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Proceedings of The Thirteenth (2003) International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, May 25 30,

2003 Copyright 2003 by The International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers ISBN 1 880653 -60 5 (Set); ISSN 1098 6189 (Set)

Investigation into the Mechanical Behavior of Ceramicrete


Sarah E. Mouring, Paul H. Miller, and Victoria L. Burns
Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, United States Naval Academy Annapolis, MD, USA

ABSTRACT
Ceramicrete is a new engineering material that was developed at the Argonne National Laboratory. It is the product of an acid-base reaction between magnesium oxide (MgO; a base) and potassium hydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4; an acid). A binder is produced from this reaction that can be mixed with aggregate and water to form a concrete-like material. Ceramicrete then can be pumped, gunned, or sprayed with commercially available equipment (Argonne Technology Transfer: Commercialization and Licensing Opportunity, 2002). This material shows the potential for being used in nearly all applications requiring concrete. It seems especially well suited for applications in the marine environment, since previous studies show that it mixes at room temperature, sets up quickly (even during cold weather), expands slightly when it sets forming a seal, has a high compressive strength, resists corrosion, and does not absorb water (Ceramicrete, 2002). Currently, it is being investigated for use as a replacement to cement and other sealant products used during the drilling and completion of boreholes in deep offshore environments (Ceramicrete Testing Program Cementing Solutions Inc., 2002). The cost of ceramicrete is approximately 50% more than portland cement-based concrete (Wagh, Jeong, and Singh, 2002). However, there are several potential advantages including better penetration of small areas, better performance in cold joint bonding, and better bonding to concrete and steel. This paper outlines a preliminary study examining this new and novel material focusing on the cold joint bonding in particular.

2002). Because of the mechanical properties of this material, ceramicrete shows potential for being used in nearly all applications requiring concrete. This preliminary research was started by Midshipman 1/c Burns at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during the summer of 2002 as an internship. Researchers at LANL are considering ceramicrete as a potential material for replacing the portland cement-based grout plugs currently used in underground weapons testing. The grout is placed in large holes in the ground by pumping it through long pipes. Problems with their current grout system involve shrinkage and cracking at early age, thermal cracking, and stiffening early because of rapid hydration (Ellis and Bendinelli, 1982). Another problem is in the size of the pours. Pours cannot be completed in a single two-shift day. Therefore, grout often must be poured the next day on top of already cured grout. This creates a weakness at the cold joint between the two pours. Experimental testing was continued at the U.S. Naval Academy in the fall of 2002 in order to examine the properties of ceramicrete. Three objectives, in particular, were studied: 1) to question whether or not ceramicrete chemically bonds to itself, 2) to question whether or not ceramicrete is weaker at the bond if a mechanical bond exists, and 3) to examine the possibility of a chemical bond between ceramicrete and clean or dirty portland cement-based concretes. If ceramicrete were favorable in all three areas, this new concrete-like substance could be of great benefit to the military. This concrete-like material could be used for combat engineering purposes where they currently use concrete. Additionally, it could be used for runway or roadway repair, existing dockside repair, or a replacement material for the grout plugs used by the Department of Energy in weapons testing. To accomplish the objectives, two tests were performed. They were a compression test and a short beam flexure test. This paper outlines these preliminary test results.

KEY WORDS: Ceramicrete; concrete; cement; construction; repair INTRODUCTION


Ceramicrete is a relatively new engineering development that uses an acid-base reaction between magnesium oxide (MgO; a base) and potassium hydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4; an acid). The product of this reaction is the binder that can be used as a matrix material in forming a concrete-like material. This alternative concrete-like material is light weight, fast-drying, and has a high compressive strength. Ceramicrete initially was developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) by Arun S. Wagh to encase radioactive and hazardous waste (Ceramicrete,

