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INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW Phylum Mollusca is one kind of an invertebrate (i.e. animals that lack a back bone) (Campbell & Reece 200 ). !he Mollusca consists of snails and slu"s# oysters and clams# octopuses# and s$uids. Most of the molluscs are livin" in marine habitats% ho&ever# some of them inhabit fresh land and &aters. !hey have a soft body and most of them are protected by a hard shell. 'ome of them# thou"h# have lost their shells throu"h years of evolution (Campbell & Reece 200 ). !he mollusca body has three main parts% a muscular foot for movin" around# a visceral mass that contains most of their or"ans# and they also have a mantle. Molluscs in "eneral have separate se(es# but snails# ho&ever# are hermaphroditic (Campbell & Reece 200 ). )ne of the ei"ht classes of the phylum Mollusca is *astropoda &hich contains snails and slu"s. *astropoda are either marine# fresh &ater or terrestrial livin" or"anisms. !hey have an asymmetric body usually &ith a coiled shell# if a shell is present# and a foot for locomotion and a radula (Campbell & Reece 200 ). 'everal of the different *astropods have a sin"le# spiral shell &hich often is conical but sometimes even flat. !hey have a ripplin" motion of their foot to by means of cilia. Most of the "astropods "ra+e on al"ae or plants &ith their radula# and most of marine livin" "astropods have "ills (Campbell & Reece 200 )# e(cept the Pulmonata# &ho has developed a pallial lun" and can breathe air (Madsen ,-. a). !he class *astropoda comprises about three $uarters of all Molluscs# and includes several subclasses includin" Pulmonata (Madsen ,-. b). /ll of the investi"ated snails are Pulmonates# &hich is a "enera of *astropoda. !he families &hich are investi"ated are Planorbidae and 0ymnaeidae. 'nails are very important in parasite transmission. !hese 'nails serve as host for the intermediate sta"es of some parasites. Parasitic diseases of man& his domestic animals such as 'chistosomiasis# Para"onimiasis#& 1ascioliasis are transmitted by a$uatic 'nails. 2(amples of such snails are3 Bulinus globosus# B. truncates, Biomphalaria pfeifferi (4ira# ,-55# /sumu ,-6 and 7difon ,-6-) B.senegalensis (/burime# ,-.,) & Bulinus camerunensis (/nsari ,-68). )f all these diseases# the most important is 'chistosomiasis.

!he ecolo"ical study of fresh&ater bodies contributes to the "eneral kno&led"e of fresh&ater fauna & flora. 9atson (,- .)# 9ebbe (,- .)# 94) (,-5 )(,-6 )# Malek (,-62) & :koli (,-6 ) and are therefore important in the prevention & control of these diseases. !he importance of 'nail 'tudy in the prevention or control of diseases# especially 'chistosomiasis has been emphasi+ed by many &orkers. 'ome of &hich are 4ubendick (,- .)# 9.4.). (,-5 a) and :koli (,-6 ) 'nail control is considered as one of the approaches &hich holds out the "reatest promise in the control of these diseases. ;efore any control measures can be successfully undertaken# a complete kno&led"e of all the real & potential snail host# the biolo"y & ecolo"y of the snails involved in any endemic area is essential.(:koli#,-6 ). !here are various species of 'chistosoma infectin" man all over the &orld. !hese are Schistosoma haematobium causin" :rinary 'chistosomiasis in /frica# Middle 2ast & some area in <ndia. S. mansoni causin" <ntestinal 'chistosomiasis in 2$uitorial & 'outh /merica and Carribean <slands to mention a fe&. =ectors of schistosomiasis are the snails > Bulinus globosus# as intermediate host of S. haematobium and Biomphalaria pfeifferi# the intermediate host of S. mansoni. &orks of Comprehensive ecolo"ical researches on schistosome vectors in the 9estern and 7orthern parts of 7i"eria started about t&o and a half decades a"o# &ith the /sumu (,-6 ) in <badan and environs and !ayo & ?e&sbury (,-6.) in Malumfashi district of the then @aduna 'tate (no& @atsina 'tate). 'everal reports from various parts of 7i"eria on human intestinal helminths include those of /&o"un et al. (,-- )# 7&aor"u et al. (,--.)# !ai&o and /"bolade (2000) and /deyeba and /kinlabi (2002). :rinary schistosomiasis due to '. haematobium infection is also endemic in many parts of 7i"eria (94)# ,--8). Reports on it include those of Mafiana and )motayo (,--.)# and /nosike et al. (200,). 'everal factors are considered as affectin" the ecolo"y of snails and other intermediate hosts of diseases# hence their focal and seasonal distributions. !hese include physical factors such as &ater current# temperature# turbidity# transparency and distribution of suspended solids# chemical factors such as ion concentration and dissolved "ases in &ater as &ell as biolo"ical factors such as availability of food# competition and predatorAprey interactions (9illiams# ,-60% )foe+ie# ,---). ;esides# the a$uatic macrophytes have been sho&n to play vital roles

