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Study strategies crucial for success

Stay on top of your reading assignments

Do not highlight your entire text, that is pointless! Sticky notes on concepts you do not understand Different colored highlighters- 1 for terms, 1 for concepts

Devote a block of time each day to your A&P course

Set up a study schedule and stick to it

Do not procrastinate! Need to memorize terms every day! As soon as you experience difficulty with the course, seek assistance

Study Supplements
These items are NOT required. Do not purchase them if you do not have the time to use them!!! My A&P (get access through text or purchase it for $35) This is an online study site you may find helpful. Practice Anatomy Lab 2.0 (PAL) link on this site that is very useful for practicing your anatomy

Martinis Atlas of the Human Body Study Guide

If you decided to buy the study guide, get an older edition and save some money or buy it used off of Amazon

Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

Chapter 1

Ch 1 Outline
Importance of A & P Levels of organization Homeostasis
Positive/negative feedback

Anatomical terms Major body cavities

Why study A & P?

Anatomy and physiology affect your life everyday
Its the study of how you work!

Preparation for your career Apply to your own health Understand media, advertisements, food labels

Medical Terminology
Word roots- basic part of term, cant be broken down Prefix & suffix Combining forms- independent words occur in combination with other terms Back cover book
Anatomy: a cutting open
Word root: ana- up Word root: tomy- to cut

Examples of Word Roots

Myo (mys): muscle Cardi-, cardio-,-cardia (kardia): heart Cephal-, (cephalos): head Cost-, (costal): rib Hepato-, (hepaticus): liver

Structure and Function

Anatomy- describes the structures of the body
What they are made of Where they are located Associated structures

Physiology- study of how living organisms

perform vital functions
Functions of anatomical structures Individual and cooperative functions

Gross Anatomy
Macroscopic anatomy- examines large, visible structures
Surface anatomy: exterior features, general form

Regional anatomy: body areas

Systemic anatomy: groups of organs working together

Developmental anatomy: from conception to death

Clinical anatomy: medical specialties

Microscopic Anatomy
Microscopic anatomy- examines cells and molecules
1. Cytology: study of cells & their internal structures 2. Histology: study of tissues & their structures

Cell physiology: function of cells, chemical & molecular level
Organ physiology: functions of specific organs

Systemic physiology: functions of an organ system

Pathological physiology: effects of diseases

Levels of Organization
Chemical (Molecular) Level
Atoms- smallest units of matter Molecules- group of atoms working together

Cellular Level
Cells- smallest units of life Molecules form organelles, organelles are the structural & functional components of cell

Tissue Level
Tissues- group of similar cells working together

Levels of Organization
Organ Level
Organ- group of different tissues working together

Organ System Level

Organ systems- group of organs working together

Humans have 11 organ systems

Organism Level


Homeostasis- all body systems working together to maintain a stable internal environment
Failure to maintain results in illness, death

Physiological systems respond to external & internal changes to function within a normal range (body temperature, fluid balance)

Mechanisms of Regulation
Autoregulation (intrinsic)
Automatic response in a cell, tissue, or organ to some environmental change
Blood flow (ex. brain, heart, kidney)

Extrinsic regulation
Responses controlled by nervous & endocrine systems
Nervous system- rapid, short-term, specific responses Endocrine system- release hormones, slower, longer lasting effect

Homeostasis Regulatory Mechanism

Overall function keep internal environment within a certain limit
1. Receptor- receives the

2. Control center- processes

the signal & sends instructions

3. Effector- carries out instructions

Negative Feedback
Response of the effector negates the stimulus
Body is overheated- effector makes it cool down Making hormone- effector stops hormone production

Body is brought back into homeostasis

Normal range is achieved, not set point Negative feedback minimizes change keeping variations in body within set limits Long term control

Whats normal?!

Negative FeedbackControl of Body Temperature

Positive Feedback
Response of effector increases change in original conditions made by the stimulus
Room is hot- gets hotter- positive feedback loop

Body is moved away from homeostasis Normal range is lost- extreme responses Used to speed up processes Ex: blood clotting, labor, breast feeding

Positive Feedback

Systems Integration
Systems work together to maintain homeostasis Homeostasis is a state of equilibrium- opposing

forces are in balance

Physiological systems work together to restore balance
Out of balance- disease Failure to maintain- death

Dont need to memorize this chart!

