heart rate goal of 161 BPM. To de- second period, the soldier should get a
termine the RHR, or to see if one is count of 27 beats (161/6= 26.83 or 27)
within the THR during and right after if he is exercising at the right intensity.
exercise, place the tip of the third If his pulse rate is below the THR, he
finger lightly over one of the carotid must exercise harder to increase his
arteries in the neck. These arteries are pulse to the THR. If his pulse is above
located to the left and right of the the THR, he should normally exercise
Adam’s apple. (See Figure 2-1A.) at a lower intensity to reduce the pulse
Another convenient spot from which rate to the prescribed THR. He should
to monitor the pulse is on the radial count as accurately as possible, since
artery on the wrist just above the base one missed beat during the 10-second
of the thumb. (See Figure 2-lB.) Yet count, multiplied by six, gives an error
another way is to place the hand over of six BPM.
the heart and count the number of
heart beats. (See Figure 2-1 C.)

Figure 2-1

A soldier who maintains his THR exercise. have a THR of 23 beats in 10
throughout a 20- to 30-minute exercise seconds. He can determine this from
A soldier who maintains period is doing well and can expect im- the table by locating his age and then
his THR throughout a provement in his CR fitness level. He tracking upward until he reaches the
20-30-minute exercise should check his exercise and post- percent HRR for his fitness level.
period is doing well and exercise pulse rate at least once each Again, those with a low fitness level
can expect improvement workout. If he takes only one pulse should work at about 60 percent HRR
in his CR fitness level. check, he should do it five minutes into and those with a good fitness level at
the workout. 70 percent HRR. Those with a high
Figure 2-2 is a chart that makes it level of fitness may benefit most by
easy to determine what a soldier’s THR training at 80 to 90 percent HRR.
should be during a 10-second count. Another way to gauge exercise in-
Using this figure, a soldier can easily tensity is “perceived exertion.” This
find his own THR just by knowing his method relies on how difficult the
age and general fitness level. For exercise seems to be and is described
example, a 40-year-old soldier with a in Appendix G.
low fitness level should, during aerobic

Figure 2-2

TIME The secondary activities may briefly
elevate the heart rate but may not keep
Time, or duration, refers to how it elevated to the THR throughout the
long one exercises. It is inversely entire workout.
related to intensity. The more intense Every activity has its advantages and Every activity has its
the activity, the shorter the time needed disadvantages. Trainers must weigh advantages and
to produce or maintain a training these and design programs that fit the disadvantages. Trainers
effect; the less intense the activity, the unit’s needs. must design programs
longer the required duration. To that fit the unit’s needs.
improve CR fitness, the soldier must Running
train for at least 20 to 30 minutes at his
THR. Running enables the body to im-
prove the transport of blood and oxy-
TYPE gen to the working muscles and brings
about positive changes in the muscles’
Only aerobic exercises that require ability to produce energy. Running
breathing in large volumes of air fits well into any physical training pro-
improve CR fitness. Worthwhile aero- gram ‘because a training effect can be
bic activities must involve the use of attained with only three 20-minute
large muscle groups and must be rhyth- workouts per week.
mic. They must also be of sufficient Some soldiers may need instruction
duration and intensity (60 to 90 per- to improve their running ability. The
cent HRR). Examples of primary and following style of running is desired.
secondary exercises for improving CR The head is erect with the body in a
fitness are as follows: straight line or slightly bent forward at
the waist. The elbows are bent so the
PRIMARY forearms are relaxed and held loosely
• Running. at waist level. The arms swing natu-
• Rowing. rally from front to rear in straight
• Jogging. lines. (Cross-body arm movements
• Skiing (cross-country). waste energy. The faster the run, the
• Walking (vigorous). faster the arm action.) The toes point
• Exercising to music. straight ahead, and the feet strike on
• Road marching. the heel and push off at the big toe.
• Rope skipping. Besides learning running techniques,
• Bicycling (stationary). soldiers need information on ways to
•Swimming. prevent running injuries. The most
• Bicycling (road/street). common injuries associated with PT in
• Stair climbing. the Army result from running and
occur to the feet, ankles, knees, and
SECONDARY (Done with partners or legs. Proper warm-up and cool-down,
opponents of equal or greater ability.) along with stretching exercises and
•Racquetball (singles). wearing appropriate clothing and well-
•Basketball (full court). fitting running shoes, help prevent Important information
•Handball (singles).
injuries. Important information on on safety factors and
•Tennis (singles).
safety factors and common running in-
juries is presented in Chapter 13 and common running
The primary exercises are more ef- Appendix E. injuries is presented in
fective than the secondary exercises in Failure to allow recovery between C hapter 13 and
producing positive changes in CR fit- hard bouts of running cannot only lead
ness. to overtraining, but can also be a major Appendix E .

cause of injuries. A well-conditioned into four to six ability groups, each
soldier can run five to six times a week. with a leader, is best for aerobic
However, to do this safely, he should training, For activities like circuits,
do two things: 1) gradually buildup to strength training, and competitive
running that frequently; and, 2) vary events, smaller groups are easier to
the intensity and/or duration of the work with than one large group.
running sessions to allow recovery Because people progress at different
between them. rates, soldiers should move to faster
groups when they are ready. To help
ABILITY GROUP RUNNING them train at their THR and enhance
their confidence, those who have a
Traditionally, soldiers have run in hard time keeping up with a group
unit formations at a pace prescribed by should be placed in a slower group. As
the PT leader. Commanders have used the unit’s fitness level progresses, so
unit runs to improve unit cohesion and should the intensity at which each
fitness levels. Unfortunately, too many group exercises. Good leadership will
soldiers are not challenged enough by prevent a constant shifting of soldiers
the intensity or duration of the unit between groups due to lack of effort.
run, and they do not receive a training AGR is best conducted at the right
benefit. For example, take a company intensity at least three times a week.
that runs at a nine-minute-per-mile As explained, the CR system should
pace for two miles. Only soldiers who not be exercised “hard” on consecutive
cannot run two miles in a time faster days. If AGR is used on hard CR-
than 18 minutes will receive a signifi- training days, unit runs at lower inten-
cant training effect. Therefore, in sities are good for recovery days.
terms of conditioning, most soldiers Using this rotation, soldiers can gain
who can pass the 2-mile-run test are the desired benefits of both unit and
wasting their time and losing the chance ability-group runs. The problem comes
to train hard to excel. Ability group when units have a limited number of
running (AGR) is the best way to days for PT and there is not enough
provide enough intensity so each sol- time for both. In this case, unit runs
dier can improve his own level of CR should seldom, if ever, be used and
fitness. should be recognized for what they
AGR lets soldiers train in groups of are -- runs to build unit cohesion.
near-equal ability. Each group runs at Leaders can use additional methods
a pace intense enough to produce a to achieve both goals. The unit can
training effect for that group and each begin in formation and divide into
soldier in it. Leaders should program ability groups at a predetermined re-
these runs for specific lengths of time, lease point. The run can also begin
not miles to be run. This procedure lets with soldiers divided into ability groups
more-fit groups run a greater distance which join at a link-up point. Alter-
than the less-fit groups in the same nately, ability groups can be started
time period thus enabling every soldier over the same route in a stagger, with
to improve. the slowest group first. Link-ups
The best way to assign soldiers to occur as each faster group overtakes
ability groups is to make a list, in slower groups.
The best way to assign order, of the unit’s most recent APFT With imagination and planning, AGR
soldiers to ability 2-mile-run times. The number of will result in more effective training
groups is to, make a list, groups depends on the unit size, num- workouts for each soldier. The argu-
in order, of the unit’s ber of leaders available to conduct the ment that ability-group running de-
most recent APFT runs, and range of 2-mile-run times. tracts from unit cohesion is invalid.
2-mile-run times. A company-sized unit broken down Good leadership and training in all

Step 1. Determine (or estimate) the
areas promote unit cohesion and team
actual 1-mile-race pace. The soldier's
spirit; training that emphasizes form
over substance does not. 2-mile-run time is 16:00 minutes, and
his estimated pace for 1 mile is one half
INTERVAL TRAINING of this or 8:00 minutes.
Step 2. Using the time from Step 1,
Interval training also works the car- determine the time it took to run 440
diorespiratory system. It is an ad- yards by dividing the 1-mile-race pace
vanced form of exercise training which by four. (8:00 minutes/4 = 2:00 min-
helps a person significantly improve utes per 440 yards.)
his fitness level in a relatively short Step 3. Subtract one to four seconds
time and increase his running speed. from the 440-yard time in Step 2 to
In interval training, a soldier exer- find the time each 440-yard lap should
cises by running at a pace that is be run during an interval training
slightly faster than his race pace for session. (2:00 minutes - 1 to 4 seconds
short periods of time. This may be = 1:59 to 1:56.)
faster than the pace he wants to main- Thus, each 440-yard lap should be
tain during the next APFT 2-mile run. run in 1 munute, 56 seconds to 1
He does this repeatedly with periods of minute, 59 seconds during interval
recovery placed between periods of training based on the soldier's 16:00, 2-
fast running. In this way, the energy mile run time. Recovery periods,
systems used are allowed to recover, twice the length of the work-interval
and the exerciser can do more fast- periods. These recovery peri-
paced running in a given workout than ods, therefore, will be 3 minutes, 52
if he ran continuously without resting. seconds long (1:56 + 1:56 = 3:52).
This type of intermittent training can
also be used with activities such as
cycling, swimming, bicycling, rowing,
Using the work-interval time for
and road marching.
The following example illustrates each 440-yard lap from Step 3, the
how the proper work-interval times soldier can run six to eight repetitions
of 440 yards at a pace of 1 minute, 56
and recovery times can be calculated
seconds (1:56) for each 440-yard run.
for interval training so that it can be
This can be done on a 440-yard track
used to improve a soldier’s 2-mile-run
(about 400 meters) as follows:
The work-interval time (the speed 1. Run six to eight 440-yard repeti-
at which a soldier should run each tions with each interval run at a 1:56
440-yard lap) depends on his actual pace.
race pace for one mile. If a soldier’s 2. Follow each 440-yard run done in
actual 1-mile-race time is not known, 1 minute, 56 secons by an easy jog of
it can be estimated from his last APFT 440 yards for recovery. Each 440-yard
by taking one half of his 2-mile-run jog should take twice as much time as
time. Using a 2-mile-run time of the work interval (that is, 3:52). For
1600 minutes as an example, the pace each second of work, there are two
for an interval training workout is cal- seconds of recovery. Thus, the work-
culated as follows: to-rest ratio is 1:2.

Table 2-1

To help determine the correct time week at the most, with at least one
intervals for a wide range of fitness recovery day in between. He may also
levels, refer to Table 2-1. It shows do recovery workouts of easy jogging
common 1 -mile times and the corre- on off days. It is recommended that
sponding 440-yard times. interval training be done two times a
Monitoring the heart-rate response week only during the last several
during interval training is not as im- weeks before an APFT. Also, he should
portant as making sure that the work rest the few days before the test by
intervals are run at the proper speed. doing no, or very easy, running.
Because of the intense nature of inter- As with any workout, soldiers should
val training, during the work interval start intervaI workouts with a warm-
the heart rate will generally climb to 85 up and end them with a cool-down.
or 90 percent of HRR. During the
recovery interval, the heart rate usu- FARTLEK TRAINING
ally falls to around 120 to 140 beats per
minute. Because the heart rate is not In Fartlek training, another type of
the major concern during interval train- CR training sometimes called speed
ing, monitoring THR and using it as a play, the soldier varies the intensity
training guide is not necessary. (speed) of the running during the
As the soldier becomes more condi- workout. Instead of running at a con-
tioned, his recovery is quicker. As a stant speed, he starts with veryslow
In Fartlek training, the result, he should either shorten the re- jogging. When ready, he runs hard for
covery interval (jogging time) or run a few minutes until he feels the need
soldier varies the the work interval a few seconds faster. to slow down. At this time he recovers
After a soldier has reached a good by jogging at an easy pace. This process
intensity (speed) of the CR fitness level using the THR method, of alternating fast and recovery run-
running throughout the he should be ready for interval train- ning (both of varying distances) gives
ing. As with any other new training the same results as interval training.
workout. method, interval training should be However, neither the running nor re-
introduced into his training program covery interval is timed, and the run-
gradually and progressively. At first, ning is not done on a track. For these
he should do it once a week. If he reasons, many runners prefer Fartlek
responds well, he may do it twice a training to interval training.

LAST-MAN-UP RUNNING conditioning improves. At first, the
distance should be one mile or less,
This type of running, which in- depending on the terrain and fitness
cludes both sprinting and paced run- level. It should then be gradually in- Cross-country runs can
ning, improves CR endurance and creased to four miles. Cross-country
accommodate large
conditions the legs. It consists of 40- runs have several advantages: they
to 50-yard sprints at near-maximum provide variety in physical fitness train- numbers of soldiers.
effort. This type of running is best ing, and they can accommodate large
done by squads and sections. Each numbers of soldiers. Interest can be
squad leader places the squad in an stimulated by competitive runs after
evenly-spaced, single-file line on a soldiers attain a reasonable level of
track or a smooth, flat course. During fitness. These runs may also be com-
a continuous 2- to 3-mile run of bined with other activities such as
moderate intensity, the squad leader, compass work (orienteering).
running in the last position, sprints to
the front of the line and becomes the Road Marches
leader. When he reaches the front, he The road or foot march is one of the
resumes the moderate pace of the best ways to improve and maintain
whole squad. After he reaches the fitness. Road marches are classified as
front, the next soldier, who is now at either administrative or tactical, and
the rear, immediately sprints to the they can be conducted in garrison or in
front. The rest of the soldiers continue the field. Soldiers must be able to move
to run at a moderate pace. This pattern quickly, carry a load (rucksack) of
of sprinting by the last person contin- equipment, and be physically able to
ues until each soldier has resumed his perform their missions after extended
original position in line. This pattern marching.
of sprinting and running is repeated
several times during the run. The dis- BENEFITS OF ROAD MARCHES
tance run and number of sprints per-
formed should increase as the soldiers’ Road marches are an excellent aero-
conditioning improves. bic activity. They also help develop
endurance in the muscles of the lower
CROSS-COUNTRY RUNNING body when soldiers carry a heavy load.
Road marches offer several benefits
Road marches help
Cross-country running conditions when used as part of a fitness program.
troops acclimatize to
the leg muscles and develops CR en- They are easy to organize, and large
new environments,
durance. It consists of running a numbers of soldiers can participate. In
certain distance on a course laid out addition, when done in an intelligent,
across fields, over hills, through woods, systematic, and progressive manner,
or on any other irregular terrain. It they produce relatively few injuries.
can be used as both a physical condi- Many soldier-related skills can be
tioning activity and a competitive integrated into road marches. They can
event. The object is to cover the also help troops acclimatize to new
distance in the shortest time. environments. They help train leaders
The unit is divided into ability to develop skills in planning, prepara-
groups using 2-mile-run times. Each tion, and supervision and let leaders
group starts its run at the same time. make first-hand observations of the
This lets the better-conditioned groups soldiers’ physical stamina. Because
run farther and helps ensure that they road marches are excellent fitness-
receive an adequate training stimulus. training activities, commanders should
The speed and distance can be make them a regular part of their unit’s
increased gradually as the soldiers’ PT program.

TYPES OF MARCHES about the same time. Soldiers who
have high fitness levels can generally
The four types of road marches - march for longer stretches than those
day, limited visibility, forced, and who are less fit.
shuttle - are described below. For
more information on marches, see PLANNING A ROAD MARCH
FM 21-18. Any plan to conduct a road march to
improve physical fitness should con-
Day Marches sider the following:
•Load to be carried.
Day marches, which fit easily into
the daily training plan, are most con- •Discipline and supervision.
ducive to developing physical fitness. •Distance to be marched.
They are characterized by dispersed •Route reconnaissance.
formations and ease of control and re- •Time allotted for movement.
connaissance. •Water stops.
•Present level of fitness.
Limited Visibility Marches •Rest stops.
•Intensity of the march.
Limited visibility marches require •Provisions for injuries.
more detailed planning and supervi-
•Terrain an weather conditions.
sion and are harder to control than day
marches. Because they move more •Safety precautions.
slowly and are in tighter formations, Soldiers should usually receive ad-
soldiers may not exercise hard enough vance notice before going on a march.
to obtain a conditioning effect. Lim- This helps morale and gives them time
ited visibility marches do have some to prepare. The leader should choose
advantages, however. They protect an experienced soldier as a pacesetter
soldiers from the heat of the day, to lead the march. The pacesetter
challenge the ability of NCOS and of- should carry the same load as the other
ficers to control their soldiers, and soldiers and should be of medium
provide secrecy and surprise in tactical height to ensure normal strides. The
situations. normal stride for a foot march, ac-
cording to FM 21-18, is 30 inches.
Forced Marches This stride, and a cadence of 106 steps
per minute, results in a speed of 4.8
Soldiers should receive Forced marches require more than kilometers per hour (kph). When a 10-
the normal effort in speed and exer- minute rest is taken each hour, a net
advance notcie before tion. Although they are excellent con- speed of 4 kph results.
going on a march, to ditioners, they may leave soldiers too The pacesetter should keep in mind
fatigued to do other required training that ground slope and footing affect
help morale and give
tasks. stride length. For example, the length
them time to prepare. Shuttle Marches decreases when soldiers march up hills
or down steep slopes. Normal stride
Shuttle marches alternate riding and and cadence are maintained easily on
marching, usually because there are moderate, gently rolling terrain unless
not enough vehicles to carry the entire the footing is muddy, slippery, or
unit. These marches may be modified rough.
and used as fitness activities. A shuttle Personal hygiene is important in
march can be planned to move troops preventing unnecessary injuries. Be-
of various fitness levels from one point fore the march, soldiers should cut
to another, with all soldiers arriving at their toenails short and square them

off, wash and dry their feet, and After marches, soldiers should again
lightly apply foot powder. They should care for their feet, wash and dry their
wear clean, dry socks that fit well and socks, and dry their boots.
have no holes. Each soldier should
take one or more extra pair of socks
depending on the length of the march. PROGRAMS TO IMPROVE
Soldiers who have had problems with LOAD-CARRYING ABILITY
blisters should apply a thin coating of
petroleum jelly over susceptible areas. The four generalized programs de-
Leaders should check soldiers’ boots scribed below can be used to improve
before the march to make sure that the soldiers’ load-carrying ability. Each
they fit well, are broken in and in good program is based on a different num-
repair, with heels that are even and not ber of days per week available for a PT
worn down. program.
During halts soldiers should lie down If only two days are available for PT,
and elevate their feet. If time permits, both should include exercises for
they should massage their feet, apply improving CR fitness and muscular
powder, and change socks. Stretching endurance and strength. Roughly equal
for a few minutes before resuming the emphasis should be given to each of
march may relieve cramps and sore- these fitness components.
ness and help prepare the muscles to If there are only three days available
continue exercising. To help prevent for PT, they should be evenly dis-
lower back strain, soldiers should help persed throughout the week. Two of
each other reposition the rucksacks the days should stress the development
and other loads following rest stops. of muscular endurance and strength
Soldiers can relieve swollen feet by for the whole body. Although all of the
slightly loosening the laces across their major muscle groups of the body should
arches. be trained, emphasis should be placed

on the leg (hamstrings and quadriceps), A recent Army study showed that
hip (gluteal and hip flexors), low back road-march training two times a month
(spinal erector), and abdominal (rectus and four times a month produced
abdominis) muscles. These two days similar improvements in road-march-
should also include brief (2-mile) CR ing performance. Thus, twice-monthly
workouts of light to moderate intensity road marches appear to produce a
(65 to 75 percent HRR). On the one favorable improvement in soldiers’
CR fitness day left, soldiers should abilities to road march if they are
take a long distance run (4 to 6 miles) supported by a sound PT program
at a moderate pace (70 percent HRR), (five days per week)
an interval workout, or an aerobic Commanders must establish realis-
circuit. They should also do some tic goals for road marching based on
strength work of light volume and assigned missions. They should also
intensity. If four days are available, a allow newly assigned soldiers and those
road march should be added to the coming off extended profiles to gradu-
three-day program at least twice ally build up to the unit’s fitness level
monthly. The speed, load, distance, before making them carry maximum
and type of terrain should be varied. loads. This can be done with ability
If there are five days, leaders should groups.
devote two of them to muscular strength Road marching should be integrated
and endurance and two of them to CR into all other training. Perhaps the best
fitness. One CR fitness day will use single way to improve Ioad-earring
long distance runs; the other can stress capacity is to have a regular training
more intense workouts including in- program which systematically increases
terval work, Fartlek running, or last- the load and distance. It must also let
man-up running. At least two times the soldier regularly practice carrying
per month, the remaining day should heavy loads over long distances.
Leaders must train and
include a road march. As much as possible, leaders at all
march with their units Soldiers can usually begin road- levels must train and march with their
as much as possible. march training by carrying a total load units. This participation enhances
equal to 20 percent of their body leaders’ fitness levels and improves
weight. This includes all clothing and team spirit and confidence, both vital
equipment. However, the gender make- elements in accomplishing difficult
up and/or physical condition of a unit and demanding road marches.
may require using a different starting
load. Beginning distances should be Alternate Forms of
between five and six miles, and the Aerobic Exercise
pace should be at 20 minutes per mile
over flat terrain with a hard surface. Some soldiers cannot run. In such
Gradual increases should be made in cases, they may use other activities as
speed, load, and distance until soldiers supplements or alternatives. Swim-
can do the anticipated, worst-case, ming, bicycling, and cross-country
mission-related scenarios without ex- skiing are all excellent endurance ex-
cessive difficulty or exhaustion. Units ercises and are good substitutes for
should take maintenance marches at running. Their drawback is that they
Units should do
least twice a month. Distances should require special equipment and facili-
maintenance marches vary from six to eight miles, with loads ties that are not always available. As
at least twice a month. of 30 to 40 percent of body weight. with all exercise, soldiers should start
The pace should be 15 to 20 minutes slowly and progress gradually. Those
per mile. who use non-running activities to

such training may not improve run- aerobic workout. They can also do
ning ability. To prepare a soldier for calisthenics in the water. Together
the APFT 2-mile run, there is no sub- these activities combine walking and
stitute for running. running with moderate resistance work
for the upper body.
SWIMMING For injured soldiers, swimming and
aerobic water-training are excellent
Swimming is a good alternative to for improving CR fitness without plac-
running. Some advantages of swim- ing undue stress on injured weight-
ming include the following: bearing parts of the body.
o Involvement of all the major muscle
groups. CYCLING
o Body position that enhances the
blood’s return to the heart. Cycling is an excellent exercise for
o Partial support of body weight by developing CR fitness. Soldiers can
the water, which minimizes lower bicycle outdoors or on a stationary
body stress in overweight soldiers. cycling machine indoors. Road cycling
Swimming may be used to improve should be intense enough to allow the
one’s CR fitness level and to maintain soldier to reach and maintain THR at
and improve CR fitness during recov- least 30 minutes.
ery from an injury. It is used to Soldiers can alter the cycling inten-
supplement running and develop upper sity by changing gears, adding hill Cycling should be
body endurance and limited strength. work, and increasing velocity. Dis- intense enough to let the
The swimmer should start slowly with tance can also be increased to enhance soldier reach and
a restful stroke. After five minutes, he CR fitness, but the distance covered is maintain THR at least
should stop to check his pulse, com- not as important as the amount of time 30 minutes.
pare it with his THR and, if needed, spent training at THR. The intensity
adjust the intensity. of a workout can be increased by in-
Compared with all the other modes creasing the resistance against the wheel
of aerobic exercise presented in this or increasing the pedaling cadence
manual (e.g., running, walking, cy- (number of RPM), For interval train-
cling, cross-country skiing, rope ing, the soldier can vary the speed and
jumping, etc.) in swimming alone, resistance and use periods of active For swimming, a soldier
one’s THR should be lower than while recovery at low speed and/or low should set his THR at
doing the other forms of aerobic exer- resistance. about 10 beats per
cise. This is because, in swimming, the minute lower then when
heart does not beat as fast as when WALKING running.
doing the other types of exercise at the
same work rate. Thus, in order to Walking is another way to develop
effectively train the CR system during cardiorespiratory fitness. It is enjoy-
swimming, a soldier should set his able, requires no equipment, and causes
THR about 10 bpm lower than while few injuries. However, unless walking
running. For example, a soldier whose is done for a long time at the correct
THR while running is 150 bpm should intensity, it will not produce any sig-
have a THR of about 140 bpm while nificant CR conditioning.
swimming. By modifying their THRs Sedentary soldiers with a low degree
in this manner while swimming, sol- of fitness should begin slowly with 12
diers will help to ensure that they are minutes of walking at a comfortable
working at the proper intensity. pace. The heart rate should be moni-
Non-swimmers can run in waist-to tored to determine the intensity. The
chest-deep water, tread water, and do soldier should walk at least four times
pool-side kicking for an excellent a week and add two minutes each week

to every workout until the duration ROPE SKIPPING
reaches 45 to 60 minutes per workout.
He can increase the intensity by adding Rope skipping is also a good exer-
hills or stairs. cise for developing CR fitness. It
As the walker’s fitness increases, he requires little equipment, is easily
should walk 45 to 60 minutes at a faster learned, may be done almost any-
pace. A simple way to increase walk- where, and is not affected by weather.
ing speed is to carry the arms the same Some runners use it as a substitute for
way as in running. With this technique running during bad weather.
the soldier has a shorter arm swing and A beginner should select a jump
takes steps at a faster rate. Swinging rope that, when doubled and stood on,
the arms faster to increase the pace is reaches to the armpits. Weighted
a modified form of race walking (power handles or ropes may be used by
walking) which allows for more upper- better-conditioned soldiers to improve
body work. This method may also be upper body strength. Rope skippers
used during speed marches. After should begin with five minutes of
about three months, even the most jumping rope and then monitor their
unfit soldiers should reach a level of heart rate. They should attain and
conditioning that lets them move into maintain their THR to ensure a train-
a running program. ing effect, and the time spent jumping
should be increased as the fitness level
Rope jumping, however, may be
Cross-country or Nordic skiing is stressful to the lower extremities and
another excellent alternative to the therefore should be limited to no more
usual CR activities. It requires vigor- than three times a week. Soldiers
ous movement of the arms and legs should skip rope on a cushioned sur-
Cross-country skiing which develops muscular and CR face such as a mat or carpet and should
requires vigorous endurance and coordination. Some of wear cushioned shoes.
movement of the arms the highest levels of aerobic fitness
and legs, developing ever measured have been found in HANDBALL AND
muscular and CR cross-country skiers. RACQUET SPORTS
endurance. Although some regions lack snow,
one form or another of cross-country Handball and the racquet sports
skiing can be done almost anywhere-- (tennis, squash, and racquetball) in-
on country roads, golf courses, open volve bursts of intense activity for
fields, and in parks and forests. short periods. They do not provide the
Cross-country skiing is easy to learn. same degree of aerobic training as
The action is similar to that used in exercises of longer duration done at
brisk walking, and the intensity may be lower intensities. However, these
varied as in running. The work load is sports are good supplements and can
determined by the difficulty of ter- provide excellent aerobic benefits
rain, the pace, and the frequency and depending on the skill of the players.
duration of rest periods. Equipment is If played vigorously each day, they
reasonably priced, with skis, boots, may be an adequate substitute for low-
and poles often obtainable from the level aerobic training. Because run-
outdoor recreation services. ning increases endurance, it helps

improve performance in racket sports, jumping jacks, hops, jumps, or many
but the reverse is not necessarily true. other calisthenics.
Workouts can be done in a small
EXERCISE TO MUSIC space by diverse groups of varying
fitness levels. Heart rates should be
Aerobic exercise done to music is taken during the conditioning phase to
another excellent alternative to run- be sure the workout is sufficiently
ning. It is a motivating, challenging intense. If strengthening exercises are
activity that combines exercise and included, the workout addresses every
rhythmic movements. There is no component of fitness. Holding rela-
prerequisite skill, and it can be totally tively light dumbbells during the work-
individualized to every fitness level by out is one way to increase the intensity
varying the frequency, intensity, and for the upper body and improve mus-
duration. One can move to various cular endurance. Warm-up and cool-
tempos while jogging or doing down stretches should be included in
the aerobic workout.

On today's battlefield, in addition to Isometric contraction produces con-
cardiorespiratory fitness, soldiers need traction but no movement, as when
a high level of muscular endurance and pushing against a wall. Force is pro-
strength. In a single day they may duced with no change in the angle of
carry injured comrades, move equip- the joint.
ment, lift heavy tank or artillery rounds, Isotonic contraction causes a joint
push stalled vehicles, or do many other to move through a range of motion
strength-related tasks. For example, against a constant resistance. Common
based on computer-generated scenar- examples are push-ups, sit-ups, and
ios of an invasion of Western Europe, the lifting of weights.
artillerymen may have to load from 300 Isokinetic contraction causes the
to 500, 155mm-howitzer rounds (95-lb angle at the joint to change at a
rounds) while moving from 6 to 10 constant rate, for example, at 180
times each day over 8 to 12 days. In- degrees per second. To achieve a
fantrymen may need to carry loads constant speed of movement, the load
exceeding 100 pounds over great dis- or resistance must change at different
tances, while supporting units will joint angles to counter the varying
deploy and displace many times. In- forces produced by the muscle(s) at
deed, survival on the battlefield may, different angles. This requires the use
in large part, depend on the muscular of isokinetic machines. There are
endurance and strength of the individ- other resistance-training machines
ual soldier. which, while not precisely controlling
the speed of movement, affect it by
Muscular Fitness varying the resistance throughout the
range of motion. Some of these
Muscular fitness has two compo- devices are classified as pseudo-isoki-
nents: muscular strength and muscular netic and some as variable-resistance
endurance. machines.
Muscular strength is the greatest Isotonic and isokinetic contractions
amount of force a muscle or muscle have two specific phases - the concen-
group can exert in a single effort. tric or “positive” phase and the eccen-
Muscular endurance is the ability of tric or “negative” phase. In the concen-
a muscle or muscle group to do re- tric phase (shortening) the muscle
peated contractions against a less-than- contracts, while in the eccentric phase
maximum resistance for a given time. (elongation) the muscle returns to its
Although muscular endurance and normal length. For example, on the
strength are separate fitness compo- upward phase of the biceps curl, the
nents, they are closely related. Pro- biceps are shortening. This is a con-
gressively working against resistance centric (positive) contraction. During
will produce gains in both of these the lowering phase of the curl the
components. biceps are lengthening. This is an
eccentric (negative) contraction.
Muscular Contractions A muscle can control more weight
in the eccentric phase of contraction
Isometric, isotonic, and isokinetic than it can lift concentrically. As a
muscular endurance and strength are result, the muscle may be able to
best produced by regularly doing each handle more of an overload eccentri-
specific kind of contraction. They are cally. This greater overload, in return,
described here. may produce greater strength gains.

The nature of the eccentric contrac- To understand the principle of over-
tion, however, makes the muscle and load, it is important to know the
connective tissue more susceptible to following strength-training terms:
• Full range of motion. To obtain When a muscle is
damage, so there is more muscle sore-
ness following eccentric work. optimal gains, the overload must be overloaded by isometric,
When a muscle is overloaded, whether applied thoughout the full range of isotonic, or isokinetic
by isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic motion. Exercise a joint and its as- contractions, it adapts by
contractions, it adapts by becoming sociated muscles through its com-
plete range starting from the pre- becoming stronger.
stronger. Each type of contraction has
advantages and disadvantages, and each stretched position (stretched past
will result in strength gains if done the relaxed position) and ending in
properly. a fully contratcted position. This is
The above descriptions are more crucial to strength development.
important to those who assess strength • Repetition. When an exercise has
than to average people trying to de- progressed through one complete
velop strength and endurance. Actu- range of motion and back to the
ally, a properly designed weight train- beginning, one repetition has been
ing program with free weights or completed.
resistance machines will result in • One-repetition maximum (1-RM).
improvements in all three of these This is a repetition performed against
categories. the greatest possible resistance (the
maximum weight a person can lift
Principles of Muscular one time). A 10-RM is the maxi-
Training mum weight one can lift correctly
10 times. Similarly, an 8-12 RM is
To have a good exercise program, that weight which allows a person
the seven principles of exercise, de- to do from 8 to 12 correct repeti-
scribed in Chapter 1, must be applied tions. The intensity for muscular
to all muscular endurance and strength endurance and strength training is
training. These principles are over- often expressed as a percentage of.
load, progression, specificity, regular- the 1-RM.
ity, recovery, balance, and variety. • Set. This is a series of repetitions
done without rest.
• Muscle Failure. This is the inabil-
OVERLOAD ity of a person to do another correct
repetition in a set.
The overload principle is the basis
for all exercise training programs. For The minimum resistance needed to
a muscle to increase in strength, the obtain strength gains is 50 percent of
workload to which it is subjected the 1 -RM. However, to achieve enough
during exercise must be increased overload, programs are designed to
beyond what it normally experiences. require sets with 70 to 80 percent of
In other words, the muscle must be one’s 1 -RM. (For example, if a sol-
overloaded. Muscles adapt to in- dier’s 1 -RM is 200 pounds, multiply
creased workloads by becoming larger 200 pounds by 70 percent [200 X 0.70
and stronger and by developing greater = 140 pounds] to get 70 percent of the
endurance. 1 -RM.)