in the distribution of snails in different parts of /frica ()foe+ie# ,---). !he macrophytes are believed to provide both food# shade and to provide breedin" sites for the snails# 4o&ever# the importance of different ecolo"ical factors vary si"nificantly from one ecolo"ical +one to the other and even from one &ater body to the other# su""estin" local investi"ations to identify important factors in each +one or &ater bodies (Ba+o et al .# ,-55% @lumpp & Chu# ,-66% ,-.0% <mevbore et al .# ,-..% )foe+ie# ,---). Many studies concerned &ith the ecolo"y and population dynamics of the "roup of "astropods &hich play an important role in transmittin" diseases to man and his livestock have been conducted by /bd 2lAMalek (,- .)% Ba+o et al . (,-55)% ;arbosa & ;arbosa,--C)% :t+in"er et al . (,--6)% @loos et al . (200,)% @arimi et al . (200C)% CaDete et al . (200C) @a+ib&e et al. 2005 and Mostafa# 200-). !hese studies have led to "eneral opinion% that the development of an effective strate"y of inte"rated control re$uires the study of population dynamics of the intermediate hosts and its relation to environmental factors. <n /frica &here the prevalence & the incidence of 'chistosomiasis are hi"hest# human occupational# behavioural & cultural activities coupled &ith the prevailin" 'ocioAeconomic conditions favour the spread of the diseases. <n ,-5 # 94) reported that 'chistosomiasis &as the second most common parasitic disease infectin" man ne(t to malaria. 0ater# it &as reported by ;ro&n (,-6,) to have superceded malaria to become the most prevalent human parasitic disease. ?ordan (,-62)# $uoted and !homas (,-68) further reported that in spite of all attempts at control# schistosomiasis is still on the increase in terms of prevalence# incidence and intensity of the disease. Part of the reason for these is an increase in the construction of tropical manA made lakes such as @ainEi# @ariba# e.t.c. <n 7i"eria# some &orkers contributed to 'nail vector ecolo"y research. 2(amples are 4ira ,-55# 4ira & Muller ,-55 & /sumu (,-6 )# investi"ated the occurrence# distribution & abundance as &ell as lebels of physicAchemical factors (temperature# p4# Current =elocity# Conductivity# alkalinity & de"ree of shadin" in &ater harbourin" 'nails in area of &estern 7i"eria ( )k&uosa #,-6-).

<n 7orthern 7i"eria# :koli ,-.0. Chemical factors

and /sumu ,-6- &orked on occurrence# abundance &

distribution of fresh&ater 'nails in the proposed federal Capital !erritory in 7i"eria./"i#

Chemical factors conditionin" the prevalence of fresh &ater snails have been described in several studies durin" the last 50 years# and these are conductivity# dissolved "ases in &ater# p4 and temperature (Madsen ,-. a# ,-. b# /bdel Malek ,- .# Mapinda 2005). ;oth Madsen (,-. a) and /bdel Malek (,- .) describe different chemical factors of more or less importance. )ne of these is the ionic readin"# e.". the electrical conductivity &hich is a measure of the total amount solids present in the &ater (Madsen ,-. a# /bdel Malek ,- .). Conductivity !he electrical conductivity of the &ater is considered as a better indicator of the to(icity of the &ater than the concentration of only salt present (Madsen ,-. a# /bdel Malek ,- .). !he conductivity measures the total amount solved salts (m"Fl or ppm) and the total salt is calculated like the conductivity (G'iemensFcm) multiplied &ith 0.5 (0. A0.6) at 2 HC (/nderson & Cummin"s ,---). !his "ives that the hi"her the conductivity readin"# the hi"her the salinity (Madsen ,-. a# /bdel Malek ,- .). :sefulness of &ater is dependin" on the electrical conductivity. *ood drinkin" &ater for humans has an 2C (G'Fcm) ran"e bet&een 0A.00. !his kind of &ater is also suitable for all livestock and is "enerally "ood for irri"ation. <n the ran"e bet&een .00A2 00# the &ater can be consumed by humans althou"h the lo&er ran"e is preferable. !his ran"e is also suitable for livestock. <f this &ater is used for irri"ation# draina"e and salt tolerance for the plants is important (/nderson & Cummin"s ,---). pH !he concentration of hydro"en ions is rarely a factor conditionin" the presence and distribution of the snails. <nvesti"ations have sho&n that the p4 can fluctuate in the same habitat. !he p4 is of importance# but not as a limitin" factor because the snails can tolerate a &ide ran"e of p4# and the snails have been found by some authors to e(ist in &ater bodies &ith a p4 as lo& as .. or even C.0 up to -.2 (/bdel Malek ,- .# !eesdale ,-52). !he importance of p4 has been ar"ued because of its ecolo"ical and biolo"ical implications# but also because it is easy to measure in field (/bdel Malek ,- .). )ther factors correlated &ith

