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# Code No: V3214/R07 Set No.

1
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING
(Mechanical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks

1. An air craft refrigeration plant has to handle a cabin load of 30 tonnes. The at-
mospheric temperature is 17
0
C. The atmospheric air is compressed to a pressure
of 0.95 bar and temperature of 30
0
C due to ram action. This air is then further
compressed in a compressor to 4.75 bar, cooled in a heat exchanger to 67
0
C, ex-
panded in a turbine to 1 bar pressure and supplied to the cabin. The air leaves the
cabin at a temperature of 27
0
C. The isentropic eciencies of both compressor and
turbine are 0.9. Calculate the mass of air circulated per minute and the C O P for
air, c
p
=1.004kJ/kg K and c
p
/c
v
= 1.4. 
2. (a) Draw the refrigeration cycle on T-S diagram. When the refrigerant is dry and
saturated at the end of the compression and nd an expression for the C.O.P.
in terms of
(i) Temperature and entropies
(ii) Enthalpy.
(b) An ammonia vapour compression refrigerating machine works between 25
0
C
and - 20
0
/C. The ammonia leaves the compressor in dry and saturated con-
dition. Liquid ammonia is under cooled to 21.5
0
C, before passing through
throttle valve. The average specic heat of liquid ammonia is 4.75kj/kg-
0
C.
Find the theoretical C.O.P. of the machine?
If the net refrigeration required is 400 10
3
kj/hr
1
nd the mass of ammonia
calculated per minute. Assume relative C.O.P. is 75% of theoretical C.O.P.
[8+8]
3. (a) Derive an expression for the shaft work of a reciprocating commpressor as-
suming zero clearance volume.
(b) Single stage reciprocating commpressor is required to commpress 1.5 m
3
/min
if vapour refrigerant from 1 bar to 8 bar. Find the power required to drive the
commpressor, if the commpression of refrirant is (i) Isothermal; (ii) polytropic
with polytropic index as 1.12; and (iii) isentropic with inentropic index as
1.31. [7+9]
4. (a) Derive an expression for the C.O.P. of an ideal vapour absorption system in
terms of temperature T
g
at which heat is supplied to the generator, the tem-
perature T
e
at which heat is absorbed in the evaporator and the temperature
T
c
at which heat is discharged from condenser and absorber.
(b) In a vapour absorption refrigertion system, heating, cooling and refrigeration
takes place at the temperatures of 100
0
C, 20
0
C and -5
0
C respectively. Find
the maximum C.O.P of the system. [10+6]
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Code No: V3214/R07 Set No. 1
5. (a) Explain, with the help of a neat sketch, the working of a steam jet refrigeration
system.
(b) What are the advantages of barometric condenser over surface condenser in
steam jet refrigeration system? [10+6]
6. (a) Explain the following terms:
i. Specic volume of humid air
ii. Density of humid air
iii. Enthalpy of humid air
(b) Dene relative humidity, specic humidity, and dew-point temperature and
describe a theoretical method for determining their values. [8+8]
7. A class room is to be air-conditioned for the following given summer conditions.
The data collected is given as follows:
Size of class-room: 18 12 6 m, out-door conditions: 42
0
C DBT and 52% R.H.,
required comfort condition: 18
0
C DBT and 58% R.H., seating capacity: 45, sensible
heat in the room excluding inltrated load: 40,000 kJ/hr, sensible heat load from
other sources: 8000 kJ/hr, lighting load: l2 tubes of 80 watts, inltrated air: 27
m
3
/min. If 35% air is taken from outside and remaining is recirculated then nd
the following:
(a) Capacity of the cooling coil in tons of refrigeration and its bypass factor
(b) Capacity of the blower in m3/min. Assume DPT of the coil 6
0
C. 
8. (a) Dierentiate between central, district and Unitary air-conditioning systems.
(b) Discuss relative merits and demerits of central system with District system.
[8+8]

