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2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9

Abstract Introduction
Definition Herzberg Theory Strategies Techniques How to enrich the job How to make it effective Benefits of job enrichment Demerits of job enrichment Limitations

3. 4.

Conclusion Reference

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Job Enrichment refers vertical expansion of jobs. It increases the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution, and evaluation of work. An enriched job organizes the tasks so as to allow the worker to do a complete activity, increases the employees freedom and independence, increases job responsibility and provides feedback. Employees job enrichment could be done in number of ways as follows By job rotation, allows workers to do different varieties of tasks. By combining tasks, work activities are combined to give more challenging work assignments. By implementing participative management, this allows employees to participate in decision making and strategic planning. By providing autonomy for work , this allows employees to work independently By providing feedback for their work, this allows employees to understand how poor or well they are doing. By increasing client relationships, this increases direct relationship between employee and his clients.

Based on above understanding of job enrichment, we have identified factors which by which job enrichment could be done .These factors are as follows. Job redesigning Autonomy Feedback Work place challenge Customer interaction Participate management Flexible working hours Use of technical skills On the job training

The main objectives of the project is to understand the JOB ENRICHMENT& ITS IMPACT ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION in detail by interacting with the management, supervision and workers and to see how far the various measures are implemented and bring out the drawbacks if any and recommended measures for the betterment of the system. Secondly to critically evaluate the JOB ENRICHMENT impact on employee motivation as well as on absenteeism and turnover. At last study the most extensive changes those are critical for high motivation and performance.

The job enrichment concept was developed based on the experiment carried out by the Swedish Volvo company in the 1960s. The management of Volvo decided to try discontinuing one of its assembly lines and instead putting all the people with needed skills in one room with all the tools and equipment needed to carry out the operations. The cost for the process and the length of the process as the result of this organizational change increased; however, the overall life cycle cost of the product, including all the needed repair work, guarantee work, clients dissatisfaction factors, etc., decreased significantly. Based on the results of the experiment, it was decided that the increased opportunities for creative work increased the level of responsibility and ownership. The ability to see the final product made the members of the group more motivated and therefore increased their ability to perform good results and check for quality. It was decided that, in order to increase peoples productivity, it is critical to give them more opportunities for independent and creative work. This approach is strongly reflected in modern project management methodology, where the systems of delegation and increased involvement of the team members in all phases of the project are considered to be critical for project success. It is also largely used in other modern management methodologies, such as total quality management. The basic idea is to decrease the cost for quality by decreasing the inspection time and increasing the self-sufficiency of the producers of the products.

2.1 Job enrichment :Job enrichment is a term given by Fedric herzberg. According to him a few motivators are added to a job to make it more rewarding, challenging and interesting. According to herzberg the motivating factors enrich the job and improve performance. In other words we can say that job enrichment is a method of adding some motivating factors to an existing job to make it more interesting. The motivating factors can bea) Giving more freedom. b) Encouraging participation. c) Giving employees the freedom to select the method of working. d) Allowing employees to select the place at which they would like to work. e) Allowing workers to select the tools that they require on the job. f) Allowing workers to decide the layout of plant or office.

Job enrichment gives lot of freedom to the employee but at the same time increases the responsibility. Some workers are power and responsibility hungry. Job enrichment satisfies the needs of the employees.

2.2 Herzberg Theory:

The current practice of job enrichment stemmed from the work of Frederick Herzberg in the 1950s and 1960s. Herzberg's two factor theory argued that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are not to be seen as one dimension, but two. Aspects of work that contributed to job satisfaction are called motivators and aspects that contributed to job dissatisfaction are called hygiene factors ; hence, the theory is also refereed to as motivator-hygiene theory . Examples of motivators are recognition, achievement, and advancement. Examples of hygiene factors are salary, company policies and working conditions. According to Herzberg's theory, the existence motivators would lead to job satisfaction, but the lack of motivators would not lead to job dissatisfaction, and similarly; hygiene factors affect job dissatisfaction, but not job satisfaction. In general, research has failed to confirm these central aspects of the theory.

Here are some strategies you can use to enrich jobs in your workplace:

Rotate Jobs Give people the opportunity to use a variety of skills, and perform different kinds of work. The most common way to do this is through job rotation. Move your workers through a variety of jobs that allow them to see different parts of the organization learn different skills and acquire different experiences. This can be very motivating ,especially for people in jobs that are very repetitive or that focus on only one or two skills.

