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1

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Penensenrt:
oxrop ]nnonornuecxnx n oxrop nearornuecxnx nayx, npo]eccop =.>. !+)?)+)(,
oxrop nearornuecxnx nayx, npo]eccop ;.;. 8)3#$-)(&0*@
3nexrponnax nepcnx copnnxa, nsannoro n 2010 roy.
B +nexrponno nepcnn ncnpannent sameuennte oneuarxn.
Hpn nnrnponannn cctnxn na xnnxnoe nsanne oxsarentnt.
3nexrponnte nepcnn (.pdf) ncex onynnxonanntx ntnycxon ocrynnt na
http://www.philol.msu.ru/~slavphil/books/jsk_index.html

Hpecrannxx pyxonnct n pexonnernm, anropt rem camtm ntpaxamr cornacne c nx es-
ronopapntm onynnxonannem n copnnxe "stx, cosnanne, xommynnxannx" n neuarnom
n/nnn +nexrponnom nne


410
9<=>, ?@<4A413, >@22B41>AC1D: C. crare / Orn. pe.
B. B. Kpacntx, A. H. Hsoron. M.: MAKC Hpecc, 2010.
Btn. 41. 112 c.
ISBN 978-5-317-03257-9
Copnnx coepxnr crartn, paccmarpnnammne pasnnunte npone-
mt xommynnxannn xax n cnere nnnrnoxornnrnnnoro noxoa, rax n n co-
nocrannrentnom acnexre, a raxxe nanonee axryantnte nponemt nnn-
rnonaxrnxn. Ocooe nnnmanne yenxercx nannonantno cnenn]nxe
omennx, npoxnnxmmecx n ocoennocrxx acconnarnnntx pxon, xon-
norarnnnoro norennnana n nocnpnxrnx xyoxecrnenntx rexcron.
Copnnx npenasnauaercx nx ]nnonoron cryenron, npenoana-
rene, nayuntx corpynnxon.
Btnycxn 1 n 2 onynnxonant n 1997 r., ntnycxn 3, 4, 5, 6
n 1998 r., ntnycxn 7, 8, 9, 10 n 1999 r., ntnycxn 11, 12, 13, 14, 15
n 2000 r., ntnycxn 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 n 2001 r., ntnycxn 21, 22
n 2002 r., ntnycxn 23, 24, 25 n 2003 r., ntnycxn 26, 27, 28 n 2004 r.,
ntnycxn 29, 30, 31 n 2005 r., ntnycxn 32, 33 n 2006 r., ntnycxn 34,
35 n 2007 r., ntnycx 36 n 2008 r., ntnycxn 37, 38, 39 n 2009 r.
VK 81
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410
ISBN 978-5-317-03257-9
! !! ! Anropt crare, 2010
3
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3IK H OFBECTBO
A2)%)( B.A. Knmuente xnnennx amepnxancxo xyntrypt
n sepxane nannonantnoro xopnyca uemcxoro xstxa
(anrnoxstunax nnreparypa) .................................................................4
HHHIBHCTHKA
C)35*-$ >.B. Crnnncrnuecxoe ]ynxnnonnponanne xareropnn
aprnxnx n anrnncxom xstxe (na marepnane nnreparypno-
xpnrnuecxnx nponsneenn)..............................................................21
D).$-'%)($ E.E. O nexoroptx ocoennocrxx ncnontsonannx
anropcxnx crparern n ncxypce rearpantno penensnn.................38
F"("3"($ A.B. Hnnrnncrnuecxne ocoennocrn ncxypca Hnrepner-
CMH....................................................................................................50
<'- G')-$-4, C7 H7-12I-4 (JED) Ocoennocrn snauennx
opnenrnponannocrt nnxennx y xnracxnx rnaronon
nnxennx lai n qu ...............................................................................55
HHHIBOHAKTHKA
C)35*-$ >.B. Anrnncxn aprnxnt n nnnrnonaxrnuecxom
ocnemennn ...........................................................................................59
J7#$@ 8*+ G$?*K /L$- (B65$-*&%$-) Po nmen cymecrnnrentntx
n npnunnt xommynnxarnnntx neyau nymry-cryenron npn
nsyuennn PKH.....................................................................................88
A2)%)($ B.B. Otrptnanne anrnncxnx nnom: napnanrt saann .......92
HAVuHA XH3HI
J734M*-$ ;.9., N$%$+*-)( ;.B. Manax nontcxax nexcnxorpa]nx n
repmnnorpa]nx xax nonax c]epa nnnrnncrnuecxo pe]nexcnn......97
J734M*-$ ;.9., N$%$+*-)( ;.B. Rnne cnanncra, nnoenponencra,
cnennanncra no omemy xstxosnannm...........................................103
4
9:0$ & "FG.#-%"
$HIJ3K=3 DKH341D A23L1>A4?>@M >BHNOBL=
K <3L>AH3 4AC1@4AHN4@P@ >@LQB?A J3R?>@P@ D<=>A
(A4PH@D<=J4AD H1O3LAOBLA)
/)0%)+ 6*3)3)5*#"&0*? -$70 B.A. A2)%)(, 20O0
Hponemt mexxyntrypno n omexyntrypno xomnerennnn npno-
penn ocooe snauenne n nocnenne ecxrnnernx XX nexa. Mt cxnonnt
cnxstnart +ro c macmrantmn +xonomnuecxnmn, nonnrnuecxnmn n conn-
antntmn nsmenennxmn n conpemennom omecrne. Opasonanne n 3ana-
no Enpone n Amepnxe nepecrano trt npocro nncrpymenrom nx yc-
nemno xaptept. Vponent opasonannocrn no npexnemy onpeenxer n
pasnnrtx crpanax yponent oxoa
1
, onaxo nce ontme n ontme nme
yuarcx npocro nx yonontcrnnx. pxoe cnnerentcrno romy ]enomen
rax nastnaemtx cryenron rpertero nospacra
2
(Third Age Students), ro
ecrt nme crapme 50 ner, xoropte npx nn paccunrtnamr na xaxne-nno
marepnantnte ntrot or nonoro nnnoma. Bnpouem, oyuennx nx yo-
nontcrnnx ornmt ne npnnnnernx nencnonepon. B coornercrnnn c nc-
cneonannxmn, nponeenntmn n Poccncxom rocyapcrnennom nearorn-
uecxom ynnnepcnrere nmenn Iepnena, n nacroxmee npemx npoonxamr
yunrtcx oxono 10% nspocnoro nacenennx 3anano Enpont,
cm.http://edu.of.ru/profil/news.asp?ob_no=17348.
Conpemennt amepnxanen, xax n conpemennt enponeen, n ornnune
or cnonx npexon, yxe ne onxen otnart cno xne nacymnt yx-
nantno n nore nnna cnoero. On moxer nosnonnrt cee npnoperart sna-
nnx, ecnonesnte c rouxn spennx nsneca. Fonee roro, on cnocoen nony-
uart yonontcrnne or camoro nponecca oyuennx
3
.