A better and easier method is the repetitions, he momentarily cannot
repetition maximum (RM) method. The correctly do another repetition. This
exerciser finds and uses that weight weight is the 8-12 RM for that exer-
which lets him do the correct number cise.
of repetitions. For example, to develop
both muscle endurance and strength, a MUSCULAR ENDURANCE/
soldier should choose a weight for each STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT
exercise which lets him do 8 to 12 repe-
titions to muscle failure. (See Figure To develop muscle strength, the
3-1.) The weight should be heavy weight selected should be heavier and
enough so that, after doing from 8 to 12 the RM will also be different. For ex-
ample, the soldier should find that
weight for each exercise which lets
him do 3 to 7 repetitions correctly.
This weight is the 3-7 RM for that
exercise. Although the greatest im-
provements seem to come from resis-
tances of about 6-RM, an effective
range is a 3-7 RM. The weight should
be heavy enough so that an eighth
repetition would be impossible be-
cause of muscle fatigue.
The weight should also not be too
heavy. If one cannot do at least three
repetitions of an exercise, the resis-
tance is too great and should be re-
duced. Soldiers who are just begin-
ning a resistance-training program
should not start with heavy weights.
They should first build an adequate
foundation by training with an 8-12
RM or a 12+ RM.
To develop muscular endurance,
the soldier should choose a resistance
that lets him do more than 12 repeti-
tions of a given exercise. This is his
12+ repetition maximum (12+ RM).
With continued training, the greater
the number of repetitions per set, the
greater will be the improvement in
muscle endurance and the smaller the
gains in strength. For example, when
a soldier trains with a 25-RM weight,
gains in muscular endurance will be
greater than when using a 15-RM
weight, but the gain in strength will
not be as great. To optimize a soldier’s
performance, his RM should be deter-
mined from an analysis of the critical
tasks of his mission. However, most
soldiers will benefit most from a resis-
Figure 3-1 tance-training program with an 8-12

Whichever RM range is selected, pletes the eighth repetition in one or
the soldier must always strive to over- more of the sets. He continues to work
load his muscles. The key to overload- with that weight until he can complete
ing a muscle is to make that muscle all eight repetitions in each set, then
exercise harder than it normally does. increases the resistance by no more
than 10 percent.
An overload may be achieved by any
of the following methods: SPECIFICITY
• Increasing the resistance.
• Increasing the number of repeti- A resistance-training program should
tions per set. provide resistance to the specific muscle
• Increasing the number of sets. groups that need to be strengthened.
These groups can be identified by
• Reducing the rest time between
doing a simple assessment. The soldier
sets. slowly does work-related movements
• Increasing the speed of movement he wants to improve and, at the same
in the concentric phase. time, he feels the muscles on each side
(Good form is more important than of the joints where motion occurs.
the speed of movement.) Those muscles that are contracting or
becoming tense during the movement
• Using any combination of the above.
are the muscle groups involved. If the
PROGRESSION soldier’s performance of a task is not
adequate or if he wishes to improve,
When an overload is applied to a strength training for the identified
muscle, it adapts by becoming stronger muscle(s) will be beneficial. To im-
and/or by improving its endurance. prove his muscular endurance and
Usually significant increases in strength strength. in a given task, the soldier
can be made in three to four weeks of must do resistance movements that are
proper training depending on the in- as similar as possible to those of doing
dividual. If the workload is not pro- the task. In this way, he ensures
gressively increased to keep pace with maximum carryover value to his sol-
newly won strength, there will be no diering tasks.
further gains. When a soldier can cor-
rectly do the upper limit of repetitions
for the set without reaching muscle REGULARITY
failure, it is usually time to increase
the resistance. For most soldiers, this Exercise must be done regularly to
upper limit should be 12 repetitions. produce a training effect. Sporadic
Exercise must be done
For example, if his plan is to do 12 exercise may do more harm than good.
repetitions in the bench press, the Soldiers can maintain a moderate level regularly to produce a
soldier starts with a weight that causes of strength by doing proper strength
muscle failure at between 8 and 12 workouts only once a week, but three training effect.
repetitions (8- 12 RM). He should workouts per week are best for optimal
continue with that weight until he can gains. The principle of regularity also
do 12 repetitions correctly. He then applies to the exercises for individual
should increase the weight by about 5 muscle groups. A soldier can work out
percent but no more than 10 percent. three times a week, but when different
In a multi-set routine, if his goal is to muscle groups are exercised at each
do three sets of eight repetitions of an workout, the principle of regularity is
exercise, he starts with a weight that violated and gains in strength are
causes muscle failure before he com - minimal.

RECOVERY the smaller muscIes. For example, the
lat pull-down stresses both the larger
Consecutive days of hard resistance latissimus dorsi muscle of the back and
training for the same muscle group can the smaller biceps muscles of the arm.
be detrimental. The muscles must be If curls are done first, the smaller
allowed sufficient recovery time to muscle group will be exhausted and
adapt. Strength training can be done too weak to handle the resistance
every day only if the exercised muscle needed for the lat pull-down. As a
groups are rotated, so that the same result, the soldier cannot do as many
There should be at
muscle or muscle group is not exercised repetitions with as much weight as he
least a 48-hour recovery on consecutive days. There should be normally could in the lat pull-down.
at least a 48-hour recovery period The latissimus dorsi muscles will not
period between workouts
between workouts for the same muscle be overloaded and, as a result, they
for the same muscle groups. For example, the legs can be may not benefit very much from the
trained with weights on Monday, workout.
group. Wednesday, and Friday and the upper The best sequence to follow for a
body muscles on Tuesday, Thursday, total-body strength workout is to first
and Saturday. exercise the muscles of the hips and
Recovery is also important within a legs, followed by the muscles of the
workout. The recovery time between upper back and chest, then the arms,
different exercises and sets depends, in abdominal, low back, and neck. As
part, on the intensity of the workout. long as all muscle groups are exercised
Normally, the recovery time between at the proper intensity, improvement
sets should be 30 to 180 seconds. will occur.


When developing a strength training A major challenge for all fitness

program, it is important to include training programs is maintaining en-
It is important to exercises that work all the major muscle thusiasm and interest. A poorly de-
include exercises that groups in both the upper and lower signed strength- training program can
work all the major body. One should not work just the be very boring. Using different equip-
muscle groups in both upper body, thinking that running will ment, changing the exercises, and al-
the upper and lower strengthen the legs. tering the volume and intensity are
body. Most muscles are organized into good ways to add variety, and they
opposing pairs. Activating one muscle may also produce better results. The
results in a pulling motion, while acti- soldier should periodically substitute
vating the opposing muscle results in different exercises for a given muscle
the opposite, or pushing, movement. group(s). For example, he can do
When planning a training session, it is squats with a barbell instead of leg
best to follow a pushing exercise with presses on a weight machine. Also, for
a pulling exercise which results in variety or due to necessity (for ex-
movement at the same joint(s). For ample, when in the field), he can
example, follow an overhead press switch to partner-resisted exercises or
with a lat pull-down exercise. This another form of resistance training.
technique helps ensure good strength However, frequent wholesale changes
balance between opposing muscle groups should be avoided as soldiers may
which may, in turn, reduce the risk of become frustrated if they do not have
injury. Sequence the program to exer- enough time to adapt or to see im-
cise the larger muscle groups first, then provements in strength.

Workout Techniques about 8 to 16 exercises that work all of
the body’s major muscle groups. Usu-
Workouts for improving muscular ally eight well-chosen exercises will
endurance or strength must follow the serve as a good starting point. They
principles just described. There are should include those for the muscles of
also other factors to consider, namely, the leg, low back, shoulders, and so
safety, exercise selection, and phases forth. The soldier should choose exer-
of conditioning. cises that work several muscle groups
and try to avoid those that isolate single
SAFETY FACTORS muscle groups. This will help him train
a greater number of muscles in a given
Major causes of injury when strength time. For example, doing lat pull-
training are improper lifting tech- downs on the “lat machine” works the
niques combined with lifting weights latissimus dorsi of the back and the
that are too heavy. Each soldier must biceps muscles of the upper arm. On
understand how to do each lift cor- the other hand, an exercise like con-
rectly before he starts his strength centration curls for the biceps muscles
training program. of the upper arm, although an effective
The soldier should always do weight exercise, only works the arm flexor
training with a partner, or spotter, muscles. Also, the concentration curl
who can observe his performance as he requires twice as much time as lat pull-
exercises. To ensure safety and the downs because only one arm is worked
best results, both should know how to at a time.
use the equipment and the proper Perhaps a simpler way to select an
spotting technique for each exercise. exercise is to determine the number of
A natural tendency in strength train- joints in the body where movement oc-
ing is to see how much weight one can curs during a repetition. For most
lift. Lifting too much weight forces a people, especially beginners, most of
compromise in form and may lead to the exercises in the program should be
injury. All weights should be selected “multi-joint” exercises. The exercise
so that proper form can be maintained should provide movement at more than
for the appropriate number of repeti- one joint. For example, the pull-down
tions. exercise produces motion at both the
Correct breathing is another safety shoulder and elbow joints. The con-
factor in strength training. Breathing centration curl, however, only involves
should be constant during exercise. the elbow joint.
The soldier should never hold his
breath, as this can cause dizziness and PHASES OF CONDITIONING
even loss of consciousness. As a
general rule, one should exhale during There are three phases of condition-
the positive (concentric) phase of ing: preparatory, conditioning, and
contraction as the weight or weight maintenance. These are also described
stack moves away from the floor, and in Chapter 1.
inhale during the negative (eccentric)
phase as the weight returns toward the Preparatory Phase
The three phases of
The soldier should use very light conditioning are
weights during the first week (the
EXERCISE SELECTION preparatory, conditioning,
preparatory phase) which includes the
first two to three workouts. This is and maintenance.
When beginning a resistance-train- very important, because the beginner
ing program, the soldier should choose must concentrate at first on learning

the proper form for each exercise. Maintenance Phase
Using light weights also helps mini-
mize muscle soreness and decreases the Once the soldier reaches a high
likelihood of injury to the muscles, level of fitness, the maintenance phase
joints, and ligaments. During the is used to maintain that level. The
second week, he should use progres- emphasis in this phase is no longer on
sively heavier weights. By the end of progression but on retention. Al-
the second week (4 to 6 workouts), he though training three times a week for
should know how much weight on each muscle endurance and strength gives
exercise will allow him to do 8 to 12 the best results, one can maintain them
repetitions to muscle failure. If he can by training the major muscle groups
do only seven repetitions of an exer- properly one or two times a week.
cise, the weight must be reduced; if he More frequent training, however, is
can do more than 12, the weight should required to reach and maintain peak
be increased. fitness levels. Maintaining the optimal
level of fitness should become part of
Conditioning Phase each soldier’s life-style and training
routine. The maintenance phase should
The third week is normally the start be continued throughout his career
of the conditioning phase for the be- and, ideally, throughout his life.
ginning weight trainer. During this As with aerobic training, the sol-
phase, the soldier should increase the dier should do strength training three
amount of weight used and/or the times a week and should allow at least
intensity of the workout as his muscu- 48 hours of rest from resistance train-
lar strength and/or endurance increases. ing between workouts for any given
He should do one set of 8 to 12 muscle group.
repetitions for each of the heavy-
resistance exercises. When he can do TIMED SETS
more than 12 repetitions of any exer-
cise, he should increase the weight Timed sets refers to a method of
until he can again do only 8 to 12 repe- physical training in which as many
titions. This usually involves an in- repetitions as possible of a given exer-
crease in weight of about five percent. cise are performed in a specified pe-
This process continues indefinitely. As riod of time. After an appropriate
long as he continues to progress and get period of rest, a second, third, and so
stronger, he does not need to do more on, set of that exercise is done in an
than one set per exercise. If he stops equal or lesser time period. The
making progress with one set of 8 to 12 exercise period, recovery period, and
repetitions per exercise, he may bene- the number of sets done should be
fit from adding another set of 8 to 12 selected to make sure that an overload
repetitions on those exercises in which of the involved muscle groups occurs.
progress has slowed. As time goes on The use of timed sets, unlike exer-
and he progresses, he may increase the cises performed in cadence or for a
number to three sets of an exercise to specific number of repetitions, helps
get even further gains in strength and/ to ensure that each soldier does as
or muscle mass. Three sets per exer- many repetitions of an exercise as pos-
cise is the maximum most soldiers will sible within a period of time. It
ever need to do. does not hold back the more capable

performer by restricting the number be developed and followed. Thus, as
of repetitions he may do. Instead, sol- a general rule, a muscle endurance or
diers at all levels of fitness can indi- strength training workout should not
vidually do the number of repetitions be designed to work exclusively, or
they are capable of and thereby be give priority to, those muscle groups
sure they obtain an adequate training worked by the sit-up or push-up event.
stimulus. For this reason, the best procedure
In this FM, timed sets will be to follow when doing a resistance
applied to improving soldier’s sit-up exercise is as follows. First, perform a
and push-up performance. (See Fig- workout to strengthen all of the body’s
ures 3-2 and 3-3. ) Many different major muscles. Then, do timed sets to
but equally valid approaches can be improve push-up and sit-up perform-
taken when using timed sets to im- ance. Following this sequence ensures
prove push-up and sit-up perform- that all major muscles are worked. At
ance. Below, several of these will be the same time, it reduces the amount of
given. time and work that must be devoted to
It should first be stated that im- push-ups and sit-ups. This is because
proving sit-up and push-up perform- the muscles worked by those two exer-
ance, although important for the APFT, cises will already be pre-exhausted.
should not be the main goal of an The manner in which timed sets for
Army physical training program. It push-ups and sit-ups are conducted
must be to develop an optimal level of should occasionally be varied. This
physical fitness which will help sol- ensures continued gains and minimizes
diers carry out their mission during boredom. This having been said, here
combat. Thus, when a soldier per- is a very time-efficient way of con-
forms a workout geared to develop ducting push-up/sit-up improvement.
muscle endurance and strength, the Alternate timed sets of push-ups and
goal should be to develop sufficient timed sets of sit-ups with little or no
strength and/or muscle endurance in time between sets allowed for recov-
all the muscle groups he will be called ery. In this way, the muscle groups
upon to use as he performs his mission. used by the push-up can recover while
To meet this goal, and to be assured the muscles used in the sit-up are
that all emergencies can be met, a exercised, and vice versa. The follow-
training regimen which exercises all ing is an example of this type of
the body’s major muscle groups must approach:

Figure 3-2

If all soldiers exercise at the same before doing the other. For example,
time, the above activity can be finished several timed sets of push-ups can be
in about 3.5 minutes. As the soldiers’ done followed by several sets of sit-
levels of fitness improve, the difficulty ups, or vice versa. With this approach,
of the activity can be increased. This rest intervals must be placed between
is done by lengthening the time period timed sets. The following example can
of any or all timed sets, by decreasing be done after the regular strength
any rest period between timed sets, by workout and is reasonable starting
increasing the number of timed sets routine for most soldiers.
performed, or by any combination of During a timed set of push-ups, a
these. soldier may reach temporary muscle
To add variety and increase the failure at any time before the set is
overall effectiveness of the activity, over. If this happens, he should
different types of push-ups (regular, immediately drop to his knees and
feet-elevated, wide-hand, close-hand, continue doing modified push-ups on
and so forth) and sit-ups (regular, his knees.
abdominal twists, abdominal curls, and Finally, as in any endeavor, soldiers
so forth) can be done. When perform- must set goals for themselves. This
ing this type of workout, pay attention applies when doing each timed set and
to how the soldiers are responding, and when planning for their next and
make adjustments accordingly. For future APFTs.
example, the times listed in the chart
above may prove to be too long or too Major Muscle Groups
short for some soldiers. In the same
way, because of the nature of the sit- In designing a workout it is impor-
up, it may become apparent that some tant to know the major muscle groups,
soldiers can benefit by taking slightly where they are located, and their pri-
more time for timed sets of sit-ups mary action. (See Figure 3-4.)
than for push-ups. To ensure a good, balanced work-
When using timed sets for push-up out, one must do at least one set of
and sit-up improvement, soldiers can exercises for each of the major muscle
also perform all sets of one exercise groups.

Figure 3-3

Figure 3-4

Figure 3-5
The beginning weight-training pro- lat pull-down, and biceps curl. Thus,
gram shown at Figure 3-5 will work for the beginner, this program may
most of the important, major muscle overwork some muscle groups. How-
groups. It is a good program for begin- ever, for the more advanced lifter, it
ners and for those whose time is will make the muscles work in differ-
limited. The exercises should be done ent ways and from different angles
in the order presented. thereby providing a better over-all
The weight-training program shown development of muscle strength. This
at Figure 3-6 is a more comprehensive program also includes exercises to
program that works the major muscle strengthen the neck muscles.
groups even more thoroughly. It has When doing one set of each exercise
some duplication
. with respect to the to muscle failure, the average soldier
muscles that are worked. For example, should be able to complete this routine
the quadriceps are worked by the leg and do a warm-up and cool-down
press/squat and leg extensions, and the within the regular PT time.
biceps are worked by the seated row,

Figure 3-6

Key Points to Emphasize Exercise Programs

Some key points to emphasize when When developing strength programs

doing resistance training tire as fol- for units, there are limits to the type of
lows training that can be done. The availa-
● Train with a partner if possible, bility of facilities is always a major
This helps to increase motivation, concern. Although many installations
the intensity of the workout, and have excellent strength-training fa-
safety, cilities, it is unreasonable to expect that
● Always breathe when lifting. Exhale all units can use them on a regular
during the concentric (positive] phase basis. However, the development of
of contraction, and inhale during strength does not require expensive
the eccentric (negative) phase, equipment. All that is required is for
● Accelerate the weight through the the soldier, three times a week, to
concentric phase of contraction, progressively overload his muscles.
and return the weight to the starting
position in a controlled manner TRAINING WITHOUT SPECIAL
during the eccentric phase, EQUIPMENT
● Exercise the large muscle groups
first, then the smaller ones. Muscles do not care what is supply-
● Perform all exercises through their ing the resistance. Any regular resis-
full range of motion. Begin from a tance exercise that makes the muscle
fully extended, relaxed position (pre- work harder than it is used to causes it
stretched), and end the concentric to adapt and become stronger. Whether
phase in a fully contracted position, the training uses expensive machines,
● Always use strict form. Do not sandbags, or partners, the result is
twist, lurch, lunge, or arch the largely the same.
body, This can cause serious in- Sandbags are convenient for train-
jury. These motions also detract ing large numbers of soldiers, as they
from the effectiveness of the exer- are available in all military units. The
cise because they take much of the weight of the bags can be varied
stress off the targeted muscle groups depending on the amount of fill.
and place it on other muscles. Sandbag exercises are very effective in
● Rest from 30 to 180 seconds be- strength-training circuits. Logs, ammo
tween different exercises and sets boxes, dummy rounds, or other equip-
of a given exercise. ment that is unique to a unit can also
● Allow at least 48 hours of recovery be used to provide resistance for strength
between workouts, but not more training. Using a soldier’s own body
than 96 hours, to let the body re- weight as the resistive force is another
cover and help prevent over train- excellent alternative method of strength
ing and injury. training. Pull-ups, push-ups, dips, sit-
● Progress slowly, Never increase the ups, and single-leg squats are examples
resistance used by more than 10 of exercises which use a person’s body
percent at a time. weight. They can improve an un-
● Alternate pulling and pushing exer- trained soldier’s level of strength.
cises. For example, follow triceps Partner-resisted exercises (PREs) are
extensions with biceps curls. another good way to develop muscular
● Ensure that every training program strength without equipment, especially
is balanced. Train the whole body, when training large numbers of sol-
not just specific areas. Concentrat- diers at one time. As with all training,
ing on weak areas is all right, but safety is a critical factor. Soldiers
the rest of the body must also be should warm up, cool down, and follow
trained. the principles of exercise previously
PARTNER-RESISTED EXERCISE take at least as long to complete as
the positive part. Proper exercise
In partner-resisted exercises (PREs) form and regularity in perform-
a person exercises against a partner’s ance are key ingredients when
opposing resistance. The longer the using PREs for improving strength.
partners work together, the more Following are descriptions and
effective they should become in pro- illustrations of several PREs. They
viding the proper resistance for each should be done in the order given
exercise. They must communicate with to ensure that the exercising sol-
each other to ensure that neither too dier is working his muscle groups
much nor too little resistance is ap- from the largest to the smallest.
plied. The resister must apply enough More than one exercise per muscle
resistance to bring the exerciser to group may be used. The PT leader
muscle failure in 8 to 12 repetitions. can select exercises which meet the
More resistance usual] y can and should unit’s specific goals while consid-
be applied during the eccentric (nega- ering individual limitations:
tive) phase of contraction (in other A 36-to 48-inch stick or bar one
words, the second half of each repe- inch in diameter may be used for
tition as the exerciser returns to the some of the exercises. This gives
starting position). The speed of move- the resister a better grip and/or
ment for PREs should always be slow leverage and also provides a feel
and controlled. As a general rule, the similar to that of free weights and
negative part of each exercise should exercise machines.


Units in garrison usually have access to

weight rooms with basic equipment for
resistance-training exercises. The ex-
ercises described here require free
weights and supporting equipment.
Although not shown below for the sake
of simplicity, all exercises done with
free weights require a partner, or
spotter, to ensure proper form and the
safety of the lifter.

Free-Weight Exercises

Exercises Performed with an
Exercise Machine

If exercise machines are available, eccentric (negative) phase of con-

the exercises described below are traction, should be done in a delib-
also good for strength training. All crate, controlled manner.
movements, particularly during the

The following exercises can be per- obliques). As the soldier becomes
formed to condition the muscles of the more conditioned on these exer-
mid-section (erector spinae, rectus cises, resistance can be added.
abdominus and external and internal

Exercise Chart
The chart labeled Figure 3-5 will help the
soldier select appropriate exercises for use in
developing a good muscular endurance and strength
workout. For example, if the soldier wants to
develop his upper leg muscles, he has several
options. He may choose from the following: 1)
PREs, concentrating on the split- or single-leg
squat; 2) exercises with equipment, doing free
weight squats; or, 3) exercises with a machine,
doing leg presses, leg curls, and leg extensions.

Flexibility is a component of physi- described here and shown later in this
cal fitness. Developing and maintain- chapter.
ing it are important parts of a fitness
program. Good flexibility can help a STATIC STRETCHING
soldier accomplish such physical tasks
as lifting, loading, climbing, parachut- Static stretching involves the grad-
ing, running, and rappelling with greater ual lengthening of muscles and ten-
efficiency and less risk of injury. dons as a body part moves around a
Flexibility is the range of movement joint. It is a safe and effective method
Flexibility refers to the for improving flexibility. The soldier
of a joint or series of joints and their
range of movement of a associated muscles. It involves the assumes each stretching position slowly
ability to move a part of the body until he feels tension or tightness. This
joint. through the full range of motion al- lengthens the muscles without causing
lowed by normal, disease-free joints. a reflex contraction in the stretched
No one test can measure total-body muscles. He should hold each stretch
flexibility. However, field tests can be for ten seconds or longer. This lets the
used to assess flexibility in the ham- lengthened muscles adjust to the stretch
string and low-back areas. These areas without causing injury.
are commonly susceptible to injury The longer a stretch is held, the
due, in part, to loss of flexibility. A easier it is for the muscle to adapt to
simple toe-touch test can be used. that length. Static stretching should
Soldiers shouId stand with their legs not be painful. The soldier should feel
straight and feet together and bend slight discomfort, but no pain. When
forward slowly at the waist. A soldier pain results from stretching, it is a sig-
who cannot touch his toes without nal that he is stretching a muscle or
bouncing or bobbing needs work to tendon too much and may be causing
improve his flexibility in the muscle damage.
groups stretched by this test. The
unit’s Master Fitness Trainer can help PASSIVE STRETCHING
him design a stretching program to
Passive stretching involves the sol-
improve his flexibility.
dier’s use of a partner or equipment,
Stretching during the warm-up and
such as a towel, pole, or rubber tubing,
cool-down helps soldiers maintain
overall flexibility. Stretching should to help him stretch. This produces a
safe stretch through a range of motion
not be painful, but it should cause some
he could not achieve without help. He
discomfort because the muscles are
being stretched beyond their normal should talk with his partner to ensure
length. Because people differ some- that each muscle is stretched safely
what anatomically, comparing one through the entire range of motion.
person’s flexibility with another’s should
not be done. People with poor flexi-
bility who try to stretch as far as others PNF stretching uses the neuromus-
The four categories of may injure themselves. cular patterns of each muscle group to
stretching techniques are help improve flexibility. The soldier
Stretching Techniques performs a series of intense contrac-
tions and relaxations using a partner or
proprioceptive Using good stretching techniques equipment to help him stretch. The
can improve flexibility. There are four PNF technique allows for greater muscle
neuromuscular commonly recognized categories of relaxation following each contraction
facilitation (PNF), and stretching techniques: static, passive, and increases the soldier’s ability to
proprioceptive neuromuscular facili- stretch through a greater range of
ballistic. tation (PNF), and ballistic. These are motion.

The warm-up warms the
Ballistic, or dynamic, stretching in- Before beginning any vigorous
volves movements such as bouncing or
muscIes, increasing the
physical activity, one should prepare flow of blood and
bobbing to attain a greater range of the body for exercise. The warm-up
motion and stretch. Although this
reducing the risk of
increases the flow of blood to the injury.
method may improve flexibility, it muscles and tendons, thus helping
often forces a muscle to stretch too far reduce the risk of injury. It also
and may result in an injury. Individu- increases the joint’s range of motion
als and units should not use ballistic and positively affects the speed of
stretching. muscular contraction.
A recommended sequence of warm-
FITT Factors up activities follows. Soldiers should
do these for five to seven minutes
Commanders should include stretch- before vigorous exercise.
ing exercises in all physical fitness • Slow joggin-in-place or walking
for one to two minutes. This causes
The following FITT factors apply a gradual increase in the heart rate,
when developing a flexibility program. blood pressure, circulation, and in-
Frequency: Do flexibility exercises creases the temperature of the ac-
daily. Do them during the warm-up tive muscles.
to help prepare the muscles for vig- • Slow joint rotation exercises (for
orous activity and to help reduce in- example, arm circles, knee/ankle
jury. Do them during the cool- rotations) to gradually increase the
down to help maintain flexibility. joint's range of motion. Work each
Intensity: Stretch a muscle beyond its major joint for 5 to 10 seconds.
normal length to the point of tension • Slow, static stretching of the muscles
to be used during the upcoming ac-
or slight discomfort, not pain.
tivity. This will "loosen up" muscles
Time: Hold stretches for 10 to 15 sec-
and tendons so they can achieve
onds for warming up and cooling greater ranges of motion with less
down and for 30 seconds or longer risk of injury. Hold each stretch
to improve flexibility. position for 10 to 15 seconds, and
Type: Use static stretches, assumed do not bounce or bob.
slowly and gradually, as well as pas- • Calisthenic exerciese, as described
sive stretching and/or PNF stretch- in Chapter 7, to increase the inten-
ing. sity level before the activity or con-
ditioning period.
Warm-Up and Cool-Down • Slowly mimic the activities to be
performed. For example, lift a
The warm-up and cool-down are lighter weight to warm-up before
very important parts of a physical lifting a heavier one. This helps
training session, and stretching exer- prepare the neuromuscular path-
cises should be a major part of both. ways.

THE COOL-DOWN The soldier should not limit flexi-
bility training to just the warm-up and
The following information explains cool-down periods. He should some-
the importance of cooling down and times use an entire PT session on a
how to do it correctly. "recovery" or "easy"training day to
• Do not stop suddenly after vigorous work on flexibility improvement. He
exercise, as this can be very danger- may also work on it at home. Stretch-
ing is one form of exercise that takes
ous. Gradually bring the body back
very little time relative to the benefits
to its resting state by slowly de- gained.
creasing the intensity of the activ-
ity. After running, for example, Rotation Exercises
one should walk for one to two min-
utes. Stopping exercise suddenly
Rotation exercises are used to gen-
can cause blood to pool in the
tly stretch the tendons, ligments, and
muscles, thereby reducing blood
muscles associated with a joint and to
flow to the heart and brain. This
may cause fainting or abnormal stimulate lubrication of the joint with
rhythms in the heart which could synovial fluid. This may provide
lead to serious complications. better movement and less friction in
• Repeat the stretches done in the the joint.
warm-up to help ease muscle ten- The following exercises should be
sion and any immediate feeling of performed slowly.
muscle soreness. Be careful not
to overstretch. The muscles are
warm from activity and can possibly
be overstretched to the point of
• Hold stretches 30 seconds or more
during the cool-down to improve
flexiblity. Use partner-assisted or
PNF techniques, if possible.

Common Stretching Exercises STATIC STRETCHES

The following exercises improve Assume all stretching positions

flexibility when performed slowly, slowly until you feel tension or slight
regularly, and with gradual progres- discomfort. Hold each position for at
sion. Static, passive and PNF stretches least 10 to 15 seconds during the
are shown. warm-up and cool-down. Develop-
CAUTION Some of these exercises mental stretching to improve flexibil-
may be difficult or too strenuous for ity requires holding each stretch for
unfit or medically limited soldiers. 30 seconds or longer.
Common sense should be used ;n se- Choose the appropriate stretch for
lecting stretching exercises. the muscle groups which you will be


Passive stretching is done with the help of a with a partner. When stretching alone, using a
partner or equipment. The examples in this chap- towel may help the exerciser achieve a greater
ter show passive stretching done with a towel or range of motion.

Soldiers can do PNF (Propriocep- for 5 to 10 seconds against the partner’s
tive Neuromuscular Facilitation) unyielding resistance.
stretches for most major muscle groups. 3. Relax. Next, contract the antago-
PNF stretches use a series of contrac- nistic muscles for 5 to 10 seconds while
tions, done against a partner’s resis- the partner helps the exerciser obtain a
tance, and relaxations. greater stretch.
Obtaining a safe stretch beyond the 4. Repeat this sequence three times,
muscle’s normal length requires a part- and try to stretch a little further each
ner’s assistance. The following four time. (Caution: The exerciser should
steps provide general guidance as to not hold his breath. He should breathe
how PNF stretches are done. Both the out during each contraction.)
exerciser and partner should follow Several examples of PNF stretches
these instructions: are provided below in a stepwise fash-
1. Assume the stretch position slowly ion. The numbers given above for each
with the partner’s help. step correspond to the general descrip-
2. Isometrically contract the muscles tion listed below.
to be stretched. Hold the contraction

percent body fat. The Army’s maxi-
mum allowable percentages of body
fat, by age and sex, are listed in Figure
Body composition, which refers to 5-1.
the body’s relative amounts of fat and
lean body mass (organs, bones, muscles), Evaluation Methods
is one of the five components of
physical fitness. Good body composi- The Army determines body fat
tion is best gained through proper diet percentage using the girth method.
and exercise. Examples of poor body (This is described in AR 600-9, pages
composition are underdeveloped mus- 12 to 21.)
culature or excessive body fat. Being Body composition is influenced by
overweight (that is, overly fat) is the age, diet, fitness level, and genetic
more common problem. factors (gender and body type). The
Poor body composition causes prob- Army’s screening charts for height and
lems for the Army. Soldiers with weight (shown in AR 600-9) make al-
inadequate muscle development can- lowances for these differences. A
not perform as well as soldiers with soldier whose weight exceeds the stan-
good body composition. As a soldier dard weight shown on the charts may
gets fat, his ability to perform physi- not necessarily be overfat. For ex-
cally declines, and his risk of develop- ample, some well-muscled athletes have
ing disease increases. Soldiers with body weights that far exceed the values
high percentages of body fat often for weight listed on the charts for their Body composition is
have lower APFT scores than those age, gender, and height. Yet, only a
with lower percentages. Poor body small percentage of their total body influenced by age,
composition, especially obesity, has a mass may be fat. In such cases, the lean fitness level, and
negative effect on appearance, self- body mass accounts for a large share of genetic factors.
-esteem, and negatively influences at- their total body composition, while
titude and morale. only a small percentage of the total
The Army’s weight control pro- body mass is composed of fat.
gram is described in AR 600-9. It ad- Soldiers who do not meet the weight
dresses body composition standards, standards for their height and/or sol-
programs for the overly fat, and re- diers whose appearance suggests that
lated administrative actions. they have excessive fat are to be
The amount of fat on the body, evaluated using the circumference (girth
when expressed as a percentage of measurement) method described in
total body weight, is referred to as the AR 600-9.