p4 as alkali reserve# carbon dio(ide content# sunli"ht photosynthesis and the character of the substratum availability to live in the &ater bodies are more important than p4 alone (/bdel Malek ,- .). Tempe !tu e /ccordin" to 4ira (,-5-)# many ecolo"ists "enerally a"reed that one of the most important physical influence on an habitat especially a fresh&ater one is temperature. !he "ro&th and reproduction of these snails are affected by temperation. 1or e(ample# the "ro&th rate of B.globosus & B. pfeifferi increase &ith rise in temperature but at 80oC or over# there is a decline in their survival & fecundity ('hiff# ,-5C and 'turrock# ,-55). /ll snails particularly fresh&ater snails are influenced by their environment (Mandalh ;arth ,- 6). <n order to combat this snails efficiently# a thorou"h kno&led"e of the different factors &hich control this distribution & abundance is necessary in addition. *indyAel (,-52) stated that &arm temperature is indirectly beneficial to snails as it helps in the development of abundance of microflora and microfauna & a$uatic &eeds# all of &hich are important for food# shelter & e"" deposition. )k&uosa (,-6-) recorded a ran"e of 2 A80 0C for ;. "lobosus. 4e noted that peak densities for this species occurred closer to the upper limit of the su""ested temperature ran"e% mainly in habitat &hose ma(imum e(ceeded 800C &hile it occurred closer to 2 0C (lo&er limit) mainly in sites &hose ma(imum temperature barely attained 800C. 7difon (,-.0) observed that the ran"e of &ater temperature for the dry season &as ,5.8A 8..00C and correspondin" ran"e for the rainy season &as 28.0 0CA8, the temperature ran"e &as &ider in the dry than in the rainy season. 4e attributed this to the fact that most &ater bodies becomes smaller in si+e and so tends to heat up or cool do&n more rapidly and to a "reater de"ree than in the rainy season. <n her &ork# all the snails encountered by )koli (,--0)# occurred &ithin a ran"e of 2C.6A82.00C. 'he also observed that fresh &ater snails actually tolerate different ran"es of temperature. 'pecific effects of hi"h temperature on 'nails from laboratory studies includes death. *ro&th inhibition# and reduced reproduction (@endall# ,- 8% @endall & Parfitt# ,-5 % 'chiff ,-5Ca% 'turrock# ,-55). !he 'nail host of 'chistosomiasis have an optimum temperature &hich lies bet&een 22&250C# upper & lo&er favourable temperature bein" 82&,.0C respectively. (94) ,- 6).

4ira (,-5-) observed that the seasonal and the diurnal temperature of <badan area &as 2CA 2-. 0C and 2CA80. 0C respectively and propably could be &hy he found no Biomphalaria species. )n the other hand# 4ira (,-5-)# collected Bulinus globusus in sites &ith &ater temperature 2C >2-0C. 4o&ever# Malek (,-5,) as &ell as 9ilcocks & MansonA4ahr (,-6.) tried to define the direct relationship bet&een temperature and fresh&ater 'nails as &ell as 'chistosomiasis. !hey stated that temperature effect stimulates e"" hatchin" of 'chistosomiasis penetration of miracidium into 'nails and sheddin" of cercaeriae by 'nails.