1
B coornercrnnn c anntmn [Oshima, Hogue 2006: 53], cpenee coornomenne mexy
yponnem opasonannx n yponnem oxoa n CBA n 2003 roy tno cneymmnm:
Less than HS diploma $21,600
High school diploma $30,800
Some college, no degree $35,700
Associate degree $37,000
Bachelors degree $49,900
Masters degree $50,500
Doctorate degree $79,400
Professional degree $95,700.
2
Cyx no Hnrepnery, +ror repmnn naunnaer ocnannartcx n pyccxnm xstxom.
3
Hoonax nex nanepnxxa nponsnena t n canynax nxoro 3anaa raxo xe +]]exr,
xax npecxasanne oxropa Fpayna o ere rpycno n ]nntme Hasa n yymee III Crnnena
CHnnepra n Poepra 3emexnca (1990), cp. cyrnrpt x onomy ns +nnsoon:
Of course they run, but for recreation, for fun.
Run for fun? What the hell kind of fun is that?
[Laughing hysterically]
5
He rax anno nyremecrnne nx yonontcrnnx tno npnnnnerne ntc-
mnx cnoen omecrna. Ceronx ornycx / xannxynt cpen anrnnoon
nnonne otunax nemt. Fonee roro, noonte nyremecrnnx n npomnom
tnn no cyrn ena nepememennxmn or onoro xypopra x pyromy, a cam
nponecc nepememennx tn onontno manonpnxrntm sanxrnem, npe-
crantre cee recnt nnnxanc, opoxnym ntnt, orcyrcrnne nopmantno
et n r.. Ceronx xe nce onee n onee nme, ocoenno cpen monoe-
xn, npenounramr nyremecrnonart anrocronom, urot omartcx c otu-
ntmn nmtmn, a ne c rocrnnnuno npncnyro.
Hemanonaxnym pont nrpamr n conpemennte mnrpannonnte nponec-
ct. Tax, n 2005-2007 roax n CBA ntananoct oxono mnnnnona sene-
ntx xapr n ro. Hpenonaraemoe uncno nenerantntx nmmnrpanron
nnonne conocrannmo oxono 770 rtcxu n ro
4
. axe nocennnmnct cpen
connemennnxon, nnont npntnmne ne moryr nsexart omennx c pyrn-
mn amepnxannamn rax xe, xax +rn pyrne amepnxannt ne moryr nsexart
omennx c nnmn.
Tem camtm nsmennnact ocnonnax sona mexxyntrypno xommynnxa-
nnn. Pantme +ro tno omenne npo]eccnonanon, nno omenne c yua-
crnem npo]eccnonanon xorx t c ono cropont nepenounxon, coep-
xarene rocrnnnn, nonrene n r.. Tenept xe yuacrnnxamn raxo xom-
mynnxannn nce uame cranonxrcx otunte nmn es cnennantno noro-
ronxn, uro cosaer nnrarentnym nouny nx mexxyntrypntx xon]nnxron,
cp. cneymmn +nnso ns xomenn uac nnx (Rush Hour, 1998):
A]poamepnxancxn nonnnecxn nxonr n ap c nnocrpannem (xexn
uanom), xoroporo on rontxo uro nponncrpyxrnponan: ena, xax x!,
npnnercrnyer xoro-ro Kax ena, nnrrep! (Whats up, nigger!) n cxpt-
naercx sa neptm, ocrannn cnoero cnyrnnxa onoro. 3nononyunt xexn
uan paocrno npnnercrnyer uepnoxoxero apmena, ncnontsonan rontxo
uro ycntmannym ]pasy (Kax ena, nnrrep!), nocne uero oxastnaercx n
+nnnenrpe rpannosno paxn c yuacrnem ncex uepnoxoxnx nocernrene
apa.
Bosmoxnte xon]nnxrt mexy npecrannrenxmn pasnnuntx xyntryp,
xax n nosmoxnte cnocot nserart noontx xon]nnxron anannsnpymr-
cx n paorax exana ]axyntrera nnocrpanntx xstxon n pernononeennx
MIV nmenn M.B. Homonocona npo]eccopa C.I. Tep-Mnnacono n ee
xonner
5
. 3rn xe nponemt axrnnno nsyuannct n na ]nnonornuecxom
]axyntrere roro xe ynnnepcnrera c momenra opasonannx orenennx no
npenoanannm pyccxoro xstxa nnocrpanntm yuamnmcx n 1951 roy. Hs

4
Ho anntm Hncrnryra emorpa]nn Btcme mxont +xonomnxn (Mocxna), cm.
http://www.demoscope.ru/weekly/2008/0335/barom02.php
5
B uacrnocrn, n paorax [Tep-Mnnacona 2000; 2008], [Fentunxon 2008], [Bamenxo
1999], [Iopoenxax 2008], [opocxnoncxax 2008], [Enncrparon 2008], [3arpxsxnna 2007],
[Kopnnnon 2000], [Kypaconcxax 1999], [Monuanona 2007], [Hasapenxo 2008], [Hannoncxax
1998; 2005; 2006; 2009], [Honynuenxo 2008], [uarmmenxo B.H. 2000; 2009], [uarmmenxo
A.B. 2009].
6
nontx paor ormernm nccneonannx B.B. Kpacntx, .F. Iyxona,
O.E. uponono, a raxxe anropon npoonxammero copnnxa stx, cos-
nanne, xommynnxannx
6
. Ecrecrnenno, nentsx nporn mnmo monymen-
rantntx paor B.I. Kocromapona, E.M. Bepemarnna, R.H. Kapaynona,
R.C. Crenanona
7
.
Baxnocrt yuera ]onontx xyntrypntx snann ncera nouepxnnanact
anrnncramn Mocxoncxoro ynnnepcnrera. Hpo]eccop O.C. Axmanona,
onrne rot nosrnannxnmax xa]epy anrnncxoro xstxosnannx ]nnono-
rnuecxoro ]axyntrera, nena n 7080 rot ncrexmero cronernx cnennant-
nt cemnnap nx acnnpanron n monotx npenoanarene, nocnxmennt
otrptnannm nsnecrntx nnrar, cm. [Honynuenxo 2008: 196-197]. Ho
nnnnnarnne npo]eccopa O.C. Axmanono ee mnamne xonnern H.B. Im-
ener n H.B. Fontpena nsann cnennantnt cnonapt anrnncxnx nnre-
parypntx nnrar, cm. [Fontpena, Imener 2000]. Ormernm n cnonapt-
cnpanounnx nnecxnx cmxeron n xnnonncn, nororonnennt
A.C. Mnxoxn, cm. [Fnnecxne 1999].
Otrptnanne nsnecrntx nnrar nacrontxo mnpoxo pacnpocrpaneno n
anrnoxstuno nnnrnoxyntrype, uro mt moxem onapyxnrt ero axe n
amepnxancxnx necrepnax. Hanpnmep, n camom nauane xnaccnuecxoro nec-
repna 1939 roa x. uopa n x. V+na nnnxanc (Stagecoach) anxo-
ronnx Fyn yxastnaer na omoxosxxy, xoropax rontxo uro ntmntpnyna
na ynnny ero noxnrxn, n exnamnpyer c uyncrnom: Is this the face that
wrecked a thousand ships
unntm ouennntm opasom cnxr n pacuere na nme, xoropte ne
rontxo onosnamr nnrary ns ntect XVI nexa oxrop uaycr Kpncro]epa
Mapno, no n onenxr ee otrptnanne, cp. ncxont crnx: Was this the
face that launched a thousand ships.
Hponemt ]nnonornuecxoro urennx n ]onontx snann ome-
xyntrypnoro xapaxrepa ocyxamrcx n paorax O.B. Anexcanpono,
T.A. Komono, B.. 3aopnono, H.M.Marnono, M.M. unnnnnono,
A.A. Hnnrapra, H.B. Imener, B.A. Henamono, H.B. Fontpeno,
E.B. Mnxanoncxo, B.B. Bacnntena, E.O. Menxepnnxo n pyrnx co-
rpynnxon xa]ept anrnncxoro xstxosnannx ]nnonornuecxoro ]axynt-
rera

MIV
8
.

6
B uacrnocrn, [Kpacntx 1998; 2003], [Iyxon 1999], [uponona 2007], [3axapenxo,
Kpacntx, Iyxon, Faraena 1997], [Copoxnn, Iyxon, Kpacntx, Bontcxax 1997], [3axapenxo
2000], [Copoxnn, Mnxanena 1997], [Hpoxopon 1999], [Hnrnnnon 2004], [Bnacenxo 2009],
[Hemxona 2009], [Honnmyx 2001], [Hpnnanona 2001], [unnnnnona 2008], [nenxo 1997].
Cnoont ocryn x nnexcy n nonnorexcrontm xonnxm ncex onynnxonanntx cop-
nnxon n ]opmare.pdf cm. http://www.philol.msu.ru/~slavphil/books/jsk_index.html
7
Cm. [Bepemarnn, Kocromapon 1973; 1980], [Bepemarnn 1972], [Kapaynon 2006; 2007],
[Crenanon 2004; 2007].
8
Cm. [Anexcanpona, Bacnnten 1998], [Axmanona, Imener 1977], [Anrnncxn
2006], [Fontpena 1997], [Imener 2010], [3aopnona 1984], [Komona 2010], [Henamona
2000], [Menxepnnxax 1997], [Hpoxopona 2002], [Hnnrapr 2007], [unnnnnona 2008; 2009],
[Maguidova, Mikhailovskaia 1999].
7
B pesyntrare ormeuenntx na nepntx crpannnax macmrantx nonnrn-
uecxnx, +xonomnuecxnx n connantntx nsmenenn ro, uro pantme nxon-
no n npo]eccnonantnym xomnerennnm cnennanncra no nnocrpannomy
xstxy, crano paccmarpnnartcx n pamxax ome xyntrypno rpamornocrn.
Ho mnennm npo]eccopa 3pnxa onanta Xnpma
9
, xyntrypnax rpa-
mornocrt, n ornnune or npo]eccnonantno xomnerennnn, nxnmuaer n
cex re snannx, xoropte, xax npenonaraercx, nsnecrnt ncem. <> Ha
+rnx omnx snannxx ocnontnaercx nect nam omecrnennt ncxypc. 3rn
omne snannx nosnonxmr nam ocmtcnenno unrart rasert, cnymart nono-
crn, omartcx c xonneramn n nauantnnxamn n axe nosnonxmr nam pac-
cxastnart pyr pyry anexort [Dictionary of Cultural Literacy 1988: ix].
Onpeenxx cnncox omexyntrypntx ]enomenon nx nxnmuennx n +n-
nnxnonenuecxn cnonapt Dictionary of Cultural Literacy (Boston, 1988),
npo]eccop Xnpm ncxonn, no-nepntx, ns roro, uro peut npn +rom ne
onxna nrn o snannxx nn cnnmxom cnennannsnponanntx (ro, uro ns-
necrno nnmt cnennanncry n ro nnn nno onacrn), nn cnnmxom omnx
(nasnannx xnnorntx, nneron n r..). Bo-nroptx, nao tno onpeennrt,
nacxontxo mnpoxo ror nnn nno ns paccmarpnnaemtx xyntrypntx ]eno-
menon nsnecren n conpemennom amepnxancxom omecrne. nx +roro tno
npoanannsnponano ontmoe xonnuecrno nonynxpntx nepnonuecxnx
nsann: npo]eccop Xnpm ncxonn ns roro, uro ecnn ro nnn nnoe cot-
rne, nnno n r.. ynomnnaercx n camtx pasntx raserax n xypnanax es
oxcnennx, o uem nnn o xom ner peut, nepe namn xnnenne omensne-
crnoe. B-rpertnx, npo]eccop Xnpm, cunrax ornocnrentnym cranntnocrt
neoremnemtm xauecrnom omexyntrypnoro ]ona snann, onpeennn
mnnnmantnt nnrepnan n 15 ner, n reuenne xoroptx ro nnn nnoe xnnenne
onxno trt nsnecrno mnpoxomy xpyry nme.
Ornannenne cnonapx [Dictionary of Cultural Literacy 1988] yxe camo no
cee aer npecrannenne o macmraax npoenanno npo]eccopom Xnp-
mem n ero xonneramn paore, cp.:

9
Eric Donald Hirsch, Jr. (born March 22, 1928) is a U.S. educator and academic literary
critic. Now retired, he was until recently the University Professor of Education and Humanities
and the Linden Kent Memorial Professor of English Emeritus at the University of Virginia. He is
best known for his writings about cultural literacy. <>
While giving tests of relative readability at two colleges in Virginia, he discovered that
while the relative readability of a text was an important factor in determining comprehension, an
even more important consideration was background knowledge. Students at the University of
Virginia were able to understand a passage on Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee, while
students at a community college struggled with it, apparently lacking basic understanding of the
American Civil War. This and related discoveries led Hirsch to formulate the concept of cultural
literacy the idea that reading comprehension requires not just formal decoding skills but also
wide-ranging background knowledge. <>
Hirsch founded the Core Knowledge Foundation in 1986, and wrote Cultural Literacy:
What Every American Needs To Know in 1987. He also co-wrote The Dictionary of Cultural
Literacy in 1988. Cultural Literacy became a best-seller, <>.
His most recent book is The Knowledge Deficit (2006), in which he once again makes the
case that the cause of disappointing reading performance is a lack of background knowledge, see
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E._D._Hirsch,_Jr.
8
[(HAK= ?OLA41C=]
The Bible 1
Mythology and Folklore 27
Proverbs 46
Idioms 58
World Literature, Philosophy, and Religion 81
Literature in English 111
Conventions of Written English 140
Fine Arts 155
World History to 1550 190
World History since 1550 204
American History to 1865 235
American History since 1865 258
World Politics 287
American Politics 305
World Geography 332
American Geography 375
Anthropology, Psychology, and Sociology 390
Business and Economics 413
Physical Sciences and Mathematics 437
Earth Sciences 469
Life Sciences 482
Medicine and Health 497
Technology 534
Picture Credits 549
Index 551

Cymecrnymmne amepnxancxne +nexrponnte xopnyca pasnnuntx rn-
non enamr nosmoxntm antnemee yrounenne anntx npo]eccopa
Xnpma, n uacrnocrn, nosnonxmr c]opmnponart nexne nepexonte sont
mexy (ome)amepnxancxo xyntrypno rpamornocrtm xax raxono n
mnorouncnenntmn nepn]epnntmn opasonannxmn
10
.
Hpo]eccop Xnpm sanepmaer Bcrynnenne x [Dictionary of Cultural
Literacy 1988] opamennem x xonneram c npnstnom npoonxnrt nccneo-
nanne n onacrn xyntrypno xomnerennnn, uro mt n nontrannct cenart,
nontranmnct onpeennrt xorx t nexoropte sont nepeceuennx conpe-
mennoro amepnxanna n conpemennoro uexa.
nx +roro mt pemnnn nponepnrt annte rnant Hnreparypa na anr-
nncxom xstxe no marepnanam nxoxmero n cocran uemcxoro nanno-
nantnoro xopnyca
11
(no)xopnyca SYN2000.

10
Hccneonannx raxoro nnana mornn t crart nosmoxntm ornerom rem onnonenram
npo]eccopa Xnpma, xoropte ynpexamr ero n nrnopnponannn mentmnncrn c nx cyxyntry-
pamn, cm. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E._D._Hirsch,_Jr.
11
uemcxn nannonantnt xopnyc (Cesk Nrodn Korpus) nororonnen n ocnyxnnaer-
cx corpynnxamn Hncrnryra uemcxoro nannonantnoro xopnyca npn ]nnoco]cxom ]axynt-
rere Kapnona ynnnepcnrera n Hpare, cm. http://ucnk.ff.cuni.cz/
9
Hoont noxo nn n xoe mepe ne npornnopeunr ocnonntm npnn-
nnnam conocrannrentnoro xstxosnannx, paspaoranntm n npomnom cro-
nernn n Hpaxcxo nnnrnncrnuecxo mxone n axrnnno nponarannpye-
mtm neymnm oreuecrnenntm oremncrom mnnynmero cronernx sacny-
xenntm npo]eccopom MIV n nouerntm oxropom Kapnona ynnnepcnre-
ra n Hpare A.I. Bnpoxono, cm., nanpnmep, ony ns ee nocnennx paor
no meroonornn conocrannrentntx nccneonann n [Conocrannrent-
nte 1998]. Mt ne conpaemcx conocrannxrt amepnxancxym xyntryp-
nym xomnerennnm c uemcxnm nannonantntm xopnycom, mt noome ne
conpaemcx nnuero nn c uem c o n o c r a n n x r t . Hama saaua o n p e -
e n n r t , xaxne ns xnmuentx xnnenn amepnxancxo xyntrypt (orpann-
uennte n annom cnyuae onacrtm nnreparypt na anrnncxom xstxe)
12

perynxpno ncrpeuamrcx n conpemenntx uemcxnx rexcrax, ro ecrt xnnx-
mrcx rem camtm n xnnennxmn conpemenno uemcxo nnnrnoxyntrypt.
Kopnyc SYN2000 npnnnnnnantno ornnuaercx or ontmnncrna cyme-
crnymmnx xopnycon (nxnmuax ocrantnte 11 xoncrnryenron uemcxoro
nannonantnoro xopnyca, raxnx xax cromnnnnonnnt SYN2005, rpexco-
rmnnnnonnt SYN2005 n r..) rem, uro on crponncx nx roro, urot
trt naexntm ncrounnxom nn]opmannn ornocnrentno conpemennoro
uemcxoro peueynorpenennx n nenom.
Orop rexcron nx SYN2000 ocymecrnnxncx na ocnonannn connono-
rnuecxnx anntx o urennn xnnr n nepnonxn rpaxanamn uemcxo pec-
nynnxn n nocnenee ecxrnnerne XX nexa: nannune n crenent npecran-
nennocrn n xopnyce xonxperntx nsann n anropon sanncnr or nx unrae-
mocrn cpenecrarncrnuecxnm uexom, no+romy ontmym uacrt marepnana
SYN2000 opasymr nynnnncrnuecxne rexcrt (60%), na nropom mecre
naxoxrcx cnennantnte rexcrt cnpanounnxn, +nnnxnonenn n
r.. (25%), na rpertem ennerpncrnxa (15%). Cocrannrenn SYN2000
ncxoxr ns npenonoxennx, uro nnctmennt rexcr ne rontxo orpaxaer
(npxmo nnn onocpeonanno) conpemennym anropy xstxonym cnryannm,
no n ]opmnpyer nnnnnyantnym xstxonym xomnerennnm unrarenx,
no+romy nxnmuamr n ero cocran ne rontxo opnrnnantnte, no n nepeno-
nte rexcrt, a raxxe rexcrt, nanncannte n nsannte o 1990 roa, ecnn
onn nontsymrcx nonynxpnocrtm cpen conpemenntx unrarene. Ecnn
xro-ro saxouer npocro npounrart ncnyx rexcrt, cocrannxmmne xopnyc
(150 cnon n mnnyry, 8 uacon n ent, 365 ne n roy), +ro samer y nero 4
roa, cm. [Cesk nrodn korpus 2000: 14].
Ocnonnax macca cocrannxmmnx SYN2000 rexcron opnrnnantnte
rexcrt na uemcxom xstxe, cosannte n 19901999 rot. Tem ne menee,
xopnyc nxnmuaer raxxe onee nepenot c pyrnx xstxon, a raxxe pannne
uemcxne rexcrt, ecnn nx nonynxpnocrt cpen conpemenntx unrarene
ocrarouno ntcoxa n onn npoonxamr ]opmnponart axryantnym xstxo-
nym cnryannm.
B nacroxmee npemx xopnyc SYN2000 paccmarpnnaercx n xauecrne o-
noro ns nanonee naexntx ncrounnxon nnnrnncrnuecxo nn]opmannn,