Figure 5-1

A more accurate way to determine and patience. There is no quick and
body composition is by hydrostatic or easy way to improve body composi-
underwater weighing. However, this tion.
method is very time-consuming and The soldier who diets and does not
expensive and usually done only at exercise loses not only fat but muscle
hospitals and universities. tissue as well. This can negatively
Soldiers who do not meet Army affect his physical readiness. Not only
body fat standards are placed on for- does exercise burn calories, it helps the
mal, supervised weight (fat) loss pro- body maintain its useful muscle mass,
grams as stipulated in AR 600-9. Such and it may also help keep the body’s
programs include sensible diet and ex- metabolic rate high during dieting.
ercise regimens. Fat can only be burned during
exercise if oxygen is used. Aerobic
exercise, which uses lots of oxygen, is
Diet and Exercise
the best type of activity for burning
fat. Aerobic exercises include jog-
A combination of exercise and diet ging, walking, swimming, bicycling,
is the best way to lose excessive body cross-country skiing, rowing, stair
fat. Losing one to two pounds a week climbing, exercise to music, and jump-
is a realistic goal which is best accom- ing rope. Anaerobic activities, such as
plished by reducing caloric intake and sprinting or lifting heavy weights,
increasing energy expenditure. In burn little, if any, fat.
other words, one should eat less and Exercise alone is not the best way to
exercise more. Dieting alone can cause lose body fat, especially in large
the body to believe it is being starved. amounts. For an average-sized per-
In response, it tries to conserve its fat son, running or walking one mile
reserves by slowing down its metabolic burns about 100 calories. Because
rate and, as a result, it loses fat at a there are 3,500 calories in one pound
slower rate. of fat, he needs to run or walk 35 miles
A combination of Soldiers must consume a minimum if pure fat were being burned. In re-
exercise and diet is the number of calories from all the major ality, fat is seldom the only source of
food groups, with the calories distrib- energy used during aerobic exercise.
best way to lose uted over all the daily meals including Instead, a mixture of both fats and
unwanted body fat. snacks. This ensures an adequate con- carbohydrates is used. As a result,
sumption of necessary vitamins and most people would need to run or walk
minerals. A male soldier who is not over 50 miles to burn one pound of fat.
under medical supervision when diet- A combination of proper diet and
ing requires a caloric intake of at least aerobic exercise is the proven way to
1 ,500; women require at least 1,200 lose excessive body fat. Local dieti-
calories. Soldiers should avoid diets tians and nutritionists can help soldiers
that fail to meet these criteria. who want to lose weight by suggesting
Trying to lose weight with fad diets safe and sensible diet programs. In
and devices or by skipping meals does addition, the unit’s MFT can design
Aerobic exercise is best not work for long-term fat loss, since tailored exercise programs which will
weight lost through these practices is help soldiers increase their caloric
for burning fat. mostly water and lean muscle tissue, expenditure and maintain their lean
examples include not fat. Losing fat safely takes time body mass.
jogging, walking, swim-
ming, bicycling, cross-
country skiing, and

who understand these dietary guide-
To be properly nourished, soldiers
In addition to exercise, proper nu- should regularly eat a wide variety of
trition plays a major role in attaining foods fro-m the major food groups,
and maintaining total fitness. Good selecting a variety of foods from within
dietary habits (see Figure 6-1 ) greatly each group. (See Figure 6-2.) A well-
enhance the ability of soldiers to per- balanced diet provides all the nutrients
form at their maximum potential. A needed to keep one healthy.
good diet alone, however, will not Most healthy adults do not need
make up for poor health and exercise vitamin or mineral supplements if they
habits. This chapter gives basic nutri- eat a proper variety of foods. There
tional guidance for enhancing physical are no known advantages in consuming
performance. Soldiers must know and excessive amounts of any nutrient, and
follow the basic nutrition principles if there may be risks in doing so.
they hope to maintain weight control For soldiers to get enough fuel from
as well as achieve maximum physical the food they eat and to obtain the
fitness, good health, and mental alert- variety of foods needed for nutrient
ness. balance, they should eat three meals a
day. Even snacking between meals can
Guidelines for Healthy Eating contribute to good nutrition if the
right foods are eaten.
Eating a variety of foods and main- Another dietary guideline is to
taining an energy balance are basic consume enough calories to meet one’s
guidelines for a healthy diet. Good energy needs. Weight is maintained as
nutrition is not complicated for those long as the body is in energy balance,

Figure 6-1

Figure 6-2

that is, when the number of calories shown in Figure 6-4. Similarly, a
used equals the number of calories person running at 6 miles per hour
consumed. (MPH) will burn 0.079 cal./min./lb.
The most accurate way to control and a typical, 150-pound male will
caloric intake is to control the size of burn 11.85 calories/minute (150 lbs. x
food portions and thus the total amount 0.079 cal./lb./min. = 11.85) or about
of food ingested. One can use standard 710 calories in one hour, as shown in
household measuring utensils and a Figure 6-3.
small kitchen scale to measure portions To estimate the number of calories
of foods and beverages. Keeping a you use in normal daily activity, multi-
daily record of all foods eaten and ply your body weight by 13 if you are
physical activity done is also helpful. sedentary, 14 if somewhat active, and
Figure 6-3 shows the number of 15 if moderately active. The result is
calories burned during exercise periods a rough estimate of the number of
of different types, intensities, and calories you need to maintain your
durations. For example, while partici- present body weight. You will need
pating in archery, a person will burn still more calories if you are more than
0.034 calories per pound per minute. moderately active. By comparing
Thus, a 150-pound person would burn caloric intake with caloric expendi-
5.1 calories per minute (150 lbs. x 0.034 ture, the state of energy balance (posi-
calories/minute/lb. = 5.1 calories/ tive, balanced, or negative) can be
minute) or about 305 calories/hour, as determined.

Figure 6-3

Avoiding an excessive intake of fats Concerns for Optimal
Avoiding an excessive is another fundamental dietary guide- Physical Performance
intake of fats is an line. A high intake of fats, especially
saturated fats and cholesterol, has been Carbohydrates, in the form of gly -
important fundamental associated with high levels of blood cogen (a complex sugar), are the pri-
of nutrition. cholesterol. mary fuel source for muscles during
The blood cholesterol level in most short-term, high-intensity activities.
Americans is too high. Blood choles- Repetitive, vigorous activity can use
terol levels can be lowered by reducing up most of the carbohydrate stores in
both body fat and the amount of fat in the exercised muscles.
the diet. Lowering elevated blood The body uses fat to help provide
cholesterol levels reduces the risk of energy for extended activities such as
developing coronary artery disease a one-hour run. Initially, the chief
(CAD) and of having a heart attack. fuel burned is carbohydrates, ‘but as
CAD, a slow, progressive disease, re- the duration increases, the contribu-
sults from the clogging of blood vessels tion from fat gradually increases.
in the heart. Good dietary habits help The intensity of the exercise also
reduce the likelihood of developing influences whether fats or carbohy-
CAD. drates are used to provide energy.
It is recommended that all persons Very intense activities use more car-
over the age of two should reduce their bohydrates. Examples include weight
fat intake to 30 percent or less of their training and the APFT sit-up and
Carbohydrates are the total caloric intake. The current na- push-up events.
tional average is 38 percent. In addi- Eating foods rich in carbohydrates
primary fuel source for helps maintain adequate muscle-gly -
tion, we should reduce our intake of
muscles during short- saturated fat to less than 10 percent of cogen reserves while sparing amino
term, high-intensity the total calories consumed. We should acids (critical building-blocks needed
activities. increase our intake of polyunsaturated for building proteins). At least 50
fat, but to no more than 10 percent of percent of the calories in the diet
our total calories. Finally, we should should come from carbohydrates.
reduce our daily cholesterol intake to Individual caloric requirements vary,
300 milligrams or less. Figure 6-4 sug- depending on body size, sex, age, and
gests actions commanders can take to training mission. Foods rich in com-
support sound dietary guidelines. Most plex carbohydrates (for example, pasta,
of these actions concern dining-facil- rice, whole wheat bread, potatoes) are
ity management. the best sources of energy for active

Figure 6-4

Because foods eaten one to three Sports drinks, which are usually
days before an activity provide part of simple carbohydrates (sugars) and
the fuel for that activity, it is impor- electrolytes dissolved in water, are
tant to eat foods every day that are rich helpful under certain circumstances.
in complex carbohydrates. It is also There is evidence that solutions con-
important to avoid simple sugars, such taining up to 10 percent carbohydrate
as candy, up to 60 minutes before ex- will enter the blood fast enough to de-
ercising, because they can lead to low liver additional glucose to the active
blood sugar levels during exercise. muscles. This can improve endurance.
Soldiers often fail to drink enough During prolonged periods of exer-
water, especially when training in the cise (1.5+ hours) at intensities over 50
heat. Water is an essential nutrient that percent of heart rate reserve, one can
is critical to optimal physical perform- benefit from periodically drinking
ance. It plays an important role in sports drinks with a concentration of 5
maintaining normal body temperature. to 10 percent carbohydrate. Soldiers
The evaporation of sweat helps cool the on extended road marches can also
body during exercise. As a result, wa- benefit from drinking these types of
ter lost through sweating must be glucose-containing beverages. During
replaced or poor performance, and intense training, these beverages can
possibly injury, can result. Sweat provide a source of carbohydrate for
consists primarily of water with small working muscles. On the other hand,
quantities of minerals like sodium. drinks that exceed levels of 10 percent
Cool, plain water is the best drink to carbohydrate, as do regular soda pops
use to replace the fluid lost as sweat. and most fruit juices, can lead to ab-
Soldiers should drink water before, dominal cramps, nausea, and diarrhea.
during, and after exercise to pre- Therefore, these drinks should be used
vent dehydration and help en- with caution during intense endurance
hance performance. Figure 6-5 shows training and other similar activities.
recommendations for fluid intake when Many people believe that body
exercising. builders need large quantities of

Figure 6-5

protein to promote better muscle of caloric needs to fat and stores it in
growth. The primary functions of the body.
protein are to build and repair body
tissue and to form enzymes. Protein is Nutrition in the Field
believed to contribute little, if any, to
the total energy requirement of heavy-
resistance exercises. The recommended Soldiers in the field must eat enough
dietary allowance of protein for adults food to provide them with the energy
is 0.8 grams per kilogram of body they need. They must also drink plenty
weight. Most people meet this level of water or other non-alcoholic bever-
when about 15 percent of their daily ages. The “meal, ready to eat” (MRE)
caloric intake comes from protein. supplies the needed amount of carbo-
During periods of intense aerobic train- hydrates, protein, fat, vitamins, and
ing, one’s need for protein might be minerals. It is a nutritionally adequate
somewhat higher (for example, 1.0 to ration when all of its components are
1.5 grams per kilogram of body weight eaten and adequate amounts of water
per day). Weight lifters, who have a are consumed. Because the foods are
high proportion of lean body mass, can enriched and fortified with vitamins
easily meet their protein requirement and minerals, each component is a
with a well-balanced diet which has 15 major source of nutrients. Soldiers
to 20 percent of its calories provided must eat all the components in order to
by protein. Recent research suggests get the daily military recommended
that weight trainers may need no more dietary allowances (MRDA) and have
protein per kilogram of body weight an adequate diet in the field. Soldiers
than average, nonathletic people. Most who are in weight control programs or
Americans routinely consume these who are trying to lose weight can eat
levels of protein, or more. The body part of each MRE item, as recom-
converts protein consumed in excess mended by dietitians.

This chapter gives commanders and TYPES OF CIRCUITS
trainers guidance in designing and
using exercise circuits. It describes The two basic types of circuits are
calisthenic exercises for developing the free circuit and the fixed circuit.
strength, endurance, coordination, and Each has distinct advantages.
flexibility. It also describes grass drills
and guerilla exercises which are closely Free Circuit
related to soldiering skills and should
be regularly included in the unit’s In a free circuit, there is no set time
physical fitness program. for staying at each station, and no
Circuit training is a term associated signal is given to move from one
with specific training routines. Com- station to the next. Soldiers work at
manders with a good understanding of their own pace, doing a fixed number
the principles of circuit training may of repetitions at each station. Progress
apply them to a wide variety of train- is measured by the time needed to
ing situations and environments. complete a circuit. Because soldiers
may do incomplete or fewer repeti-
Circuits tions than called for to reduce this
time, the quality and number of the
A circuit is a group of A circuit is a group of stations or repetitions done should be monitored.
areas where specific tasks or exercises Aside from this, the free circuit re-
stations or areas where quires little supervision.
are performed. The task or exercise
specific tasks or selected for each station and the ar-
exercises are performed. rangement of the stations is deter- Fixed Circuit
mined by the objective of the circuit. In a fixed circuit, a specific length
Circuits are designed to provide ex- of time is set for each station. The
ercise to groups of soldiers at intensi- time is monitored with a stopwatch,
ties which suit each person’s fitness and soldiers rotate through the stations
level. Circuits can promote fitness in on command.
a broad range of physical and motor
fitness areas. These include CR endur- There are three basic ways to increase
ance, muscular endurance, strength, the intensity or difficulty of a fixed
flexibility, and speed. Circuits can also circuit:
be designed to concentrate on sports • Keep the time for completion the
skills, soldiers’ common tasks, or any same, but increase the number of
combination of these. In addition,
circuits can be organized to exercise all
the fitness components in a short pe- • Increase the time per station along
riod of time. A little imagination can with the number of repetitions.
make circuit training an excellent • Increase the number of times sol-
addition to a unit’s total physical fit- diers go through the circuit.
ness program. At the same time, it can
provide both fun and a challenge to VARIABLES IN CIRCUIT TRAINING
soldiers’ physical and mental abilities.
Almost any area can be used, and any Several variables in circuit training
number of soldiers can exercise for must be considered. These include the
various lengths of time. time, number of stations, number of

time, number of stations, number of circuit several times. For example, a
soldiers, number of times the circuit is circuit may have ten stations. Soldiers
completed, and sequence of stations. may run through the circuit three
These are discussed below. times, exercising for 30 seconds at
each station, and taking 15 seconds to
Time move between stations. The exercise
time at each station may be reduced to
One of the first things to consider is 20 seconds the second and third time
how long it should take to complete the through. The whole workout takes less
circuit. When a fixed circuit is run, the than 45 minutes including warm-up
time at each station should always be and cool-down. As soldiers become
the same to avoid confusion and help better conditioned, exercise periods
maintain control. Consider also the may be increased to 30 seconds or
time it takes to move from one station longer for all three rotations. Another
to the next. Further, allow from five option is to have four rotations of the
to seven minutes both before and after circuit.
running a circuit for warming up and
cooling down, respectively. Sequence of Stations

Number of Stations Stations should be arranged in a se-

quence that allows soldiers some re-
The objective of the circuit and covery time after exercising at strenu-
time and equipment available strongly ous stations. Difficult exercises can be
influence the number of stations. A alternated with less difficult ones.
circuit geared for a limited objective After the warm-up, soldiers can start
(for example, developing lower-body a circuit at any station and still achieve
strength) needs as few as six to eight the objective by completing the full
stations. On the other hand, circuits to circuit.
develop both strength and CR fitness DESIGNING A CIRCUIT
may have as many as 20 stations.
The designer of a circuit must
Number of Soldiers
consider many factors. The six steps
below cover the most important as-
If there are 10 stations and 40
soldiers to be trained, the soldiers pects of circuit development.
should be divided into 10 groups of
four each. Each station must then be Determine Objectives
equipped to handle four soldiers. For
example, in this instance a rope jump- The designer must consider the
ing station must have at least four jump specific parts of the body and the
ropes. It is vital in a free circuit that components of fitness on which sol- The designer must
no soldier stand around waiting for diers need to concentrate. For ex- consider the specific
equipment. Having enough equipment ample, increasing muscular strength
may be the primary objective, while parts of the body and
reduces bottlenecks, slowdowns, and
poor results. muscular endurance work may be the components of
secondary. On the other hand, im- fitness on which soldiers
Number of Times a Circuit is proving cardiorespiratory endurance need to concentrate.
Completed may be the top priority. The designer
must first identify the training objec-
To achieve the desired training effect, tive in order to choose the appropriate
soldiers may have to repeat the same exercises.

Select the Activities a chance to recover before it is used in
another exercise. If some exercises are
The circuit designer should list all harder than others, soldiers can alter-
the exercises or activities that can help nate hard exercises with easier ones.
meet the objectives. Then he should The choice of exercises depends on the
look at each item on the list and ask the objectives of the circuit.
following questions:
● Will equipment be needed? Is it Select the Training Sites
● Will supervision be needed? Is it Circuits may be conducted out-
available? doors or indoors. If the designer wants
● Are there safety factors to consider? to include running or jogging a certain
Answering these questions helps the distance between stations, he may do
designer decide which exercises to use. this in several ways. In the gymna-
He can choose from the exercises, sium, soldiers may run five laps or for
calisthenics, conditioning drills, grass 20 to 40 seconds between stations.
drills, and guerrilla drills described in Outdoors, they may run laps or run
this chapter. However, he should not between spread-out stations if space is
limit the circuit to only these activities. available. However, spreading the
Imagination and field expediency are stations too far apart may cause prob-
important elements in developing cir- lems with control and supervision.
cuits that hold the interest of soldiers.
(See Figures 7-1 through 7-3.) Prepare a Sketch

Arrange the Stations The designer should draw a simple

sketch that shows the location of each
A circuit usually has 8 to 12 stations, station in the training area. The sketch
but it may have as many as 20. After should include the activity and length
deciding how many stations to include, of time at each station, the number of
the designer must decide how to ar- stations, and all other useful informa-
range them. For example, in a circuit tion.
for strength training, the same muscle
group should not be exercised at con- Lay Out the Stations
secutive stations.
One approach is to alternate “push- The final step is to lay out the
ing” exercises with “pulling” exercises stations which should be numbered
which involve movement at the same and clearly marked by signs or cards.
joint(s). For example, in a strength In some cases, instructions for the
training circuit, exercisers may follow stations are written on the signs. The
the pushing motion of a bench press necessary equipment is placed at each
with the pulling motion of the seated station.
row. This could be followed by the
pushing motion of the overhead press Sample Conditioning Circuits
The choice of exercises
which could be followed by the pulling
for circuit training motion of the lat pull-down. Another Figures 7-1, 7-2, and 7-3 show
depends on the objectives approach might be to alternate be- different types of conditioning cir-
of the circuit. tween upper and lower body exercises. cuits. Soldiers should work at each
By not exercising the same muscle station 45 seconds and have 15 seconds
group twice in a row, each muscle has to rotate to the next station.

Figure 7-1

Figure 7-2

Figure 7-3

Calisthenics cadence, use 50 counts per minute
unless otherwise directed.
Calisthenics can be used to exercise
most of the major muscle groups of the SAFETY FACTORS
Calisthenics can be
body. They can help develop coordi- While injury is always possible in
used to help develop nation, CR and muscular endurance, any vigorous physical activity, few
coordination. CR and flexibility, and strength. Poorly-coor- calisthenic exercises are really unsafe
dinated soldiers, however, will derive or dangerous. The keys to avoiding
muscular encurance, the greatest benefit from many of these injury while gaining training benefits
flexibility, and strength. exercises are using correct form and intensity.
Although calisthenics have some Also, soldiers with low fitness levels,
value when included in a CR circuit or such as trainees, shouId not do the ad-
when exercising to music, for the vanced exercises highly fit soldiers can
average soldier, calisthenics such as the do. For example, with the lower back
bend and reach, squat bender, lunger, properly supported, flutter kicks are
knee bender, and side-straddle hop can an excellent way to condition the hip
best be used in the warm-up and cool- flexor muscles. However, without sup-
down periods. Exercises such as the port, the possibility of straining the
push-up, sit-up, parallel bar dip, and lower back increases. It is not sensible
chin-up/pull-up, on the other hand, to have recruits do multiple sets of
can effectively be used in the condi- flutter kicks because they probably are
tioning period to develop muscular en- not conditioned for them. On the other
durance or muscular strength. hand, a conditioned Ranger company
Please note that exercises such as the may use multiple sets of flutter’ kicks
bend and reach, lunger, and leg spreader, with good results.
which were once deleted from FM 21- The key to doing calisthenic exer-
20 because of their potential risk to the cises safely is to use common sense.
exerciser, have been modified and re- Also, ballistic (that is, quick-moving)
introduced in this edition. All modi- exercises that combine rotation and
fications should be strictly adhered to. bending of the spine increase the risk
Few exercises are inherently unsafe. of back injury and should be avoided.
Nonetheless, some people, because of This is especially true if someone has
predisposing conditions or injuries, had a previous injury to the back. If
may find certain exercises less safe this type of action is performed, slow
than others. Leaders must consider stretching exercises, not conditioning
each of their soldier’s physical limita- drills done to cadence, should be used.
tions and use good judgment before Some soldiers complain of shoulder
letting a soldier perform these exer- problems resulting from rope climb-
cises. However, for the average soldier ing, horizontal ladder, wheelbarrow,
who is of sound body, following the and crab-walk exercises. These exer-
directions written below will produce cises are beneficial when the soldier is
satisfactory results with a minimum fit and he does them in a regular,
risk of injury. progressive manner. However, a cer-
Finally, some of the calisthenics tain level of muscular strength is
listed below may be done in cadence. needed to do them safely. Therefore,
These calisthenics are noted, and di- soldiers should progressively train to
rections are provided below with re- build up to these exercises. Using such
spect to the actions and cadence. When exercises for unconditioned soldiers
doing exercises at a moderate cadence, increases the risk of injury and acci-
use 80 counts per minute. With a slow dent.

Progression and Recovery Key Points for Safety

Other important principles for avoid- Doing safe exercises correctly im-
ing injury are progression and recov- proves a soldier’s fitness with a mini-
ery. Programs that try to do too much mum risk of injury.
too soon invite problems. The day The following are key points for en-
after a “hard” training day, if soldiers suring safety during stretching and
are working the same muscle groups calisthenic exercises:
and/or fitness components, they should • Stretch slowly and without pain and
work them at a reduced intensity to unnatural stress to a joint. Use
minimize stress and permit recovery. static (slow and sustained) stretch-
The best technique is to train alter- ing for warming up, cooling down,
nate muscle groups and/or fitness ballistic (bouncy or jerky) stretch-
components on different days. For ing movements.
example, if the Monday-Wednesday- • Do not allow the angle formed by
Friday (M-W-F) training objective is the upper and lower legs to become
CR fitness, soldiers can do ability less than 90 degrees when the legs
group running at THR with some light are bearing weight.
calisthenics and stretching. If the • A combination of spinal rotation
Tuesday-Thursday (T-Th) objective and bending should generally be
is muscular endurance and strength, avoided. However, if done, use
soldiers can benefit from doing part- only slow, controlled movements
ner-resisted exercises followed by a with little or no extra weight.
slow run. To ensure balance and
regularity in the program, the next
week should have muscle endurance
and strength development on M-W-F
and training for CR endurance on T- Leaders must be aware of the vari-
Th. Such a program has variety, ety of methods they may use to attain
develops all the fitness components, their physical training goals. The
and follows the seven principles of unit’s Master Fitness Trainer is schooled
exercise while, at the same time, it to provide safe, effective training meth-
minimizes injuries caused by overuse. ods and answer questions about train-
Leaders should plan PT sessions to ing techniques.
get a positive training effect, not to
conduct “gut checks.” They should
know how to correctly do all the exer- CALISTHENIC EXERCISES
cises in their program and teach their
soldiers to train using good form to The following are some common
help avoid injuries. calisthenic exercises.


Some large units prefer to use sets of sets, soldiers do as many repetitions of
calisthenic exercises as part of their PT an exercise as possible in the allowed
sessions. Figure 7-4 shows three cal- time. Using timed sets, both the well-
Conditioning drills are conditioned and less-fit soldiers can
intended to supplement isthenic conditioning drills for both
muscular strength and the poorly conditioned and physically work themselves to their limits.
endurance training fit soldiers. The drills are designed to The following conditioning drills
sessions. be done progressively and are intended (Figure 7-4) are arranged according to
to supplement muscular strength and the phase of training.
endurance training sessions.
Leaders can mix the exercises to Grass Drills
provide greater intensity, based on the Grass drills are exercise movements
fitness level of the soldiers being trained. that feature rapid changes in body
However, they should choose and position. These are vigorous drills
sequence them to alternate the muscle which, when properly done, exercise
groups being worked. Soldiers should all the major muscle groups. Soldiers
do each exercise progressively from 15 should respond to commands as fast as
to 40 or more repetitions (20 to 60 sec- possible and do all movements at top
onds for timed sets) based on their speed. They continue to do multiple
level of conditioning. They may also repetitions of each exercise until the
do each exercise in cadence unless next command is given. No cadence is
timed sets are specified. For timed counted.

Figure 7-4

Performing grass drills can improve does all the activities so that he can
CR endurance, help develop muscular gauge the intensity of the session. The
endurance and strength, and speed up commands for grass drills are given in
reaction time. Since these drills are rapid succession without the usual
extremely strenuous, they should last preparatory commands. To prevent
for short periods (30 to 45 seconds per confusion, commands are given sharply Grass drills are exercise
exercise). The two drills described to distinguish them from comments or movements that feature
here each have four exercises. Leaders words of encouragement. rapid changes in
can develop additional drills locally. As soon as the soldiers are familiar body position.
The soldiers should do a warm-up with the drill, they do all the exercises
before performing the drills and do a as vigorously and rapidly as possible,
cool-down afterward. The instructor and they do each exercise until the

next command is given. Anything less ● GO This involves running in place
than a top-speed performance de- at top speed on the balls of the feet.
creases the effectiveness of the drills. The soldier raises his knees high,
Once the drills start, soldiers do not pumps his arms, and bends forward
Soldiers should do a have to resume the position of atten- slightly at the waist.
warm -up before tion. The instructor uses the command ● FRONT The soldier lies prone
performing grass “Up” to halt the drill for instructions or with elbows bent and palms di-
drills and do a cool- rest. At this command, soldiers assume rectly under the shoulders as in the
down afterward. a relaxed, standing position. down position of the push up. The
Grass drills can be done in a short legs are straight and together with
time. For example, they may be used the head toward the instructor.
when only a few minutes are available BACK: The soldier lies flat on his
for exercise or when combined with back with his arms extended along
another activity. Sometimes, if time is his sides and his palms facing down
limited, they are a good substitute for ward. His legs are straight and to
running. gether; his feet face the instructor.
Most movements are done in place. ● STOP The soldier assumes the stance
The extended-rectangular formation is of a football lineman with feet
best for a platoon- or company-sized spread and staggered. His left arm
unit. The circle formation is more is across his left thigh; his right arm
suitable for squad- or section-sized is straight. His knuckles are on the
groups. ground; his head is up, and his back
When soldiers are starting an exer- is roughly parallel to the ground.
cise program, a 10- to 15-minute To assume the FRONT or BACK
workout may be appropriate. Progres- position from the standing GO or
sion is made by a gradual increase in STOP positions, the soldier changes
the time devoted to the drills. As the positions vigorously and rapidly. (See
fitness of the soldiers improves, the Figure 7-5.)
times should be gradually lengthened To change from the FRONT to the
to 20 minutes. The second drill is BACK position (Figure 7-5), the sol-
harder than the first. Therefore, as dier does the following:
soldiers progress in the first drill, the ● Takes several short steps to the
instructor should introduce the second. right or left.
If he sees that the drill needs to be Lifts his arm on the side toward
longer, he can repeat the exercises or which his feet move.
combine the two drills. ● Thrusts his legs vigorously to the
STARTING POSITIONS To change from the BACK to the
FRONT position, the soldier sits up
After the warm-up, bring the sol- quickly. He places both hands on the
diers to a position of ATTENTION. ground to the right or left of his legs.
Progression with grass The drills begin with the command He takes several short steps to the rear
drills is made by a GO. Other basic commands are FRONT, on the side opposite his hands. When
gradual increase in BACK, and STOP. (See Figure 7-5 for his feet are opposite his hands, he
the time devoted to the positions and actions associated thrusts his legs vigorously to the rear
the drills. with these commands. ) and lowers his body to the ground.
● ATTENTION: The position of at (See Figure 7-5.)
tention is described in FM 22-5,
Drill and Ceremonies.

Figure 7-5


Exercises for grass drill one are From the FRONT position, extend
described below and shown in the arms forward. Move the right arm
Figure 7-6. and left leg up and down; then, move
the left arm and right leg up and down.
Bouncing Ball Continue in an alternating manner.

From the FRONT position, push up Bounce and Clap Hands

and support the body on the hands
(shoulder-width apart) and feet. Keep The procedure is almost the same as
the back and legs generally in line and for the bouncing ball in grass drill one.
the knees straight. Bounce up and However, while in the air, clap the
down in a series of short, simultaneous, hands. This action requires a more
upward springs from the hands, hips, vigorous bounce or spring. The push-
and feet. up may be substituted for this exercise.

Supine Bicycle Leg Spreader

From the BACK position, flex the From the BACK position, raise the
hips and knees. Place the palms legs until the heels are no higher than
directly on top of the head, and inter- six inches off the ground. Spread the
lace the fingers. Bring the knee of one legs apart as far as possible, then put
leg upward toward the chest. At the them back together. Keep the head off
same time, curl the trunk and head the ground. Throughout, place the
upward while touching the opposite hands under the upper part of the but-
elbow to the elevated knee. Repeat tocks, and slightly bend the knees to
with the other leg and elbow. Continue ease pressure on the lower back. Open
these movements as opposite legs and and close the legs as fast as possible.
arms take turns. The curl-up may be substituted for
this exercise.
Knee Bender
Forward Roll
From the position of ATTENTION,
do half-knee bends with the feet in From the STOP position, place both
line and the hands at the sides. Make hands on the ground, tuck the head,
sure the knees do not bend to an angle and roll forward. Keep the head
less than 90 degrees. tucked while rolling.

Roll Left and Right Stationary Run

From the FRONT position, con- From the position of ATTENTION,

tinue to roll in the direction com- start running in place at the GO
manded until another command is command by lifting the left foot first.
given. Then, return to the FRONT Follow the instructor as he counts two
position. repetitions of cadence. For example,
“One, two, three, four; one, two, three,
GRASS DRILL TWO four.” The instructor then gives infor-
mal commands such as the following:
Exercises for grass drill two are “Follow me,” “Run on the toes and balls
described below and shown in Figure of your feet,” “Speed it up,” “Increase
7-6. to a sprint, raise your knees high, lean

forward at your waist, and pump your the left foot strikes the ground: “One,
arms vigorously,” and “Slow it down.” two, three, four, one, two, three,
To halt the exercise, the instructor HALT.”
counts two repetitions of cadence as

Figure 7-6

Guerilla Exercises instructor steps into the center and
issues commands.
Guerrilla exercises, which can be
used to improve agility, CR endur- EXERCISE AND PROGRESSION
ance, muscular endurance, and to some
degree muscular strength, combine Soldiers progress by shortening the
individual and partner exercises. These quick-time marching periods between
drills require soldiers to change their exercises and by doing all exercises a
positions quickly and do various basic second time. This produces an over-
skills while moving forward. Figures load that improves fitness.
7-7 and 7-8 show these exercises. Many soldiers have not had a chance
The instructor decides the duration to do the simple skills involved in
Soldiers progress with for each exercise by observing its guerrilla exercises. However, they can
guerilla exercises by effect on the soldiers. Depending on do these exercises easily and quickly in
shortening the quick- how vigorously it is done, each exer- almost any situation.
time marching periods cise should be continued for 20 to 40 The preparatory command is always
between exercises and seconds. the name of the exercise, and the
by doing all the The group moves in circle forma- command of execution is always “March.”
exercises a second time. tion while doing the exercises. If the The command “Quick time, march”
platoon exceeds 30 soldiers, concen- ends each exercise.
tric circles may be used. A warm-up For the double guerrilla exercises (in
activity should precede these exer- circle formation) involving two sol-
cises, and a cool-down should follow diers, the commands for pairing are as
them. After the circle is formed, the follows:

Figure 7-7

● “Platoon halt.” The Engine
● “From (soldier is designated), by
twos, count off.” (For example: 1- Stand with the arms straight and in
2, 1-2, 1-2.) front of the body. The arms should be
● “Even numbers, move up behind parallel to the ground with the palms
odd numbers.” (Pairs are adjusted facing downward. While walking
according to height and weight.) forward, bring the left knee upward to
● “You are now paired up for double the left elbow. Return to the start
guerrillas.” The command “Change” position. Continuing to walk forward,
is given to change the soldiers’ touch the right knee to the right elbow.
positions. Recover to the start position. Be sure
After the exercises are completed, to keep the arms parallel to the ground
the instructor halts the soldiers and throughout the entire exercise.
positions the base soldier or platoon
guide by commanding, “Base man (or Double Time
platoon guide), post.” He then com-
mands “Fall out and fall in on the base Do a double-time run while main-
man (or platoon guide).” taining the circle formation.

Broad Jump

Brief explanations of guerrilla ex- Jump forward on both feet in a

ercises follow. series of broad jumps. Swing the arms
vigorously to help with the jumps.
All-Fours Run

Face downward, supporting the body Straddle Run

on the hands and feet. Advance
forward as fast as possible by moving Run forward, leaping to the right
the arms and legs forward in a coordi- with the left foot and to the left with
nated way. the right foot.

Bottoms-Up Walk
Hobble Hopping
Take the front-leaning rest posi-
tion, and move the feet toward the Hold one foot behind the back with
hands in short steps while keeping the the opposite hand and hop forward.
knees locked. When the feet are as On the command “Change,” grasp the
close to the hands as possible, walk opposite foot with the opposite hand
forward on the hands to the front- and hop forward.
leaning-rest position.
Two-Man Carry
Crab Walk
For two-man carries, soldiers are
Assume a sitting position with the designated as number one (odd-num-
hips off the ground and hands and feet bered) and number two (even-num-
supporting the body’s weight. Walk bered). A number-one and number-
forward, feet first. two soldier work as partners.