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Code No: V3214/R07 Set No. 2
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING
(Mechanical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Explain the working of simple air evaporative cooling system used for air
crafts?
(b) A simple evaporative air refrigeration system is used for an aero plane to
take 20 tonnes of refrigeration load. The ambient air conditions are 20
0
C and
0.9 bar. The ambient air is rammed isentropically to a pressure of 1 bar.
The air leaving the main compressor at pressure 3.5 bar is rst cooled in the
heat exchanger having eectiveness of 0.6 and then in the evaporator where
its temperature is reduced by 5
0
C. The air from the evaporator is passed
through the cooling turbine and then it is supplied to the cabin which is to
be maintained at a temperature of 25
0
C and at a pressure of 1.05 bar. If the
internal eciency of the compressor is 80% and that of cooling turbine is 75%.
Determine (i) Mass of air bled o the main compressor, (ii) Power required
for the refrigerating system, and (iii) C O P of the refrigerating system.[8+8]
2. (a) Sketch the T-S and p-h diagrams for the vapour compression cycles when the
vapour after compression is:
i. dry saturated, and
ii. wet.
(b) A vapour compression refrigerator works between the pressure limits of 60 bar
and 25 bar. The working uid is just dry at the end of the compression and
there is no under cooling of the liquid before the expansion valve. Determine:
i. C O P of the cycle and
ii. Capacity of the refrigerator if the uid ow is at the rate of 5 kg/min.
[8+8]
Data:
Pressure (bar) Saturation Temp (K) Enthalpy (kJ/kg) Entropy (kJ/jg.K)
Liquid Vapour Liquid Vapour
60 295 151.96 293.29 0.554 1.0332
25 261 56.32 322.58 0.226 1.2464
3. (a) Explain the dry expansion evaporator with the help of a neat sketch.
(b) Write short note on:
i. Ozone depletion
ii. Global warming. [8+8]
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Code No: V3214/R07 Set No. 2
4. Draw a neat line diagram of Electrro - Lux refrigerator and explain its working
principle. What is the important role of hydrogen in this refrigeration system?
5. A steam jet refrigeration system is to supply 1200 kg per minute of chilled water at
6.5
0
C. The make up water from the mains is at 27
0
C. If the steam supply is available
at 9.5 bar and 200
0
C and nozzle, entrainment and diuser eciency can be assumed
as 89%, 63% and 72% respectively, the quality of vapour entering the ejector may
be assumed 0.98, and condensate leaves the condenser at 33
0
C. Determine:
(a) Steam consumption in kg/hour and kg/hr per ton of refrigeration
(b) Heat rejected in the condenser in kJ/hr and kJ/hr per ton of refrigeration.
6. (a) When do the DBT, WBT and DPT become equal?
(b) Air at 37
0
C, 44 percent relative humidity, is cooled to 23
0
C by spraying water
at 13
0
C into it. The mixture pressure remains constant at 101.3 kPa. Assum-
ing that all of the water evaporates and that the mixing occurs in an insulated
duct, calculate the mass of water added per kilogram of air. [4+12]
7. The following data refers for a space to be air conditioned:
Inside design conditions = 23
0
C DBT, 48% RH, outdoor air conditions = 45
0
C
DBT, 28
0
C WBT, room sensible heat gain = 18 kW, room latent heat gain = 6
kW, by-pass factor of the cooling coil = 0.12, the return air from the space is mixed
with the outside air before entering the cooling coil in the ratio of 5 : 1 by mass.
Determine
(a) Apparatus dew point
(b) Condition of air entering and leaving the cooling coil
(c) Dehumidied air quantity
(d) Fresh air mass ow and volume ow rate
(e) Total refrigeration load on the air-conditioning plant. 
8. (a) Describe the dierent methods of air conditioning duct design. Why are
dampers required in some systems?
(b) What are the dierent methods of heat recovery and where they are used?
[8+8]

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Code No: V3214/R07 Set No. 3
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING
(Mechanical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) The atmospheric air at pressure 1 bar and temperature -5
0
C is drawn in
the cylinder of the compressor of a Bell-Coleman refrigerating machine. It is
compressed isotropically to a pressure of 5 bar. In the cooler, the compressed
air is cooled to 15
0
C, pressure remaining the same. It is then expanded to a
pressure of 1 bar in an expansion cylinder, from where it is passed to the cold
chamber. Find:
1. The work done per kg of air, and
2. C.O.P. of the plant.
For air assume law for expansion PV
1.2
= constant. Law for compression PV
1.4
= constant and specic heat of air at constant pressure = 1kj/kg.k
(b) The carnet cycle machine operates between the temperature limits of 47
0
C
and -30
0
C. Determine the C.O.P. when it operates as
1. A refrigerating machine
2. A heat pump and
3. A heat engine [8+8]
2. (a) With a neat sketch, explain the working principle of vapour compression re-
frigeration system.
(b) A15TR freon22 Vapour compression system operates between a condenser
temperature of 40
0
C and an evaporator temperature of 5
0
C.
i) Determine the compressor discharge temperature.
ii) Calculate the theoretical piston displacement and power consumption f the
compressor per ton if refrigeration.
Using the p-h diagram for Freon22. Assuming the specic heat of its vapour
as 0.8 kj/kg.k [8+8].
3. (a) What is the dierence between dry expansion type and ooded type evapora-
tor.
(b) What are the dierent types of commpressors? Mention the elds for the use
of each in refrigeration systems giving reasons. [8+8]
4. (a) Draw a neat sketch of a practical vapour absorption refrigeration cycle. Indi-
cate there on the phases of various ieds and the name of the equipments. Also
indicate the direction of the external energy ow to or from the equipments.
(b) Mention the function of each uid in a three-uid vapour absorption system.
[8+8]
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Code No: V3214/R07 Set No. 3
5. (a) List out the merits and demerits of thermo-electric refrigeration system over
other refrigeration systems.
(b) What are the various applications of thermo-electric refrigerator. [8+8]
6. (a) Why does the enthalpy of an air-vapour mixture remain constant during an
(b) An air-water vapour mixture enters a heater-humidier unit at 8
0
C, 110 kPa,
45% RH. The ow rate of dry air is 0.15 kg/s. Liquid water at 15
0
C is sprayed
into the mixture at the rate of 0.003 kg/s. The mixture leaves the unit at
40
0
C, 110 kPa. Calculate
i. The relative humidity at the outlet, and
ii. The rate of heat transfer to the unit. [6+10]
7. (a) Explain how does the body attempt to compensate for a cool environment
which tends to lower the internal temperature?
(b) Why ventilation is required? Explain why dierent ventilation standards for
dierent purposes are recommended? [6+10]
8. (a) What are the advantages of all air-conditioned system over all water air-
conditioned system?
(b) What are the dierent methods of controlling the temperature? Discuss their
relative merits. [6+10]