12
Mt ne conpaemcx nepenponepxrt annte npo]eccopa Xnpma n nontsyemcx nmn rax,
xax mt nontsyemcx anntmn ns nmoro pyroro anropnrernoro ncrounnxa.
10
cm. marepnant mexynapontx xon]epennn [Grammar & Corpora 2005;
2007].
Cosannt na ocnone xopnyca SYN2000 xopnyc FSC2000 cran ncrou-
nnxom nx uacrornoro cnonapx conpemennoro uemcxoro xstxa [Frekvenc-
n... 2004], cnonapnte crartn xoroporo nxnmuamr 50 000 nonnosnamena-
rentntx cnon. 3ro coornercrnyer cnonapnomy sanacy (axrnnnomy + nac-
cnnnomy) opasonannoro uenonexa
13
.
Kopnyc SYN2000 ]opmnpyercx ncxnmunrentno sanepmenntmn rex-
cramn n rem camtm oexrnnno orpaxaer, no namemy mnennm, ne rontxo
conpemennym xstxonym, no n conpemennym nnnrnoxyntrypnym cnrya-
nnm n uemcxo pecnynnxe, cnnerentcrnyx, n uacrnocrn, n o ome-
xyntrypno xomnerennnn cpenecrarncrnuecxoro opasonannoro uexa.
Hponeennte nccneonannx nosnonxmr ormernrt orpomnym sony ne-
peceuennx ]onontx snann opasonannoro amepnxanna n opasonannoro
uexa n onacrn anrnoxstuno nnreparypt n nenom. B rexcrax SYN2000
mt ne cmornn onapyxnrt nnmt cneymmne ]amnnnn anropon ns nnymn-
rentnoro cnncxa npo]eccopa Xnpma:
(ALL13O F1J3L-#O@B (Harriet Beecher Stowe), nsnecrnax npexe nce-
ro pomanom Xnxnna xn Toma
14
;
*@>O@L #NI< (Dr. Seuss) ncenonnm amepnxancxoro ercxoro nnca-
renx n myntrnnnnxaropa Teoopa Ctmsa Iesenx (Theodore Seuss Geisel);
"PS34 /TR (Ogden Nash) amepnxancxn no+r-carnpnx, nsnecrnt
ocrpoymntmn a]opncrnuecxnmn crnxamn, mnorne ns xoropt neuarannct
n xypnane The New Yorker;
*U3M2? F@?BTHH (James Boswell) mornancxn nncarent n memya-
pncr, nsnecrnt npexe ncero cnoe nyxromno Xnsntm C+mm+na
xoncona (1791), xoropym uacro nastnamr nennuame norpa]ne na
anrnncxom xstxe;
%1HHA $AO3L (Willa Cather), nsnecrnax cnonmn pomanamn ns xnsnn
norpannutx.
Cxonax cnryannx nanmaercx n n cnyuae c nnreparypntmn nepco-
naxamn. B rexcrax SYN2000 namn tnn onapyxent nourn nce repon
nnreparypntx nponsneenn, paccmarpnnaemte npo]eccopom Xnpmem.
Pexne ncxnmuennx:
VW343<3L #>LBSU (Ebenezer Scrooge) nepconax nonecrn
u. nxxenca Poxecrnencxax necnt n ee mnorouncnenntx +xpannsa-
nn;
)@HO3L !1OO1 (Walter Mitty) nenrpantnt nepconax mmopncrnue-
cxoro paccxasa xemca Tepepa
15
(James Thurber).

13
Hsnecrnt cnonm orpomntm cnonapntm sanacom Vnncron uepunnnt ncnontsonan
oxono 60 000 cnon n cnonx nponsneennxx, cm. [McCarthy, ODell 2005: 4].
14
Cama Xnxnna xn Toma ynomnnaercx n rexcrax SYN2000 6 pas.
15
B pyccxo Cern ncrpeuamrcx raxxe napnanrt N$+K"+ n NP+K"+.
11
#AM2@4 53PL1 (Simon Legree) xecroxn paonnaenen ns Xnxn-
nt xn Toma Iappner Fnuep-Croy
63MP14
16
(Fagin) snoe ns pomana Onnnep Tnncr u. nxxenca.
$AQ1OA4 $LI> (Captain Hook) anraronncr rnannoro repox npons-
neenn xemca Fappn (James Matthew Barrie) o Hnrepe H+ne n nx
+xpannsann.
uro xe xacaercx nasnann nnreparypntx nponsneenn, ro naexno
crarncrnxo n +ro onacrn mt, x coxanennm, ne pacnonaraem. B ro npe-
mx xax sanncannte narnnnne nnoxstunte nmena n ]amnnnn npn nepe-
noe nponsneennx na uemcxn xstx, xax npannno, coxpanxmr cnoe na-
uepranne (ncxnmuennem xnnxmrcx nmena ncropnuecxnx nepconaxe,
xoropte moryr nmert n nannonantntx nnnnoxyntrypax cnenn]nuecxym
ornaconxy
17
, annmsnnnte nmena
18
nnn pesyntrart rnopuecxo ]anrasnn
nepenounxa
19
), nasnannx camnx nponsneenn moryr nepenonrtcx ca-
mtmn pasnnuntmn cnocoamn. Hanpnmep, uemcxn unrarent
20
snaer
paccxas 3rapa Ho The Fall of the House of Usher no cneymmnmn
nasnannxmn:
! Pd domu Usheru
! Znik domu Usheru
! Zkza domu Usheru
! Dum Usheru
Cp. raxxe nexoropte napnanrt nepenoa anrnncxnx nasnann na
uemcxn xstx:
Q+*5*-$34-)" -$2($-*" ;$+*$-%R M"+"()/$
Alices Adventures in Wonderland
by Lewis Carroll
1. Alenka v ri divu
2. Alencina dobrodrustv v ri
divu
3. Alenka v kraji divu
Heart of Darkness
by Joseph Conrad
1. Srdce temnoty
2. Srdce temnot

16
B pyccxnx nepenoax moxer ncrpernrtcx nexoppexrnax ]opma S"/L*-.
17
Cp. king Arthur 0)+)34 B+%7+ krl Artu
18
Hanpnmep, nmx npecneonarenx Mon nxa moxer nmert n uemcxom rexcre ornaconxy
Ahab (nepenounx pemnn coxpannrt anrnncxoe nanncanne) nnn ornaconxy Achab (nepeno-
unx pemnn coxpannrt nnecxym annmsnm, cm. And Ahab the son of Omri did evil in the
sight of the LORD above all that [were] before him. [King James Bible. 1 Kings 16:30]; I cinil
Achab syn Amri pred oblcejem Hospodinovm hor vci ne kdo ze vech, kter pred nm
byli. (Bible Kralick. I Krlovsk 16:30]).
19
Cp. Cheshire cat koTka klba
20
Bnpouem, pyccxomy unrarenm nonesno ne mentme, cp.: Haenne oma Vmepon // Hnr.
xypnan. 1881. N 11. C. 773792. (nep. ne yxasan); Haenne oma 3mep // Fannat n ]anra-
snn. M., Hs-no xnnxnoro marasnna u. A. Foranona. 1895 (nep. K. Fantmonra); Inent
3mepona oma // 3rap Ho: Copanne counnenn (n 2-x rr.). T.2. CH., ns-no
I.u. Hanreneena. 1896. (nep. M.A.3nrentrapra); Inent oma Vmep // 3rap Ho: Copanne
counnenn (n 2-x rr.). T. 2. CH., Becrnnx nnocrpanno nnreparypt. 1911; Haenne oma
Amepon // 3rap Ho: Honnoe copanne paccxason. M., Hayxa. 1970. (nep. B. B. Porona).
12
3. Nitro temnoty
The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
by Samuel Taylor Coleridge
1. Skldn o starm nmornkovi
2. Psen o starm nmornkovi
Great Expectations
by Charles Dickens
1. Velk nadje
2. Nadjn vyhldky
Kpome roro, ocrarouno mnoro ynomxnyrtx n [Dictionary of Cultural
Literacy 1988] nponsneenn (ercxne crnxn, cxasxn, annat n r..) mt
ne cmornn onapyxnrt nn n uemcxom cexrope Bnxnnenn, nn n uemcxom
cexrope Cern. uemcxne napnanrt nasnann +rnx nponsneenn sarpy-
nnnnct art n onpomennte namn nocnrenn xstxa, cpen xoroptx tnn n
nmn c ntcmnm rymannrapntm opasonannem. Hnaue ronopx, peut n nx
cnyuae ner yxe ne o ]onontx omexyntrypntx snannxx, a o npo]ec-
cnonantno xomnerenrnocrn anrnncra.
Tem ne menee nemano nponsneenn anrnoxstuntx anropon ncrpeua-
ercx n rexcrax SYN2000 nnonne perynxpno, cm. crarncrnxy na nocne-
ymmnx crpannnax.
Hepnax xononxa uncen n rannne Anropt noxastnaer aconmrnym
uacrornocrt coornercrnymmero nmenn (n ero epnnaron) n SYN2000.
Hanpnmep, uncno 1933 nocne nmenn Shakespeare, William noxastnaer,
uro mt onapyxnnn 1933 xonrexcra c +rnm nmenem
21
. Bropax xononxa
uncen noxastnaer cymmy ynomnnann nmenn coornercrnymmero anropa n
nmen ero nepconaxe, a raxxe nasnann ero nponsneenn (rex nponsne-
enn n rex nepconaxe, xoroptm n [Dictionary of Cultural Literacy 1988]
nocnxment orentnte cnonapnte crartn). Hanpnmep, uncno 4106 n crpo-
xe Shakespeare, William coornercrnyer cymme ynomnnann n rexcrax
SYN2000 nmenn Bexcnnpa, nmenn Iamnera, nmenn Kopennn, nmen Po-
meo n xynterrt n r..
Ormernm, xcrarn, uro ro nnn nnoe ornomenne x Bexcnnpy nmeer oxo-
no 40% ncex paccmorpenntx namn npnmepon, n coornercrnnn c xoroptmn
n conpemennom uemcxom omecrne Bexcnnp oxastnaercx n 12 pas onee
nonynxpntm, uem nropo no nonynxpnocrn anrnoxstunt nncarent
3pnecr Xemnnry+, cm.:
! " # $ % &
Shakespeare, William 1933 4012
Hemingway, Ernest 350 350
Woolf, Virginia 271 271
Orwell, George 205 277
Shaw, George Bernard 189 231
Wilde, Oscar 124 124
Faulkner, William 110 110
Eliot, T. S. 108 244
Dickens, Charles 103 160