Fireman’s Carry slightly to the left with feet spread
apart in a balanced position. At the
Two soldiers do the carry. On com- same time, number-one soldier moves
mand, number-two soldier bends at toward his partner’s left side and leans
the waist, with feet apart in a balanced over his partner’s back. Number two
stance. Number-one soldier moves soldier, with his left arm, reaches
toward his partner. He places himself around his partner’s legs. At the same
by his partner’s left shoulder and bends time, he reaches around his partner’s
himself over his partner’s shoulders back with his right arm, being careful
and back. When in position, number- not to grab his partner’s neck or head.
two soldier, with his left hand, reaches He then stands up straight, holding his
between his partner’s legs and grasps partner on his back. On command,
his left wrist. On command, they move they move forward until the command
forward until the command for change- for changeover. They then change
over. They then change positions. The positions.
fireman’s carry can also be done from
the other side.
Saddle-Back (Piggyback) Carry
Single-Shoulder Carry
On command, number-two soldier
Two soldiers do the carry. On com- bends at the waist and knees with his
mand, number-two soldier bends at the hand on his knees and his head up. To
waist with feet apart in a balanced assume the piggyback position, num-
stance. At the same time, number-one ber-one soldier moves behind his part-
soldier moves toward his partner. He ner, places his hands on his partner’s
places his abdominal area onto his part- shoulders, and climbs carefully onto
ner’s right or left shoulder and leans his partner’s hips. As number-one
over. Number-two soldier puts his soldier climbs on, number-two soldier
arms around the back of his partner’s grasps his partner’s legs to help support
knees and stands up. On command, him. Number-one soldier places his
they move forward until the command arms over his partner’s shoulders and
for changeover. They then change crosses his hands over his partner’s
positions. upper chest. They move forward until
Cross Carry the command for changeover is given.
They then change positions.
On command, number-two soldier
bends over at the waist. He twists

Figure 7-8

This chapter describes obstacle When planning and building such fa-
courses as well as rifle drills, log drills, cilities, designers should, at a mini-
and aquatic exercises. These are not mum, consider the following guid-
designed to develop specific compo- ance:
nents of physical fitness. Commanders ● Secure approval from the local in-
should use them to add variety to their stallation's commander.
PT programs and to help soldiers de- ● Prepare a safety and health-risk as-
velop motor fitness including speed, sessment to support construction
agility, coordination, and related skills o f e a c h o b s t a c l e .
and abilities. Many of these activities ● Coordinate approval for each ob-
also give soldiers the chance to plan stacle with the local or supporting
strategy, make split-second decisions, safety office. Keep a copy of the
learn teamwork, and demonstrate lead- approval in the permanent records.
ership. ● Monitor and analyze all injuries.
● Inspect all existing safety precau-
Obstacle Courses tions on-site to verify their effec-
Physical performance and success in ● Review each obstacle to determine
combat may depend on a soldier’s the need for renewing its approval.
ability to perform skills like those
There are two types of required on the obstacle course. For
this reason, and because they help SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
obstacle courses-
develop and test basic motor skills,
conditioning and obstacle courses are valuable for physi- Instructors must always be alert to
confidence. cal training. safety. They must take every precau-
There are two types of obstacle tion to minimize injuries as soldiers go
courses--conditioning and confidence. through obstacle courses. Soldiers
The conditioning course has low ob- must do warm-up exercises before
stacles that must be negotiated quickly. they begin. This prepares them for the
Running the course can be a test of the physically demanding tasks ahead and
soldier’s basic motor skills and physical helps minimize the chance of injury.
condition. After soldiers receive in- A cool-down after the obstacle course
struction and practice the skills, they is also necessary, as it helps the body
run the course against time. recover from strenuous exercise.
A confidence course has higher, Commanders should use ingenuity
more difficult obstacles than a condi- in building courses, making good use
tioning course. It gives soldiers confi- of streams, hills, trees, rocks, and
dence in their mental and physical other natural obstacles. They must
abilities and cultivates their spirit of inspect courses for badly built ob-
daring. Soldiers are encouraged, but stacles, protruding nails, rotten logs,
not forced, to go through it. Unlike unsafe landing pits, and other safety
conditioning courses, confidence courses hazards.
are not run against time. There are steps which designers can
take to reduce injuries. For example,
NONSTANDARD COURSES AND at the approach to each obstacle, they
OBSTACLES should post an instruction board or
sign with text and pictures showing
Commanders may build obstacles how to negotiate it. Landing pits for
and courses that are nonstandard (that jumps or vaults, and areas under or
is, not covered in this manual) in order around obstacles where soldiers may
to create training situations based on fall from a height, should be filled
t h e i r u n i t ' s M E T L . with loose sand or sawdust, All

landing areas should be raked and wide are ideal for most of them. Sharp
refilled before each use. Puddles of points and corners should be elimi-
water under obstacles can cause a false nated, and landing pits for jumps or
sense of security. These could result in vaults must be filled with sand or saw-
improper landing techniques and seri- dust. Courses should be built and
ous injuries. Leaders should postpone marked so that soldiers cannot sidestep
training on obstacle courses when wet obstacles or detour around them.
weather makes them slippery. Sometimes, however, courses can pro-
Units should prepare their soldiers vide alternate obstacles that vary in
to negotiate obstacle courses by doing difficulty.
conditioning exercises beforehand. Sol- Each course should be wide enough
diers should attain an adequate level of for six to eight soldiers to use at the
conditioning before they run the con- same time, thus encouraging competi-
fidence course, Soldiers who have not tion. The lanes for the first few
practiced the basic skills or run the obstacles should be wider and the
conditioning course should not be al- obstacles easier than those that follow.
lowed to use the confidence course. In this way, congestion is avoided and
Instructors must explain and dem- soldiers can spread out on the course.
onstrate the correct ways to negotiate To minimize the possibility of falls
all obstacles before allowing soldiers to and injuries due to fatigue, the last
run them. Assistant instructors should two or three obstacles should not be
supervise the negotiation of higher, too difficult or involve high climbing.
more dangerous obstacles. The em- Trainers must always be aware that
phasis is on avoiding injury. Soldiers falls from the high obstacles could
should practice each obstacle until they cause serious injury. Soldiers must be
are able to negotiate it. Before they run in proper physical condition, closely Instructors must explain
the course against time, they should supervised, and adequately instructed. and demonstrate the
make several slow runs while the in- The best way for the timer to time correct ways to
structor watches and makes needed the runners is to stand at the finish and negotiate all obstacles
corrections. Soldiers should never be call out the minutes and seconds as before allowing soldiers
allowed to run the course against time each soldier finishes. If several watches to run them.
until they have practiced on all the are available, each wave of soldiers is
obstacles. timed separately. If only one watch is
available, the waves are started at
CONDITIONING OBSTACLE COURSES regular intervals such as every 30
seconds. If a soldier fails to negotiate
If possible, an obstacle course should an obstacle, a previously determined
be shaped like a horseshoe or figure penalty is imposed.
eight so that the finish is close to the When the course is run against time,
start. Also, signs should be placed to stopwatches, pens, and a unit roster
show the route. are needed. Soldiers may run the
A course usually ranges from 300 to course with or without individual
450 yards and has 15 to 25 obstacles equipment.
that are 20 to 30 yards apart. The
obstacles are arranged so that those Obstacles for Jumping
which exercise the same groups of
muscles are separated from one an- These obstacles are ditches to clear
other. with one leap, trenches to jump into,
The obstacles must be solidly built. heights to jump from, or hurdles. (See
Peeled logs that are six to eight inches Figure 8-l.)

Obstacles for Dodging between the posts are narrow so that
soldiers must pick their way carefully
These obstacles are usually mazes of through and around them. Lane guides
posts set in the ground at irregular are built to guide soldiers in dodging
intervals. (See Figure 8-2.) The spaces and changing direction.

Figure 8-1

Figure 8-2

8 - 3
Obstacles for Vertical Climbing and Obstacles for Horizontal Traversing
Horizontal obstacles may be ropes,
These obstacles are shown at Figure pipes, or beams. (See Figure 8-4.)
8-3 and include the following:
● Climbing ropes that are 1 1/2 inches
wide and either straight or knotted.
● Cargo nets.
● Walls 7 or 8 feet high.
● Vertical poles 15 feet high and 6 to
8 inches wide.

Figure 8-3

Figure 8-4

Obstacles for Crawling Obstacles for Vaulting

These obstacles may be built of These obstacles should be 3 to

large pipe sections, low rails, or wire. 3 1/2 feet high. Examples are fences
(See Figure 8-5.) and low walls. (See Figure 8-6.)

Figure 8-5

Figure 8-6

Obstacles for Balancing

Beams, logs, and planks may be

used. These may span water obstacles
and dry ditches, or they may be raised
off the ground to simulate natural de-
pressions. (See Figure 8-7.)

Figure 8-7


Confidence obstacle courses must obstacle unless it is designed for use by

be built in accordance with Folio No. more than one.
1, “Training Facilities,” Corps of En- Confidence courses should accom-
gineers Drawing Number 28-13-95. modate four platoons, one at each
You can obtain this publication from group of six obstacles. Each platoon
the Directorate of Facilities Engineer- begins at a different starting point. In
ing at most Army installations. the example below, colors are used to
Confidence courses can develop group the obstacles. Any similar method
confidence and strength by using ob- may be used to spread a group over the
stacles that train and test balance and course. Soldiers are separated into
muscular strength. Soldiers do not ne- groups of 8 to 12 at each obstacle. At
gotiate these obstacles at high speed or the starting signal, they proceed through
against time. The obstacles vary from the course.
fairly easy to difficult, and some are Soldiers may skip any obstacle they
high. For these, safety nets are pro- are unwilling to try. Instructors should
vided. Soldiers progress through the encourage fearful soldiers to try the
course without individual equipment. easier obstacles first. Gradually, as
Only one soldier at a time negotiates an their confidence improves, they can

take their places in the normal rotation. Red Group
Soldiers proceed from one obstacle to
the next until time is called. They then
assemble and move to the next group of This group contains the first six ob-
obstacles. stacles. These are described below and
numbered 1 through 6 in Figure 8-8.
Rules for the Course Belly Buster. Soldiers vault, jump, or
climb over the log. They must be
Supervisors should encourage, but warned that it is not stationary. There-
not force, soldiers to try every obstacle. fore, they should not roll or rock the
Soldiers who have not run the course log while others are negotiating it.
before should receive a brief orienta- Reverse Climb. Soldiers climb the re-
tion at each obstacle, including an ex- verse incline and go down the other
planation and demonstration of the side to the ground.
best way to negotiate it. Instructors Weaver. Soldiers move from one end
should help those who have problems. of the obstacle to the other by weav-
Trainers and soldiers should not try to ing their bodies under one bar and
make obstacles more difficult by shak- over the next.
ing ropes, rolling logs, and so forth. Hip-Hip. Soldiers step over each bar;
Close supervision and common sense they either alternate legs or use the
must be constantly used to enhance same lead leg each time.
safety and prevent injuries. Balancing Logs. Soldiers step up on a
Soldiers need not conform to any log and walk or run along it while
one method of negotiating obstacles, keeping their balance.
but there is a uniformity in the general Island Hopper. Soldiers jump from
approach. Recommended ways to ne- one log to another until the obstacle is
gotiate obstacles are described below. negotiated.

Figure 8-8

White Group They grasp over the top of the log with
both arms, keeping the belly area in
This group contains the second six contact with it. They swing their legs
obstacles. These are described below over the log and lower themselves to
and numbered 7 through 12 in Figure the ground.
8-9. Belly Crawl. Soldiers move forward
Tough Nut. Soldiers step over each X under the wire on their bellies to the
in the lane. end of the obstacle. To reduce the ten-
Inverted Rope Descent. Soldiers climb dency to push the crawling surface, it
the tower, grasp the rope firmly, and is filled with sand or sawdust to the far
swing their legs upward. They hold the end of the obstacle. The direction of
rope with their legs to distribute the negotiating the crawl is reversed from
weight between their legs and arms. time to time.
Braking the slide with their feet and Easy Balancer. Soldiers walk up one
legs, they proceed down the rope. Sol- inclined log and down the one on the
diers must be warned that they may get other side to the ground.
rope burns on their hands. This ob- Tarzan. Soldiers mount the lowest log,
stacle can be dangerous when the rope walk the length of it, then each higher
is slippery. Soldiers leave the rope at log until they reach the horizontal lad-
a clearly marked point of release. der. They grasp two rungs of the
Only one soldier at a time is allowed on ladder and swing themselves into the
the rope. Soldiers should not shake or air. They negotiate the length of the
bounce the ropes. This obstacle re- ladder by releasing one hand at a time
quires two instructors--one on the and swinging forward, grasping a more
platform and the other at the base. distant rung each time.
Low Belly-Over. Soldiers mount the
low log and jump onto the high log.

Figure 8-9

Blue Group
obstacle. The direction of negotiating
This group contains the third six the obstacle is alternated.
obstacles. These are described below Swing, Stop, and Jump. Soldiers gain
and numbered 13 through 18 in Figure momentum with a short run, grasp the
8-10. rope, and swing their bodies forward
High Step-over. Soldiers step over to the top of the wall. They release the
each log while alternating their lead rope while standing on the wall and
foot or using the same one. jump to the ground.
Swinger. Soldiers climb over the swing Six Vaults. Soldiers vault over the logs
log to the ground on the opposite side. using one or both hands.
Low Wire. Soldiers move under the Wall Hanger. Soldiers walk up the
wire on their backs while raising the wall using the rope. From the top of
wire with their hands to clear their the wall, they grasp the bar and go
bodies. To reduce the tendency to push hand-over-hand to the rope on the op-
the crawling surface, it is filled with posite end. They use the rope to de-
sand or sawdust to the far end of the scend,

Figure 8-10

Black Group Jump and Land. Soldiers climb the
ladder to the platform and jump to the
This group contains the last six ob- ground.
stacles. These are described below and Confidence Climb. Soldiers climb the
numbered 19 through 24 in Figure 8- inclined ladder to the vertical ladder.
11. they go to the top of the vertical ladder,
Inclining Wall. Soldiers approach the then down the other side to the ground.
underside of the wall, jump up and Belly Robber. Soldiers step on the
grasp the top, and pull themselves up lower log and take a prone position on
and over. They slide or jump down the the horizontal logs. They crawl over
incline to the ground. the logs to the opposite end of the
Skyscraper. Soldiers jump or climb to obstacle. Rope gaskets must be tied to
the first floor and either climb the the ends of each log to keep the hands
corner posts or help one another to the from being pinched and the logs from
higher floors. They descend to the falling.
ground individually or help one an- The Tough One. Soldiers climb the
other down. The top level or roof is rope or pole on the lowest end of the
off limits, and the obstacle should not obstacle. They go over or between the
be overloaded. A floor must not be- logs at the top of the rope. They move
come so crowded that soldiers are across the log walkway, climb the
bumped off. Soldiers should not jump ladder to the high end, then climb
to the ground from above the first down the cargo net to the ground.

Figure 8-11

Rifle Drills
return soldiers to attention is “Position
Rifle drills are suitable activities for of attention, move.”
In exercises that end in other than
fitness training while bivouacking or
during extended time in the field. In the rifle-downward position, soldiers
assume that position before executing
most situations, the time consumed in
port arms and order arms.
drawing weapons makes this activity
These movements are done without
cumbersome for garrison use. How-
command and need not be precise.
ever, it is a good conditioning activity,
and the use of individual weapons in Effective rifle exercises are strenuous
enough to tire the arms. When the
training fosters a warrior’s spirit.
There are four rifle-drill exercises arms are tired, moving them with
precision is difficult.
that develop the upper body. They are
numbered in a set pattern. The main
muscle groups strengthened by rifle
drills are those of the arms, shoulders,
The following exercises are for use
and back.
in rifle drills.
Rifle drill is a fast-moving method
of exercising that soldiers can do in as Up and Forward
little as 15 minutes. With imagination,
the number of steps and/or rifle exer- This is a four-count exercise done
cises can be expanded beyond those at a fast cadence. (See Figure 8-12.)
described here.
Fore-Up, Squat
This is a four-count exercise done
The rifle-drill exercise normally at a moderate cadence. (See Figure
begins with six repetitions and in- 8-13.)
creases by one repetition for each three
periods of exercise. This rate contin- Fore-Up, Behind Back
ues until soldiers can do 12 repetitions.
However, the number of repetitions This is a four-count exercise done
can be adjusted as the soldiers im- at a moderate cadence. (See Figure 8-
prove. 14.)
In exercises that start from the rifle-
downward position, on the command Fore-Up, Back Bend
“Move,” soldiers execute port arms and
assume the starting position. At the This is a four-count exercise done at
end of the exercise, the command to moderate cadence. (See Figure 8- 15.)

Figure 8-12

Figure 8-13

Figure 8-14

Figure 8-15

Log Drills The command is “Count off by sixes
(or eights), count off.” Each team, in
Log drills are team-conditioning turn, goes to the log rack, shoulders a
Log drills are excellent exercises. They are excellent for de- log, and carries it to the exercise area.
veloping strength and muscular endur- The teams form columns in front of
for developing strength
ance because they require the muscles the instructor. Holding the logs in
and muscular endurance, to contract under heavy loads. They chest position, they face the instructor
because they require the also develop teamwork and add variety and ground the log. Ten yards should
muscles to contract to the PT program. separate log teams within the columns.
Log drills consist of six different If more than one column is used, 10
under heavy loads. exercises numbered in a set pattern. yards should separate columns.
The drills are intense, and teams should
complete them in 15 minutes. The
teams have six to eight soldiers per STARTING DOSAGE AND
team. A principal instructor is re- PROGRESSION
quired to teach, demonstrate, and lead
the drill. He must be familiar with The starting session is six repeti-
leadership techniques for conditioning tions of each exercise. The progres-
exercises and techniques peculiar to log sion rate is an increase of one repeti-
drills. tion for each three periods of exercise.
Soldiers continue this rate until they
AREA AND EQUIPMENT do 12 repetitions with no rest between
exercises. This level is maintained un-
Any level area is good for doing log til another drill is used.
drills. All exercises are done from a
standing position. If the group is larger START POSITIONS
than a platoon, an instructor’s stand
may be needed. The soldiers fall in facing their log,
The logs should be from six to eight with toes about four inches away.
inches thick, and they may vary from Figure 8-16 shows the basic starting
14 to 18 feet long for six and eight sol- positions and commands.
diers, respectively. The logs should be
stripped, smoothed, and dried. The
14-foot logs weigh about 300 pounds, Right-Hand Start Position, Move
the 18-foot logs about 400 pounds.
Rings should be painted on the logs to On the command “Move,” move the
show each soldier’s position. When not left foot 12 inches to the left, and
in use, the logs are stored on a rack lower the body into a flatfooted squat.
above the ground. Keep the back straight, head up, and
arms between the legs. Encircle the
FORMATION far side of the log with the left hand.
Place the right hand under the log.
All soldiers assigned to a log team (See 1, Figure 8-16.)
should be about the same height at the
shoulders. The best way to divide a
platoon is to have them form a single Left-Hand Start Position, Move
file or column with short soldiers in
front and tall soldiers at the rear. They This command is done the same
take their positions in the column ac- way as the preceding command.
cording to shoulder height, not head However, the left hand is under the
height. When they are in position, they log, and the right hand encircles its far
are divided into teams of six or eight. side. (See 2, Figure 8-16.)

Right-Shoulder Position, Move left foot to the rear and stand up,
facing left. Balance the log on the right
This command is given from the shoulder with both hands. (See 3,
right-hand-start position. On the Figure 8-16.) This movement cannot
command “Move,” pull the log upward be done from the left-hand-start posi-
in one continuous motion to the right tion because of the position of the
shoulder. At the same time, move the hands.

Figure 8-16

Left-Shoulder Position, Move Chest Position, Move

This command is given from the This command is given after taking
left-hand-start position. On the com- the waist position. On the command
mand “Move, ” pull the log upward to “Move,” shift the log to a position high
the left shoulder in one continuous on the chest, bring the left arm under
motion. At the same time, move the the log, and hold the log in the bend of
right foot to the rear, and stand up the arms. (See 6, figure 8-17.) Keep
facing right. Balance the log on the left the upper arms parallel to the ground.
shoulder with both hands. (See 4, To move the log from the right to
Figure 8-17.) This movement cannot the left shoulder, the command is
be done from the right-hand-start “Left-shoulder position, move.” Push
position. the log overhead, and lower it to the
opposite shoulder.
Waist Position, Move To return the log to the ground
from any of the above positions, the
From the right-hand-start position, command is “Start position, move.” At
pull the log waist high. Keep the arms the command “Move,” slowly lower the
straight and fingers laced under the log to the ground. Position the hands
log. The body is inclined slightly to the and fingers so they are not under the
rear, and the chest is lifted and arched. log.
(See 5, Figure 8-17.)

Figure 8-17

LOG-DRILL EXERCISES Exercise 2. Forward Bender
Start Position: Chest position, with
The following are log-drill exer- feet about shoulder-width apart.
cises. (See 2, Figure 8-18.)
Cadence: Moderate.
Exercise 1. Two-Arm Push-Up Movement A four-count exercise;
Start Position: Right- or left- at the count of --
shoulder position, with feet about “One’’-Bend forward at the waist
shoulder-width apart. (See 1, Fig- while keeping the back straight
ure 8-18.) and the knees slightly bent.
Cadence: Moderate. “Two’’-Recover to the start posi-
Movement: A four-count exercise; tion.
at the count of -- ‘Three’’-Repeat the action of count
“One’’-Push the log overhead until one.
the elbows lock. “Four’’-Recover to the start posi-
“Two’’-Lower the log to the op- tion.
posite shoulder.
“Three’’-Repeat the action of count
“Four’’-Recover to the start posi-

Figure 8-18

Exercise 3. Straddle Jump Exercise 4. Side Bender
Start Position Right- or left-shoul- Start Position: Right-shoulder po-
der position, with feet together, sition with the feet about shoul-
and fingers locked on top of the log. der-width apart. (See 4, Figure
Pull the log down with both hands to 8- 19.)
keep it from bouncing on the shoul- Cadence Moderate.
der. (See 3, Figure 8-19.) Movement: A four-count exercise;
Cadence: Moderate. at the count of--
Movement A four-count exercise; “One’’-Bend sideward to the left
at the count of-- as far as possible, bending the
“One’’-Jump to a side straddle. left knee.
“Two’’-Recover to the start posi- “Two’’-Recover to the start posi-
tion. tion.
‘Three’’-Repeat the action of count “Three’’-Repeat the action of
one. count one.
“Four’’-Recover to the start posi- “Four’’-Recover to the start posi-
tion. tion.
NOTE: After doing the required
number of repetitions, change shoul-
ders and do an equal number to the
right side.

Figure 8-19

Exercise 5. Half-Knee Bend Exercise 6. Overhead Toss (NOTE:
Start Position: Right- or left- Introduce this exercise only after
shoulder position, with feet about soldiers have gained experience and
shoulder-width apart, and fingers strength by doing the other exercises
locked on top of the log. (See 5, for several sessions.)
Figure 8-20.) Start Position: Right-shoulder po-
Cadence: Slow. sition with the feet about shoul-
Movement: A four-count exercise; der-width part. The knees are at a
at the count of -- quarter bend. (See 6, Figure 8-20.)
“One’’-Flex the knees to a half- Cadence: Moderate.
knee bend. Movement: A four-count exercise;
“Two’’-Recover to the start posi- at the count of --
tion. “One’’-Straighten the knees and
“Three’’-Repeat the action of toss the log about 12 inches
count one. overhead. Catch the log with
“Four’’-Recover to the start po- both hands, and lower it toward
sition. the opposite shoulder. As the log
(NOTE: Pull forward and down- is caught, lower the body into a
ward on the log throughout the exer- quarter bend.
cise. ) “Two’’-Again, toss the log into
the air and, when caught, return
it to the original shoulder.
“Three’’-Repeat the action of count
“Four’’-Recover to the start posi-

Figure 8-20


Aquatics is a mode of physical ‘Warm-Up

training which helps one attain and
maintain physical fitness through ex- As in any PT session, a warm-up is
ercises in the water. It is sometimes required. It can be done in the water
called slimnastics. Aquatic training or on the deck. Allow five to seven
can improve muscular endurance, CR minutes for the warm-up.
endurance, flexibility, coordination,
and muscular strength. Conditioning Phase
Because of its very low impact to the
body, an aquatic exercise program is Soldiers should exercise vigorously
ideal for soldiers who are overweight to get a training effect. Energetic
and those who are limited due to music may be used to keep up the
painful joints, weak muscles, or pro- tempo of the workout. The following
files. The body’s buoyancy helps are some exercises that can be used in
minimize injuries to the joints of the an aquatic workout. (See Figure 8-21.)
lower legs and feet. It exercises the Side Leg-Raises. Stand in chest to
whole body without jarring the bones shoulder-deep water with either side
and muscles. Leaders can tailor the of the body at arm’s length to the wall
variety and intensity of the exercises to of the pool, and grasp the edge with
the needs of all the soldiers in the unit. the nearest hand. Raise the outside leg
Aquatic training is a good supple- sideward and upward from the hip.
ment to a unit’s PT program. Not only Next, pull the leg down to the starting
is it fun, it exposes soldiers to water position. Repeat these actions. Then,
and can make them more comfortable turn the other side of the body to the
around it. Most Army installations wall, and perform the exercise with
have swimming pools for conducting the other leg. DURATION: 30 seconds
aquatic, physical training sessions. (15 seconds per leg).
Leg-Over. Stand in chest-to shoul-
SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS der-deep water, back facing the wall
of the pool. Reach backward with the
One qualified lifeguard is needed arms extended, and grasp the pool’s
for every 40 soldiers at all aquatic edge. Next, raise one leg in front of
training sessions. Nonswimmers must the body away from the wall, and
remain in the shallow end of the pool. move it sideward toward the other leg
They should never exercise in the deep as far as it can go. Then, return the leg
end with or without flotation devices. to the front-extended position, and
lower it to the starting position. Repeat
EQUIPMENT these actions with the other leg, and
continue to alternate legs. DURA-
Soldiers normally wear swim suits
TION: 30 seconds ( 15 seconds per leg).
for aquatics, but they can wear boots
Rear Leg Lift. Stand in chest-to
and fatigues to increase the intensity of
the activities. The following equip- shoulder-deep water with hands on
ment is optional for training: the pool’s edge, chest to the wall. Raise
one leg back and up from the hip,
● Goggles.
● Kickboard.
extend it, and point the foot. Then,
● Pull buoy.
pull the leg back to the starting posi-
● Ear/nose plugs.
tion. Alternate these actions back and
● Fins.
forth with each leg. DURATION: 20
● Hand paddles.
seconds (10 seconds each leg).

Figure 8-21

Alternate Toe Touch. Stand in nate left and right arm action. DURA-
waist-deep water. Raise the left leg as TION: 2 minutes.
in kicking while touching the elevated Bouncing. Stand in chest-deep
toe with the right hand. At the same water, arms at sides. Bounce on the left
time, rotate the head toward the left foot while pushing down vigorously
shoulder, and push the left arm back- with both hands. Repeat the action
ward through the water. Alternate with the right foot. Alternate bounc-
these actions back and forth with each ing on the left and right foot. DURA-
leg and opposite hand. DURATION 2 TION: 2 minutes.
minutes. Bounding in Place with Alternate
Side Straddle Hop. Stand in waist- Arm Stretch, Forward. Bound in
deep water with hands on hips and feet place in waist-deep water using high
together. Jump sideward and land with knee action. Stretch the right arm far
feet about two feet apart. Then, return forward when the left knee is high and
to the starting position, and repeat the the left arm is stretched backward.
jumping action. DURATION 2 min- When the position of the arm is re-
utes. versed, simulate the action of the
Stride Hop. Stand in waist-deep crawl stroke by pulling down and
water with hands on hips and feet through the water with the hand.
together. Jump, moving the left leg DURATION 1 minute.
forward and right leg backward. Then, Poolside Knees Up, Supine. Stand
jump again moving the right leg for- in chest-to shoulder-deep water, back
ward and left leg backward. Repeat against the wall of the pool. Extend
these actions. DURATION 2 minutes. the arms backward, and grasp the
The Bounce. Stand in waist-deep pool’s edge. With feet together, ex-
water with hands on hips and feet tend the legs in front of the torso, and
together. Jump high with feet together. assume a supine position. Then with
Upon landing, use a bouncing motion, the legs together, raise the knees to
and repeat the action. DURATION: 1 the chin. Return to the starting posi-
minute. tion, and repeat the action. DURA-
Rise on Toes. Stand in chest-to TION: 2 minutes (maximum effort).
shoulder-deep water with arms at sides Twisting Legs, Supine. Stand in
and feet together. Rise up using the chest-to shoulder-deep water, back
toes. Then, lower the body to the against the wall of the pool. Extend the
starting position. Repeat the action. arms backward, and grasp the pool’s
DURATION: 1 minute.
edge. With feet together, extend the
Side Bender. Stand in waist-deep legs in front of the torso, and assume
water with the left arm at the side and
a supine position. Then, twist the legs
the right arm extended straight over- slowly to the left, return to the starting
head. Stretch slowly, bending to the
position, and twist the legs slowly to
left. Recover to the starting position,
the right. Repeat this twisting action.
and repeat the action. Next, reverse to DURATION: 1 minute (2 sets, 30
the right arm at the side and the left
seconds each).
arm extended straight overhead. Re-
peat the stretching action to the right Scissor Kick. Float in chest- to
side. DURATION: 1 minute. shoulder- deep water on either side of
Walking Crawl. Walk in waist- to the body with the top arm extended,
chest-deep water. Simulate the over- hand holding the pool’s edge. Brace
hand crawl stroke by reaching out with the bottom hand against the pool’s wall
the left hand cupped and pressing the with feet below the water’s surface.
water downward to the thigh. Repeat Next, assume a crouching position by
the action with the right hand. Alter- gringing the heels toward the hips by

bending the knees. Then, straighten The Engine. Stand in chest-to
and spread the legs with the top leg shoulder-deep water, arms straight and
extending backward. When the legs are in front of the body and parallel to the
extended and spread, squeeze them water with the palms facing down-
back together (scissoring). Pull with ward. While walking forward, raise
the top hand, and push with the the left knee to the left elbow, then
bottom hand. The propulsive force of return to the starting position. Con-
the kick will tend to cause the body to tinuing to walk forward, touch the
rise to the water’s surface. DURA- right knee to the right elbow, and
TION 1 minute (2 sets, 30 seconds return to the starting position. Be sure
each, maximum effort). to keep the arms parallel to the water
Push Away. Stand in chest-to throughout the exercise. DURATION
shoulder-deep water facing the pool’s 1 to 2 minutes (2 sets).
wall and at arm’s length from it. Grasp
the pool’s edge, and bend the arms so
that the body is leaning toward the
wall of the pool. Vigorously push the This is required to gradually bring
the body back to its pre-exercise state.
chest back from the wall by straight-
ening the arms. Then, with equal It should last from five to seven min-
vigor, pull the upper body back to the utes.
wall. Repeat these actions. DURA-
TION: 2 minutes (maximum effort).
Gutter Push-Ups. Stand in chest-
to shoulder- deep water facing the
pool’s wall. Place the hands on the edge
or gutter of the pool. Then, raise the
body up and out of the water while ex-
tending the arms. repeat this action.
DURATION: 2 minutes (4 sets, 30
seconds each with 5-second rests be-
tween sets).

Front Flutter Kick. Stand in chest-

to shoulder-deep water facing the pool’s
wall. Grasp the pool’s edge or gutter
and assume a prone position with legs
extended just below the water’s sur-
face. Then, kick flutter style, toes
pointed, ankles flexible, knee joint
loose but straight. The Iegs should
simulate a whip’s action. DURATION
1 minute (2 sets, 30 seconds each).
Running. Move in a running gait
in chest-to shoulder-deep water with
arms and hands under the water’s
surface. This activity can be stationary,
or the exerciser may run from poolside
to poolside. Runners must concentrate
on high knee action and good arm
movement. DURATION 10 to 20

Physical fitness is one of the foun- Factors that affect the content of
dations of combat readiness, and main- the sports program differ at every
taining it must be an integral part of Army installation and unit. Initiative
every soldier’s life. This chapter dis- and ingenuity in planning are the most
cusses competitive fitness activities vital assets. They are encouraged in
and athletic events that commanders the conduct of every program.
can use to add variety to a unit’s
physical fitness program. There is also OBJECTIVES
a section on developing a unit intramu- A well-organized and executed
ral program. Athletic and competi- intramural program yields the follow-
tive fitness activities are sports events ing:
which should only be used to supple-
ment the unit’s PT program. They • Team spirit, the will to win, confi-
should never replace physical training dence, aggressiveness, and team-
and conditioning sessions but, rather, work. All are vital to combat effec-
should exist to give soldiers a chance tiveness.
for healthy competition. Only through • A change from the routine PT pro-
consistent, systematic physical condi-
tioning can the fitness components be
developed and maintained. • The chance for all soldiers to take
Crucial to the success of any pro- part in organized athletics.
gram is the presence and enthusiasm of ORGANIZATION
the leaders who direct and participate
in it. The creativity of the physical The command level best suited to
training planners also plays a large role. organize and administer a broad intra-
Competitive fitness and athletic activi- mural program varies according to a
ties must be challenging. They must be unit’s situation. If the objective of
presented in the spirit of fair play and maximum participation is to be
good competition. achieved, organization should start at
It is generally accepted that com- company level and then provide com-
petitive sports have a tremendous posi- petition up through higher unit levels.
tive influence on the physical and Each command level should have its
emotional development of the partici- own program and support the next
pants. Sports competition can enhance higher program level.
Competitive fitness a soldier’s combat readiness by pro- To successfully organize and con-
activities help in the moting the development of coordina- duct an intramural program, develop-
tion, agility, balance, and speed. Com- ers should consider the following fac-
development of petitive fitness activities also help de- tors and elements.
assets that are vital to velop assets that are vital to combat ef-
combat effectiveness. fectiveness. These include team spirit, Authority
the will to win, confidence, toughness,
aggressiveness, and teamwork. The unit commander should pub-
lish and endorse a directive giving au-
Intramural thorization and guidance for a sports
program. A detailed SOP should also
The Army’s sports mission is to give be published.
all soldiers a chance to participate in
sports activities. A unit-level intra- Personnel
mural program can help achieve this
important goal. DA Pam 28-6 de- Leaders at all levels of the intramu-
scribes how to organize various unit- ral program should plan, organize, and
level intramural programs. supervise it. Appointments at all

echelons should be made for at least prepare a budget in which they justify
one year to provide continuity. The each sports activity separately. The
commander must appoint a qualified budget must include special equip-
person to be the director, regardless of ment, supplies, awards, pay for offi- Commanders can
the local situation, type, and size of the cials, and other items and services.
unit. The director must be a good or- Units can reduce many of their costs stimulate soldiers to
ganizer and administrator and must by being resourceful. participate in
have time to do the job correctly. He competitive athletics by
should also have a sense of impartial- AWARD SYSTEM
ity and some athletic experience. using an award system.
Commanders should form an intra- Commanders can stimulate units
mural sports council in units of battal- and soldiers to participate in competi-
ion size or larger and should appoint tive athletics by using an award sys-
members or require designated unit tem. One type is a point-award system
representatives. The council should where teams get points based on their
meet at least once a month or as often win/loss records and/or final league
as the situation requires. The council standings. This reflects the unit’s
serves as an advisory body to the unit standings in the overall intramural
commander and intramural director. It sports program. The recognition will
gives guidance about the organization help make units and individuals par-
and conduct of the program. ticipate throughout the year. Trophies
can then be given for overall perform-
Facilities and Equipment ance and individual activities.