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE Mixing of the Ceramicrete


The main ingredients of ceramicrete are magnesium oxide (MgO) and

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potassium hydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4). MgO is used in general industrial applications and also is a common vitamin for Americans. The MgO for this project was donated by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and is their specific product called MagChem 10. This classification means that the water is burned off of the MgO at a much higher temperature than typical MgO vitamins, and it is produced as a powder which can pass through a #200 U.S. Standard Sieve. The second ingredient, KH2PO4, is a substance that often is used in fertilizers and irrigating systems. It avoids the addition of chloride and sulphate. Rhodia Phosphate Specialties donated the KH2PO4. The ingredients of the binder form a simple acid-base reaction which can be combined based on the weights of the balanced chemical reaction of magnesium oxide, potassium hydrogen phosphate, and water. The result is a hydrated magnesium potassium phosphate according to the reaction,
MgO + KH 2 PO4 + 5H 2O MgKPO4 6H 2O

Each of the thin sections were examined using of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) at LANL.

______ 100 Microns


Fig. 2 SEM Image of Section 1 - Sandstone Bonded to Ceramicrete Combined with Class F Flyash The SEM image of section 1 showing the bond between the piece of sandstone and the ceramicrete combined with Class F flyash is given in Figure 2. The left side of the picture is the sandstone and the right side is the ceramicrete. This picture was generated by using the backscatter electron detector which is sensitive to atomic number. At the boundary line, there are virtually no pores between the ceramicrete and sandstone. A SEM uses a function called line-scan in which the machine follows a specific line across a specimen and gives a readout on the percentages of atomic numbers along the line. Using the linescan to go across the ceramicrete and through the bond, the percentages of binder material on the microscopic level did not change. This leads to the conclusion that the bonds ceramicrete forms are mechanical rather than chemical. The largest void that could be found in the bonds for any of the thin sections is shown in Figure 3. This image is for section 2 where the left side is the ceramicrete with the flyash, and the right side is the ferricrete. The void at the boundary line is approximately ten micrometers in width and is smaller than typically found in portland cement-based concrete [Gaffney, personal communication]. In the image in Figure 3, there are cracks that run almost horizontal on the ferricrete side, but do not continue on to the ceramicrete half of the bond. This fact along with a line-scan of this sample support that there are no chemical bonds formed. Furthermore, the examination of section 3 (bond between ferricrete and ceramicrete combined with sand) supports the idea of a mechanical bond.

(1)

This reaction forms the product known as MKP. The relative amounts required were determined using the above chemical balance. For example, for a basic 1 kg dry reactants mix, 228.5g MgO, 771.5 g of KH2PO4, and 510.7 g of H2O were mixed. The mixing process is straightforward. After calculating the appropriate weight of each substance, the dry ingredients are mixed together first for approximately four minutes. Then the water is added and the ceramicrete is mixed at a constant rate for approximately one hour. Aggregate material is added at approximately 45 minutes into the mixing. The mixing does not stop at a specific time, but rather when the material turns from a milky texture to a warm mixture that has just begun to thicken.

Determining the Microstructure


Specimens were fabricated at ANL and sent to LANL in order to determine if ceramicrete chemically bonds to itself and other materials. For specimen 1, three different pours of ceramicrete were made in a beaker. The bottom layer was the ceramicrete binder combined with sand which made the layer white in color. The middle layer was what ANL calls ferricrete. Ferricrete is ceramicrete combined with a ferrous-based ash and is rust in color. The top layer was ceramicrete combined with Class F flyash as shown in Figure 1. For specimen 2, ceramicrete combined with Class F flyash was bonded to a piece of sandstone.

Fig. 1 Sample of Bonded Ceramicrete Sent by ANL A total of three thin sections were made from the two specimens mentioned above. Section 1 showed the bond in specimen 2 (sandstone bonded to ceramicrete combined with Class F flyash). Section 2 showed the top bond in specimen 1 (ferricrete bonded to ceramicrete combined with Class F flyash). Section 3 showed the bottom bond in specimen 1 (ferricrete bonded to ceramicrete combined with sand).