21
Honcx "Shakespear.*" an 1934 xonrexcra, onaxo onn xonrexcr tn ncxnmuen no-
cne nnsyantnoro xonrponx.
13
Byron, George Gordon, Lord 92 92
Steinbeck, John 89 112
Whitman, Walt 85 103
Conrad, Joseph 82 103
Joyce, James 78 78
Twain, Mark 76 168
Kipling, Rudyard 76 76
Wells, H. G. 74 74
Lawrence, D. H. 72 72
Huxley, Aldous 68 73
Christie, Agatha 63 63
Fitzgerald, F. Scott 57 75
Austen, Jane 45 47
Poe, Edgar Allan 40 64
Thurber, James 37 37
Doyle, Sir Arthur Conan 36 271
Swift, Jonathan 35 74
Stevenson, Robert Louis 35 273
Carroll, Lewis 30 141
Milton, John 29 50
Chaucer, Geoffrey 29 64
Wordsworth, William 28 28
Blake, William 28 28
Wilder, Thornton 26 42
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor 26 31
James, Henry 25 25
Shelley, Percy Bysshe 24 24
Keats, John 24 24
Emerson, Ralph Waldo 24 24
Stein, Gertrude 23 23
Thoreau, Henry David 20 25
Dos Passos, John 19 19
Sandburg, Carl 18 18
Dickinson, Emily 17 17
O'Neill, Eugene 16 16
Melville, Herman 16 66
Bacon, Francis 16 16
Tennyson, Alfred, Lord 15 15
Scott, Sir Walter 15 15
Lewis, Sinclair 13 17
Fielding, Henry 13 13
Browning, Robert 12 12
Pope, Alexander 11 11
Milne, A. A. 11 76
Williams, Tennessee 10 61
Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth 9 19
Hughes, Langston 9 9
Johnson, Samuel 8 8
Bront, Charlotte and Emily 8 41
Henry, O. 7 7
Frost, Robert 6 6
Cooper, James Fenimore 6 26
Donne, John 5 5
14
Burns, Robert 5 5
Mencken, H. L. 3 3
Hawthorne, Nathaniel 3 3
Eliot, George 3 3
Browning, Elizabeth Barrett 3 3
Wright, Richard 3 3
Wharton, Edith 2 2
Parker, Dorothy 2 2
Ellison, Ralph 2 2
Angelou, Maya 2 2
Alcott, Louisa May 2 18
cummings, e.e. 2 2
Steinem, Gloria 1 1
Irving, Washington 1 1
Alger, Horatio, Jr. 1 1
Cather, Willa 1 1
Stowe, Harriet Beecher 0 6
' % $ ( ) " * + * , ( -
(Hamlet)
22
530
(Romeo and Juliet) 476
(Othello) 218
(Macbeth) 165
Midsummer Night's Dream, A 147
Waste Land, The 136
(King Lear) 110
(Frankenstein) 107
Taming of the Shrew, The 100
Huckleberry Finn, The Adventures of 86
Alices Adventures in Wonderland 86
(Pygmalion) 78
(Julius Caesar) 75
Wizard of Oz, The Wonderful 64
Treasure Island 60
Streetcar Named Desire, A 51
(Robinson Crusoe) 50
As You Like It 50
Nineteen Eighty-Four 45
Moby Dick 41
Great Expectations 39
Gulliver's Travels 35
Canterbury Tales, The 35
Last of the Mohicans, The 34
New Yorker, The 33
Tempest, The 31
Scarlet Letter, The 30
(Peter Pan) 28
Animal Farm 27

22
Cxoxn osnauamr nexym ycnonnocrt npnnonmo crarncrnxn, nanpnmep, uro uacrt
xonrexcron ornocnrcx ne x nnreparypnomy nponsneennm nenocpecrnenno, a x nepconaxy,
nasnannomy n sarnannn annoro nponsneennx.
15
Death of a Salesman 27
Gone with the Wind 26
Grapes of Wrath, The 23
Farewell to Arms, A 23
Wuthering Heights 23
Catch 22 22
Paradise Lost 21
Heart of Darkness 21
Fall of the House of Usher, The 20
Antony and Cleopatra 20
Through the Looking-Glass 20
Leaves of Grass 18
Great Gatsby, The 18
Our Town 16
Little Women 16
Catcher in the Rye, The 14
Twelfth Night 12
Jane Eyre 10
Tobacco Road 10
(Pollyanna) 9
Pied Piper of Hamelin 9
Beowulf 9
Sun Also Rises, The 8
Casey Jones 8
(Paul Revere's Ride)
23
8
Tom Sawyer, The Adventures of 6
Uncle Tom's Cabin 6
(Brave New World) 5
Merchant of Venice, The 4
Raven, The 4
Rime of the Ancient Marine, The 4
Walden 3
Goldilocks and the Three Bears 3
Christmas Carol, A 3
David Copperfield 3
Pilgrim's Progress, The 3
Three [Little]
24
Pigs, The 3
Pride and Prejudice 2
Oliver Twist 3
Hiawatha, The Song of 3
Elmer Gantry 2
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, The Strange Case of 2
Liberty, On 2
Babbitt 2
Civil Disobedience 2
Kubla Khan 1
Gunga Din 1
In Flanders Fields 1

23
Bce 8 xonrexcron ornocxrcx x Hony Pennpy xax ncropnuecxomy nnny, a ne x nepcona-
xy no+mt Honr]enno.
24
Bapnanr The Thee Little Pigs ropaso onee pacnpocrpanen, uem npnnonmt Xnpmem
(The Thee Pigs), cm. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Little_Pigs
16
Roots 1
Red Badge of Courage, The 1
'*%.$,/0(
Tarzan 375
Dracula, Count 360
Holmes, Sherlock 221
Robin Hood 211
Jekyll, Dr. 100
Arthur, King 98
Hyde, Mr. 76
Winnie-the-Pooh 65
Iago 50
O'Hara, Scarlett 42
Falstaff 31
(Heep, Uriah)
25
19
Brutus 15
Watson, Dr. 14
Shylock 12
Cheshire Cat, The 5
Tiny Tim 4
Yahoo 4
Ahab, Captain 9
Jeeves 8
Antony, Mark 6
Pickwick, Samuel 5
Friday 5
Cordelia 3
Malaprop, Mrs. 2
Tweedledum and Tweedledee 1
Bumppo, Natty 1
Big Bad Wolf, The 1
Honyuennte annte moryr trt ncnontsonant n nccneonannxx no
mexxyntrypno xommynnxannn, n nororonxe cnennanncron no anrnn-
cxo n no uemcxo ]nnonornn, a raxxe n npaxrnuecxom npenoanannn
anrnncxoro n uemcxoro xstxon.
H n r e p a r y p a
B2*.)( B. Hyrenonrent no Bexcnnpy. Anrnncxne ntect. M.: Henrpnonnrpa], 2007.
B3"0&$-/+)($ Q.;., ;$&*34"( ;.;. Conpemennt anrnncxn xstx nx ]nnonoron. M.:
unnon. ]-r MIV nm. M.B. Homonocona, 1998.
Anrnncxn nannonantnt xapaxrep: C. crare n nsnneuenn ns paor o anrnn-
cxom xstxe n xyntrype / Cocr. 8.8. S*3*MM)($. M.: opocner-M, 2006.
Anrnncxn nannonantnt xapaxrep. Btn. 2: C. crare n nsnneuenn ns paor o anrnn-
cxom xstxe n xyntrype / Cocr. 8.8. S*3*MM)($. M.: Hsarentcxn om Iopo-
en, 2009.
B?.$-)($ Q.G. Cnonapt nnnrnncrnuecxnx repmnnon. M.: Conercxax +nnnxnonenx, 1966.