Adequate facilities and equipment PROGRAM PLANNING

must be available. When facilities are
limited, leaders must plan activities to A successful program depends on
ensure their maximum use. In all sound plans and close coordination
cases, activities must be planned to between the units involved. The
ensure the safety of participants and intramural director should meet with
spectators. subordinate commanders or a sports
representative to determine what pro-
Funds and Budget gram of activities is compatible with
the mission and training activities of
Adequate funds are essential to each unit. Unless they resolve this
successfully organize and operate a issue, they may not get command
sports program. Therefore, before- support which, in turn, could result in
hand, organizers must determine how forfeitures or lack of participation.
much money is available to support it. The less-popular activities may not be
To justify requests for funds they must supported because of a lack of interest.

Evaluations • Funds. Determine how much each
unit can spend on the intramural
Before the program is developed, program.
leaders must study the training and • Personnel. Assess how many people
availability situation at each unit level. are needed to run the program. The
They should include the following list should include a director and as
items in a survey to help them deter- sistants, sports council, officials,
mine the scope of the program and to and team captains, as well as volun
develop plans: teers for such tasks as setting up a
● General. Evaluate the commander’s playing field.
attitude, philosophy, and policy • Coordination. Coordinate with the
about the sports program. Under units’ operations sections to avoid
stand the types of units to be conflict with military training sched
served, their location, the climate, ules.
and military responsibilities. • Activities. The intramural director
● Troops. Determine the following: should plan a tentative program of
1) number and types of personnel; activities based on the season, local
2) training status and general duty situation, and needs and interests of
assignment; 3) special needs, inter- the units. Both team and individual
ests, and attitudes. sports should be included. Some
● Time available. Coordinate the team sports are popular at all levels
time available for the sports pro- and need little promotional effort
gram with the military mission. for success. Among these are vol-
Determine both the on-duty and leyball, touch football, basketball,
off-duty time soldiers have for taking and softball. Some individual com-
part in sports activities. petitive sports have direct military
● Equipment. Consider the equip- value. They include boxing, wres-
ment that will be needed for each tling, track and field, cross country,
sport. triathlon, biathlon, and swimming.
● Facilities. Determine the number, While very popular, these sports are
type, and location of recreational harder to organize than team sports.
facilities both within the unit and in See Figures 9-1 and 9-2 for a list of
those controlled by units at higher sports activities.

Figure 9-1

Figure 9-2

Table 9-1

Functions ● Make a printed schedule. Using

scheduling forms makes this job
Once the evaluations have been easier. The form should include
made, the following functions should game number, time, date, court or
be performed: field, and home or visiting team.
● Make a handbook. An intramural Space for scores and officials is also
handbook should be published at helpful. Championship games or
each level of command from instal- matches should be scheduled to
lation to company to serve as a take place at the best facility.
standing operating procedure (SOP).
This handbook should include the Unit Activities
essential elements listed in Table
9-1 above. The following games and activities
● Plan the calendar. Local situations may be included in the unit’s PT
and normal obstacles may conflict program, They are large-scale activi-
with the intramural program. How ties which can combine many compo-
ever, a way can be found to provide nents of physical and motor fitness. In
a scheduled program for every sea- addition, they require quick thinking
son of the year. and the use of strategy. When played
● Choose the type of competition. vigorously, they are excellent activi-
Intramural directors should be able ties for adding variety to the program.
to choose the type of competition
best suited for the sport and local
circumstances. They should also
know how to draw up tournaments.
Unless the competition must take The object of this game is for each
place in a short time, elimination of a team’s five goalies to have one
tournaments should not be used. ball.
The round-robin tournament has
the greatest advantage because indi- Players
viduals and teams are never elimi-
nated. This type of competition is There are 25 to 50 players on each
adaptable to both team and individ- team, five of whom are goalies. The
ual play. It is appropriate for small other players are divided into four
numbers of entries and league play equal groups. The goalies play be-
in any sport. tween the goal line and 5-yard line of

a standard football field. The other There are no time-outs except in
four groups start the game between the case of injury, which is signaled by two
designated 10-yard segments of the sharp whistle blasts. The teams change
field. (See Figure 9-3.) The goalies positions on the field after each set.
and all other players must stay in their Team members move to different zones
assigned areas throughout the game. after the set.
The only exceptions are midfielder
who stand between the 35- and 45- Rules
yard lines. These players may occupy
both their assigned areas and the 10- A ball is played along the ground or
yard free space at the center of the over any group or groups of players.
field. The ball may travel any distance if it is
played legally.
The Game Goalies may use their hands in
playing the ball and may give a ball to
The game starts with all players other goalies on their team. For a set
inside their own areas and midfielder to officially end, each goalie must have
on their own 40-yard line. The nine a ball.
balls are placed as follows. Four are on If players engage in unnecessary
each 45-yard line with at least five roughness or dangerous play, the refe-
yards between balls. One is centered ree removes them from the game for
on the 50-yard line. The signal to start the rest of the set and one additional
play is one long whistle blast. Players set. He also removes players for the
must pass the balls through the oppos- rest of the set if they step on or over a
ing team’s defenses into the goal area boundary or sideline or use their hands
using only their feet or heads. The outside the goal area.
first team whose goalies have five balls If a goalie steps on or over a
wins a point. The game then stops, and boundary or sideline, the referee takes
the balls are placed for the start of a the ball being played plus another ball
new set. The first team to score five from the goalie’s team and gives these
points wins. balls to the nearest opposing player. If

Figure 9-3

the team has no other ball in the goal The Game
area, the referee limits the penalty to
the ball that is being played. The object of the game is to send
If a ball goes out of bounds, the the ball over the opponent’s goal line
referee retrieves it. The team that by pushing, rolling, passing, carrying,
caused it to go out of bounds or over or using any method other than kick-
the goal line loses possession. The ing the ball.
referee puts the ball back into play by The game begins when the ball is
rolling it to the nearest opposing player. placed on the centerline with the op-
posing captains three feet away from
PUSHBALL it. The other players line up 45 feet
from the ball on their half of the field.
This game requires a large pushball At the referee’s starting whistle, the
that is five to six feet in diameter. It captains immediately play the ball,
also requires a level playing surface and their teams come to their aid.
that is 240 to 300 feet long and 120 to At quarter time, the ball stays dead
150 feet wide. The length of the field for two minutes where it was when the
is divided equally by a center line. quarter ended. At halftime, the teams
Two more lines are marked 15 feet exchange goals, and play resumes as if
from and parallel to the end lines and the game were beginning.
extending across the entire field. (See A team scores a goal when it sends
Figure 9-4.) the ball across the opposing team’s end
line. A goal counts five points. The
Players team that scores a goal may then try
for an extra point. For the extra point,
There are 10 to 50 soldiers on each the ball is placed on the opposing
of two teams. team’s 5-yard line, and the teams line

Figure 9-4

up across the field separated by the fields. Team commanders assess the
width of the ball. Only one player may situation on the fields and distribute
place his hands on the ball. The player their soldiers accordingly. The com-
who just scored is directly in front of mander decides the number of soldiers
the ball. At the referee’s signal, the used, within limits imposed by the
ball is put into play for one minute. If rules. This number may be adjusted
any part of the ball is driven across the throughout the game. Play on both
goal line in this period, the offense fields occurs at the same time, but each
scores one point. The defense may not game progresses independently. At the
score during the extra point attempt. end of play, a team’s points from both
The game continues until four 10- fields are added together to determine
minute quarters have been played. the overall winner.
Rest periods are allowed for two min- This game requires two pushballs
utes between quarters and five min- that are five to six feet in diameter.
utes at halftime. Pull-over vests or jerseys of two dif-
ferent colors are used by each team for
Rules a total of four different colors. Start-
ers and reserves should be easily dis-
Players may use any means of tinguishable. Starters and substitutes
interfering with the opponents’ prog- should wear vests of one color, while
ress except striking and clipping. the team commander and reserves wear
Clipping is throwing one’s body across vests of the second color.
the back of an opponent’s legs as he is Players may wear any type of ath-
running or standing. Force may le- letic shoes except those with metal
gally be applied to all opponents whether cleats. Combat boots may be worn, but
they are playing the ball or not. A extra caution must be used to prevent
player who strikes or clips an opponent injuries caused by kicking or stepping
is removed from the game, and his on other players. Soldiers wearing
team is penalized half the distance to illegal equipment may not play until
its goal. the problem has been corrected.
When any part of the ball goes out The playing area is two lined-off
of bounds, it is dead. The teams line fields. These are 240 to 300 feet long
up at right angles to the sidelines. by 120 to 150 feet wide. They are
They should be six feet apart at the separated lengthwise by a 20-foot-
point where the ball went out. The wide divider strip. The length of each
referee tosses the ball between the field is divided equally by a centerline
teams. that is parallel to the goal lines. Lines
When, for any reason, the ball is are also marked 45 feet from each side
tied up in one spot for more than 10 of the centerline and parallel to it. The
seconds, the referee declares it dead. lines extend across both fields. Di-
He returns the ball into play the same mensions may be determined locally
way he does after it goes out of based on available space and the number
bounds. of players. The space between the
fields is the team area. Each team
STRATEGY PUSHBALL occupies the third of the team space
that immediately adjoins its initial
Strategy pushball is similar to push- playing field.
ball except that it is played on two Time periods should be adjusted to
adjacent fields, and opposing teams suit weather conditions and soldiers’
supply soldiers to the games on both fitness levels.

Players Runners serve at least one period;
they may not play during that period.
There are 25 to 40 soldiers on each They are allowed on the field only
team. A typical, 25-member team has during breaks in play after a dead ball
the following: or goal.
One team commander. He is respon- Reserves are used at any point in
sible for overall game strategy and the game on either field and are com-
for determining the number and po- mitted as individuals or groups. They
sitions of players on the field. may enter or leave the playing field at
Sixteen starting members. Eight are any time whether the ball is in play or
on each field at all times; one is not. Team commanders may enter the
appointed field captain. game as reserves if they see the need
Four reserve members. These are for such action.
players the team commander des- Reserves, substitutes, and starting
ignates as reinforcements. members may be redesignated into any
Three substitutes. These are re- of the other components on a one-for-
placements for starters or reserves. one basis only during dead balls, in-
One runner. He is designated to jury time-outs, or quarter- and half-
convey messages from the team time breaks. A reserve may become
commander to field captains. a starter by switching vests with an
The proportion of soldiers in each original starter, who then becomes a
category stays constant regardless of reserve.
the total number on a team. Before the When possible, senior NCOS and
event, game organizers must coordi- officers from higher headquarters or
nate with participating units and agree other units should be used as officials.
on the number on each team. Players must not question an official’s

Figure 9-5

authority during play. Otherwise, the A substitute may not start to play until
game can quickly get out of control. the player being replaced leaves the
Chain-of-command personnel field.
should act as team commanders and When any part of the ball goes out
field captains whenever possible. of bounds, it is dead. The teams line
up at right angles to the sidelines; they
are 10 feet apart at the point where the
The Game ball went out of bounds. The referee
places the ball between the teams at a
The object is to propel the ball over point 15 feet inside the sideline. Play
the opponent’s goal line by pushing, resumes when the referee blows the
rolling, passing, carrying, or using any whistle.
means other than kicking. When the ball gets tied up in one
The game is officiated by two refe- spot for more than 10 seconds for any
rees on each field, a chief umpire, and reason, the referee declares it dead. He
a scorekeeper. Referees concentrate restarts play as with an out-of-bounds
on player actions so that they can dead ball, except that he puts the ball
quickly detect fouls and assess penal- on the spot where it was stopped.
ties. The chief umpire and score- Time does not stop for dead balls or
keeper occupy any area where they goals. Play continues on one field
can best officiate the games. The chief while dead balls are restarted on the
umpire monitors the use of substitutes other.
and reserves and ensures smooth prog- At each quarter break, the ball stays
ress of the games on both fields. The on the spot where it was when the
number of officials may be increased quarter ended. The next quarter, sig-
if teams have more than 25 players. naled by the scorekeeper, starts as it
Referees use their whistles to stop and does after a ball goes out of bounds. At
start play except at the start and end of halftime the teams exchange goals, and
each quarter. The scorekeeper, who play resumes as if the game were
times the game with a stopwatch, starts beginning.
and ends each quarter and stops play A goal is scored when any part of
for injuries with some noisemaker the ball breaks the plane of the goal
other than a whistle. He may use such line between the sidelines. A goal
devices as a starter’s pistol, klaxon, or counts one point. At the end of the
air horn. fourth quarter, the points of each team
The game begins after the ball is from both fields are added together to
placed on each field’s center mark. determine the winner.
Opposing field captains are three feet If there is a tie, a three-minute
from the ball (six feet from the center- overtime is played. It is played the
line). The rest of the starters are lined same as in regulation play, but only one
up 45 feet from the ball on their half field is used, with starting squads from
of the field. (See Figure 9-5.) At the both teams opposing each other. For
scorekeeper’s signal, field captains control purposes, no more than 15
immediately play the ball, and their players per team are allowed on the
teams come to their aid. field at once. The team with more
Starters may be exchanged between points at the end of the overtime wins
the fields if the minimum number of the game. If the game is still tied when
starters or substitutes per field is time expires, the winner is the team
maintained. that has gained more territory.
Substitutes may enter the game only The game continues until four 10-
during breaks in play after a dead minute quarters have been played.
ball, goal, or time-out for injury. There is a 10-minute halftime between

the second and third quarters. The the referee judges to be excessive and
clock stops at quarter breaks and blatant. It is also called against a
halftime. Time-out is allowed only for player on the sidelines who interferes
serious injury. Play is then stopped on with the ball or with his opponents on
both fields. the field. A player who violates these
rules should be removed from the
Rules game and made to run one lap around
both playing fields. A penalized
Players may use any means of inter- player leaves the team shorthanded
fering with their opponents’ progress, until he completes the penalty lap and
but they are penalized for striking or the next break in play occurs on the
clipping opponents or throwing them field from which he was removed.
to the ground. These penalties are The penalized player or a substitute
enforced by the referees. Force maybe then enters the game. Referees and
legally applied to any opponent whether the chief umpire may, at their discre-
or not they are playing the ball. Block- tion, eject any player who is a chronic
ing is allowed if blockers stay on their violator or who is judged to be danger-
feet and limit contact to the space ous to other players, Once ejected, the
between waist and shoulders. Blockers player must leave both the field of
may not swing, throw, or flip their play and team area. Substitutes for
elbows or forearms. Tackling opposing ejected players may enter during the
soldiers who are playing the ball is next break in play that follows a goal
allowed. The chief umpire or any scored by either team. They enter on
referee may call infractions and im- the field from which the players were
pose penalties for unsportsmanlike ejected.
conduct or personal fouls on either
field. Penalties may also be called for BROOM-BALL HOCKEY
infractions committed on the field or
sidelines during playing time, quarter- This game is played on ice or a
and halftime breaks, and time-outs. frozen field using hockey rules. Play-
Personal fouls are called for the fol- ers wear boots with normal soles and
lowing: carry broom-shaped sticks with which
● Illegal blocking (below an oppo- they hit the ball into the goals.
nent’s waist). The object of this game is for teams
● Clipping (throwing the body across to score goals through the opponent’s
the back of the opponent’s legs as he defenses. Using only brooms, players
is running or standing). pass the ball through the opposing
● Throwing an opponent to the ground team to reach its goal. The first team
(that is, lifting and dropping or to score five points wins. Broom ball
slamming a player to the ground in provides a good cardiorespiratory work-
stead of tackling cleanly). out.
● Spearing, tackling, or piling on an
opponent who is already on the Players
● Striking or punching with closed There are 15 to 20 players on each
fist(s). team. One is a goalie and the others are
● Grasping an opponent’s neck or divided into three equal groups. The
head. goalie plays in the goal area of a
● Kicking. standard soccer or hockey field or
● Butting heads. along the goal line if the two opposing
Unsportsmanlike conduct is called goals are the same size. One soccer
for abusive or insulting language that ball, or some other type of inflated

ball, is used. The players need no times. Only goalies may use their
padding. hands to play the ball, but they must
The three groups begin the game in always keep control of their sticks.
center field. All players must stay in Other players must stay in their re-
their designated space throughout the spective zones of play (Attack, De-
game. A diagram of the field is shown fense, Centerfield). The ball is played
at Figure 9-6. along the ground or over one or more
groups of players. It may travel any
The Game distance as long as it is legally played.
The referee calls infractions and
The face-off marks the start of the imposes penalties. Basic penalties are
game, the second half, and the restart those called for the following:
of play after goals. Each half lasts 15 ● Unnecessary roughness or danger-
minutes. For the face-off, each player ous play. (The player is removed
is on his own half of the field. All from the game; he stays in the
players, except the two centers, are penalty box for two minutes.)
outside the center circle. The referee ● Ball out-of-bounds. (The team that
places the ball in the center of the caused it to go out loses posses-
circle between the two centers. The sion, and the opposing team puts the
signal to begin play is one long blast on ball back into play by hitting it to
the whistle. The ball must travel the nearest player.)
forward and cross the center circle ● Use of hands by a player other than
before being played by another player. a goalie. (The player must stay in
There are no time-outs except for the penalty box one minute.)
injury. The time-out signal is two ● Improper crossing of boundaries.
sharp whistle blasts. (When a member of the team in pos-
session of the ball crosses the bound
Rules ary line of his zone of play, posses-
sion will be awarded to the other
All players, including goalies, must team.)
stay inside their legal boundaries at all

Figure 9-6

Orienteering markers are to reach. Whoever collects
the most points within a designated
Orienteering is a competitive form time is the winner. Points are de-
of land navigation. It combines map ducted for returning late to the finish
Orienteering combines reading, compass use, and terrain study area.
map reading, compass with strategy, competition, and exer-
cise. This makes it an excellent activity LINE ORIENTEERING
use, and terrain study for any training schedule.
with strategy, An orienteering course is set up by Line orienteering is excellent for
competition, and placing control points or marker signs training new orienteers. The route is
over a variety of terrain. The orienteer premarked on the map, but check-
exercise. or navigator uses a detailed topogra- points are not shown. The navagator
phical map and a compass to negotiate tries to walk or run the exact map
the course. The map should be 1:25,000 route. While negotiating the course, he
scale or larger. A liquid-filled orien- looks for checkpoints or control-marker
teering compass works best. The base signs. The winner is determined by
of the compass is transparent plastic, the time taken to run the course and
and it gives accurate readings on the the accuracy of marking the control
run. The standard military, lensatic points when they are found.
compass will work even though it is not
specifically designed for the sport. ROUTE ORIENTEERING
The best terrain for an orienteering
course is woodland that offers varied This variation is also excellent for
terrain. Several different courses can beginners. The navigator follows a
be setup in an area 2,000 to 4,000 yards route that is clearly marked with signs
square. Courses can be short and or streamers. While negotiating the
simple for training beginners or longer course, he records on the map the
and more difficult to challenge the route being taken. Speed and accuracy
advanced competitors. of marking the route determine the
The various types of orienteering winner.
are described below.
Competitors in this event carry
This popular type of orienteering is flashlights and navigate with map and
used in all international and champi- compass. The night course for cross-
onship events. Participants navigate to country orienteering is usually shorter
a set number of check or control points than the day course. Control points are
in a designated order. Speed is impor- marked with reflective material or dim
tant since the winner is the one who lights. Open, rolling terrain, which is
reaches all the control points in the poor for day courses, is much more
right order and returns to the finish challenging at night.
area in the least time.
Urban orienteering is very similar
Quick thinking and strategy are to traditional types, but a compass,
major factors in score orienteering. A topographical map, and navigation skills
competitor selects the check-points to are not needed. A course can be set up
find based on point value and location. on any installation by using a map of
Point values throughout the course are the main post or cantonment area.
high or low depending on how hard the Soldiers run within this area looking

for coded location markers, which are Participants and Rules
numbered and marked on the map
before the start. This eliminates the Urban orienteering is conducted
need for a compass. Soldiers only need during daylight hours to ensure safety
a combination map-scorecard, a watch, and make the identification of check-
and a pencil. (Figure 9-7 shows a point markers easy. Soldiers form two-
sample scorecard.) man teams based on their APFT 2-
Urban orienteering adds variety mile-run times. Team members should
and competition to a unit’s PT pro- have similar running ability. A handi-
gram and is well suited for an intra- cap is given to slower teams. (See Fig-
mural program. It also provides a good ure 9-8.) At the assembly area, each
cardiovascular workout. team gets identical maps that show the

Figure 9-7

location of markers on the course. Playing the Game
Location markers are color-coded on
the map based on their point value. Once the soldiers have been as-
The markers farthest from the assem- signed a partner, the orienteering
bly area have the highest point values. marshal briefs them on the rules and
The maps are labeled with a location objectives of the game. He gives them
number corresponding to the location their time limitations and a reminder
marker on the course. A time limit is about the overtime penalty. He also
given, and teams finishing late are gives each team a combination map/
penalized. Five points are deducted scorecard with a two-digit number on
for each minute a team is late. While it to identify their team. When a team
on the course, team members must stay reaches a location marker, it records
together and not separate to get two on the scorecard the letters that corre-
markers at once. A team that separates spond to its two-digit number.
is disqualified. Any number of sol- Point values of each location marker
diers may participate, the limiting fac- are also annotated on the scorecard.
tors being space and the number of When the orienteering marshal signals
points on the course. the start of the event, all competitors

Figure 9-8

Figure 9-9

leave the assembly area at the same while running across streets and to
time. One to two hours is the optimal emphasize that team members should
time for conducting the activity. A always stay together.
sample location marker is shown at
Figure 9-9.
For this example, team number 54 Set Up and Materials
found the marker. The letters corre-
sponding to 54 are LD, so they place The course must be well thought out
“LD” on line 39 of their scorecard. and set up in advance. Setting up
This line number corresponds to the requires some man-hours, but the course
location’s marker number. When the can be used many times. The major
location marker code is deciphered, tasks are making and installing location
the team moves on to the next marker markers and preparing map/scorecard
of its choice. Each team goes to as combinations. Once the location marker
many markers as possible within the numbers are marked and color coded
allotted time. After all teams have on the maps, they are covered with
found as many location markers as combat acetate to keep them useful for
possible and have turned in their map/ a long time. Combat acetate (also
scorecards, the points are computed by called plastic sheet) can be purchased
the orienteering marshal to determine in the self-service supply center store
the teams’ standings. He has the key under stock number 9330-00-618-7214.
to all the points and can determine The course organizer must decide
each team’s accuracy. Handicap points how many location markers to make
are then added. Each soldier gets and where to put them. He should use
points if his 2-mile-run time is slower creativity to add excitement to the
than 12 minutes. (See Figure 9-8.) course. Suggestions for locations to put
The teams’ standings are displayed point markers are as follows: at inter-
shortly after the activity ends. sections, along roads in the tree line, on
building corners, and along creek beds
Safety Briefing and trails. They should not be too hard
to find. To help teams negotiate the
The orienteering marshal gives a course, all maps must be precisely
safety briefing before the event starts. marked to correspond with the place-
He reminds soldiers to be cautious ment of the course-location markers.

Unit Olympics Sandbag Relay

The unit olympics is a multifaceted This event uses four-man teams for
event that can be tailored to any unit to a running relay around a quarter-mile
provide athletic participation for all track carrying sandbags. One player
soldiers. The objective is to incorpo- from each team lines up at the starting
Unit olympics rate into a team-level competition line with a full sandbag in each hand.
incorporate athletic athletic. events that represent all five He hands the sandbags off to a team-
events that represent all fitness components. The competition mate when he finishes his part of the
five fitness components. can be within a unit or between com- race. This continues until the last team
peting units. When conducted with en- player crosses the finish line. Placings
thusiasm, it promotes team spirit and are determined by the teams’ order of
provides a good workout. It is a good finish.
diversion from the regular PT session.
A unit olympics, if well promoted Team Flexibility
from the top and well staged by the
project NCO or officer, can be a good In this event, if teams are numeri-
precursor to an SDT or the EIB test. cally equal, all members of each team
should participate. If not, as many
TYPES OF EVENTS team members should participate as
possible. Each team’s anchor person
The olympics should include events places his foot against a wall or a curb.
that challenge the soldiers’ muscular He stretches his other foot as far away
strength and endurance, aerobic en- as possible as in doing a split. The next
durance, flexibility, agility, speed, and team member puts one foot against the
related sports skills. anchor man’s extended foot and does a
Events can be held for both indi- split-stretch. This goes on until all
viduals and teams, and they should be team members are stretched. They
designed so that both male and female cover as much distance as possible
soldiers can take part. Each soldier keeping in contact with each other.
should be required to do a minimum The team that stretches farthest from
number of events. Teams should wear the start point without a break in their
a distinctively marked item such as a chain is the winner.
T-shirt or arm band. This adds char-
acter to the event and sets teams apart Medicine-Ball Throw
from each other. A warm-up should
precede and a cool-down should follow This event uses four-member teams.
the events. The teams begin by throwing the ball
The following are examples of ath- from the same starting line. When it
letic events that could be included in a lands, the ball is marked for each team
unit olympics: thrower, and the next team player
throws from this spot. This is repeated
Push-Up Derby until all the team’s players have thrown.
The team whose combined throws
This is a timed event using four- cover the most distance is the winner.
member teams. The objective is for the
team to do as many correct push-ups as Job-Related Events
possible within a four-minute time
limit. Only one team member does The organizer should use his imagi-
push-ups at a time. The four team nation when planning activities. He
members may rotate as often as de- may incorporate soldier skills required
sired, of an MOS. For instance, he could

devise a timed land-navigation event (MC) announces the sequence of events
geared toward soldiers with an MOS of and rules for each event. The games
11 C. The team would carry an 81 -mm then begin.
mortar (tube, tripod, and baseplate) to
three different locations, each a mile JUDGING AND SCORING
apart, and set it up in a firing configu-
ration. This type of event is excellent The MC should have one assistant
for fine-tuning job skills and is also per team who will judge that one team
physically challenging. during each event. Assistants give
input on events that need a numerical
count. The MC monitors the point
OPENING CEREMONY accumulation of each team. Points are
awarded for each event as follows:
The commander, ranking person, • First = 4 points.
or ceremony host gives an inspira- • Second = 3 points.
tional speech before the opening cere- • Third = 2 points.
monies, welcoming competitors and • Fourth = 1 point.
wishing them good luck. The olympics When two teams tie an event, the
is officially opened with a torch light- points are added together and split
ing. This is followed by a short equally between them. After the
symbolic parade of all the teams. The competition ends, the totaled point
teams are then put back into forma- scores for each team are figured. The
tion, and team captains lead motivat- first- through fourth-place teams are
ing chants. The master of ceremonies then recognized.

analysis of the mission, coupled with
the commander’s intent, yields the
mission-essential task list (METL) a
The goal of the Army’s physical unit must perform.
fitness program is to improve each Regardless of the unit’s size or
soldier’s physical ability so he can mission, reasonable goals are essential.
survive and win on the battlefield. According to FM 25-100, the goals
Physical fitness includes all aspects of should provide a common direction
physical performance, not just per- for all the commander’s programs and
formance on the APFT. Leaders must systems. An example of a goal is as
understand the principles of exercise, follows because the exceptional physi-
the FITT factors, and know how to cal fitness of the soldier is a critical
apply them in order to develop a sound combat-multiplier in the division, it
PT program that will improve all the must be our goal to ensure that our
fitness components. To plan PT suc- soldiers are capable of roadmarching
cessfully, the commander and MFT 12 miles with a 50-pound load in less
must know the training management than three hours.
system. (See FM 25-100.)
Commanders should not be satisfied STEP 2: DEVELOP FITNESS
with merely meeting the minimum OBJECTIVES
requirements for physical training which
Commanders must is having all of their soldiers pass the Objectives direct the unit’s efforts
APFT. They must develop programs by prescribing specific actions. The
develop prgrams that
that train soldiers to maximize their commander, as tactician, and the MFT,
train soldiers to physical performance. Leaders should as physical fitness advisor, must ana-
maximize their physical use incentives. More importantly, they lyze the METL and equate this to
performance. must set the example through their own specific fitness objectives. Examples
participation. of fitness objectives are the following:
The unit PT program is the com- ● Improve the unit’s overall level of
mander’s program. It must reflect his strength by ensuring that all sol-
goals and be based on sound, scientific diers in the unit can correctly per-
principles. The wise commander also form at least one repetition with 50
uses his PT program as a basis for percent of their bodyweight on the
building team spirit and for enhancing overhead press using a barbell.
other training activities. Tough, real- ● Improve the unit’s average APFT
istic training is good. However, leaders score through each soldier obtain-
must be aware of the risks involved ing a minimum score of 80 points
with physical training and related ac- on the push-up and sit-up events
tivities. They should, therefore, plan and 70 points on the 2-mile run.
wisely to minimize injuries and acci- ● Decrease the number of physical
dents. training injuries by 25 percent
through properly conducted train-
Steps in Planning ing.
The commander and MFT identify
STEP 1: ANALYZE THE MISSION and prioritize the objectives.

When planning a physical fitness STEP 3: ASSESS THE UNIT

program, the commander must con-
sider the type of unit and its mission. With the training objectives estab-
Missions vary as do the physical re- lished, the commander and MFT are
quirements necessary to complete them. ready to find the unit’s current fitness
As stated in FM 25-100, “The wartime level and measure it against the desired
mission drives training.” A careful level.

Giving a diagnostic APFT is one Collective tasks. Collective tasks are
way to find the current level. Another the training activities performed by
way is to have the soldiers road march the unit. They are keyed to the unit’s
a certain distance within a set time specific fitness objectives. An ex-
while carrying a specified load. Any ample would be to conduct training to
quantifiable, physically demanding, develop strength and muscular endur-
mission-essential task can be used as an ance utilizing a sandbag circuit.
assessment tool. Training records and Individual tasks. Individual tasks are
reports, as well as any previous activities that an individual soldier
ARTEP, EDREs, and so forth, can also must do to accomplish the collective
provide invaluable information. training task. For example, to improve
CR endurance the individual soldier
STEP 4: DETERMINE TRAINING must do ability-group running, road
REQUIREMENTS marching, Fartlek training, interval
training, and calculate/monitor his
By possessing the unit’s fitness capa- THR when appropriate.
bilities and comparing them to the Leader tasks. Leader tasks are the
standards defined in training objec- specific tasks leaders must do in order
tives, leaders can determine fitness for collective and individual training
training requirements. When, after to take place. These will involve pro-
extensive training, soldiers cannot reach curing resources, the setting up of
the desired levels of fitness, training training, education of individual sol-
requirements may be too idealistic. diers, and the supervision of the actual
Once training requirements are deter- training.
mined, the commander reviews higher Resources. Identifying the necessary
headquarters’ long- and short-range equipment, facilities, and training aids
training plans to identify training events during the planning phase gives the
and allocations of resources which will trainer ample time to prepare for the
affect near-term planning. training. The early identification and
acquisition of resources is necessary to
STEP 5: DEVELOP FITNESS TASKS fully implement the training program.
The bottom line is that training pro-
Fitness tasks provide the framework grams must be developed using re-
for accomplishing all training require- sources which are available.
ments. They identify what has to be
done to correct all deficiencies and STEP 6: DEVELOP A TRAINING
sustain all proficiencies. Fitness tasks SCHEDULE
establish priorities, frequencies, and
the sequence for training requirements. The fitness training schedule re-
They must be adjusted for real world sults from leaders’ near-term plan-
constraints before they become a part ning. Leaders must emphasize the
of the training plan. The essential development of all the fitness compo-
elements of fitness tasks can be cata- nents and follow the principles of
loged into four groups: exercise and the FITT factors. The
(1) Collective tasks training schedule shows the order, in-
(2) Individual tasks tensity, and duration of activities for
(3) Leader tasks PT. Figure 10-1 illustrates a typical
(4) Resources required for training PT session and its component parts.