Di""o#ve O$y%en 'nails especially intermediate host 'nails population are more abundant in &ell o(y"enated &ater &hich often have bottom sediment &ith a hi"h redo( potential& provided an ade$uate fresh plant material in the form of "reen al"ae# diatoms and submer"ed leaves. 4ira ,-55# noted that o(y"en content of &ater in <badan varied from 8.0A..Cppm.!he seasonal variation sho&ed that the o(y"en content &as hi"hest durin" the rainy season and decreased after the onset of the dry season in both temporary and permanent habitats# the duirnal cycle sho&ed that the o(y"en concentration &as hi"hest bet&een 8.0& .0ppm. /sumu (,-6 ) also &orkin" in <badan recorded hi"hest dissolved o(y"en of ,C.0,m"F0 and lo&est value of 0.00. 4e observed that B) concentration of the &ater is an important habitat factor since 'nails depend upon it for their respiration. 4e therefore concluded that lo& concentration of B) in &ater can limit the distribution of 'nails. 'chutte and 1rank (,-5C) observed that durin" the day# o(y"en tension rose to ,85A,5,I in pools , cm deep &ith actively photosynthesi+in" al"al population but dropped to 8 A8 I at da&n. 9hile 0. natalensis prefers hi"h o(y"enated &ater# some 'nails like Bulinus africanus occurred in sta"nant and semiAsta"nant &ater &ith hi"h content of or"anic matter &here they feed on fine deposit of rapidly decayin" detritus. B. pfeifferi seemed to prefer conditions bet&een the hi"hly and lo&ly o(y"enated &aters. (;errie#,-5-).

C!&N!& '% !nd ( !he bicarbonate and carbonates of calcium# 'odium# Ma"nesium# and Potassium "ives a natural &ater its alkalinity &hich is related to the availability of carbondio(ide re$uired by plants for photosynthesis. (7difon ,-6-). /ccordin" to 4arrison& Chiff (,-55)# the concentration of calcium bicarbonate can have a profound effect on the biolo"y of a$uatic 'nail notable B. pfeifferi. !hese influences their abundance& distribution. /sumuJs (,-6 ) &ork sho&s that the ran"es of alkalinity for the habitat of intermediate 'nail host of 'chistosome encountered vary &ith individual species. Burin" shell formation# crystals of calcium compounds mainly from calcium carbonates& phosphates are deposited in or"anic matri(. (;evelander and ;en+er# ,-C.% 9ilbus and ?odrey ,).

9illiams (,-60) observed that B.pfeifferi & B.tropicus# &ere restricted to medium hard &ater. ( AC0m"CaF0)# 20A200m"# Ca(4C)8)2 F0 and that althou"h B.globosus, Lymnaea natalensis &ere found in all types of &ater# their densities &ere lo&est in soft &ater. ( m"CaF0#20m" Ca(4C)8)2) Conductivity# 'alinity or the total ionic concentration of the &ater has a "reat effect on 'nails &hen limitin" values are approached by &ithin the ri"ht ran"e# there is a &ide de"ree of tolerance. (94)#,- 6). <t has also been noted that the total salinity of the &ater is of less importance than the proportion of the constituents salts. ;oycott (,-85) remarks that the presence of calcium in the &ater is probably of more importance than plants. !his is based on the fact that it is used in the formation of shell.

Physical and biological factors Physical and biolo"ical factors conditionin" the presence as described by Madsen (,-. b) include food availability# locali+ation# $uantity and $uality of food sources. )ther typical features of biolo"ical factors of importance are the fluctuation of total &ater in the &ater body# rain and dry seasons but also the &ater flo&. !he current should not be stron" because of the difficulties for the snail colony to be established. !hey are normally not found at falls# on e(posed shores of a lake of in irri"ations schemes &ith very s&ift flo& (/bdel Malek