25
Bce xonrexcrt ornocxrcx ne x nepconaxy nxxenca nenocpecrnenno, a x mono
pox-rpynne. Mt ne ynepent, nnpouem, uro cpenecrarncrnuecxn uex acconnnpyer nasnan-
nym pox-rpynny c nxxencom, a noromy ne yunrtnann annoe uncno n ome crarncrnxe.
17
B?.$-)($ Q. G. 9IKK"-"% A.;. Beprnxantnt xonrexcr xax ]nnonornuecxax nponema //
Bonpoct xstxosnannx. 1977. N 3.
U$+$-)( B.E. J$+$73)( =.E. Pyccxax nonnrnuecxax mera]opa: marepnant x cnonapm. M.,
1991.
U"34#*0)( =.B. K nonxrnm xonnenr n xonrexcre nnnrnoxyntryponornn // stx. Kyntrypa.
Omenne: C. nayun. rpyon n uecrt mnnex sacnyxennoro npo]eccopa MIV nm.
M.B. Homonocona G.9. N"+-8*-$&)()@ / Orn. pe. 9.9. 8)3#$-)($. M.: Inosnc,
2008.
Fnnecxne cmxert n xnnonncn: Pyccxo-anrnncxn cnonapt-cnpanounnx c napannentnt-
mn nnraramn ns Fnnnn / Cocr. B.G. 8*0)'-. M.: Hs-no Mocx. yn-ra, 1999.
U)3/R+"($ <.;. Connantno-ncropnuecxn neprnxantnt xonrexcr (na marepnane anrnn-
cxo xyoxecrnenno nnreparypt). M.: nanor-MIV, 1997.
U)3/R+"($ <.;., 9IKK"-"% A.;. Vuent cnonapt nnrar ns anrnoxstuntx anropon. M.:
Hs-no Mocx. yn-ra, 2000.
Fontmax conercxax +nnnxnonenx. 3-e ns. B 30 rr. M.: 1969-1978.
;$V"-0) B.;. Cpannnrentnax mn]onornx: xyntryponornuecxne acnexrt // Mexxyntrypnax
xommynnxannx. Copnnx yuentx nporpamm. M.: Hs-no Mocx. yn-ra, 1999.
;"LK*10$' B. Honnmanne xyntryp uepes nocpecrno xnmuentx cnon. M.: stxn cnanxn-
cxo nnreparypt, 2001.
;"LK*10$' B. stx. Kyntrypa. Hosnanne. M.: Hporpecc, 1996.
;"+"V$5*- >.8. Crpanoneenne n npenoananne pyccxoro xstxa nnocrpannam. M., 1972.
;"+"V$5*- >.8., J)&%).$+)( ;.9. stx n xyntrypa. Hnnrnocrpanoneenne n npenoanannn
pyccxoro xstxa xax nnocrpannoro. M., 1973.
;"+"V$5*- >. 8., J)&%).$+)( ;.9. Hnnrnocrpanoneuecxax reopnx cnona. M.: Pyccxn
xstx, 1980.
;3$&"-0) G.;. Connonnnrnncrnuecxne acnexrt nepenoa: anrno-pyccxne nepenouecxne
conocrannennx &)1*)3)5". ]pasontx nomnnarnnntx xomnnexcon,
oosnauammnx connantno-+xonomnuecxne nncrnryrt n connantno-crarycnte
peannn // stx, cosnanne, xommynnxannx. Btn. 37. M., 2009.
;3$?)( G., S3)+*- G. Henepenonmoe n nepenoe. M.: Mexynaponte ornomennx, 1980.
;)+)LK*%)($ B.B. Teopnx rexcra: anrpononenrpnuecxoe nanpannenne. M., 2005.
;)+)L1)($ Q.B., W$@1"($ B.U. Hpeneenrnte nmena n poccncxo n amepnxancxo neuarn
// Hsnecrnx Vpantcxoro rocyapcrnennoro ynnnepcnrera. Cep. 1, Hponemt opa-
sonannx, nayxn n xyntrypt. 2006. Btn. 2.
9$+$573' G.A. Anrnncxoe nnunoe nmx xax oexr nsyuennx xstxa, ncropnn n xyntrypt.
Fenropo, 2002.
9$&M$+)( 8. <. Hnreparypnt nnreprexcr n xstxono nnreprexcr // Hsnecrnx PAH. Cep.
nnreparypt n xstxa. 2002. N 4.
9)+)/"10$' <.B. Bocnpnxrne n nnrepnperannx nponemno mexynapono cnryannn n
amepnxancxo n pyccxo nnnrnoxyntrypax: +xcnepnmenrantnoe nccneonanne //
stx. Kyntrypa. Omenne: C. nayun. rpyon n uecrt mnnex sacnyxennoro npo-
]eccopa MIV nm. M.B. Homonocona G.9. N"+-8*-$&)()@ / Orn. pe.
9.9. 8)3#$-)($. M.: Inosnc, 2008.
97/0)( C.U. Anropnrm nocnpnxrnx rexcra n mexxyntrypnax xommynnxannx // stx,
cosnanne, xommynnxannx. Btn. 1. M., 1997.
97/0)( C.U. Hpeneenrnoe nmx n xornnrnnno ase conpemennoro pyccxoro xstxa. stx,
cosnanne, xommynnxannx. Btn. 4. M., 1998.
97/0)( C.U. Hpeneenrnoe nmx n nponemt npeneenrnocrn. M.: Hs-no Mocx. yn-ra,
1999.
97/0)( C. U. Hpeneenrnax cnryannx n cnocot ee axryannsannn // stx, cosnanne,
xommynnxannx. Btn. 11. M., 2000.
97/0)( C. U. Teopnx n npaxrnxa mexxyntrypno xommynnxannn. M., 2003.
9IKK"-"% A.;. Ocnont ]nnonornuecxo nnrepnperannn nnreparypno-xyoxecrnennoro
rexcra. M.: Hnpoxom, 2010.
C".4'-0)( ;.W. Kornnrnnnax nnnrnncrnxa xax pasnonnnocrt nnrepnpernpymmero noxoa
// Bonpoct xstxosnannx. 1994. N 4.
C)K+)&03)-&0$' N.9. Menannnrnncrnxa. Cncremnt noxo x nsyuennm xstxa CMH.
(Conpemennax anrnncxax menapeut). M.: Hayxa: unnnra, 2008.
18
>3*&%+$%)( ;.G. O menennsme conpemenno pexnamt // Becrnnx Mocx. yn-ra. Cep. 19.
Hnnrnncrnxa n mexxyntrypnax xommynnxannx. 2004. N 1.
>3*&%+$%)( ;.G. 3nonmnnx pyccxoro mn]a na 3anae // stx. Kyntrypa. Omenne: C.
nayun. rpyon n uecrt mnnex sacnyxennoro npo]eccopa MIV nm.
M.B. Homonocona G.9. N"+-8*-$&)()@ / Orn. pe. 9.9. 8)3#$-)($. M.: Inosnc,
2008.
W$5+'20*-$ N.=. upannnx n xyntryponornuecxom acnexre. M.: Crparernx, 2007.
W$/)+-)($ ;.X. Bocnpnxrne n nnrepnperannx xyoxecrnennoro rexcra. M.: Btcmax
mxona, 1984.
W$?$+"-0) A. ;. O nenecoopasnocrn ncnontsonannx repmnna npeneenrnoe
ntcxastnanne // stx, cosnanne, xommynnxannx. Btn. 12. M., 2000.
W$?$+"-0) A.;., J+$&-R? ;.;., 97/0)( C.U., U$5$"($ C.;. Hpeneenrnoe nmx n npeneenrnoe
ntcxastnanne xax cnmnont npeneenrntx ]enomenon // stx, cosnanne,
xommynnxannx. Btn. 1. M., 1997.
W".&0$' >.B. Hnrannx n cnocot ee rpanc]opmannn n sarononxax conpemenntx raser //
Ho+rnxa. Crnnncrnxa. stx n xyntrypa. Hamxrn T.I. Bnnoxyp. M., 1996.
A($-)($ >.U. Hnreprexcryantnte cnxsn n xyoxecrnenntx ]nntmax: Anrope]. ncc.
xan. ]nnon. nayx. Bonrorpa, 2001.
J$+$&*0 ;.A. stxono xpyr: nnunocrt, xonnenrt, ncxypc. M., 2004.
J$+$73)( =. E. Pont npeneenrntx rexcron n crpyxrype n ]ynxnnonnponannn xstxono
nnunocrn // Hayunte rpannnn n nonte nanpannennx n npenoanannn pyccxoro
xstxa n nnreparypt : oxnat conercxo enerannn na VI xonrpecce MAHPH.
M., 1996.
J$+$73)( =.E. Cnonapt Hymxnna n +nonmnnx pyccxo xstxono cnoconocrn (no pe.
Ipnroptena B.H.) Hs. 2-e, ncnp. M.: KomKnnra, 2006.
J$+$73)( =.E. Pyccxn xstx n xstxonax nnunocrt. Hs. 5-e, crepeornn. M.: HKH, 2007.
J).)($ N.B. Bneenne n conocrannrentnym nnnrnoxyntryponornm: Bennxopnrannx
Poccnx. M.: M.: Kpacan, 2010.
J)+-*3)( Q. B. stxonte xaprnnt mnpa xax orpaxennx nannonantntx menrannreron:
ncc. ... -pa xyntr.: 24.00.04. Mocxna, 2000.
J)&%).$+)( ;.9., U7+(*0)($ E.C. Kax rexcrt cranonxrcx npeneenrntmn // Pyccxn xstx
sa pyexom. 1994. N 1.
J)&%).$+)( ;. 9., !+)?)+)( =.>. stx n xstx xyntrypt n mexxyntrypnom omennn //
Poccnx Bocrox 3ana. M., 1998.
J+$&-R? ;.;. Bnpryantnax peantnocrt nnn peantnax nnpryantnocrt? M.: nanor-MIV,
1998.
J+$&-R? ;.;. 3rnoncnxonnnrnncrnxa n nnnrnoxyntryponornx: xypc nexnn. M.: Inosnc,
2002.
J+$&-R? ;.;. Cno cpen uyxnx: mn] nnn peantnocrt? M.: Inosnc, 2003.
J+*&%"($ =. Faxrnn, cnono, nanor n poman // Becrnnx Mocx. yn-ra. Cep. 9. unnonornx.
1995. N 1.
J+I0)($ A.;. Pexnamnoe nmx: or nsoperennx o npeneenrnocrn. Bonrorpa, 2004.
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<"($,)($ ;.B. Conpemennax Bennxopnrannx: Crpana, rocyapcrno, omecrno. M.: PHH
HCHH PAH, 2000.
<",0)($ Q.Q. Cno cpen uyxnx: x nonpocy o aanrannn sanmcrnonann (na marepnane conpemennoro
nontcxoro xstxa // stx, cosnanne, xommynnxannx. Btn. 38. M., 2009.
<*M5$+% B.B. Ontra Cepreenna Axmanona. Ouepx xnsnn n nayunoro rnopuecrna. M.:
KomKnnra, 2007a.
<*M5$+% B.B. Ocnont nnnrnono+rnxn. M.: KomKnnra, 2007
<*%(*-)( B.;. O crpyxrype mexxyntrypno xomnerennnn // stx, cosnanne,
xommynnxannx. Btn. 28. M., 2004.
8$3I5$ >. E. Pont sarononxon n nosarononxon n anrno-amepnxancxo npecce // stx,
cosnanne, xommynnxannx. Btn. 21. M., 2002.
8$&3)($ ;.B. Hnnrnoxyntryponornx. M., 2001.
8"-/L"+*10$' >.Q. Kornnrnnnt cnnraxcnc xyoxecrnenno nnreparypt. Conpemennt