Combine Tasks Combine work activities to provide a more challenging and complex work assignment. This can significantly increase task identity because people see a job through from start to finish. This allows workers to use a wide variety of skills, which can

make the work seem more meaningful and important. For example, you can convert an assembly line process, in which each person does one task, into a process in which one person assembles a whole unit. You can apply this model wherever you have people or groups that typically perform only one part of an overall process. Consider expanding their roles to give them responsibility for the entire process, or for a bigger part of that process.

Identify Project-Focused Work Units Break your typical functional lines and form project-focused units. For example, rather than having all of your marketing people in one department, with supervisors directing who works on which project, you could split the department into specialized project units specific storyboard creators, copywriters, and designers could all work together for one client or one campaign. Allowing employees to build client relationships is an excellent way to increase autonomy, task identity, and feedback.

Create Autonomous Work Teams This is job enrichment at the group level. Set a goal for a team, and make team members free to determine work assignments, schedules, rest breaks, evaluation parameters, and the like. You may even give them influence over choosing their own team members. With this method, youll significantly cut back on supervisory positions, and people will gain leadership and management skills.

Implement Participative Management Allow team members to participate in decision making and get involved in strategic planning. This is an excellent way to communicate to members of your team that their input is important. It can work in any organization from a very small company, with an owner/boss whos used to dictating everything, to a large company with a huge hierarchy. When people realize that what they say is valued and makes a difference, theyll likely be motivated.

Redistribute Power and Authority Redistribute control and grant more authority to workers for making job-related decisions. As supervisors delegate more authority and responsibility, team members autonomy, accountability, and task identity will increase.

Increase Employee-Directed Feedback Make sure that people know how well, or poorly, theyre performing their jobs. The more control you can give them for evaluating and monitoring their own performance, the more enriched their jobs will be. Rather than have your quality control department go around and point out mistakes, consider giving each team responsibility for their own quality control. Workers will receive immediate feedback, and theyll learn to solve problems, take initiative, and make decisions.

2.4 Techniques:
Job enrichment is the process of "improving work processes and environments so they are more satisfying for employees". Many jobs are monotonous and unrewarding - particularly in the primary and secondary production industries. Workers can feel dissatisfied in their position due to a lack of a challenge, repetitive procedures, or an over-controlled authority structure. Job enrichment tries to eliminate these problems, and bring better performance to the workplace. There are three key parts to the process of job enrichment: 1. Turn employees' effort into performance: Ensuring that objectives are well-defined and understood by everyone. The overall corporate mission statement should be communicated to all. Individual's goals should also be clear. Each employee should know exactly how she fits into the overall process and be aware of how important her contributions are to the organization and its customers. Providing adequate resources for each employee to perform well. This includes support functions like information technology, communication technology, and personnel training and development.

Creating a supportive corporate culture. This includes peer support networks, supportive management, and removing elements that foster mistrust and politicking. Free flow of information. Eliminate secrecy. Provide enough freedom to facilitate job excellence. Encourage and reward employee initiative. Flextime or compressed hours could be offered. Provide adequate recognition, appreciation, and other motivators. Provide skill improvement opportunities. This could include paid education at universities or on the job training. Provide job variety. This can be done by job sharing or job rotation programmes. It may be necessary to re-engineer the job process. This could involve redesigning the physical facility, redesign processes, change technologies, simplification of procedures ,elimination of repetitiveness, redesigning authority structures. 2. Link employees performance directly to reward: Clear definition of the reward is a must Explanation of the link between performance and reward is important Make sure the employee gets the right reward if performs well If reward is not given, explanation is needed 3. Make sure the employee wants the reward. How to find out? Ask them Use surveys( checklist, listing, questionnaire)

2.5 How to enrich a job:

A job may be enriched by giving it Varity, and also may be enriched by : 1. Given worker more latitude in deciding about such things as work method, sequences and pace or by letting them make decisions about accepting or rejecting materials. 2. Giving workers a felling of personal responsibility for their tasks. 3. Taking steps to make sure that people can see how their tasks contribute to a finished products and the welfare of the enterprises. 4. Giving people feedback on their job performance preferable before their supervisors get in and 5. Involving workers in analysis and change of physical aspects of the worker environment such as lay out of office or plant, temperature, lighting and cleanliness. Thus in an enriched job the employee know the overall deadlines and the quality standard he must meet and with in that frame work plans the order in which he will take the various task and the time that should be devoted to each one. He holds himself responsible both or meeting the deadline and for producing the work of necessary quality, and he does not pass his work on for others to judge until he is satisfied that it meets the standards. Or if the work is necessarily group work, the groups plan or help to check the result.