______ 100 Microns

Fig. 3 SEM Image of Section 2 - Ferricrete Bonded to Ceramicrete Combined with Class F Flyash

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Cylindrical Samples
Fabrication of Cylindrical Samples. At LANL pill jars were available in the Thin Sections Laboratory and chosen as the size to use for testing. They are 66.80 mm long and 33.40 mm in diameter which conforms to ASTM C-39 Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens. The ceramicrete was poured into these containers according to requirements in ASTM C-192 Standard Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Laboratory. Three different classes of specimens were made and labeled as: 1) solid, no cold bond, 2) compression, cold bond, and 3) shear, cold bond. All were made by following the preceding mixing procedures with a flyash loading equal to the weight of the dry additions of the mixture. Solid specimens were poured into the pill jars, filling them completely. These are the control specimens. Compression specimens with the cold bond were fabricated over a period of three days. The first pour would fill the jar to approximately halfway, and then two days later, the jar would be topped off with a second pour. This process simulated a cold bond being formed on a plane perpendicular to the compression force that would later be applied. Shear samples were poured in a similar fashion except, for the first pour, the jars were set at an angle. Two days later the jars were set back up right and topped off with the second pour. This process placed the cold bond on a shear plane. To remove the specimens from the molds, the bottom corner of the pill jars had to be hit with a hammer. A large crack would form allowing for the pill jar to be broken off. After the samples were removed from the pill jars, it became harder to find the line where the cold bond occurred. Therefore, just prior to completely taking the specimens out of the jars, they were lined up and marked with a permanent marker as to where the bond was located. Additional specimens were fabricated to study the bond between concrete and ceramicrete. These specimens made using pieces of scrap concrete left in the Thin Sections Lab at LANL and pieces of old sidewalk from the Los Alamos community dump. These pieces of concrete were cored into three different sizes with a drill press. The nominal diameters of the cored pieces were 25.4, 38.1, and 50.8 mm. After pieces were cored, a piece of a plastic was taped around each, making the mold directly attached to the cored pieces. The ceramicrete then was poured into these plastic molds and allowed to cure. A few of the specimens mentioned above cured with the top uneven. In addition, a few of the ones poured on the concrete had to be shortened to fit the diameter equal to one-half length requirement. To shorten or level the top surface, a lathe was used in the Technical Services Department Model Shop at the U.S. Naval Academy. While learning to use the machine and get the settings correct, four samples were broken as a result of having the grips too loose or too tight on the specimen. Testing of Cylindrical Samples. A total of 35 cylindrical specimens were tested on the SATEC UD50 machine in the Materials Laboratory at the U.S. Naval Academy. The machine was configured for cylindrical compression tests and used a 22.2-, 44.5-, or 111.2-kN load cell depending on the size of the specimen. The load cell was connected to a flat plate which would press down on the specimens sitting atop a universal compression plate. During testing, the load and deflection were recorded as a function of time. The values originally were saved to the computer in a DOS program. Later data was exported to a floppy disk and put into an EXCEL spreadsheet to calculate stress and strain as a function of time.

Fabrication of Beams. Forms for the beams were made by Construction Battalion Unit (SeaBees) 403 of Naval Station, Annapolis. The forms were made with plywood and measured 101.6 mm x 101.6 mm x 91.5 cm. At 30.5-cm intervals pieces of cardboard were laid to make each 91.5-cm beam into three separate 30.5-cm long beams. The ceramicrete was fabricated with the ceramicrete resin and small aggregate rocks from the Construction Battalion Unit supplies at Naval Station, Annapolis. Six different batches of ceramicrete were made and poured. The ceramicrete was poured into the six separate beams, but only five were usable for data. During one pour, the ceramicrete flash set before it was completely poured. After it flash set, the pieces that were poured became very hot and cracked as they cured. Testing of Beams. The beams also were tested on the SATEC machine in the Materials Laboratory. This time the setup involved the 22.2-kN load cell and an aluminum attachment used to apply the point load for the 3-point bend test. This attachment was placed on top of the beam which rested on an aluminum stand with two simple supports. The length between the supports measured 20.3 cm. The aluminum stand deflected approximately 0.197 mm at maximum load. Therefore, a correction factor had to be used in the analysis of the beam results. A total of 15 specimens, 101.6 mm x 101.6 mm x 30.48 cm in dimension, were tested. From each 91.5-cm beam mold, three smaller beams were tested at different days. The three different dates corresponded to a 2-day, 7-day, and 21-day cure. Typical concrete specifications call for 28-day cures, but in the scope of this research, a 28-day cure could not be obtained based on lack of time left in the semester.