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8)3#$-)($ 9.9. Anrnncxn xax nepono: rexcr, crnnt, xyntrypa, xommynnxannx. M.:
Btcmax mxona, 2007.
19
8)&0(*- ;.!. Hnrnponanne, annnnxannx, napa]pas: x pasrpannuennm nonxrn // unnono-
rnuecxne nayxn. 2002. N 1.
E$2$+"-0) B.<. Btsont XXI nexa n nnnrnncrnuecxoe opasonanne // stx. Kyntrypa. O-
menne: C. nayun. rpyon n uecrt mnnex sacnyxennoro npo]eccopa MIV nm.
M.B. Homonocona G.9. N"+-8*-$&)()@ / Orn. pe. 9.9. 8)3#$-)($. M.: Inosnc,
2008.
Hannonantnt xopnyc pyccxoro xstxa http://ruscorpora.ru.
E"3IK*- <.<. Tonxont nepenooneuecxn cnonapt. M.: unnnra: Hayxa, 2009.
E"3IK*- <.<., H7?7-* 9.N. Hayxa o nepenoe. M.: unnnra, 2008.
E)+.$-- U.=. Coornomenne nayunoro, nannnoro n xstxonoro snannx xax nponema conpe-
menno nnnrnncrnxn // Pyccxn xstx n mxone. 2007. N 5.
!$(3)(&0$' B.;. Poccnx n Amepnxa: nponemt omennx xyntryp. Poccnx rnasamn amepn-
xannen 1850-1880-e rot. Mocxna: Hsarentcrno Mocxoncxoro ynnnepcnrera,
1998.
!$(3)(&0$' B.;. Anrnnx n anrnnuane. M.: Hs-no Mocx. yn-ra, 2005.
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Hs-no Mocx. yn-ra, 2006.
!$(3)(&0$' B.;. Pyccxn mnp. Xapaxrep, tr n npant. B 2 romax. M.: Cnono/Slovo, 2009.
!)3*V70 >. ;. O nexoroptx rpynocrxx n ycnonnxx ycnemnocrn amepnxano-nnoxstuno
mexnnunocrno xommynnxannn // stx, cosnanne, xommynnxannx. Btn. 17. M.,
2001.
Honnt npanocnannt orocnoncxi +nnnxnonenuecxi cnonapt. B 2 rr. CH.: Hs-no
H.H. Coxnna [ro ne yxasan].
!)37K*#"-0) <.;. 3auem ]axyntreram nnocrpanntx xstxon xyoxecrnennax nnreparypa? //
stx. Kyntrypa. Omenne: C. nayun. rpyon n uecrt mnnex sacnyxennoro npo-
]eccopa MIV nm. M.B. Homonocona G.9. N"+-8*-$&)()@ / Orn. pe.
9.9. 8)3#$-)($. M.: Inosnc, 2008.
!)%$M)($ E.8. Kparxn osop nexoroptx nccneonann +n]emnsmon // stx, cosnanne,
xommynnxannx. Btn. 34. M., 2007.
!+*($3)($ A. ;. Orpaxenne nannonantno-xyntrypntx nennocre n napemnonornuecxom
]one xstxa // stx, cosnanne, xommynnxannx. Btn. 18. M., 2001.
!+)?)+)( =. >. Kommynnxarnnnoe npocrpancrno xstxono nnunocrn n nannonantno-
xyntrypnom acnexre // stx, cosnanne, xommynnxannx. Btn. 8. M., 1999.
!+)?)+)( =.>. Hannonantnte connoxyntrypnte crepeornnt peuenoro omennx n nx pont
n oyuennn pyccxomy xstxy nnocrpannen. M., 2003.
!+)?)+)( =.>. ecrnnrentnocrt. Texcr. ncxypc : yuenoe nocone. M., 2004.
!+)?)+)($ 8.=. unnonornuecxn neprnxantnt xonrexcr n nparmannnrnncrnuecxom
ocnemennn. M.: MAKC Hpecc, 2002.
!4"5"-9+) E. Bneenne x reopnm nnreprexcryantnocrn: Hep. c ]p. / Om. pe. n ncryn.
crartx 9.J. J)&*0)($. M.: Hs-no HKH, 2008.
D).$-)($ G. !., J)+$3)($ B. <. Hocone no nepenoy c anrnncxoro na pyccxn. M.:
Knnxnt om Vnnnepcnrer, 2008
D7. B. D. :. Bennxopnrannx: Hnnrnocrpanoneuecxn cnonapt. 3-e ns., crep. M.:
Pyccxn xstx, 2002.
Conocrannrentnte nccneonannx rpammarnxn n nexcnxn pyccxoro n sananocnanxncxnx
xstxon / Ho pe. B.9. F*+)0)()@. M.: Hs-no Mocx. yn-ra, 1998.
G)+)0*- =.B. uro raxoe npeneenrnt rexcr? // Cemanrnxa nenoro rexcra: resnct ntcryn-
nennx na conemannn. M., 1987.
G)+)0*- =.B., 8$+0)(*-$ A.=. Honxrne uyxo n xstxonom n xyntrypnom xonrexcre //
stx: +rnoxyntrypnt n nparmarnuecxne acnexrt: c. nayu. rp. nenponer-
poncx, 1988.
G)+)0*- =. B., 8*?$3"($ A. 8. Hnrart xax snaxn npeneenrntx rexcron xstxa // stx,
cosnanne, xommynnxannx. Btn. 2. M., 1997.
G)+)0*- =. B., 97/0)( C. U., J+$&-R? ;. ;., ;)34&0$' E. !. uenomen npeneenrnocrn n
npeneenrnte ]enoment // stx, cosnanne, xommynnxannx. Btn. 4. M., 1998.
G%"M$-)( =.G. Koncranrt: Cnonapt pyccxo xyntrypt. M.: Axaemnuecxn npoexr,
2004.
G%"M$-)( =.G. Konnenrt: Tonxax nnenxa nnnnnnsannn M.: stxn cnanxncxnx xyntryp,
2007.
20
N"+-8*-$&)($ G.9. stx n mexxyntrypnax xommynnxannx. M.: Cnono/Slovo, 2000.
N"+-8*-$&)($ G.9. Bona n mnp xstxon n xyntryp. M.: Cnono/Slovo, 2008.
N).$?*- 9.C. CBA: Hnnrnocrpanoneuecxn cnonapt. 3-e ns., crep. M.: Pyccxn xstx,
2001.
S$%IV"-0) B.;. Cemt mnnnnapon uyec cnera. M.: Knronn, 2009.
S$%IV"-0) ;.A. Pyccxn mnp n xonrexcre mnpontx nnnnnnsann // Becrnnx Mocxoncxoro
ynnnepcnrera. Cepnx 19. 2000. N3.
S$%IV"-0) ;.A. Pyccxn mnp n xonrexcre mnpontx nnnnnnsann. M.: Inosnc, 2009.
S*3*MM)($ 8.8. Anrnncxn nannonantnt xapaxrep. M.: ACT: Acrpent, 2007.
S*3*MM)($ 8.8. Bsanmocnxst xstxa, mtmnennx n xyntrypt n npenoananne nnocrpannoro
xstxa // stx, cosnanne, xommynnxannx. Btn. 36. M., 2008.
S*3*MM)($ 8.8. Anrnncxn xstx n oyuennn cnennanncron no cnxsxm c omecrnennocrtm
// stx, cosnanne, xommynnxannx. Btn. 37. M., 2009.
S+)3)($ Q. >. Mnp, croxmn sa rexcrom: pe]epennnantnte mexannsmt nocnonnnt, anex-
ora, nonmeno cxasxn n anropcxoro nonecrnonarentnoro xyoxecrnennoro rex-
cra. M.: URSS: HKH, 2007.
X1"-0) A.A. O npemena! o rexcrt! (ocrynnt nn nnreprexcryantnte cnxsn pyccxoxstunoro
xyoxecrnennoro rexcra nnocrpannomy unrarenm?) // stx, cosnanne,
xommynnxannx. Btn. 1. M., 1997.
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2004.
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& Jane Setter. Cambridge University Press, 2003.
King James Bible (1611) // O AOIOL TOY OEOY Cnxmennte rexcrt na nnpnre, apame-
cxom, rpeuecxom, narnncxom, xonrcxom, anrnncxom, nemenxom, nepxonno-
cnanxncxom n pyccxom xstxax. http://ihtys.narod.ru/
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tion, 2006.
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Wordsworth Editions Limited, 2006.
21
5&/(%&#-&$+
#O1H1?O1J3?>@3 XB4>C1@41L@KA413 >AO3P@L11 ALO1>HD
K A4PH1M?>@2 D<=>3 (4A 2AO3L1AH3 H1O3LAOBL4@-
>L1O1J3?>1Y QL@1<K3S341M)
0$-/*/$% 6*3)3)5*#"&0*? -$70 >.B. C)35*-$, 20O0
B nacroxme crarte pasnnnamrcx npnnnnnt nccneonannx xareropnn
aprnxnx n anrnncxom xstxe, npenoxennte n crarte Anrnncxne ap-
rnxnn n xornnrnnnom n crnnncrnuecxom ocnemennn
1
. Hanomnnm, uro
aprnxnt paccmarpnnaercx xax rpammarnuecxax xareropnx cymecrnnrent-
noro n anrnncxom xstxe, n ocnone xoropo nexnr onnosnnnx acrpax-
nnn-xonxpernsannn, peannsyemax n peun ]opmamn c nynentm, neonpee-
nenntm n onpeenenntm aprnxnem. Kaxax ns nnx nepeaer npecranne-
nne o npemere mtcnn c ontme nnn mentme crenentm acrpax-
nnn/xonxpernsannn, uro saxpennxercx xareropnantntm snauennem. Hyne-
nax aprnxnenax ]opma cymecrnnrentnoro nmeer snauenne npornnonoc-
rannennx, onpeenxmmee acrpaxnnm, ]opma nmenn c neonpeenenntm
aprnxnem nepeaer snauenne cpannennx, oycnonnnnammee xnaccn]nxa-
nnm, a nx ]opmt nmenn c onpeenenntm aprnxnem xapaxrepno snauenne
ncxpernsannn, r.e. orcyrcrnne npornnonocrannennx n cpannennx.
Crnnncrnuecxoe (meracemnornuecxoe) ]ynxnnonnponanne xareropnn
aprnxnx ntpaxaercx n ncnontsonannn aprnxnentx ]opm nmenn, napy-
mammem rpammarnuecxym nopmy
2
, npn xoropom nponcxonr ycnnenne nx
xareropnantntx snauenn n +xcnpeccnnntx nenxx.
Marepnanom nacroxme crartn xnnxmrcx nnreparypno- xpnrnuecxne
rexcrt, xoropte npecrannxmr coo norpannunym onacrt nnreparyp-
noro rnopuecrna, sannmammym mecro na crtxe nnreparypt xax nna
ncxyccrna n nayxn o nnreparype nnreparyponeennx. B cnxsn c +rnm
nnreparypnax xpnrnxa xnnxercx ocoo pasnonnnocrtm peun, sannmam-
me npomexyrounoe nonoxenne mexy ]ynxnnonantntmn crnnxmn xy-
oxecrnenno nnreparypt n nayunoro omennx, cnenn]nuecxoe ornnune