Anatomical Terminology
Superficial Anatomy- locate structures on body surfaces Anatomical position: hands at sides, palms forward Supine: lying down, face up Prone: lying down, face down

Anatomical Terminology
Superficial Anatomy
Anatomical Landmarks
References to palpable structures

Anatomical Regions
Body regions
Abdominopelvic quadrants

Abdominopelvic regions

Anatomical Directions

Should have these memorized by the end of the week!

Reference terms based on subject

Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior

Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior

Anatomical Landmarks: Posterior

Anatomical Landmarks: Posterior

Anatomical Regions

Anatomical Regions

Abdominopelvic Quadrants

Abdominopelvic RegionsLocation Internal Organs

Abdominopelvic Relationships

Anatomical Directions- Lateral View


cranial the head

Ventral Ventral posterior or dorsal anterior or ventral

caudal tail


Anatomical Directions- Anterior View

Sectional Anatomy
Plane: a three-dimensional axis

Section: a slice parallel to a plane (single view)

Used to visualize internal organization and structure Important in radiological techniques

Sectional Planes


left- right

Cross section superior-inferior

Body Cavities
Internal organs suspended in internal chambers Body cavities 2 essential functions
Protect organs from accidental shocks Permit changes in size and shape of internal organs

Dorsal cavity Ventral cavity

Body Cavities
Ventral body cavity (coelom)
Respiratory, cardio, digestive, urinary, reproductive Divided by the diaphragm: Thoracic cavity- bound by chest wall Abdominopelvic cavity- enclosed by abdominal wall & bones/muscles of pelvis

Lungs Heart





Liver, stomach, spleen, small intestine, most of large intestine, kidneys, pancreas

Body Cavities
Viscera- internal organs only partially or completely
enclosed by cavities

Serous membranes- line body cavities & cover

organ surfaces Consist of parietal layer and visceral layer
Parietal layer lines cavity Visceral layer covers organ

Moist internal spaces permit expansion, prevent friction

Thoracic Cavity
Separated into regions: pleural cavities, mediastinum, pericardial cavity 1. Pleural cavities - right & left, contain lungs, lined with pleura (serous membrane)
Mediastinum- separates pleural cavities
Mass of connective tissue- surrounds, stabilizes, supports esophagus, trachea, thymus, blood vessels Lower portion- 2. pericardial cavity, small chamber surrounds heart
Pericardium- serous membrane associated with heart

Balloon - the pericardium. Instead of the balloon being filled with air, it is filled with fluid- the pericardial fluid.

Pericardium attached to the heart-visceral pericaridum Pericardium attached to the insides of the ribs- parietal pericardium The pericardium has both the visceral portion and the parietal portion, but it is still one continuous balloon, one continuous membrane called the pericardium.

Pericardial Cavity

Thoracic Cavity

Thoracic Cavities

Abdominopelvic Cavity

Abdominopelvic Cavity
Extends from diaphram to pelvis Subdivided superior abdominal cavity & inferior pelvic cavity Peritoneal cavity chamber within abdominopelvic cavity
Parietal peritoneum lines the internal body wall Visceral peritoneum covers the organs

Abdominopelvic Cavity
Abdominal cavity superior portion
Diaphragm to top of pelvic bones Contains digestive organs- liver, stomach, spleen, small intestine, most large intestine

Retroperitoneal space
Between peritoneal lining & muscular wall of abdominal cavity Contains pancreas, kidneys, ureters, and parts of the digestive tract

Abdominopelvic Cavity
Pelvic cavity inferior portion
Pelvic bones form walls of pelvic cavity Contains reproductive organs, rectum, and bladder, distal portion of large intestine

Homework Tonight
Begin memorizing body cavities, membranes, quadrants, body systems Practice with the following slides More practice at
Register and do Learning Objects: Learning the Human Body

Do your homework assignment for ch 1 online

*Dont overwhelm yourself and waste time by thinking how much you have to do. Break it into sections and just do it! Do NOT be self defeating.

Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior

1. 5. 6.





10. 12.

13. 15. 17.


Anatomical Landmarks: Anterior

6. 2. 3. 7.

5. 11. 8.


13. 14. 15.


Anatomical Landmarks: Posterior




6. 5.

Anatomical Landmarks: Posterior






Anatomical Regions
Label the quadrants and the regions. Then label the following organs in the appropriate region: Appendix Gall bladder Large intestine Liver Small intestine Spleen Stomach Urinary bladder