,- .). !here are differences &ithin the different species# ho&ever# Bulinus is better to &ithstand currents than Biomphalaria accordin" to /bdel Malek (,- .). !he effect of temperature on the vectors of bilhar+ia# are sho&n to have a hi"h effect# but investi"ations also sho&s that it principally Eust have a bi" influence of the reproduction of the vectors. !he hi"her temperature in the &arm seasons are needed to maintain the vectors number# and is not Eust favourable for the reproduction# but it is also important because of the food availability and the availability of a$uatic &eeds. !he a$uatic &eeds are a suitable surface on &hich the snails can use for shelter# not Eust for themselves but also for e"" masses (/bdel Malek ,- .). Charbonnel et al. (2002) discusses spatial and temporal activities affectin" population ecolo"y in Biomphalaria pfeifferi. !hey ar"ue that habitat openness (open vs. close) and season (end of dry vs. rainy season) are factors that affect the snail in population si+e# mi"ration and mode of coloni+ation. 2(treme contraction of the habitat especially under dry season mi"ht lead to patchy e(tinctions or even total e(tinction. Recoloni+ation mi"ht occur follo&in" floodin" or rainy seasons. =ectors of bilhar+iasis# Biomphalaria spp.# and Bulinus spp. occurs over a &ide ran"e of altitude# ran"in" from the coast up to 20,2 meters in the hi"hlands in 2thiopia and Kemen. /s been described in different investi"ations# the altitude itself is not a limitin" factor but the collected action of different factors at the specific altitude mi"ht influence the distribution of the vectors (/bdel Malek ,- .). )ne of the more important features# associated &ith the altitude# is the substratum &hich is vie&ed as part of the physical environment that influences the plants and animals present in the different &ater bodies. !he bottom soil provides the &ater &ith different dissolved elements# different ones re"ardin" on the type of substratum. 'oils al&ays associated &ith the Biomphalaria, Bulinus and Lymnea snails are the or"anic rich black cotton soils &hich are rich in decayin" or"anic materials and dissolved elements particularly calcium and ma"nesium (/bdel Malek ,- .). !he importance of sunli"ht has also been investi"ated in earlier studies (/bdel Malek ,- .). !he sunli"ht enables the macrophytic a$uatic &eeds and the microflora to make use of the carbon dio(ide# produce carbohydrates and releasin" o(y"en. !he sunli"ht itself also increases the decomposition of animal and plant remains on the bottom (/bdel Malek ,- .). !o be suitable# the snail habitat should not be subEect to sudden fluctuations in the &ater level. / small fluctuation# ho&ever# is mana"eable for the snails because of them bein" able to survive dry months by aestivatin" in sheltered spots# under ve"etation or in the mud. <n an investi"ation from *ai+ra# 'udan# it &as sho&ed that ,0I of the Biomphalaria and 6I of Bulinus &ere able to survive a drou"ht (/bdel Malek ,- .). Pollution is also an important feature. <ndustrially polluted sites# ho&ever# in &here snails are absent because of the

factories pollutin" &ith oils# acids and &hich also has a hi"h mineral content# makes these habitats unsuitable for the snails. 4o&ever# polluted sites &hich are used by humans for bathin" and &ashin" clothes may also be unfavourable for the snails because of the chemical contents in the deter"ent and soap (/bdel Malek ,- .). !his is supported by /bdel Malek (,- .) &ho later concludes that the snails are more present near human habitations &ithout pollution from cleanin" a"ents but &ith other contacts &ith humans.

Aim" ) O*+ective" !o determine the different 'pecies of fresh&ater snails found in )sun River. !o determine the level of some physicoAchemical & biolo"ical factors and relate these factors to 'nail )ccurrence# Bistribution & Relative abundance. 1ind out the trematode parasites infectin" 'nails in the area & infection rates of 'nails encountered. !o determine the a$uatic ve"etation associated &ith the 'nail habitats.

,u"ti-ic!tion 1rom all the literature revie&ed# < have not come across any &ork done on the ecolo"y of fresh&ater 'nails of )sun River. !his &ork is intended to fill these "aps as &ell as to add to the baseline information on the 'nail fauna of the area &hich is very essential in the plannin" of control pro"rammes.

Study De"i%n !his study is desi"ned to provide important information on the ecolo"y of fresh&ater snails in )sun River. !he 'ites are located in )"oA)lu&a and 2de area of )so"bo in )sun 'tate &here they serve multipurpose needs includin" &ater supply# recreation# fishin" and a"ricultural production. <t is hoped that kno&led"e of the ecolo"y of the snails in the &ater bodies &ill contribute si"nificantly to future control strate"ies a"ainst disease transmittin" species.

/lso desi"ned to record the prevalence of various species of fresh&ater 'nails in )sun River over a period of Cmonths from March to ?une 20,8 in t&o different 'amplin" 'ites. /ll the 'nails &ill be e(amined for the presence of cercariae and for the identification of infected 'nails &ith intermediate sta"es of !rematodes. /t each time of collection# the &ater samples collected &ill be analysed for !emperature# p4# !4# Conductivity# /lkalinity# Phosphate# B)# ;)B# !urbidity# !B'# !''# !'# 7itrate and Metal.