There are three distinct steps in
planning a unit's daily physical train- At the end of a well-planned and
ing activities. They are as follows: executed PT session, all soldiers should
1. Determine the minimum frequency feel that they have been physically
of training. Ideally, it should in- stressed. They should also understand
include three cardiorespiratory and the objective of the training session
three muscular conditioning ses- and how it will help them improve
sions each weeks. (See the FITT their fitness levels.
factors in Chapter 1.)
2. Determine the type of activity. This STEP 7: CONDUCT AND
depends on the specific purpose of EVALUATE TRAINING
the training session. (See Figure 10-
2.) For more information on this The commander and MFT now
topic, see Chapters 1, 2, and 3. begin managing and supervising the
day-to-day training. They evaluate
3. Determine the intensity and time of
how the training is performed by
the selected activity. (See the FITT
monitoring its intensity, using THR or
factors in Chapter 1.) muscle failure, along with the duration
Each activity period should include of the daily workout.
a warm-up, a workout that develops The key to evaluating training is to
cardiorespiratory fitness and/or mus- determine if the training being con-
cular endurance and strength, and a ducted will result in improvements in
cool-down. (See Figure 10-1). physical conditioning. If not, the
training needs revision. Leaders should

Figure 10-1

Figure 10-2

not be sidetracked by PT that is all intervals. Local “Fit to Win” coordina-

form and little substance. Such train- tors (AR 600-63) can help develop
ing defeats the concept of objective- classes on such subjects.
based training and results in little
benefit to soldiers. Common Errors

Education There are some common errors in

unit programs. The most common
Teaching soldiers about physical error concerns the use of unit runs.
fitness is vital. It must be an ongoing When all soldiers must run at the same
effort that uses trained experts like pace as with a unit run, many do not
MFTs. Soldiers must understand why receive a training effect because they
the program is organized the way it is do not reach their training heart rate
and what the basic fitness principles (THR). The least-fit soldiers of the
are. When they know why they are unit may be at risk because they may
training in a certain way, they are be training at heart rates above their Total fitness should be
more likely to wholeheartedly take THR. Another error is exclusively reinforced throughout
part. This makes the training more ef- using activities such as the “daily dozen.” each soldier's career by
fective. These exercises emphasize form over classroom instruction.
Education also helps the Army substance and do little to improve
develop its total fitness concept. To- fitness.
tal fitness should be reinforced through- Yet another error is failing to strike
out each soldier’s career. Classroom a balance in a PT program between CR
instruction in subjects such as prin- endurance training and muscular en-
ciples of exercise, diet and nutrition, durance and strength training. In
tobacco cessation, and stress manage- addition, imbalances often stem from a
ment should be held at regular lack of variety in the program which

leads to boredom. The principles of ARTEP manual to find the most physi-
exercise are described in Chapter 1, cally demanding, mission-oriented tasks
and their application is shown in the the unit performs. The analysis showed
sample program below. that, typically, the company does a
tactical road march and then occupies
A Sample Program a position. It establishes a perimeter,
improves its positions, and selects and
The following sample program shows prepares alternate positions. One of
a commander’s thought processes as he the most demanding missions while in
develops a 12-week fitness training position requires soldiers to move by
program for his unit. hand, for 15 to 30 minutes, equipment
Captain Frank Jones’s company has weighing up to 95 pounds. If his unit
just returned from the field where it received artillery fire, it would need to
completed an ARTEP. Several injuries be able to move to alternate positions
occurred including a broken foot, re- as quickly as possible. This requires
sulting from a dropped container, and much lifting, digging, loading, un-
three low back strains. After evaluat- loading, and moving of heavy equip-
ing his unit during this ARTEP, CPT ment. All of these tasks require good
Jones concluded that its level of physi- muscular endurance and strength and
cal fitness was inadequate. He thought a reasonable level of cardiorespiratory
this contributed to the injuries and endurance.
poor performance. The soldiers’ flexi-
bility was poor, and there was an DEVELOP FITNESS OBJECTIVES
apparent lack of prior emphasis on,
Next, CPT Jones reviewed his bat-
and training in, good lifting tech-
talion commander’s physical training
niques. This, combined with poor
guidance. It showed that the com-
flexibility in the low back and ham-
mander was aware that the unit’s tasks
strings, may have contributed to the
require muscular endurance and
unacceptably high number of low back
strength and cardiorespiratory fitness.
strains. Captain Jones decided to ask
The guidance and objectives issued are
the battalion’s MFT to help him de-
as follows:
velop a good unit program for the
a. Units will do PT five days a week
company. They went through the
(0600-0700) when in garrison. In the
following steps.
field, organized PT will beat the com-
mander’s discretion.
Captain Jones determined that the
major PT emphasis should be to im-
prove muscular endurance and strength.
DEVELOP FITNESS OBJECTIVES He based this on his unit’s mission,
training schedule, available resources,
and on his commander’s guidance and
DETERMINE TRAINING REQUIREMENTS objectives. With this information and
the MIT’s recommendations, CPT Jones
DESIGN FITNESS TASKS developed the following fitness objec-
● Improve the unit’s overall level of
CONDUCT AND EVALUATE TRAINING muscular endurance and strength.
● Improve the unit’s overall level of
● Improve the unit’s average APFT
First, they analyzed the recently score. Each soldier will score at
completed ARTEP and reviewed the least 80 points on the push-up and

1 0 - 5
sit-up events and 70 points on the DETERMINE TRAINING
2-mile run. REQUIREMENTS
● Improve the unit’s road marching
capability so that 100 percent of the The next step CPT Jones accom-
unit can complete a 12-mile road plished was to determine the training
march with a 35-pound load in at requirements.
least 3.5 hours. Training requirements are deter-
● Decrease the number of profiles. mined by analyzing the training results
● Reduce tobacco use. and the data obtained from the unit as-
sessment. The next step is to compare
ASSESS THE UNIT this data to the standards identified in
the training objectives. When per-
The next step CPT Jones accom- formance is less than the established
plished was to assess his unit. standard, the problem must be ad-
The MFT studied the results of the dressed and corrected.
unit’s latest APFT and came up with Captain Jones established the fol-
the following information: lowing training requirements.
● The average push-up score was 68 Units will do flexibility exercises
points. during the warm-up and cool-down
● The average sit-up score was 72 phase of every PT session. During the
points. cool-down, emphasis on will be placed
● The average number of points scored on developing flexibility in the low
on the 2-mile run was 74. back, hamstrings, and hip extensor
● There were six failures, two on the muscle groups.
2-mile run and four on the push- Each soldier will do 8 to 12 repeti-
up. tions of bent-leg, sandbag dead-lifts at
The MFT also recommended that least two times a week to develop
the unit be assessed in the following strength. The section leader will su-
areas: road march performance, pervise lifts.
strength, flexibility, substance abuse, Each soldier will do heavy resis-
and profiled soldiers. tance/weight training for all the muscle
Following the MFT’s recommenda- groups of the body two to three times
tions, subordinate leaders made the a week.
following assessments/determinations: Each soldier will perform timed sets
● Eighty-eight percent of the com- of push-ups and sit-ups.
pany finished the 12-mile road Each soldier will train at least 20 to
march with a 35-pound load in 30 minutes at THR two to three times
under 3 hours 30 minutes. a week.
● A formation toe-touch test revealed Road marches will be conducted at
that over half the company could least once every other week.
not touch their toes while their Tobacco cessation classes will be es-
knees were extended. tablished to reduce the number of
● Thirty percent of the unit uses to- tobacco users.
● Two soldiers are in the overweight DESIGN FITNESS TASKS
● Eight percent of the unit is now on Once all training requirements are
temporary profile, most from back identified, the next step is to use them
problems. to design fitness tasks which relate to

the fitness objectives. In developing do ability-group runs, interval train-
the fitness tasks, CPT Jones must ing, road marching, and they must cal-
address collective, individual, and leader culate their THR and monitor THR
tasks as well as resources required. when appropriate. To improve their
Fitness tasks provide the framework flexibility, they must do stretching ex-
for accomplishing the training require- ercises during their daily warm-up
ments. By accurately listing the fitness and cool-down.
tasks that must be done and the re- The leader’s tasks are to organize
sources required to do them, the sub- and supervise all strength- and muscle
sequent step of developing a training endurance-training sessions and CR
schedule is greatly facilitated. training sessions so as to best meet all
An example of designing fitness related fitness objectives. Similarly,
tasks is provided in Figure 10-3 by the leader must organize and supervise
using the activities which might occur all warm-up and cool-down sessions
during one week of physical training. to best meet the fitness objectives for
The collective tasks for the unit are the development and maintenance of
to perform the following: develop flexibility.
muscular endurance and strength, im- To provide specific examples of
prove CR endurance, and improve leaders tasks in the area of training for
flexibility. strength and muscle endurance, the
The individual tasks all soldiers leader will ensure the following:
must perform during the week are as ● Each strength- and/or muscle en-
follows. For developing strength and durance-training session works all
muscular endurance, they must per- the major muscle groups of the
form appropriate strength circuit exer- body.
cises, PREs, sandbag circuits, to in- ● High priority is given to training
clude performing bent-leg dead lifts those muscles and muscle groups
exercises, and training for push-up/ used in mission-essential tasks.
sit-up improvement. To improve ● Areas where weaknesses exist,
cardiorespiratory endurance, they must with respect to strength/muscle

Figure 10-3

endurance, are targeted in all work- chapters are used to organize training
outs. sessions for improving CR endurance
● Problem areas related to APFT per- and flexibility.
formance are addressed in appro- The resources needed for the one-
priate workouts. week period are as follows: a strength
● The duration of each strength train- room, a gym, a PT field, a running
ing session is 20-40 minutes. track and/or running trails, and sand-
● Soldiers train to muscle failure. bags.
● All the principles of exercise, to
include regularity, overload, re- DEVELOP A TRAINING SCHEDULE
covery, progression, specificity, bal-
ance are used. The next step was to develop a
In a similar manner, the leader fitness training schedule (shown at
would ensure that the guidelines and Figure 10-4). It lists the daily activi-
principles outlined in this and earlier ties and their intensity and duration.

Figure 10-4

Figure 10-4 (continued)

Figure 10-4 (continued)

Figure 10-4 (continued)

CONDUCT AND EVALUATE used in their job-related lifting tasks.
TRAINING Developmental stretching should help
reduce work-related back injuries. The
Conducting and evaluating training different types of training in running
is the final phase of the training will help ensure that soldiers reach a
process. This phase includes the evalu- satisfactory level of CR fitness and
ation of performance, assessment of help each soldier score at least 70
capabilities, and feedback portions of points on the APFT’s 2-mile run.
the training management cycle. These Soldiers do push-ups and sit-ups at
portions of the cycle must be simulta- least two or three times a week to
neous and continuous. To be effec- improve the unit’s performance in
tive, the evaluation process must ad- these events. The competitive fitness
dress why weaknesses exist, and it activities will help foster teamwork
must identify corrective actions to be and cohesion, both of which are essen-
taken. Evaluations should address the tial to each section’s functions.
following: ● Overload. Soldiers reach overload
● Assessment of proficiency in mis- in the weight circuit by doing each
sion-essential tasks. exercise with an 8- to 12-RM lift
● Status of training goals and objec- for a set time and/or until they
tives. reach temporary muscle failure. For
● Status of training in critical indi- the cardiorespiratory workout, THR
vidual and collective tasks. is calculated initially using 70 per-
● Shortfalls in training. cent of the HRR. They do push-ups
● Recommendations for next training and sit-ups in multiple, timed sets
cycle (key in on correcting weak- with short recovery periods to en-
nesses). sure that muscle failure is reached.
● Results of educational programs. They also do PREs to muscle fail-
Using the Principles of ● Progression. To help soldiers reach
Exercise adequate overload as they improve,
the program is made gradually more
As CPT Jones developed his pro- difficult. Soldiers progress in their
gram, he made sure he used the seven CR workout by increasing the time
principles of exercise. He justified his they spend at THR up to 30 to 45
program as follows: minutes per session and by main-
● Balance. This program is balanced taining THR. They progress on the
because all the fitness components weight training circuit individually.
are addressed. The emphasis is on When a soldier can do an exercise
building muscular endurance and for a set time without reaching
strength in the skeletal muscular muscle failure, the weight is in-
system because of the many lifting creased so that the soldier reaches
tasks the unit must do. The pro- muscle failure between the 8th and
gram also trains cardiorespiratory 12th repetition again. Progression
endurance and flexibility, and warm- in push-ups and sit-ups involves
up and cool-down periods are in- slowly increasing the duration of
cluded in every workout. the work intervals.
● Specificity. The unit’s fitness goals ● Variety. There are many different
are met. The sand-bag lifting and activities for variety. For strength
weight training programs help and muscular endurance training
develop muscular endurance and the soldiers use weight circuits,
strength. The movements should, sandbag circuits, and PREs. Ability
when possible, stress muscle groups group runs, intervals, Par courses,

Fartlek running, and guerrilla drills are system to recover on the day the
all used for CR training. Varied other is working hard.
stretching techniques, including static,
partner-assisted, and contract-relax, Conclusion
are used for developmental stretching. CPT Jones’s step-by-step process
● Regularity. Each component of of developing a sound PT program for
fitness is worked regularly. Soldiers his unit is an example of what each
will spend at least two to three days commander should do in developing
a week working each of the major his own unit program.
fitness components. They will also Good physical training takes no
do push-ups and sit-ups regularly to more time to plan and execute than
help reach their peak performance does poor training. When commanders
on the APFT. use a systematic approach to develop
● Recovery. The muscular and cardi- training, the planning process bears
orespiratory systems are stressed in sound results and the training will
alternate workouts. This allows one succeed.

requirements of their own training
course to ensure that their soldiers are
prepared for the physical challenges
of their future assignments. This
means developing safe training pro-
Soldiers report to initial entry train- grams which will produce the maxi-
ing (IET) ranging widely in their levels mum physical improvement possible.
of physical fitness. Because of this, MFTs are skilled at assessing sol-
there are special considerations when diers’ capabilities. They use the five
designing a physical training program components of physical fitness in de-
for IET soldiers. Physical training signing programs to reach the training
involves safely training and challeng- objectives established by the com-
ing all soldiers while improving their mander. They also know how to
fitness level to meet required stan- conduct exercise programs that are
dards. The regulations which govern effective and safe. MFTs are not,
the conduct of physical training in IET however, trained to diagnose or treat
and explain the graduation require- injuries.
ments are TRADOC Reg. 350-6 and The commander’s latitude in pro-
AR 350-15. gram development varies with the
The mission of physical training in length and type of the IET course.
IET is twofold: to safely train soldiers For example, commanders of basic
to meet the graduation requirements combat training (BCT) may do a
of each course and to prepare soldiers standard PT program at one installa-
to meet the physical demands of their tion, while AIT commanders may
future assignments. design their own programs. Regard-
less of the type of course, all leaders
Program Development must strive to train their soldiers to
attain the highest level of physical
All physical training programs in fitness possible. This means using the
IET must do the following: 1 ) progres- established principles of exercise to
develop a safe physical training pro-
sively condition and toughen soldiers
for military duties; 2) develop soldiers’ gram.
self-confidence, discipline, and team Safety Considerations
spirit; 3) develop healthy life-styles
through education; and, 4) improve Overuse injuries are common in
physical fitness to the highest levels IET. However, they can be avoided by
possible in all five components of carefully following the exercise prin-
physical fitness (cardiorespiratory ciples of “recovery” and “progression.”
endurance, muscular strength, muscu- Research suggests that soldiers are
lar endurance, flexibility, and body more prone to injuries of the lower
composition). extremities after the third week of
Because each IET school is some- IET. High-impact activities, such as
what different, commanders must road marching and running on hard
examine the graduation requirements surfaces, should be carefully moni-
for the course and establish appropri- tored during at this time. During this
ate fitness objectives. They can then period, fixed circuits and other activi-
design a program that attains these ob- ties that develop CR fitness are good,
jectives. The seven principles of low-impact alternatives.
exercise outlined in Chapter 1 are Properly fitted, high-quality run-
universal, and they apply to all PT ning shoes are important, especially
programs including those in IET. when PT sessions require running
Commanders of initial entry training on hard surfaces. Court shoes, like
should look beyond the graduation basketball or tennis shoes, are not

designed to absorb the repetitive shock up to 5 kilometers with light loads.
of running. Activities such as running Loads should be restricted to the
obstacle courses and road marching standard LCE, kevlar helmet, and
require combat boots to protect and weapon. Bones, ligaments, and ten-
support the feet and ankles. Naturally, dons respond slowly to training and
common sense dictates a reasonable may be injured if the load and/or
break-in period for new combat boots, duration are increased too quickly.
especially before long marches. After the initial adaptations in the
Examples of recommended PT ses- early weeks of IET, soldiers can be
sions and low-risk exercises are in expected to carry progressively heav-
Chapter 7. Specific health and safety ier loads including a rucksack. By he
considerations are in TRADOC Reg. start of the fourth week, they should
350-6, paragraph 4-2. be accustomed to marching in boots,
and their feet should be less prone to
Road Marching blistering. By the sixth week, the load
may be increased to 40 pounds includ-
One road march should be con- ing personal clothing and equipment.
ducted weekly with the difficulty of At no time during IET or one-station
the marches progressing gradually unit training (OSUT) should loads ex-
throughout IET. ceed 40 pounds.
In the first two weeks of IET, A sample regimen for road marches
soldiers can be expected to road march during IET is at Figure 11-1.

Figure 11-1

The four ways in which the body
can gain or lose heat are the following:
• Conduction-the transfre of heat
In today’s Army, soldiers may deploy from a warm object to a cool one
anywhere in the world. They may go that is touching it. (Warming boots
into the tropical heat of Central by putting them on is an example.)
America, the deserts of the Middle • Convection-the transfer of heat by
East, the frozen tundra of Alaska, or
circulation or movement
the rolling hills of Western Europe. of air. (Using a fan on a hot day is
Each environment presents unique
an example.)
problems concerning soldiers’ physical
• Radiation-the transfer of heat by
performance. Furthermore, physical
electromagnetic waves. (Sitting un-
exertion in extreme environments can
der a heat lamp is an example.)
be life-threatening. While recogniz-
• Evaporation- the transfer of heat
ing such problems is important, pre-
venting them is even more important. by changing a liquid into a gas.
This requires an understanding of the (Evaporating sweat cooling the skin
environmental factors which affect is an example.)
physical performance and how the
body responds to those factors. Heat moves from warm to cool
areas. During exercise, when the body
Temperature Regulation is extremely warm, heat can be lost by
a combination of the four methods.
The body constantly produces heat, Sweating, however, is the body’s most
especially during exercise. To main- important means for heat loss, espe-
tain a constant normal temperature, it cially during exercise. Any condition
must pass this heat on to the environ- that slows or blocks the transfer of heat
ment. Life-threatening circumstances from the body by evaporation causes
can develop if the body becomes too heat storage which results in an in-
hot or too cold. Body temperature crease in body temperature.
must be maintained within fairly nar- The degree to which evaporative
row limits, usually between 74 and 110 cooling occurs is also directly related to
degrees Fahrenheit. However, hy- the air’s relative humidity (a measure
pothermia and heat injuries can occur of the amount of water vapor in the
within much narrower limits. There- air). When the relative humidity is 100
fore, extreme temperatures can have a percent, the air is completely saturated
devastating effect on the body’s ability at its temperature. No more water can
to control its temperature. evaporate into the surrounding air. As
Overheating is a serious threat to a result, sweat does not evaporate, no
health and physical performance. cooling effect takes place, and the
During exercise, the body can produce body temperature increases. This causes
heat at a rate 10 to 20 times greater even more sweating. During exercise
than during rest. To survive, it must in the heat, sweat rates of up to two
get rid of the excess heat. quarts per hour are not uncommon.

If the lost fluids are not replaced, de-
hydration can occur. This condition, To prevent heat injuries, the fol-
lowing hydration guidelines should be
in turn, can result in severe heat used:
injuries. ● Type of drink: cool water (45 to 55
Thus, in hot, humid conditions when degrees F).
a soldier’s sweat cannot evaporate, ● Before the activity: drink 13 to 20
there is no cooling effect through the ounces at least 30 minutes before.
process of evaporation. High relative ● During the activity: drink 3 to 6
ounces at 15 to 30 minute intervals.
humidities combined with high tem- ● After the activity: drink to satisfy
peratures can cause serious problems. thirst, then drink a little more.
Weather of this type occurs in the
tropics and equatorial regions such as
Central America and southern Asia.
These are places where soldiers have
been or could be deployed. Acclimatization to Hot, Humid
Heat Injuries and Symptoms
Adapting to differing environmental
conditions is called acclimatization.
The following are common types of
heat injuries and their symptoms. Soldiers who are newly introduced to
● Heat cramps-muscles cramps of the
a hot, humid climate and are moder-
abdomen, legs, or arms. ately active in it can acclimatize in 8 to
● Heat exhaustion-headache, exces- 14 days. Soldiers who are sedentary
sive sweating, dizziness, nausea, take much longer. Until they are ac-
clammy skin. climatized, soldiers are much more
● Heat stroke-hot, dry skin, cessa- likely to develop heat injuries.
tion of sweating, rapid pulse, men- A soldier’s ability to perform ef-
tal confusion, unconsciousness. fectively in hot, humid conditions
Adapting to differing depends on both his acclimatization
environmental conditions To prevent heat injuries while exer- and level of fitness. The degree of
cising, trainers must adjust the inten- heat stress directly depends on the
is called acclimatization. sity to fit the temperature and humid- relative workload. When two soldiers
ity. They must ensure that soldiers do the same task, the heat stress is less
drink enough water before and during for the soldier who is in better physical
the exercise session. Body weight is a condition, and his performance is likely
good gauge of hydration. If rapid to be better. Therefore, it is important
weight loss occurs, dehydration should to maintain high levels of fitness.
be suspected. Plain water is the best Increased temperatures and humid-
replacement fluid to use. Highly con- ity cause increased heart rates. Con-
centrated liquids such as soft drinks sequently, it takes much less effort to
and those with a high sugar content elevate the heart rate into the training
may hurt the soldier’s performance zone, but the training effect is the
because they slow the absorption of same. These facts underscore the need
water from the stomach. to use combat-development running

and to monitor heart rates when run- HYPOTHERMIA
ning, especially in hot, humid condi-
tions. If the body’s core temperature drops
Some important changes occur as a below normal, its ability to regulate its
result of acclimatization to a hot cli- temperature can become impaired or
mate. The following physical adapta- lost. This condition is called hypother-
tions help the body cope with a hot mia. It develops because the body
environment cannot produce heat as fast as it is losing
● Sweating occurs at a lower body it. This can lead to death. The chance
temperature. of a soldier becoming hypothermic is a
● Sweat production is increased. major threat any time he is exposed to
● Blood volume is increased. the cold.
● Heart rate is less at any given work Some symptoms of hypothermia are
rate. shivering, loss of judgment, slurred Hypothermia develops
speech, drowsiness, and muscle weak- when the body cannot
Exercising in Cold ness. produce heat as fast as
Environments During exercise in the cold, people it is losing it.
usually produce enough heat to maintain
Contrary to popular belief, there are normal body temperature. As they get
few real dangers in exercising at tem- fatigued, however, they slow down and
peratures well below freezing. Since their bodies produce less heat. Also,
the body produces large amounts of people often overdress for exercise in
heat during exercise, it has little trouble the cold. This makes the body sweat.
maintaining a normal temperature. The sweat dampens the clothing next to
There is no danger of freezing the the skin making it a good conductor of
lungs. However, without proper pre- heat. The combination of decreased heat
cautions, hypothermia, frostbite, and production and increased heat loss can
dehydration can occur. cause a rapid onset of hypothermia.
Some guidelines for dressing for cold
weather exercise are shown in Figure


Clothing for cold weather should protect,
insulate, and ventilate. 40% HEAT LOSS THROUGH HEAD J:q(([l’
● Protect by covering as large an area of
the body as possible.
● Insulation will occur by trapping air
which has been warmed by the body
and holding it near the skin. LIGHIWEIGHT
● Ventilate by allowing a two-way
exchange of air through the various
layers of clothing.

Clothing should leave your body slightly

cool rather than hot. \
/ “
Clothing should also be loose enough to /
allow movement. i l l
Clothing soaked with perspiration should
BE KEPT DRY J ! ! ! !
be removed if reasonably possible.

Figure 12-1

FROSTBITE mph is the same as standing in a 15-
mph wind. If, in addition, there is a
Frostbite is the freezing of body 5-mph headwind, the overall effect is
tissue. It commonly occurs in body equivalent to a 20-mph wind. There-
parts located away from the core and fore, an exercising soldier must be
exposed to the cold such as the nose, very cautious to avoid getting frost-
ears, feet, hands, and skin. Severe bite. Covering exposed parts of the
cases of frostbite may require amputa- body will substantially reduce the
tion. risks.
Factors which lead to frostbite are
cold temperatures combined with windy DEHYDRATION
conditions. The wind has a great
cooling effect because it causes rapid Dehydration can result from losing
convective heat transfer from the body. body fluids faster than they are re-
For a given temperature, the higher the placed. Cold environments are often
wind speed, the greater the cooling dry, and water may be limited. As a
effect. Figure 12-2 shows how the result, soldiers may in time become
wind can affect cooling by providing dehydrated. While operating in ex-
information on windchill factors. tremely cold climates, trainers should
A person’s movement through the check the body weights of the soldiers
air creates an effect similar to that regularly and encourage them to drink
caused by wind. Riding a bicycle at 15 liquids whenever possible.

Figure 12-2

Acclimatization to High ment’s quality. Originally, air pollut-
Altitudes ants were thought to be only by-
products of the industrial revolution.
Elevations below 5,000 feet have However, many pollutants are pro-
little noticeable effect on healthy people. duced naturally. For example, volca-
However, at higher elevations the noes emit sulfur oxides and ash, and
atmospheric pressure is reduced, and lightning produces ozone.
the body tissues get less oxygen. This There are two classifications of air
means that soldiers cannot work or pollutants - primary and secondary.
exercise as well at high altitudes. The Primary pollutants are produced di-
limiting effects of high elevation are rectly by industrial sources. These
often most pronounced in older sol- include carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur
diers and persons with low levels of oxides (SO), hydrocarbons, and par-
fitness. ticulate (ash). Secondary pollutants
Due to acclimatization, the longer a are created by the primary pollutant’s
soldier remains at high altitude, the interaction with the environment. Ex-
amples of these include ozone (03),
better his performance becomes.
Generally, however, he will not per- aldehydes, and sulfates. Smog is a
form as well as at sea level and should combination of primary and secondary
not be expected to. For normal activi- pollutants.
Some pollutants have negative ef-
ties, the time required to acclimatize
fects on the body. For example, car-
depends largely on the altitude. In
order to insure that soldiers who are bon monoxide binds to hemoglobin in
newly assigned to altitudes above 5,000 the red blood cells and reduces the
feet are not at a disadvantage, it is amount of oxygen carried in the blood. Pollutants can irritate
recommended that 30 days of acclima- Ozone and the oxides irritate the air the respiratory tract
passageways in the lungs, while other and make the person
tization, including regular physical less able to perform
activity, be permitted before they are pollutants irritate the eyes.
When exercisers in high-pollution aerobically.
administered a record APFT.
Before acclimatization is complete, areas breathe through the mouth, the
nasal mucosa’s ability to remove impu-
people at high altitudes may suffer
rities is bypassed, and many pollutants
acute mountain sickness. This in-
can be inhaled. This irritates the
cludes such symptoms as headache,
rapid pulse, nausea, loss of appetite, respiratory tract and makes the person
less able to perform aerobically.
and an inability to sleep. The primary
treatment is further acclimatization or
returning to a lower altitude.
Once soldiers are acclimatized to The following are some ways to deal
altitudes above 5,000 feet, deacclima- with air pollution while exercising:
tization will occur if they spend 14 or • Avoid exposure to pollutants before
more days at lower altitudes. For this and during exercise, if possible.
reason, soldiers should be permitted • In areas of high ozone concentra-
twice the length of their absence, not tion, train early in the day and after
to exceed 30 days, to reacclimatize dark.
before being required to take a record • Avoid exercising near heavily trav-
APFT. A period of 30 days is adequate eled streets and highways during
for any given reacclimatization. rush hours.
• Consult your supporting preven-
Air Pollution and Exercise tive-medicine activity for advice
in identifying or defining training
Pollutants are substances in the en- restrictions during periods of heavy
vironment which lower the environ- air pollution.

Injuries are not an uncommon oc- (socks, shoes, boots) in good repair,
currence during intense physical train- and wearing the proper size of
ing. It is, nonetheless, a primary boot or shoe.
responsibility of all leaders to mini- ● Shinsplints - a painful injury to the
mize the risk of injury to soldiers. soft tissues and bone in the shin
Safety is always a major concern. area. These are generally caused
Most injuries can be prevented by by wearing shoes with inflexible
designing a well-balanced PT program soles or inadequate shock absorp-
that does not overstress any body parts, tion, running on the toes or on hard
allows enough time for recovery, and surfaces, and/or having calf muscles
includes a warm-up and cool-down. with a limited range of motion.
Using strengthening exercises and soft, ● Sprain - a stretching or tearing of
Most injuries can be level surfaces for stretching and run- the ligament(s) at a joint.
prevented by designing ning also helps prevent injuries. If, ● Muscle spasm (muscle cramp) - a
a well-balanced PT however, injuries do occur, they should sudden, involuntary contraction of
program. be recognized and properly treated in one or more muscles.
a timely fashion. If a soldier suspects ● Contusion - a bruise with bleeding
that he is injured, he should stop what into the muscle tissue.
he is doing, report the injury, and seek ● Strain - a stretching or tearing of
medical help. the muscles.
Many common injuries are caused ● Bursitis - an inflammation of the
by overuse, that is, soldiers often bursa (a sack-like structure where
exercise too much and too often and tendons pass over bones). This
with too rapid an increase in the work- occurs at a joint and produces pain
load. Most overuse injuries can be when the joint is moved or touched.
treated with rest, ice, compression, and Sometimes swelling occurs.
elevation (RICE). Following any re- ● Tendinitis - an inflammation of a
quired first aid, health-care personnel tendon that produces pain when the
should evaluate the injured soldier. attached muscle contracts. Swelling
may not occur.
● Stress fractures of the feet.
● Tibial stress fractures - overuse
Typical Injuries Associated injuries which seem like shinsplints
with Physical Training except that the pain is in a specific
Common injuries associated with ● Knee injuries - caused by running
exercise are the following: on uneven surfaces or with worn
Abrasion (strawberry) - the rubbing out shoes, overuse, and improper
off of skin by friction. body alignment. Soldiers who have
Dislocation - “the displacement of problems with their knees can bene-
one or more bones of a joint from fit from doing leg exercises
their natural positions. that strengthen the front (quadri-
Hot spot - a hot or irritated feeling ceps) and rear (hamstrings) thigh
of the skin which occurs just before muscles.
a blister forms. These can be pre- ● Low back problems - caused by
vented by using petroleum jelly poor running, sitting, or lifting
over friction-prone areas. techniques, and by failing to stretch
Blister - a raised spot on the skin the back and hip-flexor muscles
filled with liquid. These can gener- and to strengthen the abdominal
ally be avoided by applying lubri- muscles.
cants such as petroleum jelly to The most common running injuries
areas of friction, keeping footwear occur in the feet, ankles, knees, and

legs. Although they are hard to ● Upper leg and groin injuries (which
eliminate, much can be done to keep can usually be prevented by using
them to a minimum. Preventive meas- good technique in stretching and
ures include proper warm-up and cool- doing strengthening exercises).
down along with stretching exercises. Tibial stress fractures, knee inju-
Failure to allow recovery between hard ries, low back problems, shinsplints,
bouts of running can lead to overtrain- and blisters, which were mentioned
ing and can also be a major cause of in- earlier, are also injuries which com-
juries. A well-conditioned soldier can monly occur in runners.
run five to six times a week. However,
to do this safely, he should do two
things: gradually build up to running Other Factors
that frequently and vary the intensity
of the running sessions to allow recov- Proper clothing can also help pre-
ery between them. vent injuries. Clothes used for physi-
cal activity should be comfortable and Many running injuries
Many running injuries can be pre- can be prevented by
vented by wearing proper footwear. fit loosely. A T-shirt or sleeveless
wearing proper
Soldiers should train in running shoes. undershirt and gym shorts are best in footwear.
These are available in a wide range of warm weather. In cold weather, cloth-
prices and styles. They should fit ing may be layered according to per-
properly and have flexible, multi- sonal preference. For example, sol-
layered soles with good arch and heel diers can wear a BDU, sweat suit,
support. Shoes made with leather and jogging suit, or even Army-issued
nylon uppers are usually the most long underwear. In very cold weather,
comfortable. See Appendix E for more soldiers may need gloves or mittens
information on running shoes. and ear-protecting caps. Rubberized
Since injuries can also be caused by or plastic suits should never be worn
running on hard surfaces, soldiers during exercise. They cause excessive
should, if possible, avoid running on sweating which can lead to dehydra-
concrete. Soft, even surfaces are best tion and a dangerous increase in body
for injury prevention. Whenever pos- temperature.
sible, soldiers should run on grass Army Regulation 385-55 (para-
paths, dirt paths, or park trails. How- graph B- 12, C) prohibits the use of
ever, with adequate footwear and re- headphones or earphones while walk-
covery periods, running on roads and ing, jogging, skating, or bicycling on
other hard surfaces should pose no the roads and streets of military instal-
problem. lations. However, they may be worn
Common running injuries include on tracks and running trails.
the following: Road safety equipment is required
● Black toenails. on administative-type walks, marches,
● Ingrown toenails. or runs which cross highways, roads,
● Stress fractures of the feet. or tank trails or which are conducted
● Ankle sprains and fractures. on traffic ways. If there is reduced
● Achilles tendinitis (caused by im- visibility, control personnel must use
proper stretching and shoes that do added caution to ensure the safety of
not fit. their soldiers.