RESULTS Cylindrical Tests


All of the cylinders failed basically the same way. As loading was increased, the first sign of failure was associated with a popping sound. At this point, material started to flake off of the cylinder. This popping noise and the associated flaking-off of the material would continue until ultimate failure occurred. Figure 4 shows the typical output obtained from the cylindrical compression tests. The arrow is denoting the point at which a pop would have been heard. Each bump in the graph is a point at which pieces were flaking off the sides of the cylinder.
Stress vs. Strain for F4 12000 Stress (kPa) 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0.00E+00 1.00E-02 2.00E-02 3.00E-02 4.00E-02 5.00E-02 Strain (m m /m m )

Fig. 4 Typical Output from Cylindrical Specimens The average compressive strength for each category was found from the experimental results and compared to each other to see if there were any significant changes in the compressive strength. The average

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compressive strengths are shown in Figure 5 for each category along with their error bars. The average compressive strength for the cold bond group is 15.09 MPa whereas the average compressive strength for the no cold bond group (baseline) is 13.89 MPa. The average compressive strength of the no cold bond with saltwater group is 15.74 MPa, and the average compressive strength of the shear cold bond mixed with saltwater is 10.16 MPa. The coefficient of variation (COV) of the compressive strengths was 28%. Overall, the average compressive strength of all the ceramicrete specimens was approximately 14 MPa. From these results, it can be seen that although the COV is high, there is no significant change in average values of compressive strengths for the different categories; therefore, it is apparent that cold bonds and an addition of saltwater to the mix do not adversely affect the compressive strength of ceramicrete.
Compressive Strengths of Cylinders
25000

only one specimen that failed at the bond. Figure 7 shows the average compressive strengths of the specimens with the ceramicrete bonded to concrete. The compressive strengths were close to the same for all of the samples, averaging 25.7 MPa for the medium (38.1-mm diameter) specimens and 20.51 MPa for the large (50.8-mm diameter) specimens. Within the groups, the maximum coefficient of variation was 0.19 which is good for this data. It is of note that the average compressive strength was higher for the medium-size specimens than the large-size specimens. This can be attributed to the fact that the medium-size specimens were made from high-strength, clean concrete cores found in the LANL Thin Sections Lab whereas the large size specimens were made from normal-strength, dirty concrete cores of old sidewalk obtained from the Los Alamos community dump. However, in both cases, it is evident that strong mechanical bonds were formed.
Average Compressive Strengths for Ceramicrete Bonded to Concrete
Compressive Strength (kPa)
30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 Category of Specimen Medium Size Large Size

Compressive Strength (kPa)

20000 15000 10000 5000 0 Cold Bond No Cold Bond No Cold Bond w/ Saltwater Shear Cold Bond w/ Saltwater

Fig. 5 Average Compressive Strengths of Cylindrical Specimens After analyzing compressive strengths, the next item to examine was the elastic modulus. The elastic modulus was determined for each specimen, and the results are shown in Figure 6. ACI 318 8.5.1 uses an empirical formula to calculate the elastic modulus, Ec , of concrete:
1.5 E c = c 0.043 f c '