Study A e! !he source of )sun River is located in <"edeA2kiti in <repodunF<felodun 0*/ of 2kiti 'tate. !he river meanders from <"edeA2kiti to <Eero area# movin" throu"h <koroA)kemesi 2kiti road before flo&in" to )sun area. )sun River is a river that flo&s south&ards throu"h central Koruba land in south &estern 7i"eria into the 0a"os 0a"oon and the /tlantic *ulf of *uinea. )sun River is no& bein" &orshipped by the people of )so"bo in )sun 'tate &ith funfair as a "oddess that "ives children. River )sun lies on the latitude .H 20J and 5H 80L7 and lon"itude H,0L and 8H 2 L2 in the forest +one of 7i"eria. *enerally# southA&estern 7i"eria has annual rainfall ran"in" from ,000 mm to ,500mm and it e(periences t&o seasons# the &et season (/pril to )ctober) and the dry season (7ovember to March).!he rainfall pattern of )sun state is &ide and diverse ran"in" from ,2 mm (minimum in the dry season). !hus there are t&o rainfall peaks. )sun 'tate covers an area of appro(imately ,C#.6 s$uare kilometres# lies bet&een lon"itude 0C 002 and latitude 0 .7 and is bounded by )"un# @&ara# )yo and )ndo 'tate in the 'outh# 7orth# 9est & 2ast respectively. !he 'amplin" site selection &as based on ecolo"ical factors includind accessibility# variation in ecolo"ical characteristics such as macrophyte covera"e# characteristics of substratum and presence and absence of dead decayin" or"anic materials etc. 'ite / ( latitude #lon"itude ) is located alon" )sun River named )loyo &hich is characterised by muddy sand and floated materials like cloths and nylon and dead leaves.(1i"..)# "reat li"ht penetration into the &ater and absences of han"in" ve"etation. 'ite ; (latitude #lon"itude ) is located alon" )sun River named )lomo&e&e &hich is about 200 meters from site / and characterised by muddy substratum# floated materials and no li"ht penetration into the &ater.

Co##ection o- Sn!i#" Monthly collection of 'nails &ere made from March to /u"ust 20,8 from the t&o 'amplin" 'ites ()loyo and )lomo&e&e river) at the hours of 0. 00hr & ,2 00hr and collection &ere made forthni"htly. !he samples &ere collected by usin" a lon" 'coop net and manually by hand pickin".(94)# ,-. % )foe+ie# ,---% 'ala&u# 200.) !he 'nails alon" &ith some of the &ater ve"etation &ere brou"ht in a polythene ba" to the laboratory on the same day. <n the laboratory# they &ere kept in a lar"e beaker and constantly aerated. /$uatic ve"etation &ere placed in the beakers to keep the &ater clean for a lon"er period. 9ater samples &ere collected from the samplin" sites for analysis.

Identi-ic!tion ) E$!min!tion o- Sn!i#" !he 'nails &ere &ashed thorou"hly in runnin" &ater and cleans from mud & debris. !o liberate cercariae# the 'nails &ere e(posed to 'unli"ht for about 8AC hrs. 9ater in each tube &as e(amined under the microscope for the presence of cercariae. 'nails &hich did not shed cercariae &ere checked daily for the release of cercariae up to the end of the Cth &eek of collection. 'nails that failed to shed cercariae &ere crushed & e(amined to confirm the absence of infection. Dete min!tion o- p/y"ico0c/emic!# -!cto " conditionin% t/e Sn!i# /!*it!t. !he ecolo"y of the 'nail species &ere studied in relation to various physicAchemical properties of the habitat. !hese includes temperature# p4# B)# conductivity# total alkalinity# calcium# salinity# rainfall & types of a$uatic ve"etation.