2.6 How to make it Effective:

The limitation of job enrichment applies mainly to jobs requiring low level of skills. The job of highly skilled workers professional and manager already contain varying degrees of challenge and accomplishment. Perhaps these could be enriched considerably more than they are by applying modern management techniques. And all level particularly in non-managerial levels several approaches could be made to job make enrichment appeal to higher-level motivations.

1. The people involved must have a substantial voice in the planning process. It should not be overlooked that people like to be involved, to be involved to be consulted and to be given an opportunity to offer suggestions. They like to be considered as people. This would effectively result in the successful functioning of the programme. 2. There is needed for better understanding of what people want. It has been pointed out by motivation researches that this varies with people and situations generally people with few skill want extrinsic factors such as pay, benefits, job security, sympathetic supervisor as then one moves up the ladder intrinsic factors do become increasingly important. 3. It should also result in worker enrichment if productivity increases are the main goal of job enrichment, the programme must show how workers would benefit. Job enrichment, in short involves redesigning of the immediate job, it also requires an enlargement of sense of respect by those who manage. In our complex personal impersonal bureaucratic organizations, this respect for the individual can be lost all too quickly. But with out this respect we can never expect to make full use of our human resources.

2.7 Benefits of Job enrichment:

1. It benefits employee and organization in terms of increased motivation performance, satisfaction, job involvement and reduced absenteeism 2. Additional features in job meet certain psychological needs of jobholders due to skill variety, identity, significance of job etc. 3. It also adds to employee self-esteem and self-control. 4. Job enrichment gives status to jobholder and acts as a strong satisfier in ones life 5. Job enrichment stimulates improvements in other areas of organization 6. Empowerment is a by-product of job enrichment. It means passing on more authority and responsibility.


2.8 Demerits of Job Enrichment:

1. Lazy employees may not be able to take additional responsibilities and power. It wont fetch the desired results for an employee who is not attentive towards his job. 2. Unions resistance, increased cost of design and implementation and limited research on long term effect of job enrichment are some of the other demerits. 3. Job enrichment itself might not be a great motivator since it is job-intrinsic factor. As per the two-factor motivation theory, job enrichment is not enough. It should be preceded by hygienic factors etc. 4. Job enrichment assumes that workers want more responsibilities and those workers who are motivated by less responsibility, job enrichment surely de-motivates them 5. Workers participation may affect the enrichment process itself. 6. Change is difficult to implement and is always resisted as job enrichment brings in a changes the responsibility.

2.9 Limitations:
But even the strongest supporters of job enrichment readily admit that three are limitations in its application They can be analyzed in the following manner. 1. Technology: There are some jobs, which are highly technical requiring skill it would be difficult to enrich such jobs. And with specialized machinery and assembly line techniques it may not be possible to make every job meaningful. 2. Cost: Thought a great many companies appear to be interested in job enrichment programs, the extra cost may seem high if a company is not convinced that the return will at least offset the increase expenditure. General Motors tried six man and three man teams in the assembly line but from that they found the work shoed and cost increased. At Saab & Volvo and motors India.


It was found that increase cost is compensated by reduced absenteeism and labour turnover. Yet the cost of the programme is formidable factor. 3. Attitude of managers: Another problem is the tendency of top managers and personal specialist to apply their own scale peoples personalities. As a result a few companies have abandoned or modified their programs. M.Scott Myers believes that the failures have occurred because the manager were not really committed to theory Y and in most cases job enrichment is usually imposed on people . They are told about it rather than consulted. 4. Attitude of Workers: The attitude of some employers also represent obstacles. Various surveys of workers attitudes have shown that high percentages of workers attitude have shown that high percentages of workers are not interesting jobs. Some have complained that enriched jobs provide too many opportunities to commit mistakes. Some workers fears that the increased productivity sought may even mean loss of jobs

3. Conclusion:
y J ob Enrichment is the addit ion to a job of tasks that increase the amount of
employee control or responsibility. y It is a vertical expansion of the job as opposed to the horizontal expansion of a job, which is called job enlargement. Employees are internally motivated (internal generator) versus externally moved y y Enriching jobs (Motivators) can be significantly less expensive in comparison to hygiene Supervisors can focus more on the future (planning) as opposed to the past (checking work) y Expect and init ial drop in quant it y of work, followed by an increase in quantity and quality .



y The managers guide HR :- by Max Muller y Human Resource Management :- Dessler, Verky.