Fig. 7 Average Compressive Strengths of Cylinders Made on Cored Concrete After looking at the strengths of ceramicrete, the possibility of a learning curve was examined regarding specimen quality. From the first batches to the last in Los Alamos, there was an increase in the average compressive strengths. Figure 8 shows the increase in average strengths for different categories of cylinders over a period of days. The category of specimens that showed the greatest amount of increased quality over time was the no cold bond, saltwater category. In this category, the compressive strength was as low as 8.68 MPa for a day-one specimen and as high as 23.5 MPa for a day-nine specimen. It should be noted that the increase in strength was due to increased quality over time attributed to mixing experience gained and not due to cure time. All specimens were tested after curing for 60 days.
Specimen Quality Over Time
25000

(2)

where wc is the unit weight and fc is the compressive strength. Using the unit weight of ceramicrete of 1842 kg/m3 and the average compressive strength of 14 MPa, the calculated modulus of elasticity was 12,719 MPa. However, the experimental results ranged from 1275 MPa to 1448 MPa. Therefore, the empirical model for the elastic modulus of concrete should not be used for ceramicrete.
Average Elastic Modulus of Specimens
1600

Compressive Strength (kPa)

20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 2 4 Days 6 8 10

Cold Bond No Cold Bond No Cold Bond, Saltwater Shear Cold Bond, Salt Water

Elastic Modulus (kPa)

1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Specimen Category

Cold Bond No Cold Bond No Cold Bond w/ Saltwater Shear Cold Bond w/ Saltwater

Fig. 8 Average Compressive Strengths Increasing Over Time

Fig. 6 Average Elastic Modulus of Cylinder Specimens A second set of cylindrical specimens was tested to examine the bond between concrete and ceramicrete. As mentioned in the previous section, pieces of scrap concrete and pieces of old concrete sidewalk were bonded to ceramicrete. These specimens failed by cracking vertically. The cracks ran the entire length of the cylinder. There was

Beam Tests
The modulus of rupture (tensile strength under flexure), R, of each beam tested under three-point flexure was calculated using:

R =

3 PL 2bd 2

(3)

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where P is the load, L is the beam span, b is the beam width, and d is the beam depth. The SATEC successfully failed all of the beams within 12.7 mm of the center. The flexural strengths of the beams were averaged for each cure (2-day, 7-day, 21-day). As convention would hold, the flexure strengths increased over time as shown in Figure 9. The average flexure strength was 2.34 MPa for the 2-day cure, 2.37 MPa for the 7-day cure, and 2.70 MPa for the 21-day cure. These values can be compared to the value of 2.3 MPa predicted from ACI Code 318 9.5.2.3 for the modulus of rupture, fr (or R), of normal-weight concrete: h 0.7 ) h o fctm = fct , fl h 1 + 2.0 ( ) 0.7 ho 2.0 ( (4)

Following the analysis of the modulus of elasticity due to flexure, the direct tensile strength, fctm, was estimated from the tensile strength under flexure. In normal-weight concrete, there is a relationship between the two values. Typically, the tensile strength under flexure overestimates the direct tensile strength by 50 to 100 percent (Mehta and Monteiro, 1993). Therefore, the following relationship between tensile strength, fctm, and tensile strength under flexure (or modulus of rupture, R), fct,, fl, has been developed (CEB-FIP Model Code, 1990):
' f r = 0.62 fc

(6)

The ACI code underestimates the average tensile strength under flexure (modulus of rupture) in all cases. However, it relates most closely to the 2-day cure results.
Average Tensile Strength under Flexure per Day Cured
Average Tensile Strength under Flexure (kPa)

where h is equal to the depth of the beam in mm (101.6 mm) and ho is 100mm. Figure 11 shows a comparison of values for tensile strength under flexure (modulus of rupture) and predicted direct tensile strength. When using the equation above, the tensile strength under flexure overestimates the direct tensile strength by 67%.
Tensile Strength
3000.00

Tensile Strength (kPa)