All soldiers in the Active Army, and the unit’s physical performance
Army National Guard, and Army levels.
Reserve must take the Army Physical ● Inspection. This evaluates training
Fitness Test (APFT) regardless of their procedures and indicates the sound
age. The APFT is a three-event ness of the unit’s physical fitness
physical performance test used to as- program.
sess muscular endurance and cardi- ● Observation. This is an ongoing
orespiratory (CR) fitness. It is a simple way to review training but is not as
way to measure a soldier’s ability to ef- reliable as testing as an indicator of
The APFT is a three- fectively move his body by using his the unit’s level of fitness.
event physical major muscle groups and CR system. ● Medical examination. This detects
performance test used to Performance on the APFT is strongly individual disabilities, health-re-
assess muscular linked to the soldier’s fitness level and related problems, and physical prob-
endurance and his ability to do fitness-related tasks. lems.
cardiorespiratory An APFT with alternate test events is
(CR) fitness . given to soldiers with permanent pro- Over-Forty Cardiovascular
files and with temporary profiles greater Screening Program
than three months’ duration.
While the APFT testing is an impor- The Army’s over-40 cardiovascular
tant tool in determining the physical screening program (CVSP) does the
readiness of individual soldiers and following:
units, it should not be the sole basis for ● Identifies soldiers with a risk of
the unit’s physical fitness training. coronary heart disease.
Commanders at every level must en- ● Provides guidelines for safe, regu-
sure that fitness training is designed to lar CR exercise.
develop physical abilities in a balanced ● Gives advice and help in control-
way, not just to help soldiers do well on ling heart-disease risk factors.
the APFT. ● Uses treadmill testing only for high-
Commanders should use their unit’s risk soldiers who need it. -
APFT results to evaluate its physical All soldiers, both active and reserve
fitness level. APFT results may indi- component, must take the APFT for
cate a need to modify the fitness record regardless of age unless prohib-
programs to attain higher fitness levels. ited by a medical profile. For soldiers
Performance on the However, mission-essential tasks, not
APFT is strongly linked who reached age 40 on or after 1
the APFT, should drive physical train- January 1989, there is no requirement
to the soldier's fitness ing.
level and his ability to for clearance in the cardiovascular
Additional physical performance tests screening program before taking a
do fitness-related tasks. and standards which serve as prerequi- record APFT. Soldiers who reached
sites for Airborne/Ranger/Special age 40 before 1 January 1989 must be
Forces/SCUBA qualification are pro- cleared through the cardiovascular
vided in DA Pam 351-4. screening program before taking a
record APFT. Prior to their CVSP
Methods of Evaluation evaluation, however, they may still
take part in physical training to in-
Commanders are responsible for clude diagnostic APFTs unless pro-
ensuring that their soldiers are physi- filed or contraindications to exercise
cally fit (AR 350- 15). There are exist. All soldiers must undergo peri-
several ways they can assess fitness odic physical examinations in accor-
including the following dance with AR 40-501 and NGR 40-
● Testing. This is an efficient way 501. These include screening for
to evaluate both the individual’s cardiovascular risk factors.

Overview fitness and to be fair to all soldiers.
(Test results are used for personnel
As stated, APFT events assess mus- actions.)
cular endurance and CR fitness. The Individual soldiers are not author-
lowest passing APFT standards reflect ized to administer the APFT to them-
the minimum acceptable fitness level selves for the purpose of satisfying a
for all soldiers, regardless of MOS or unit’s diagnostic or record APFT re-
component. When applied to a com - quirement.
mand, APFT results show a unit’s
overall level of physical fitness. How- REQUIRED EQUIPMENT
ever, they are not all-inclusive, overall
measures of physical-combat readi- The OIC or NCOIC at the test site
ness. To assess this, other physical must have a copy of FM 21-20 on
capabilities must be measured. The hand. The supervisor of each event
APFT does, however, give a com- must have the event instructions and
mander a sound measurement of the standards. Scorers should have a
general fitness level of his unit. clipboard and an ink pen to record the
Service schools, agencies, and units results on the soldiers’ scorecards.
may set performance goals which are Two stopwatches are needed. They
above the minimum APFT standards in must be able to measure time in both
accordance with their missions (AR minutes and seconds.
350- 15). Individual soldiers are also Runners must wear numbers or
encouraged to set for themselves a some other form of identification for
series of successively higher APFT the 2-mile run. The numbers may be
performance goals. They should al- stenciled or pinned onto pullover vests
ways strive to improve themselves or sleeveless, mesh pullovers or at-
physically and never be content with tached to the runners themselves.
meeting minimum standards. Compe- Soldiers should wear clothing that is
tition on the APFT among soldiers or appropriate for PT such as shorts, T-
units can also be used to motivate them shirts, socks, and running shoes (not
to improve their fitness levels. tennis shoes). They should not wear
Testing is not a substitute for a basketball shoes or other types of court
regular, balanced exercise program. shoes. BDUs may be worn but may be
Diagnostic testing is important in moni- a hindrance on some events.
toring training progress but, when Anything that gives a soldier an
done too often, may decrease motiva- unfair advantage is not permitted during
tion and waste training time. the APFT. Wearing devices such as
The test period is defined as t h e weight belts or elastic bandages may or
period of time which elapses from may not provide an advantage. How-
starting to finishing the three events. It ever, for standardization, such addi-
must not take more than two hours. tional equipment is not authorized
Soldiers must do all three events in the unless prescribed by medical person-
same test period. nel. The only exception is gloves.
They may be worn in cold weather
when approved by the local com-
Test Administration mander.
Each soldier needs a DA Form 705,
The APFT must be administered Army Physical Fitness Test Scorecard.
properly and to standard in order to The soldier fills in his name, social
accurately evaluate a soldier’s physical security number, grade, age, and sex.

(See Figure 14-1.) The unit will complete the other pertinent information in the comment
height and weight data. block. After the entire APFT has been
Scorers record the raw score for each completed, the event scorer will convert raw
event and initial the results. If a soldier fails scores to point scores using the scoring
an event or finds it difficult to perform, the standards on the back of the scorecards. (See
scorer should write down the reasons and Figure 14-1.)

See page 14-8.1 for instructions on completing DA Form 705.


*Figure 14-1

*Figure 14-1 (continued)

*Figure 14-1 (continued)

*Figure 14-1 (continued)

*Figure 14-1 (continued)

SUPERVISION Duties of Test Personnel • Supervise the scoring of events,
and ensure that they are done
The APFT must be properly Testers must be totally familiar correctly.
supervised to ensure that its with the instructions for each event • Rule on questions and scoring
objectives are met. Proper and trained to administer the tests. discrepancies for their event.
supervision ensures uniformity Correctly supervising testees and
in the following: laying out the test area are essential SCORERS
• Scoring the test. duties. The group administering the
• Training of supervisors and test must include the following: Scorers do the following:
scorers. • OIC or NCOIC. • Supervise the performance of
• Preparing the test and • Event supervisor, scorers, and a testees.
controlling performance demonstrator for each event. • Enforce the test standards in this
factors. • Support personnel (safety, chapter.
The goal of the APFT is to control, and medical as • Count the number of correctly
get an accurate evaluation of the appropriate). There should be no performed repetitions aloud.
soldiers’ fitness levels. less than one scorer for each 15 • Record the correct, raw score on
Preparations for administering soldiers tested. Twelve to 15 each soldier’s scorecard, and
an accurate APFT include the scorers are required when a initial the scorecard block.
following: company-sized unit is tested. • Perform other duties assigned by
• Selecting and training the OIC or NCOIC.
supervisors and scorers. OIC OR NCOIC Scorers must be thoroughly
• Briefing and orienting trained to maintain uniform scoring
administrators and partici- The OIC or NCOIC does the standards. They do not participate in
pants. following: the test.
• Securing a location for the • Administers the APFT.
events. • Procures all necessary equipment
Commanders must strictly and supplies.
control those factors which • Arranges and lays out the test
influence test performance. area.
They must ensure that events, • Trains the event supervisors,
scoring, clothing, and equip- scorers, and demonstrators.
ment are uniform. Com- (Training video tape No. 21-191 The goal of the APFT is to
manders should plan testing should be used for training those get an accurate evaluation of the
which permits each soldier to who administer the APFT.) soldier’s fitness levels.
perform to his maximal level. • Ensures the test is properly
They should also ensure the administered and the events are
following: explained, demonstrated, and
• Soldiers are not tested when scored according to the test
fatigued or ill. standards in this chapter.
• Soldiers do not have tiring • Reports the results after the test.
duties just before taking the
• Weather and environ-
mental conditions do not Event supervisors do the
inhibit performance. following:
• Safety is the first consid- • Administer the test events.
eration. • Ensure that necessary equipment
is on hand.
• Read the test instructions, and
have the events demonstrated.

*Instructions for Completing DA Form 705, Army Physical Fitness Scorecard, June 1998.

NAME Print soldier’s last name, first name and middle initial in NAME block.

SSN Print soldier’s social security number in SSN block.

GENDER Print M for male or F for female in GENDER block.

UNIT Print soldier’s unit designation in UNIT block.

DATE Print date the APFT is administered in DATE block.

GRADE Print soldier’s grade in GRADE block.

AGE Print soldier’s age on the date the APFT is administered in AGE block.

HEIGHT Print soldier’s height in HEIGHT block. Height will be rounded to the nearest inch. If the height fraction is less than 1/2
inch, round down to the nearest whole number in inches. If the height fraction is greater than 1/2 inch, round up to the next highest
whole number in inches.

WEIGHT Print soldier’s weight in WEIGHT block. Weight will be recorded to the nearest pound. If the weight fraction is less than
1/2 pound, round down to the nearest pound. If the weight fraction is 1/2 pound or greater, round up to the nearest pound. Circle
GO if soldier meets screening table weight IAW AR 600-9. Circle NO-GO if soldier exceeds screening table weight IAW AR 600-9.

BODY FAT If soldier exceeds screening table weight, print the soldier’s body fat in the BODY FAT block. Percent body fat is
recorded from DA Form 5500-R, Body Fat Content Worksheet, Dec 85, for male soldiers and DA Form 5501-R, Body Fat Content
Worksheet, Dec 85, for female soldiers. Circle GO if soldier meets percent body fat for their age and gender IAW AR 600-9. Circle
NO-GO if soldier exceeds percent body fat for their age and gender IAW AR 600-9. If soldier does not exceed screening table
weight or does not appear to have excessive body fat IAW AR 600-9, print N/A (not applicable) in the BODY FAT block.

PU RAW SCORE The event scorer records the number of correctly performed repetitions of the push-up in the PU RAW SCORE
block and prints his or her initials in the INITIALS block.

SU RAW SCORE The event scorer records the number of correctly performed repetitions of the sit-up in the SU RAW SCORE
block and prints his or her initials in the INITIALS block.

2MR RAW SCORE The event scorer records the two-mile run time in the 2MR RAW SCORE block. The time is recorded in
minutes and seconds. The event scorer then determines the point value for the two-mile run using the scoring standards on the
reverse side of the scorecard. The point value is recorded in the 2MR POINTS block and the event scorer prints his or her initials in
the INITIALS block. In all cases when a point value falls between two point values, the lower point value is used and recorded.
The two-mile run event scorer also determines the point value for push-ups and sit-ups using the scoring standards on the reverse
side of the scorecard. The point values are recorded in the appropriate push-up and sit-up POINTS block and the event scorer
prints his or her initials in the INITIALS block. The two-mile run event scorer totals the points from the three events and records the
total APFT score in the TOTAL POINTS block.

ALTERNATE AEROBIC EVENT The event scorer prints the alternate aerobic event administered (800-yard swim, 6.2-mile-
stationary bicycle ergometer, 6.2-mile-bicycle test or 2.5-mile walk) in the ALTERNATE AEROBIC EVENT block. The time the
soldier completes the alternate aerobic event is recorded in minutes and seconds in the ALTERNATE AEROBIC EVENT block.
The standards for the alternate aerobic event tests are listed in FM 21-20, Chapter 14, Figure 14-9. Scoring for all alternate aerobic
events is on a GO or NO-GO basis. No point values are awarded. Circle GO if the soldier completes the alternate aerobic event
within the required time or less. Circle NO-GO if the soldier fails to complete the alternate aerobic event within the required time.
The alternate aerobic event scorer also determines the point value for push-ups and or sit-ups using the scoring standards on the
reverse side of the scorecard. The point values are recorded in the appropriate push-up and or sit -up POINTS block and the event
scorer prints his or her initials in the 2MR INITIALS block. The alternate aerobic event scorer totals the points from the push-up and
or sit-up events and records the total APFT score in the TOTAL POINTS block.

NCOIC/OIC Signature The NCOIC/OIC checks all test scores for accuracy and signs their name in the NCOIC/OIC Signature

COMMENTS The event supervisor, event scorer, NCOIC, or OIC may record comments appropriate to the APFT in the
COMMENTS block. Appropriate comments may include: weather conditions, injury during APFT and or appeals.


SUPPORT PERSONNEL ● A flat, 2-mile running course with
a solid surface and no more than a
Safety and control people should be three-percent grade. (Commanders
at the test site, depending on local must use good judgement; no one is
policy and conditions. Medical per- expected to survey terrain.)
sonnel may also be there. However, ● No significant hazards, (for ex-
they do not have to be on site to have ample, traffic, slippery road sur-
the APFT conducted. At a minimum, faces, heavy pollution).
the OIC or NCOIC should have a plan, When necessary or expedient, a
known to all test personnel, for getting quarter-mile running track can “be
medical help if needed. used. It can be marked with a series of
stakes along the inside edge. When the
Test Site track is laid out, a horizontal midline
279 feet, 9 3/4 inches long must be
The test site should be fairly flat and marked in the center of a clear area. A
free of debris. It should have the fol- 120-foot circle is marked at both ends
lowing: of this line. The track is formed when
● An area for stretching and warming the outermost points of the two circles
up. are connected with tangent lines. (See
● A soft, flat, dry area for perform- Figure 14-2.)
ing push-ups and sit-ups.

Figure 14-2

A 400-meter track may be used in The OIC or NCOIC pauses briefly to
place of the standard quarter-mile give the soldiers time to check the
(440-yard) track for the 2-mile run, information. He then says the follow-
However, one lap run on a 400-meter ing: “YOU ARE TO CARRY THIS
track is 92 inches shorter than one lap CARD WITH YOU TO EACH EVENT.
on a 440-yard track. Eight laps on a BEFORE YOU BEGIN, HAND THE
400-meter track is 736 inches shorter CARD TO THE SCORER. AFTER
than eight laps (2 miles) on a 440-yard YOU COMPLETE THE EVENT, THE
track. Therefore, soldiers who run the SCORER WILL RECORD YOUR RAW
2-mile event on a 400-meter track SCORE, INITIAL THE CARD, AND
must run eight laps plus an additional RETURN IT TO YOU.” (At this
61 feet, 4 inches. point, the scoring tables are explained
so everyone understands how raw scores
Test Procedures are converted to point scores.) Next,
the OIC or NCOIC says the following
On test day, soldiers are assembled “EACH OF YOU WILL BE ASSIGNED
in a common area and briefed by the TO A GROUP. STAY WITH YOUR
test OIC or NCOIC about the purpose TEST GROUP FOR THE ENTIRE
and organization of the test. The OIC TEST, WHAT ARE YOUR QUES-
or NCOIC then explains the scorecard, TIONS ABOUT THE TEST AT THIS
scoring standards, and sequence of POINT?”
events. Groups are organized as required
The instructions printed here in and given final instructions including
large type must be read to the soldiers: what to do after the final event. The
“YOU ARE ABOUT TO TAKE THE test is then given.
YOUR MUSCULAR ENDURANCE Soldiers who start an event incor-
AND CARDIORESPIRATORY FIT- rectly must be stopped by the scorer
NESS. THE RESULTS OF THIS before they complete 10 repetitions
TEST WILL GIVE YOU AND YOUR and told what their errors are. They
COMMANDERS AN INDICATION are then sent to the end of the line to
OF YOUR STATE OF FITNESS AND await their turn to retake the event.
WILL ACT AS A GUIDE IN DETER- A soldier who has problems such as
MINING YOUR PHYSICAL TRAIN- muscle cramps while performing an
ING NEEDS. LISTEN CLOSELY TO event may rest if he does not assume an
THE TEST INSTRUCTIONS, AND illegal position in the process. If he
DO THE BEST YOU CAN ON EACH continues, he receives credit for all
OF THE EVENTS.” correctly done repetitions within the
If scorecards have not already been two-minute period. If he does not
issued, they are handed out at this continue, he gets credit for the number
time. The OIC or NCOIC then says the of correct repetitions he has performed
following: “IN THE APPROPRIATE up to that time. If he has not done 10
SPACES, PRINT IN INK THE PER- correct repetitions, he is sent to the end
SONAL INFORMATION REQUIRED of the line to retake that event. He may
ON THE SCORECARD.” (If score- not retake the event if he has exceeded
cards have been issued to the soldiers 10 repetitions. Soldiers who are unable
and filled out before they arrive at the to perform 10 correct repetitions be-
test site, this remark is omitted.) cause of low fitness levels may not
retake an event.

TEST FAILURES instructions, administration, timing
techniques, and scorers’ duties for the
Soldiers who stop to rest in an au- pushup, sit-up, and 2-mile-run events.
thorized rest position continue to re-
ceive credit for correct repetitions per- PUSH-UPS
formed after their rest. Soldiers who
rest in an unauthorized rest position Push-ups measure the endurance of
will have their performance in that the chest, shoulder, and triceps muscles.
event immediately terminated. (See Figure 14-3.)
The records of soldiers who fail a
record APFT for the first time and Equipment
those who fail to take the APFT within
the required period (AR 350-15, para- One stopwatch is needed along with
graph 11) must be flagged IAW AR one clipboard and pen for each scorer.
600-8-2 (Reference B). The event supervisor must have the
following the instructions in this chap-
RETESTING ter on how to conduct the event and
one copy of the push-up scoring stan-
Soldiers who fail any or all of the dards (DA Form 705).
events must retake the entire APFT. In
case of test failure, commanders may Facilities
allow soldiers to retake the test as soon
as the soldiers and commanders feel There must be at least one test
they are ready. Soldiers without a station for every 15 soldiers to be
medical profile will be retested not- tested. Each station is 6 feet wide and
later-than three months following the 15 feet deep.
initial APFT failure in accordance
with AR 350-15, paragraph 11. Personnel

Test Sequence One event supervisor must beat the

test site and one scorer at each station.
The test sequence is the push-up, The event supervisor may not be the
sit-up, and 2-mile run (or alternate, event scorer.
aerobic event). The order of events
cannot be changed. There are no Instructions
exceptions to this sequence.
Soldiers should be allowed no less The event supervisor must read the
than 10 minutes, but ideally no more following: “THE PUSH-UP EVENT
than 20 minutes, to recover between MEASURES THE ENDURANCE OF
each event. The OIC or NCOIC deter- THE CHEST, SHOULDER, AND
mines the time to be allotted between TRICEPS MUSCLES. ON THE
events, as it will depend on the total COMMAND ‘GET SET,’ ASSUME
number of soldiers who are participat- THE FRONT-LEANING REST PO-
ing in the APFT. If many soldiers are SITION BY PLACING YOUR HANDS
to be tested, staggered starting times WHERE THEY ARE COMFORT-
should be planned to allow the proper ABLE FOR YOU. YOUR FEET
intervals between events. Under no MAY BE TOGETHER OR UP TO 12
circumstances is the APFT valid if a INCHES APART. WHEN VIEWED
soldier cannot begin and end all three FROM THE SIDE, YOUR BODY
events in two hours or less. SHOULD FORM A GENERALLY
The following paragraphs describe STRAIGHT LINE FROM YOUR
the equipment, facilities, personnel, SHOULDERS TO YOUR ANKLES.


YOUR BACK. WHEN FLEXING After reading the instructions, the
YOUR BACK, YOU MAY BEND supervisor answers questions. Then he
YOUR KNEES, BUT NOT TO SUCH moves the groups to their testing sta-
AN EXTENT THAT YOU ARE tions. The event supervisor cannot be
SUPPORTING MOST OF YOUR ready to begin. Successive groups do
BODY WEIGHT WITH YOUR LEGS. the event until all soldiers have com-
POSITION BEFORE CONTINUING. The event supervisor is the timer.
IF YOU REST ON THE GROUND He calls out the time remaining every
OR RAISE EITHER HAND OR FOOT 30 seconds and every second for the
FROM THE GROUND, YOUR last 10 seconds of the two minutes. He
PERFORMANCE WILL BE TERMI- ends the event after two minutes by
NATED. YOU MAY REPOSITION the command “Halt!”
THE GROUND AT ALL TIMES. Scorers must allow for differences
CORRECT PERFORMANCE IS IM- in the body shape and structure of
PORTANT. YOU WILL HAVE TWO each soldier. The scorer uses each
MINUTES IN WHICH TO DO AS soldier’s starting position as a guide
MANY PUSH-UPS AS YOU CAN. throughout the event to evaluate each
WATCH THIS DEMONSTRATION.” repetition. The scorer should talk to
(The exercise is then demonstrated. the soldier before the event begins and
See Figure 14-4 for a list of points that have him do a few repetitions as a
need to be made during the demonstra- warm-up and reference to ensure he is
tion.) “WHAT ARE -YOUR QUES- doing the exercise correctly.

Figure 14-4

The scorer may either sit or kneel Equipment
about three feet from the testee’s
shoulder at a 45-degree angle in front One stopwatch is needed along with
of it. The scorer’s head should be one clipboard and pen for each scorer.
about even with the testee’s shoulder The event supervisor must have the
when the latter is in the front-leaning following: the instructions in this chap-
rest position. Each scorer determines ter on how to conduct the event and
for himself if he will sit or kneel when one copy of the sit-up scoring stan-
scoring. He may not lie down or stand dards (DA Form 705).
while scoring. He counts out loud the
number of correct repetitions com- Facilities
pleted and repeats the number of the
last correct push-up if an incorrect Each station is 6 feet wide and 15 feet
one is done. Scorers tell the testees deep. Ensure that no more than 15
what they do wrong as it occurs dur- soldiers are tested at a station.
ing the event. A critique of the
performance is done following the Personnel
When the soldier completes the One event supervisor must be at the
event, the scorer records the number test site and one scorer at each station.
of correctly performed repetitions, The event supervisor may not be the
initials the scorecard, and returns it to event scorer.
the soldier. Instructions

SIT-UPS The event supervisor must read the

following: “THE SIT-UP EVENT
This event measures the endurance MEASURES THE ENDURANCE OF
of the abdominal and hip-flexor THE ABDOMINAL AND HIP-
muscles. (See Figure 14-5.) FLEXOR MUSCLES. ON THE

Figure 14-5


Figure 14-6

GROUND TO RAISE YOUR UPPER ends the event after two minutes by the
BODY, OR LET YOUR KNEES command “Halt!”
PEAT THE NUMBER OF YOUR The scorer may either kneel or sit
LAST CORRECTLY PERFORMED about three feet from the testee’s hip.
SIT-UP. THE UP POSITION IS THE The scorer’s head should be about even
ONLY AUTHORIZED REST POSI- with the testee’s shoulder when the
TION. IF YOU STOP AND REST IN latter is in the vertical (up) position.
THE DOWN (STARTING) POSITION, Each scorer decides for himself whether
THE EVENT WILL BE TERMI- to sit or kneel down when scoring. He
NATED. AS LONG AS YOU MAKE may not lie down or stand while
A CONTINUOUS PHYSICAL EF- scoring. The scorer counts aloud the
FORT TO SIT UP, THE EVENT number of correctly performed sit-ups
WILL NOT BE TERMINATED. YOU and repeats the number of the last
MAY NOT USE YOUR HANDS OR correctly performed repetition if an
ANY OTHER MEANS TO PULL OR incorrect one is done. Scorers tell the
PUSH YOURSELF UP TO THE UP testees what they are doing wrong as it
(RESTING) POSITION OR TO HOLD occurs during the event. A critique of
YOURSELF IN THE REST POSI- his performance is given to each sol-
TION. IF YOU DO SO, YOUR PER- dier after the event. When the soldier
FORMANCE IN THE EVENT WILL completes the event, the scorer records
BE TERMINATED. CORRECT PER- the number of correctly performed sit-
FORMANCE IS IMPORTANT. YOU ups, initials the scorecard, and returns
WILL HAVE TWO MINUTES TO it to the soldier.
PERFORM AS MANY SIT-UPS AS When checking for correct body
YOU CAN. WATCH THIS DEMON- position, the scorer must be sure that at
STRATION.” (The exercise is then a 90-degree angle is formed at each
demonstrated. See Figure 14-6 for a knee by the soldier’s upper and lower
list of points that need to be made leg. The angle to be measured is not the
during the demonstration.) “WHAT one formed by the lower leg and the
ARE YOUR QUESTIONS?” ground. If, while performing the sit-
Administration up event, this angle becomes greater
than 90 degrees, the scorer should
After reading the instructions, the instruct the testee and holder to repo-
supervisor answers questions. He then sition the legs to the proper angle and
moves the groups to their testing sta- obtain compliance before allowing the
tions. The event supervisor cannot be testee’s performance to continue. The
a scorer. At this point, the testing is loss of the proper angle does not
ready to begin. Successive groups do terminate the testee’s performance in
the event until all soldiers have com- the event. When the soldier comes to
pleted it. the vertical position, the scorer must be
sure that the base of the soldier’s neck
Timing Techniques is above or past the base of the spine.
A soldier who simply touches his knees
The event supervisor is the timer. with his elbows may not come to a
He calls out the time remaining every completely vertical position. The scorer
30 seconds and every second for the must ensure that the holder uses only
last 10 seconds of the two minutes. He his hands to brace the exerciser’s feet.

TWO-MILE RUN Instructions

This event tests cardiorespiratory The event supervisor must read the
(aerobic) endurance and the endurance following: “THE TWO-MILE RUN IS
of the leg muscles. (See Figure 14-7.) USED TO ASSESS YOUR AEROBIC
Two stopwatches for the event OUT ANY PHYSICAL HELP. AT
supervisor, one clipboard and pen for THE START, ALL SOLDIERS WILL
each scorer, copies of the event’s in- LINE UP BEHIND THE STARTING
structions and standards, and numbers LINE. ON THE COMMAND ‘GO,’
for the testees are needed. THE CLOCK WILL START. YOU
There must be a level area with no COMPLETE (describe the number of
more than a three-degree slope on laps, start and finish points, and course
which a measured course has been layout). YOU ARE BEING TESTED
marked. An oval-shaped track of ON YOUR ABILITY TO COMPLETE
known length may be used. If a road THE 2-MILE COURSE IN THE
course is used, the start and finish and SHORTEST TIME POSSIBLE. AL-
one-mile (half way) point must be clearly THOUGH WALKING IS AUTHOR-
One event supervisor and at least PICKED UP, AND/OR CARRIED)
one scorer for every 15 runners are OR LEAVE THE DESIGNATED

Figure 14-7

SOLDIER DURING THE 2-MILE The scorers observe those runners in
RUN. AS LONG AS THERE IS NO their groups, monitor their laps (if
PHYSICAL CONTACT WITH THE appropriate), and record their times as
PACED SOLDIER AND IT DOES they cross the finish line. (It is often
NOT PHYSICALLY HINDER OTHER helpful to record the soldiers’ numbers
SOLDIERS TAKING THE TEST, THE and times on a separate sheet of paper
PRACTICE OF RUNNING AHEAD or card. This simplifies the recording
OF, ALONG SIDE OF, OR BEHIND of finish times when large groups of
THE TESTED SOLDIER, WHILE soldiers are simultaneously tested.) After
SERVING AS A PACER, IS PER- all runners have completed the run, the
MITTED. CHEERING OR CALL- scorers determine the point value for
ING OUT THE ELAPSED TIME IS each soldier’s run time, record the
ALSO PERMITTED.) THE NUM- point values on the scorecards, and
BER ON YOUR CHEST IS FOR enter their initials in the scorers’ blocks.
IDENTIFICATION. YOU MUST In all cases, when a time falls between
MAKE SURE IT IS VISIBLE AT ALL two point values, the lower point value
TIMES. TURN IN YOUR NUMBER is used and recorded. For example, if
WHEN YOU FINISH THE RUN. a female soldier, age 17 to 21, runs the
THEN, GO TO THE AREA DESIG- two miles in 15 minutes and 19 sec-
NATED FOR THE COOL-DOWN onds, the score awarded is 95 points.
AND STRETCH. DO NOT STAY At this time, the scorers for the 2-
NEAR THE SCORERS OR THE mile run also convert the raw scores for
FINISH LINE AS THIS MAY IN- the push-up and sit-up events by using
TERFERE WITH THE TESTING. the scoring standards on the back side
WHAT ARE YOUR QUESTIONS ON of the scorecard. They enter those
THIS EVENT?” point values on the scorecards and
determine the total APFT score for
Administration each soldier before giving the score-
cards to the test’s OIC or NCOIC.
After reading the instructions, the After the test scores have been checked,
supervisor answers questions. He then the test’s OIC or NCOIC signs all
organizes the soldiers into groups of no scorecards and returns them to the
more than 10. The scorer for each unit’s commander or designated repre-
group assigns a number to each soldier sentative.
in the group. At the same time, the
scorer collects the scorecards and rec- Test Results
ords each soldier’s number.
The soldier’s fitness performance
Timing Techniques for each APFT event is determined by
converting the raw score for each event
The event supervisor is the timer. to a point score.
He uses the commands “Get set” and Properly interpreted, performance
“Go.” Two stopwatches are used in on the APFT shows the following:
case one fails. As the soldiers near the ● Each soldier’s level of physical fit-
finish line, the event supervisor calls ness.
off the time in minutes and seconds ● The entire unit’s level of physical
(for example, “Fifteen-thirty, fifteen- fitness.
thirty-one, fifteen-thirty -two,” and ● Deficiencies in physical fitness.
so on). ● Soldiers who need special attention.

(Leaders must develop special pro- APFT events, the official, maximum
grams to improve the performance score on the APFT must remain at 300
of soldiers who are below the re- (100 points per event). Some com-
quired standards.) manders, however, want to know
Commanders should not try to de- unofficial point scores to reward sol-
termine the individual’s or the unit’s diers for their extra effort.
strengths and weaknesses in fitness by Only those soldiers who score 100
using only the total scores. A detailed points in all three events are eligible to
study of the results on each event is determine their score on an extended
more important. For a proper analysis scale. To fairly determine the points
of the unit’s performance, event scores earned, extra points are awarded at the
should be used. They are corrected for same rate as points obtained for scores
age and sex. Therefore, a female’s 80- at or below the 100 point level. Each
point push-up score should be con- push-up and sit-up beyond the maxi-
sidered the same as a male’s 80-point mum is worth one point as is every six-
push-up score. Using the total point second decrease in the run time. Take,
value or raw scores may distort the for example, the following case shown
interpretation. in Figure 14-8. A male soldier per-
forms above the maximum in the 17-21
age group by doing 87 push-ups and
Scores Above Maximum 98 sit-ups and by running the two
miles in 11 minutes and 12 seconds.
Even though some soldiers exceed His score would be calculated as fol-
the maximum score on one or more lows:

Figure 14-8

The calculations on the previous and preference and the equipment
page, give the soldier a total score of available. (See DA Form 3349, Physi-
318 points. This method lets the com- cal Profile, referenced in AR 40-501.)
mander easily determine the scores for The profiled soldier must perform
performances that are above the maxi- all the regular APFT events his medi-
mum. He may recognize soldiers for cal profile permits. Each soldier must
their outstanding fitness achievements, earn at least 60 points on the regular
not only on the APFT but also for events to receive a “go.” He must also
other, unofficial fitness challenges. complete the alternate event in a time
Using this method ensures that each equal to or less than the one listed for
soldier has an equal chance to be his age group. For example, a soldier
recognized for any of the tested fitness whose profile forbids only running will
components. Commanders may also do the push-up and sit-up events and
establish their own incentive programs an alternate aerobic event. He must get
and set their own unit’s standards (AR at least a minimum passing score on
350-15). each event to earn a “go” for the test. A
soldier whose profile prevents two or
Temporary Profiles more APFT events must complete the
2-mile run or an alternate aerobic
A soldier with a temporary profile event to earn a “go” on the test. Soldiers
must take the regular three-event APFT who cannot do any of the aerobic
after the profile has expired. (Soldiers events due to a profile cannot be tested.
with temporary profiles of more than Such information will be recorded in
three months may take an alternate test their official military record.
as determined by the commander with The standards for alternate events
input from health-care personnel. ) are listed in Figure 14-9. Scoring for
Once the profile is lifted, the soldier all alternate events is on a go/no go
must be given twice the time of the basis. Soldiers who do push-up and
profile (but not more than 90 days) to sit-up events but who take an alternate
train for the APFT. For example, if aerobic event are not awarded promo-
the profile period was 7 days, the tion points for APFT performance.
soldier has 14 days to train for the
APFT after the profile period ends. If Alternate Events
a normally scheduled APFT occurs
during the profile period, the soldier Alternate APFT events assess the
should be given a mandatory make-up aerobic fitness and muscular endur-
date. ance of soldiers with permanent medi-
Permanent Profiles cal profiles or long-term (greater than
three months) temporary profiles who
A permanently profiled soldier is cannot take the regular, three-event
given a physical training program by APFT.
the profiling officer using the positive
profile form DA 3349 (see Appendix The alternate aerobic APFT events
B). The profiling officer gives the are the following:
unit’s commander a list of physical ● 800-yard-swim test.
activities that are suitable for the ● 6.2-mile-stationary- bicycle ergome-
profiled soldier. He also indicates the ter test with a resistance setting
events and/or alternate aerobic event of 2 kiloponds (2 kilograms) or
that the soldier will do on the APFT. 20 newtons.
This recommendation, made after ● 6.2-mile-bicycle test on a conven-
consultation with the profiled soldier, tional bicycle using one speed.
should address the soldier’s abilities ● 2.5-mile-walk test.