!he &ater sample collected &ill be analysed for !emperature# p4# /lkalinity# Phosphate# B)# ;)B# !urbidity# !B'# 7itrate and Metals. Dete min!tion o- Tempe !tu e !he temperature of the &ater &as measured in mercury in "lass thermometer. !his &as placed directly into &ater from the shore and left for a fe& minutes till its stabili+ed after &hich the temperature &as read off. Dete min!tion o- pH !he p4 of the &ater samples &as determined usin" the ?ensen p4 meter. <t &as standardi+ed &ith a buffer solution of p4 ran"e CA-. !he electrode &as rinsed &ith distilled &ater before dippin" it into each &ater sample. Readin"s &as recorded after the instrument "ave stabili+ed readin". W!te Ve#ocity !his &as determined accordin" to the method recommended by 94) (,-5 ). / &ei"hted cork tied to a thin strin" ,. m lon" &as used to measure the rate of &ater flo& per second usin" the formula3 =elocityM B(m) ! (sec) 9here B MBistance# ! M!ime !he time taken for the cork to travel a distance of , meter &as used to divide the distance covered. !his &as repeated four times in each samplin" site and avera"e of readin" &as taken as the surface velocity of the &ater in metres per second. !he limitation of this method includes# influence of &ind current and obstacles but the result is reliable. (94)# ,-5 ).

Dete min!tion o- Tot!# H! dne"" /ccordin" to /P4/# (200 )# 2 m0 of each sample &ere placed in a clean 2 0m0 conical flask. !o these &as added 8m0 of ammonium chloride in concentrated ammonia buffer (74CC0Fconc.748) and 2 drops of 2riochrome ;lack ! indicator. !hese &ere titrated a"ainst 0.0,M 2B!/ solution until there &as a colour chan"e from violet to blue. !otal hardness &as calculated as%

4ardness in m"F0 CaC)8M m0 of sample used

= ( M ( ,000

9ere M M Molarity of 2B!/ used = M=olume of 2B!/ used. 4ardness in m"F0 CaC)8M m0 of sample used 9ere M M Molarity of 2B!/ used = M=olume of 2B!/ used. = ( M ( ,000

Dete min!tion o- A#1!#inity 0m0 of the sample &as pipette into a clean 2 0m0 conical flask. !&o drops of methyl red indicator &ere added and the solution &as titrated a"ainst a standard 0.0,M 7a)4 solution to a pink endApoint. (/merican 'ociety for !estin" and Materials# ,-.2). !otal alkalinity (m"F0) M = ( M ( ,00#000 m0 of sample used 9here = M =olume of acid used M M Molarity of acid used

Dete min!tion o- ./o"p/!te )ne drop of phenolphthalein indicator &as added to ,00ml of the &ater sample. &hen the sample turned pink# stron" acid &as added drop &ise to dischar"e the colour. !o this &as added C.0m0 molybdate rea"ent and thorou"hly mi(ed. 0. m0 of stannous chloride &as added and mi(ed a"ain. /fter ,0mins but before ,2mins# usin" the same specific interval for all determinations. /bsorbance &as measured at 500nm in a 'pectronic 20 'pectrophotometer. !he concentration of phosphate &as determined from a calibration curve.

Di""o#ved O$y%en 2DO3 9ater samples for dissolved o(y"en &ill be collected in 2 0m0 bottles at each samplin" sites. !he bottles &ill be filled &ith &ater by "ently allo&in" all the air bubbles to escape and cocked under &ater to ensure that no air bubble &as trapped in them. !he bottles &ill be carefully opened and 2m0 of man"anese sulphate (9inkler /) and 2ml of potassium iodide

solution(9inkler ;) &ill be added by insertin" a pipette Eust belo& the surface of the li$uid. !he bottles &ill be stopper to avoid the inclusion of air and mi(ed by invertin" several times.

Dete min!tion o- Di""o#ved O$y%en 2DO3 <n the laboratory# the bottles &ill be left to stand for a fe& minutes. !he presence of o(y"en is indicated by the formation of a bro&nish oran"e precipitate. 2m0 of concentrated sulphuric acid (42')C) &ill be added to the samples. !he solution &ill be mi(ed a"ain by invertin" to dissolve the precipitate and a "olden yello& solution &ill be formed. ,00m0 of the solution &ill be measured into a clean 2 0m0 conical flask and titrated a"ainst ,F. Molar sodium thiosulphate solution (7a2'2)8. 42)) usin" t&o drops of fresh starch solution as indicator until the solution turns colourless. !he amount of dissolved o(y"en in m"F0 is e$uivalent to the volume of ,F. 'odium thiosulphate used in the titration (/P4/# 200 ). Calculation B) (m"F0) M (m0 titrant) 7(.) (,000) 'ample volume (m0) 9here% 7M Molarity of sodium thiosulphate used. 'ample vol M,00