2500.00 2000.00 1500.00 1000.00 500.00 0.00 2 7 Days Cured 21


Direct Tensile Strength
Tensile Strength under Flexure

2800 2700 2600 2500 2400 2300 2200 2100 Day Cured

2-Day Cure 7-Day Cure 21-Day Cure

Fig. 11 Tensile Strength under Flexure and Direct Tensile Strength FIELD APPLICATION OF CERAMICRETE

Fig. 9 Average Tensile Strength Under Flexure over Time for Beams The next item to examine was deflection. As expected, the average deflection per day cured decreased over time. The average deflection went down from 1.15 mm at the 2-day cure to 1.10 mm at the 21-day cure. From the deflection equation, , for a beam under a three-point bending: In order to examine the application of ceramicrete in the field, two potholes were filled with ceramicrete at the Naval Station Annapolis. One pothole was located above a seaplane ramp while the other was located on the ramp below the high water mark. The pothole at the top of the seaplane ramp measured about 6.35 cm deep in a triangular shape with the sides measuring approximately 75 cm, 90 cm, and 120cm. The pothole was filled with the same ceramicrete mixture as the beams. While the ceramicrete was being poured, a large storm came along, and it began to rain not long after the ceramicrete was placed in the pothole. It appeared to be repelling most water at approximately one-half hour after the ceramicrete was poured. Upon inspection two days later, the patch appeared to have large areas of binder materials indicating that the ceramicrete had not been mixed thoroughly enough to cause a reaction. Two weeks later the ceramicrete patch was scraped out and a second attempt to repair the pothole was made using the same mix. Approximately one week later, the patch for the pothole appeared normal. Due to a miscalculation of the amount of material needed, the amount of ceramicrete in the hole was not enough to completely fill it, but it did reach to within 1.3 cm of the edge as shown in Figure 12. The ceramicrete was holding up well and it was obvious that there was use of heavy equipment over the repaired area as tire tracks from the water ran across it. On the seaplane ramp, below the high water mark, was another pothole. The corners of three large slabs of concrete making up the ramp had worn away in pieces that were approximately 12.7 cm deep and the sides of each triangle approximately 30 cm x 30 cm x 45 cm. This area of the ramp was dry during most times that the water reached low tide, but was always below the high water mark when the tide was in. During the attempted first repair, the ceramicrete was pouring well until

PL3 48 IE

(5)

and knowing the moment of inertia of the beam, I, the modulus of elasticity under three-point flexure, E, for each beam was found. Over the days cured, the average modulus of elasticity under three-point flexure increased from 146.8 MPa at 2 days to 216.5 MPa at 21 days. (See Figure 10.)
Average Modulus per Day Cured
Average Elastic Modulus (kPa)

250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 ' Days Cured 2-Day Cure 7-Day Cure 21-Day Cure

Fig. 10 Modulus of Elasticity due to Flexure over Time for Beams

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a wake from a boat broke against the ramp and into the plastic container with the ceramicrete. Much of the resin washed away with the wake and a repair job was attempted with what was remaining of the ceramicrete. The presence of aggregate was approximately three times that of the resin and thus the ceramicrete did not form properly. A second repair was attempted two weeks later. Nearly the same problem occurred here as during the first attempt to fill the hole above the ramp. This day was the coldest of any of the days attempted and after one and a half hours of mixing, the material still was not warm or getting thick. (Normally, it should be ready after approximately one hour of mixing.) The pour was attempted, but was unsuccessful as shown in Figure 13.