17-21 22-26 27-31 32-36 37-41 42-46 47-51 52-56 57-61 62+

800-YARD Men 20:00 20:30 21:00 21:30 22:00 22:30 23:00 24:00 24:30 25:00
SWIM Women 21:00 21:30 22:00 22:30 23:00 23:30 24:00 25:00 25:30 26:00

BIKE Men 24:00 24:30 25:00 25:30 26:00 27:00 28:00 30:00 31:00 32:00
(Stationary Women 25:00 25:30 26:00 26:30 27:00 28:00 30:00 32:00 33:00 34:00
and track)

2.5-MILE Men 34:00 34:30 35:00 35:30 36:00 36:30 37:00 37:30 38:00 38:30
WALK Women 37:00 37:30 38:00 38:30 39:00 39:30 40:00 40:30 41:00 41:30

*Figure 14-9


This event is used to assess cardio- WILL START. YOU SHOULD THEN
respiratory (aerobic) fitness. (See BEGIN SWIMMING AT YOUR OWN
Equipment WISH. YOU MUST SWIM (tell the
Two stopwatches, one clipboard and pen DISTANCE. YOU MUST TOUCH THE
for each scorer, one copy each of the test WALL OF THE POOL AT EACH END
instructions and standards, and appropriate OF THE POOL AS YOU TURN. ANY
safety equipment are needed. TYPE OF TURN IS AUTHORIZED. YOU
A swimming pool at least 25 yards long LISTED FOR YOUR AGE AND SEX.
and 3 feet deep, or an approved facility, is WALKING ON THE BOTTOM TO
One event supervisor and at least one YOUR QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS
scorer for every soldier to be tested are EVENT?”
required. Appropriate safety, control, and
medical personnel must also be present.


The event supervisor must read the

following statement: “THE 800-YARD


Figure 14-10

Administration in the 2-mile-run block on the scorecard

and use the comment block to identify the
After reading the instructions, the event time as an 800-yard-swim time. If the pool
supervisor answers only related questions. length is measured in meters, the scorers
He assigns one soldier to each lane and tells convert the exact distance to yards. To
the soldiers to enter the water. He gives
convert meters to yards, multiply the
them a short warm-up period to acclimate to
the water temperature and loosen up. Above number of meters by 39.37 and divide the
all, the event supervisor must be alert to the product by 36; that is, (meters x 39.37)/36
safety of the testees throughout the test. = yards. For example, 400 meters equals
437.4 yards; that is, (400 x 39.37)/36 =
Timing Techniques 437.4 yards.

The event supervisor is the timer. He 6.2-MILE STATIONARY-BICYCLE

uses the commands “Get set” and “Go.” ERGOMETER TEST
Two stopwatches are used in case one fails.
As the soldiers near the finish, the event
This event is used to assess the soldier’s
supervisor begins calling off the elapsed
time in minutes and seconds (for example, cardiorespiratory and leg-muscle
“Nineteen-eleven, nineteen-twelve, endurance. (See Figure 14-11.)
nineteen-thirteen,” and so on). The time is
recorded when each soldier touches the end Equipment
of the pool on the final lap or crosses a line
set as the 800-yard mark. Two stopwatches, one clipboard and
pen for each scorer, a copy of the test
Scorers’Duties instructions and standards, and one
stationary bicycle ergometer are
Scorers must observe the swimmers needed. The ergometers should measure
assigned to the. They must be sure that each resistance in kiloponds or newtons. The
swimmer touches the bulkhead at every bicycle should be one that can be used
turn. The scorers record each soldier’s time for training and testing. Its seat and

Figure 14-11

handlebars must be adjustable to let the Instructions

soldier fully extend his legs when
pedaling. It should have an adjustable The event supervisor must read the
tension setting and an odometer. The following: “THE 6.2-MILE STA-
resistance is usually set by a tension TIONARY-BICYCLE ERGOMETER
strap on a weighted pendulum con- EVENT TESTS YOUR CARDI-
nected to the flywheel. See Appendix ORESPIRATORY FITNESS AND LEG
D for guidance on using various types MUSCLE ENDURANCE. THE
of stationary bikes. ERGOMETER’S RESISTANCE MUST
The test site can be any place where AND YOU WILL BEGIN PEDAL-
there is an approved bicycle ergometer. ING AT YOUR OWN PACE WHILE
This could be the post’s fitness facility MAINTAINING THE RESISTANCE
or the hospital’s therapy clinic. Each INDICATOR AT TWO POUNDS.
test station must be two yards wide and YOU WILL BE SCORED ON YOUR
four yards deep. ABILITY TO COMPLETE 6.2 MILES
One event supervisor and at least LISTED FOR YOUR AGE AND SEX.
one scorer for every three soldiers to be WHAT ARE YOUR QUESTIONS
tested are required. Appropriate safety, ABOUT THIS EVENT?”
control, and medical personnel should
also be present.

Administration 6.2-MILE BICYCLE TEST

After reading the instructions, the This event is used to assess the
event supervisor answers any related soldier’s cardiorespiratory and leg-
questions. Each soldier is given a short muscle endurance.
warm-up period and allowed to adjust
the seat and handlebar height. Equipment

Timing Techniques Two stopwatches, one clipboard and

pen for each scorer, a copy of the test
The event supervisor is the timer. instructions and standards, and num-
He uses the commands “Get set” and bers are needed. Although one-speed
“Go.” Two stopwatches are used in bicycles are preferred for this event,
case one fails. As the soldiers pedal the multispeed bicycles may be used. If a
last two-tenths of the test distance, the multispeed bicycle is used, measures
event supervisor should start calling must be taken to ensure that only one
off the time in minutes and seconds gear is used throughout the test. (This
(for example, “Twenty-thirty-one, can usually be done by taping the gear
twenty -thirty -two, twenty-thirty- shifters at the setting preferred by the
three,” and so on). He calls the time testee.)
remaining every 30 seconds for the last
two minutes of the allowable time and Facilities
every second during the last ten sec-
onds. A relatively flat course with a uni-
form surface and no obstacles must be
Scorers’ Duties used. It must also be clearly marked.
Soldiers should not be tested on a
Scorers must ensure that the bicycle quarter-mile track, and they should
ergometer is functioning properly. They never be out of the scorers’ sight. The
must then make sure that the bicycle course should be completely free of
ergometers’ tension settings have been runners and walkers.
calibrated and are accurate and that
the resistance of the ergometers has Personnel
been set at two kiloponds (20 new-
tons). The scorers must observe the One event supervisor and at least
soldiers throughout the event. From one scorer for every 10 soldiers are re-
time to time the scorer may need to quired. Safety, control, and medical
make small adjustments to the resis- personnel should also be present as
tance control to ensure that a continu- appropriate.
ous resistance of exactly 2 kiloponds
(20 newtons) is maintained throughout instructions
the test. At the end of the test, they
record each soldier’s time on the score- The event supervisor must read the
card in the 2-mile-run block, initial following: “THE 6.2-MILE BICYCLE
the appropriate block, and note in the TEST IS USED TO ASSESS YOUR
comment block that the time is for a CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS
6.2-mile stationary-bicycle ergometer AND LEG MUSCLES’ ENDURANCE.

WILL RESULT IN DISQUALIFICA- After reading the instructions, the
TION. TO BEGIN, YOU WILL LINE event supervisor answers any related
UP BEHIND THE STARTING LINE. questions. He then organizes the sol-
ON THE COMMAND ‘GO,’ THE diers into groups of no more than ten
CLOCK WILL START, AND YOU and assigns each group to a scorer.
WILL BEGIN PEDALING AT YOUR Scorers assign numbers to the soldiers
OWN PACE. TO COMPLETE THE in their groups and record each sol-
REQUIRED DISTANCE OF 6.2 dier’s number on the appropriate score-
(describe the number of laps, start and
finish points, and course layout). YOU Timing Techniques
ITY TO COMPLETE THE DISTANCE- The event supervisor is the timer.
OF 6.2 MILES ( 10 KILOMETERS) IN He uses the commands “Get set” and
A TIME EQUAL TO OR LESS THAN “Go.” Two stopwatches are used in
THAT LISTED FOR YOUR AGE case one fails. As soldiers near the end
AND SEX. IF YOU LEAVE THE of the 6.2-mile ride, the event super-
DESIGNATED COURSE FOR ANY visor starts calling off the time in

minutes and seconds (for example, Equipment
“Thirty-twenty-one, thirty- twenty-
two, thirty -twenty-three,” and so on). Two stopwatches, one clipboard and
pen for each scorer, numbers, and
Scorers’ Duties copies of the test instructions and
standards are needed.
When the event is over, scorers
record each soldier’s time in the 2-
mile-run block. They initial the ap-
propriate block and note in the
This event uses the same course as
comment block that the time is for a
the 2-mile run.
6.2-mile-bicycle test and whether or
not the testee met the required stan-
dards for his age and sex.
One event supervisor and at least
one scorer for every three soldiers to be
tested are required. Appropriate safety,
This event serves to assess cardi-
control, and medical personnel should
orespiratory and leg-muscle endur-
be present.

Instructions into groups of no more than three and
assigns each group to a scorer. Each
The event supervisor must read the soldier is issued a number which the
following: “THE 2.5-MILE WALK IS scorer records on the scorecard.
THE COMMAND ‘GO,’ THE CLOCK The event supervisor is the
WILL START, AND YOU WILL timer. He uses the commands “Get set”
BEGIN WALKING AT YOUR OWN and “Go.” Two stopwatches are used in
PACE. YOU MUST COMPLETE case one fails. As the soldiers near the
(describe the number of laps, start and end of the 2.5-mile walk, the event
finish points, and course layout). ONE supervisor starts calling off the elapsed
FOOT MUST BE IN CONTACT WITH time in minutes and seconds (for
THE GROUND AT ALL TIMES. IF example,"Thirty-three-twenty-two,
YOU BREAK INTO A RUNNING thirty -three -twenty -three, thirty-
STRIDE AT ANY TIME OR HAVE three-twenty -four,” and so on).
TERMINATED. YOU WILL BE Scorers must observe the soldiers
SCORED ON YOUR ABILITY TO during the entire event and must en-
COMPLETE THE 2.5-MILE COURSE sure that the soldiers maintain a walk-
IN A TIME EQUAL TO OR LESS ing stride. Soldiers who break into any
THAN THAT LISTED FOR YOUR type of running stride will be termi-
AGE AND SEX. WHAT ARE YOUR nated from the event and given a “no
QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS EVENT?” go.” When the event is over, scorers
record the time in the 2-mile-run
Administration block on the scorecard, initial the ap-
propriate block, and note in the com-
After reading the instructions, the ment block that the time is for a 2.5-
event supervisor answers any related mile walk and whether or not the
questions. He then divides the soldiers testee received a "go" or "no go."



Soldiers vary in their physical makeup. Each body reacts differently to varying degrees of physical stress,
and no two bodies react exactly the same way to the same physical stress. For everyone to get the maximum
benefit from training, leaders must be aware of these differences and plan the training to provide maximum
benefit for everyone. They must also be aware of the physiological differences between men and women.
While leaders must require equal efforts of men and women during the training period, they must also realize
that women have physiological limitations which generally preclude equal performance. The following
paragraphs describe the most important physical and physiological differences between men and women.


The average 18- year-old man is 70.2 inches tall and weighs 144.8 pounds, whereas the average woman
of the same age is 64.4 inches tall and weighs 126.6 pounds. This difference in size affects the absolute
amount of physical work that can be performed by men and women.


Men have 50 percent greater total muscle mass, based on weight, than do women. A woman who is the
same size as her male counterpart is generally only 80 percent as strong. Therefore, men usually have an
advantage in strength, speed, and power over women.


Women carry about 10 percentage points more body fat than do men of the same age. Men accumulate
fat primarily in the back, chest, and abdomen; women gain fat in the buttocks, arms, and thighs. Also,
because the center of gravity is lower in women than in men, women must overcome more resistance in
activities that require movement of the lower body.


Women have less bone mass than men, but their pelvic structure is wider. This difference gives men an
advantage in running efficiency.


The average woman’s heart is 25 percent smaller than the average man’s. Thus, the man’s heart can pump
more blood with each beat. The larger heart size contributes to the slower resting heart rate (five to eight
beats a minute slower) in males. This lower rate is evident both at rest and at any given level of submaximal
exercise. Thus, for any given work rate, the faster heart rate means that most women will become fatigued
sooner than men.


Women generally are more flexible than men.


The lung capacity of men is 25 to 30 percent greater than that of women. This gives men still another
advantage in the processing of oxygen and in doing aerobic work such as running.


A woman’s response to heat stress differs somewhat from a man’s. Women sweat less, lose less heat through
evaporation, and reach higher body temperatures before sweating starts. Nevertheless, women can adapt
to heat stress as well as men. Regardless of gender, soldiers with a higher level of physical fitness generally
better tolerate, and adapt more readily to, heat stress than do less fit soldiers.


Knowing the physiological differences between men and women is just the first step in planning physical
training for a unit. Leaders need to understand other factors too.
Women can exercise during menstruation; it is, in fact, encouraged. However, any unusual discomfort,
cramps, or pains while menstruating should be medically evaluated.
Pregnant soldiers cannot be required to exercise without a doctor’s approval. Generally, pregnant women
may exercise until they are close to childbirth if they follow their doctors’ instructions. The Army agrees
with the position of the American College of obstetricians and Gynecologists regarding exercise and
pregnancy. This guidance is available from medical authorities and the U.S. Army Physical Fitness School
(USAPFS). The safety and health of the mother and fetus are primary concerns when dealing with exercise
Vigorous activity does not harm women’s reproductive organs or cause menstrual problems. Also, physical
fitness training need not damage the breasts. Properly fitted and adjusted bras, however, should be worn
to avoid potential injury to unsupported breast tissue that may result from prolonged jarring during exer-
Although female soldiers must sometimes be treated differently from males, women can reach high levels
of physical performance. Leaders must use common sense to help both male and female soldiers achieve
acceptable levels of fitness. For example, ability-group running alleviates gender-based differences between
men and women. Unit runs, however, do not.



Figure B-1


Soldiers can use a physical fitness log to record their fitness goals. The log will serve as a diary of
how well they achieve them. Fitness goals are determined before the training begins. The results should
closely parallel or exceed the unit’s goals. While this is not a requirement, the log may also be used by
commanders and supervisors as a record of physical fitness training. Figure C-1 shows an example of a
physical fitness log that could be reproduced locally.

Figure C-1



Only stationary bicycles which can be calibrated and which have mechanically adjustable resistances may
be used to test profiled soldiers on the 6.2-mile (l O-kilometer), alternate APFT event. Therefore, the event
supervisor or scorer must be sure that the stationary bicycle can be accurately adjusted to ensure that the
soldier pedals against the correct resistance (force) of 2 kiloponds or 20 newtons. If the stationary bicycle
cannot be properly calibrated and adjusted, the soldier may end up pedalling against a resistance which is
too great or not great enough. In either case, the test would not provide an accurate indication of the soldier’s
level of cardiorespiratory fitness.
The best type of stationary bicycle for testing has the following features:
• Calibration adjustment.
• Adjustable resistance displayed in kiloponds or newtons.
• Odometer which accurately measures the distance traveled in either miles or tenths of miles or in
kilometers and tenths of kilometers.
Examples of stationary bicycles which meet the above criteria are the mechanically braked Bodyguard
990 and Monark 868. Such bicycles can be used to accurately measure a person’s rate of work or the total
amount of work. They are often called bicycle ergometers.

If the stationary bicycle has an odometer, the soldier must pedal 6.2 miles (10.0 kilometers or 10,000
meters) against a resistance set at 2 kiloponds or 20 newtons. The test is completed when the soldier pedals
6.2 miles (10.0 kilometers). He receives a “Go” if he is below or at the time allotted for his particular age
group and gender. Care should be taken to ensure that, when using a stationary bicycle which measures
distance in kilometers, the test is ended at 10 kilometers, not 6.2 kilometers.

There are many electrically operated, stationary bicycles (EOSBS) on the market and in gymnasiums on
Army installations. Most of them are designed for physical fitness training. Only a limited number of EOSB
models are designed to accurately assess a person’s energy expenditure during exercise. Such EOSBS are
relatively expensive and are generally found in medical and scientific laboratories. Very few, if any, are
found in gymnasiums on Army installations.

Because most of the more common training EOSBS were not designed to accurately assess energy
expenditure, they should not be used for the alternate, cardiorespiratory APFT event.

For the sake of accuracy and ease of administration, soldiers designated to be tested on either of the two
bicycle protocols should be tested using a moving bicycle IAW the guidelines provided elsewhere in this field
manuel. If the mechanical y- braked Bodyguard 990 or Monark 868 is used, however, the tester must ensure
that the equipment has been properly calibrated prior to each test.



Choosing a running shoe that is suitable for your particular type of foot can help you avoid some common
running- related injuries. It can also make running more enjoyable and let you get more mileage out of your

Shoe manufacturers are aware that, anatomically, feet usually fall into one of three categories. Some
people have “floppy” feet that are very “loose- jointed.” Because feet like this are too mobile, they “give”
when they hit the ground. These people need shoes that are built to control the foot’s motion. At the other
extreme are people with “rigid” feet. These feet are very tight-jointed and do not yield enough upon impact.
To help avoid impact-related injuries, these people need shoes that cushion the impact of running. Finally,
the third type, or normal foot, falls somewhere between mobile and rigid. This type of foot can use any
running shoe that is stable and properly cushioned. Use the chart at Figure E-1 to help you determine what
kind of foot you have. Then, read the information on special features you should look for in a shoe.

When shopping for running shoes, keep the following in mind:

• Expect to spend between $30 and $100 for a pair of good shoes.
• Discuss your foot type, foot problems, and shoe needs with a knowledgeable salesperson.
• Check the PX for available brands and their prices before shopping at other stores.
• Buy a training shoe, not a racing shoe.
• When trying on shoes, wear socks that are as similar as possible to those in which you will run.
Also, be sure to try on both shoes.
• Look at more than one model of shoe.
• Choose a pair of shoes that fit both feet well while you are standing.
• Ask if you can try running in the shoes on a non-carpeted surface. This gives you a feel for the
• Carefully inspect the shoes for defects that might have been missed by quality control. Do the
-Place the shoes on a flat surface and check the heel from behind to see that the heel cup
is perpendicular to the sole of the shoe.
-Feel the seams inside the shoe to determine if they are smooth, even, and well-stitched.
-Check for loose threads or extra glue spots; they are usually signs of poor construction.

The shoes' ability to protect you from injury decreases as the mileage on them increases. Record the
number of miles you run with them on a regular basis, and replace the shoes when they have accumulated
500 to 700 miles even if they show little wear.

Figure E-1



The heart rate has traditionally been used to estimate exercise intensity. However, evidence shows that
a person’s own perception of the intensity of his exercise can often be just as accurate as the heart rate in
gauging his exercise intensity.
The scale in Figure G-1 lets a soldier rate his degree of perceived exertion .(PE).
. This scale consists of
numerical ratings for physical exercise followed by their associated descriptive ratings.

Figure G-1

To judge perceived exertion, estimate how difficult it feels to do the exercise. Do not be concerned
with any one single factor such as shortness of breath or work intensity. Instead, try to concentrate on
the total inner feeling of exertion.
Multiplying the rating of perceived exertion by 10 roughly approximates the heart rate during exercise.
For example, a PE of 14, when multiplied by 10, equals 140.
Most soldiers with THRs between 130 and 170 BPM would exercise between a PE of 13 (somewhat
hard) and 17 (very hard).
Although either percent of maximum heart rate or perceived exertion may be used during exercise,
the most valid method for calculating THR is percent HRR.



Figure H-1

The iliopoas muscle (a hip flexor) cannot be seen as it lies beneath other muscles. It attaches to the
lumbar vertebrae and the femur.


Section 1: Acronyms and Abbreviations

AC Active Component
AGR ability group run
A IT advanced individual training
APFT Army Physical Fitness Test
AR Army regulation
ARNG Army National Guard
ARTEP Army Training and Evaluation Program
ATP adenosine triphosphate

BCT basic combat training

BDU battle dress uniform
BPM beats per minute
BT basic training
BTMS Battalion Training Management System

c centigrade
CAD coronary artery disease
CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CPT captain
CR cardiorespiratory
CVSP cardiovascular screening program

DA Department of the Army

DOD Department of Defense

EDRE emergency deployment readiness exercise

EIB Expert Infantryman Badge
EOSB electrically operated, stationary bicycle

F Fahrenheit
FITT frequency, intensity, time, type
FM field manual
FTX field training exercise

HDL high-density lipoprotein

HQ headquarters
HQDA Headquarters, Department of the Army
HRR heart rate reserve

ID identification
IET initial entry training
IG inspector general

kph kilometers per hour

lat latissimus dorsi
LCE load-carrying equipment
LDL low-density lipoprotein

MACOM major Army command

MEDDAC medical department activity
METL mission-essential task list
MFT master fitness trainer
MHR maximum heart rate
min minute(s)
MOS military occupational specialty
MPH miles per hour
MRDA military recommended dietary allowance
MRE meal, ready to eat

NCO noncommissioned officer

NCOIC noncommissioned officer in charge
NGR National Guard regulation
No. number

OIC officer in charge

OST one-station training
OSUT one-station unit training

Pam pamphlet
PE perceived exertion
PNF proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation
PRE partner-resisted exercise
PT physical training
pts points
PU push-up

RC Reserve Component
rep repetition
RHR resting heart rate
RICE rest, ice, compression, elevation
RM repetition maximum
ROTC Reserve Officers’ Training Corps

sec second(s)
SCUBA self-contained underwater breathing apparatus
SDT self development test
SOP standing operating procedure
SU sit-up

TB med technical bulletin, medical

TDA table of distribution and allowances
THR training heart rate
TM technical manual
TOE table of organization and equipment
TRADOC U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command
TS timed set
TSP training support package

U.S. United States
USAPFS United States Army Physical Fitness School
USAR United States Army Reserve

V 02max maximum oxygen consumption per minute

WBGTI wet bulb globe temperature index

WCF windchill factor

Section II: Terms

An increase in the angle between two bones in which a straightening movement occurs; the opposite
of flexion. For example, extension of the elbow involves an increase in the angle formed by the upper
and lower arm as the arm straightens at the elbow.

A decrease in the angle between two bones in which a bending movement occurs; the opposite of extension.
For example, flexion of the elbow involves a decrease in the angle formed by the lower and upper arm as
the arm bends at the elbow.



These are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this publication.


15-6 Procedures for Investigating Officers and Boards of Officers. May 1988.
30-1 The Army Food Service Program. January 1985.
350-15 Army Physical Fitness Program. November 1989.
385-55 Prevention of Motor Vehicle Accidents. March 1987.


DOD Directive 1308.1 Physical Fitness and Weight Control Program. April 1981.
FM 21-18 Foot Marches. June 1990.


These documents must be available to the intended users of this publication.


40-501 Standards of Medical Fitness. July 1987.

600-8-2 Suspension of Favorable Personnel Actions (Flags). October 1987.
600-9 The Army Weight Control Program. September 1986.
600-63 Army Health Promotion. November 1987.


FM 25-100 Training the Force. November 1988.

NGR 40-501 Medical Examination for Members of the Army National Guard. October 1981.
TRADOC Reg 350-6 Initial Entry Training (IET) Policies and Administration. August 1989.


These readings contain relevant supplemental information.


28-9 Unit Level Recreational Sports. June 1973.

350-15 Commander’s Handbook on Physical Fitness. October 1982.
350-18 The Individual’s Handbook on Physical Fitness. May 1983.
350-22 You and the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT). September 1987.
351-4 Army Formal Schools Catalog. August 1991.


21-150 Combative. December 1971.

22-5 Drill and Ceremonies. December 1986.
31-70 Basic Cold Weather Manual. April 1968.


AR 215-1 Administration of Army Morale, Welfare, and Recreation. February 1984.

DA Form 705 Army Physical Fitness Test Scorecard. May 1987.
DA Form 3349 Physical Profile. May 1986.
Folio No. 1 “Training Facilities,” Corps of Engineers Drawing No. 28-13-95. Directorate of
Facilities Engineering.
SB 10-260 Master Menu. December 1989.
TB Med 507 Occupational and Environmental Health Prevention, Treatment, and Control of
Heat Injury. July 1980.
TSP Physical Fitness Training - Total Fitness. July 1987.


8-103 Standards for Determining Body Fat. 1986.

21-76 Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT). 1986.
21-191 Administration of the APFT. 1988.
21-192 Partner-Resisted Exercises (PRE). 1987.
21-218 Flexibility: The Truth About Stretching. 1989.
21-203 Push-up/Sit-up Improvement. 1988.


This is a topical index organized alphabetically. Citations are to paragraph numbers.

ability group running

advanced individual training, 1-10
aerobic exercises; see exercises, aerobic
aerobic fitness; see fitness, cardiorespiratory
aquatic exercise, 8-19 through 8-22
Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT), 14-1 through 14-27
ability group running to prepare for, 1-10
administration of, 14-2 through 14-8
alternate events for, 14-20 through 14-27
cardiovascular screening program for, 14-1
command functions relating to, 1-2, 3
duties of test personnel for, 14-8, 9
evaluation of, 1-14, 15; 14-1
failures, 1-12
procedures for testing, 14-10, 11
profiles in regard to, 14-20; see also profile
push-up as an event in, 14-11 through 14-14
results of, 14-18, 19
scorecard for, 14-3 through 14-7
scores above maximum in, 14-19
sequence of, 14-11 through 14-18
site of, 14-9, 10
sit-up as an event in, 14-14 through 14-16
two-mile run as an event in, 14-17, 18

bicycle test (APFT event), 14-24 through 14-26

bicycle ergometer test, stationary (APFT event), 14-22 through 14-24; D-O
bicycling; see cycling
body composition, 1-3; 5-0, 1; see also overweight soldiers
broom-ball hockey, 9-11, 12

calisthenics, 7-7 through 7-17

cardiorespiratory fitness; see fitness, cardiorespiratory
designing of, 7-2, 3
types of, 7-1
circuit training, 7-1 through 7-6
sample circuits for, 7-3 through 7-6
variables in, 7-1, 2
competitive fitness activities, 9-1 through 9-18
cool-down, 1-7; 4-3; 8-22
cross-country skiing, 2-15
cycling, 2-14

dehydration, 6-5; 12-3
diet; see weight, diet and exercise
conditioning, 7-17
grass, 7-17 through 7-22
guerilla, 7-23 through 7-26
log, 8-13 through 8-18
rifle, 8-11, 12

cardiorespiratory; see fitness, cardiorespiratory
muscular; see muscular endurance and strength

environmental considerations, 12-0 through 12-4

air pollution, 12-4
altitude, 12-4
cold environments, 12-2, 3
dehydration, 12-3
frostbite, 12-3
heat injuries and symptoms, 12-1
hot, humid environments, 12-1, 2
hydration guidelines, 12-2
hypothermia, 12-2
temperature regulation, 12-0, 1
windchill factor, 12-3

exercise principles, 1-4; 10-12, 13

exercises; see also drills

acquatic, 8-19 through 8-22
aerobic, 2-0, 2-6 through 2-16
aerobic (alternate forms), 2-13 through 2-13
calisthenic, 7-7 through 7-17
conditioning drills; see drills, conditioning
cool-down after, 1-7; 4-3
flexibility, 1 -3; 4-1 through 4-17
guerilla; see drills, guerilla
injuries related to, 13-1, 2
muscle strengthening, 3-3 through 3-9
muscular training chart, 3-36
partner-resisted, 3-13 through 3-20
rhythmic (with music), 2-15, 16
warm-up before, 1-7; 4-2
with equipment, 3-21 through 3-35
without special equipment, 3-12

Fartlek training; see running, Fartlek training

body, 1-12, 13; 5-0, 1; see also overweight soldiers
saturated, 6-3

cardiorespiratory (aerobic), 1 -3; 2-0 through 2-16
components of, 1-3, 4
conditioning phases for, 1-7 through 1 -9; 3-6, 7
muscular, 3-1
fitness programs; see unit program
fitness programs, types of
advanced individual training (AIT), 1-10
individual, 1-11
initial entry training (IET), 1-10; 11-0, 1
special, 1-11, 12
TOE and TDA units, 1-11
unit, 1-9, 10
FITT factors, 1-4 through l-7; 2-1 through 2-6; 4-2
flexibility, 1-3; 4-1 through 4-17
flexibility exercises; see exercises, flexibility
fluid intake, 6-5, 6; 12-1
frequency, intensity, time, type; see FITT factors

grass drills; see drills, grass

guerilla drills; see drills, guerilla

handball and racquet sports, 2-15

heart rate, components of
heart rate reserve (HRR), 1-6, 8; 2-3 through 2-6
maximum heart rate (MHR), 2-2
resting heart rate (RHR), 2-3, 4
training heart rate (THR), 1-6, 8; (calculation) 2-2 through 2-6

initial entry training (IET), 1-1, 10, 15; 11-0, 1

injuries, 2-6, 7; 7-7, 8; 13-1, 2
interval training; see running, interval training
intramural, 9- I through 9-5

log drills; see drills, log

master fitness trainer (MFT), 1-1, 2, 3, 9, 12, 13

maximum heart rate; see heart rate, maximum
muscle groups, 3-9 through 3-11
muscle contractions (types), 3-1, 2
muscular endurance and strength, 1-3; 3-1 through 3-36
age as a factor in, 1-13, 14
exercise programs for, 3-12 through 3-36
exercise selection for, 3-6
principles of, 3-2 through 3-5
key points regarding, 3-12
training for, 1-5 through 1-7, 9, 13; 3-1 through 3-36

nine-ball soccer, 9-5 through 9-8

and fitness, 6-0 through 6-6
for optimal physical performance, 6-3 through 6-6
guidelines, 6-0 through 6-3
in the field, 6-6
obstacle courses, types of
conditioning, 8-2 through 8-6
confidence, 8-6 through 8-10
safety precautions for using, 8-1, 2
olympics; see unit olympics
orienteering, 9-13 through 9-16
overweight soldiers, 1-12, 13; see also fat, body

partner-resisted exercise; see exercises, partner-resisted

perceived exertion, G-1
phases of conditioning; see fitness, conditioning phases
physical fitness log, C-O
positive profile form, B-1
principles of exercise; see exercise principles
profiles, 1-13; 14-20; B-1
push-up; see APFT, push-up
pushball, 9-7, 8
pushball (strategy), 9-8 through 9-11

resistance training; see strength training

rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE), 13-1
resting heart rate; see heart rate, resting
rifle drills; see drills, rifle
road marches, 2-11, 12; 11-1
rope skipping, 2-15
cross-country, 2-10
Fartlek training, 2-9
injuries; see injuries
interval training, 2-8, 9
last-man-up, 2-10
shoes; see shoes, running
technique, 2-6

safety, 1-15; 3-6; 7-7; 8-1, 2; 9-16; 11-0, 1

sexual differences, A-1, 2
shoes, running (how to select), E-1, 2
sit-up; see APFT, sit-up
soccer; see nine-ball soccer
speed play; see running, Fartlek training
strategy pushball; see pushball (strategy)
strength training; see muscular endurance and strength, training
stretching; see flexibility and exercises, flexibility
swim test (APFT event), 14-21, 22
swimming, 2-14; see also exercise, aquatic

training heart rate; see heart rate, training

two-mile run; see APFT, two-mile run

unit olympics, 9-17, 18
unit program
activities and games for, 9-5 through 9-16
development of, 10-1 through 10-13
evaluation of, 1-14, 15
sample of, 10-5 through 10-12
types of, 1-10, 11

V O2 max, calculation of, F-1, 2

walk (APFT event), 14-26, 27

walking, 2-14, 15
warm-up, 1-7; 4-2; 8-19
weight (body); see also nutrition and fitness
Army standards for, 5-0, 1
diet and exercise for proper, 5-1
methods for evaluating, 5-0, 1
programs for overweight soldiers, 1-12, 13

FM 21-20

By Order of the Secretary of the Army

General, United States Army
Chief of Staff


Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army


Active Arm y, USAR and ARNG: To be distributed In accordance with DA Form 12-11E,
requirements for FM 21-20, Physical Fitness Training (Qty rqr block no. 0165).

•U.S. Government Printing Office: 1994 — 300-421/82850

PIN: 007192-001