Tot!# Di""o#ved So#id" 2TDS3 !otal dissolved solids &ill be determined by "ravimetric method. 2ach &ater sample &ill be filtered out and ,0m0 of the filtrate measured into a preA&ei"hed evaporatin" dish. 1ollo&in" the procedure for the determination of total solids above# the total dissolved solids contents of the &ater &ill be calculated (/P4/# 200 ). !otal Bissolved 'olids (m"F0) M (92A9,) m" ( ,000 m0 of filtrate used 9here 9, M initial &ei"ht of evaporatin" dish 92 M 1inal &ei"ht of the dish (evaporatin" dish N residue).

Dete min!tion o- Nit !te 'pectrophotometric 'creenin" method accordin" to /P4/# (200 ) &ill be used to determine nitrate in the &ater sample. <n the laboratory# 0m0 of the sample &ill be filtered# then ,m0 4C0 solution# ,m0 2B!/ rea"ent and ,m0 'ulphuric acid &ill be added and mi(ed thorou"hly. !he reaction &ill be allo&ed to stand for ,0 minutes# immediately after &hich the absorbance at 220nm &ill be measured usin" a 'pectonic 20 'pectophotometer. Concentration of nitrate in the sample &ill be determined from the calibration curve. St!ti"tic!# D!t! An!#y"i" ,. Correlation coAefficient method &as used to determine the interAdependence of the physicAchemical parameters and 'nails. 2. /nalysis of =ariance (/7)=/) &as used to test for statistical differences bet&een the means of the physicoAchemical parameters of the t&o samplin" sites. ()"beibu# 200 ) 8. BuncanJs Multiple Ran"e !est (BMR!) &as used for multiple comparisons of means of the physicoAchemical parameter so as to measure similarities of the samplin" site. C. 'tudent tAtest &ill be used to determine differences bet&een the physicoAchemical parameters in the rainin" season and in dry season as &ell as that of the seasonal variation in biotic community.

4io#o%ic!# .! !mete " .e cent!%e Re#!tive A*und!nce !he total number of individuals in each 'nail 'pecies &as determined as percenta"e composition at each study site usin" the formula Percenta"e relative composition M a ( ,00 b ,

&here a M number of individuals recorded# b M total number of individuals of all species in the site.

F!un!# Dive "ity !nd Domin!nce 1aunal diversity inde( for species richness &as analy+ed usin" Mar"alefJs diversity inde( for species richness (Mar"alef# ,-C-% /Eao# ,--0)# 'hannon 9iener inde( (4) for "eneral diversity and 2$uitability or 2venness (2) of distribution ( /Eao# ,--0). ,.Mar"alef Biversity <nde( (B) is e(pressed as3

BM'A, 0o"e 7 9here ' M number of 'pecies 7 M total number of )r"anisms

2. 'hannon 9einer <nde( (4) is e(pressed as3

4 M O 7i 7 lo"2

9here 7 M total number of individuals 7i M number of individual belon"in" to the same "enus.

8. 2$uitability (2) measures ho& evenly the species are distributed in a sample community. <t is e(pressed as% 4ma( M 0o"2'

9here 4ma( M 'pecies diversity under condition of ma(imal e$uitability# ' M number of species in the community (@rebs# ,-6.) 2$uitability inde( (2) M 4 4ma(

9here 2 M 2$uitability# 4 M observed species diversity# 4ma( M ma(imum species diversity M lo"2' (@rebs# ,-6.).

. Bominance &as calculated usin" 'impsonJs inde( as follo&s3 'impsonJs inde( M , B 9here B M O pi2# Pi M the proportion of individual in the ith species (Ma"urran# ,-..) Re#!tion"/ip *et5een Sn!i# Specie" !nd p/y"ico0c/emic!# p! !mete ".

Relationship bet&een 'nail 'pecies and physicoAchemical parameters &as evaluated usin" PearsonJs correlation coefficient (r). (;ishop# ,-6,) as follo&s3 r M O(( (A () (yAy)) ( ((A () O(yAy)) 9here ( and y M variables# ( and y M are means of t&o sets of variables# ((A () and (yA y) M deviations from the means# O((A() O (yAy) M the deviation of ( from the mean ( and the deviation of y from the mean y# and multiple of these t&o deviations to"ether.