applications. Empirical formulas for normal weight concrete were found not to be applicable for ceramicrete. When using ACI 318 8.5.1 to predict the compressive modulus of elasticity, the predicted modulus was ten to twenty times larger than the experimental values. (Note: The typical weight of concrete is 2403 kg/m3 whereas the typical weight of ceramicrete is 1842 kg/m3.) Also, the modulus of rupture was underestimated when using ACI 318 9.5.2.3. It should be noted that compressive strength of ceramicrete is about half of portland cement and modulus is 1/10th. Ceramicrete also is good in that it does not adhere to plastic. At the Naval Academy, the ceramicrete was mixed in a large plastic tub. The one time it flash set, it was removed from the tub after it was dry by simply bending the tub. Additionally, the cylinders came apart from the plastic molds relatively easily once the molds were cracked. On the other hand, ceramicrete bonds to wood, based on the experiences with the plywood molds for the beams. Ceramicrete also bonds to steel, since the one time the ceramicrete flash set at LANL, it would not come out of the steel bowl it was mixed in. Ceramicrete does not appear to harm skin in any way. In order to clean metallic materials, an acidic solution can be used. In this study, vinegar (acetic acid) was used to dissolve ceramicrete from metallic tools. Therefore, care should be taken when there is a possiblility of exposing ceramicrete to an acidic substance.

Fig. 12 Successful Attempt of Pothole Repair above Seaplane Ramp

RECOMMENDATIONS
More testing of ceramicrete needs to be performed before it should be accepted in the construction and repair industry. Both standard tests and nonstandard approaches such as the ones performed in this study are required to fully characterize the mechanical behavior of ceramicrete. Based on this preliminary study, ceramicrete should be examined again in a saltwater environment. Specifically deterioration over time would be of great interest. Additionally, it would be beneficial to know the actual temperature ceramicrete gives off while it is curing. It has a relatively low exotherm since each time a sample was fabricated, it could be picked up while it was curing (except for the time the ceramicrete flash set while pouring the beams). This leads into another possible area of interest. A correlation needs to be found between temperature of the mixture, temperature of the environment, mixing time, and visual inspection of ceramicrete being ready to pour. This information would make ceramicrete a more user friendly material.

Fig. 13 Unsuccessful Attempt of Pothole Repair on Seaplane Ramp

CONCLUSIONS
Ceramicrete has potential to supplement concrete as the material of choice especially for repair work. It seems especially well suited for applications in the marine environment given that it mixes at room temperature, does not absorb water, has a high compressive strength, resists corrosion, sets up quickly even during cold weather, and expands slightly when it sets forming a seal (Ceramicrete, 2002). However, like many engineered materials, it requires expert pouring to achieve desirable results. This expert pouring means that the contractor must have extensive practice in order to use the material correctly. This was evident in the increased quality of latter specimens. It also requires constant attention during the mixing process since the only way at this time to determine when it is ready to pour is visual rather than a precise time or temperature. On the other hand, it appears ceramicrete can be mixed with saltwater which could be a benefit to the marine industry and the Navy. Additionally, our results showed that there was no significant reduction in the compressive strength found from cold bonds. More study is required to validate this; however, if proven true, ceramicrete would be an ideal material for large

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors would like to thank Donald W. Brown and Edward Gaffney for providing guidance during the summer internship at LANL. They would also like to thank Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rhodia Phosphate Specialties for donating the materials.

REFERENCES
Argonne Technology Transfer: Commercialization and Licensing Opportunity (2002). http://www.techtransfer.anl.gov/techtour/ ceramicrete.html. Ceramicrete (2002). http://www.et.anl.gov/research/ceramicrete.html. Ceramicrete Testing Program Cementing Solutions Inc. (2002). http://dominoweb3.fossil.energy.gov/domino/apps/fred/fred.nsf/da9d 8b7ff8a396df852569ff0049da5a/8efc52de2c08e67285256ca7001bb8 5e!OpenDocument.

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Wagh, A.S., Jeong, S.-Y., and Singh, D. (2002). High Strength Phosphate Cement Using Industrial Byproduct Ashes, http://www.techtransfer.anl.gov/docs/hawai_paper.pdf

Ellis, T.L., and Bendinelli, R.A. (1982). Defense Nuclear Agency Technical Manual: Concrete and Grout Technology for Underground Nuclear Effects Tests, Department of Defense. Mehta, P.K., and Monteiro, P. (1993). Concrete: Structure, Properties, and Methods, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

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