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Code No: V3214/R07 Set No. 4
III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April 2010
REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING
(Mechanical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) What are the advantages of dense air refrigeration system over an open air
refrigerating system?
(b) A refrigerator works on the carnet cycle in temperature between -7
0
C and
27
0
C. It makes 500kg of ice per hour at -5
0
C from water at 14
0
C. Find H.P.
required to drive the compressor and C.O.P. of the cycle. Take specic heat
of ice as 2.1 kj/kg-k and latent heat as 336kj/kg? [6+10]
2. (a) Explain the construction of T-S and P- h diagrams and state why P- h diagram
is more suitable for calculations over T-S diagram.
(b) A refrigerating machine using NH3 operates between the temperature limits
of -15
0
C and 30
0
C. Find the C O P of the system. Also nd the corresponding
value for a reversed carnot cycle operating between the same temperatures.
The properties of NH
3
are given below:
[8+8]
Pressure(bar) Temperature
0
C Liquid Vapour
hf(Kj /Kg) Sf(Kj /Kg-K) hg(Kj /Kg) Sg(Kj /Kg-K)
2.41 -5 351 3.95 1667.5 9.05
11.895 30 562 4.69 1711 8.48
3. (a) Explain why reciprocating compressor cannot be used as a vaccum pump for
producing high vacuumm.
(b) A reciprocating compressor operates on 1m
3
/min of gas at 2 bar and delivers
it at 12 bar. The clearance is 6%. The adia batic commpression index is 1.3%.
Determine the change in work of compressor if the re-expansion index is 1.1
4. (a) What is the function of the following components in an absorption system:
i. Absorber
ii. Rectier
iii. Analyser
iv. Heat exchangers.
(b) Draw a neat diagram of lithiem bromide water absorption system and explain
its working. [8+8]
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Code No: V3214/R07 Set No. 4
5. (a) What is the situation unnder which the Steam Jet Refrigeration system is
recommended? What are its limitations? Can it be used for obtaining sub-
zero temperatures?
(b) Explain the various components of Steam Jet Refrigeration system and clearly
discuss the function of each component. [6+10]
6. 1100 m
3
of air per minute at 25
0
C DBT and 45% R.H. is supplied to an auditorium.
The condition of the atmospheric air is 35
0
C DBT and 65% R.H. The required
condition is achieved rst by cooling and dehumidifying and then by heating. Find
the cooling capacity required in tons of refrigeration and heating capacity required
in kW.Take air pressure as 1.03 bar. 
7. The following data were collected for designing an air-conditioned hall. Out-door
conditions 41
0
C DBT and 30
0
C WBT, required inside conditions: 29
0
C DBT and
23
0
C WBT, sensible heat load of the hall: 1,50,000 kJ/hr, latent heat load of the
hall:60,000 kJ/hr, inltrated air 28 m
3
/min, cooling coil DPT:18
0
C, recirculated
air from hall: 64% of total. The quantity of recirculated air is mixed with the
conditioned air after the cooling coil. Find the following:
(a) The condition of air after the cooling coil and before mixing the recirculated
air
(b) Condition of air entering the hall
(c) Weight of fresh air entering the cooler
(d) Bypass factor of the cooling
(e) Capacity of the cooling coil in tons of refrigeration. 
8. (a) Discuss the common considerations for humidication of air in air condition-
ing.
(b) What are the dierent methods of humidifying the air? Explain the working
of any one of the atomizing the water type humidier. [8+8]

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