1
Cm. C)35*-$ >.B. Anrnncxne aprnxnn n xornnrnnnom n crnnncrnuecxom ocnemennn //
stx. Cosnanne. Kommynnxannx. M., 2007. Btn. 35. C. 34-56. Cm. raxxe C)35*-$ >.B.
Crnnncrnuecxoe ]ynxnnonnponanne xareropnn aprnxnx n anrnncxom xstxe//Becrnnx
uIHV Cepnx unnonornx. uenxnncx, 2008. N 10. C. 174-186.
2
nx oropa crnnncrnuecxn mapxnponanntx aprnxnentx ]opm tno paspaorano 6
xpnrepnen. Cm. o +rom C)35*-$ >.B. Honn]ynxnnonantnocrt anrnncxnx aprnxne n xstxe
n peun. M., 2009. C. 88-108.
22
xoropo cocronr n perynxpnom cononoxennn ]ynxnn coomennx n nos-
ecrnnx [Bnnorpaon 1963: 6]. 3ra ocoennocrt onpeenxercx ocnon-
ntmn saauamn nnreparypno-xpnrnuecxoro nccneonannx n cocronr n
nponeennn anannsa nenoro, +rnuecxoro n +crernuecxoro coepxannx
nponsneenn n ntnecennn onenxn +romy coepxannm.
Anrnncxax nnreparypnax xpnrnxa xax ocot xanp cnonecno-
xyoxecrnennoro rnopuecrna ncera tna n nenrpe nnnmannx xax sapy-
exntx, rax n oreuecrnenntx ]nnonoron-anrnncron, uro orpaxaercx n
mnorouncnenntx nynnxannxx, nocnxmenntm ocoennocrxm nexcnuecxo-
ro cocrana, cnnraxcnuecxoro nocrpoennx n crnnncrnxe [Kpacanuenxo
1977: 102-123; Hannencxax 1983; Seymour-Smith 1973; Wellek 1971;
Jacobson 1960; Richards 1974; Schlager, Lauer 2001]. B uacrnocrn, na
xa]epe anrnncxoro xstxosnannx ]nnonornuecxoro ]axyntrera MIV
nmenn M.B. Homonocona tnn paspaorant npnnnnnt n merot nsyue-
nnx +ro ]ynxnnonantno pasnonnnocrn, xoroptmn nenecoopasno
nocnontsonartcx n nenxx nacroxmero nccneonannx [uaxoncxax 1978;
Heeena 1983; Knxxena 1987].
Hpexe ncero, neoxonmo npnnxrt no nnnmanne naxnemn ntno o
rom, uro cnenn]nuecxo crnneno ocoennocrtm +ro pasnonnnocrn
]nnonornuecxo peun xnnxercx mnorocnonocrt nnreparypno-
xpnrnuecxoro rexcra, r.e. perynxpnoe nnecenne camo pasnoopasno
nexcnxn, oycnonnenno nnnxnnem npemera n meroa nccneonannx, a
raxxe ]axropom nnunocrn nccneonarenx [Knxxena 1987: 203]. Ho+romy
napxy c cocrnenno nnrennexrnnno nexcnxo, ntnonnxmme ]ynxnnm
coomennx n oecneunnamme oexrnnnocrt nnreparyponeuecxoro
rexcra, nx +ro ]ynxnnonantno pasnonnnocrn xapaxrepno raxxe
nxnmuenne pasnoopasntx rnopuecxnx +xcnpeccnnno-+monnonantntx
onenountx ]opm ntpaxennx [Knxxena 1987: 21, 200-201].
nx ycranonnennx coornomennx ]ynxnn coomennx n nosecrnnx
n anrnncxnx nnreparyponeuecxnx rexcrax npnmenxncx mero nnnrnoc-
rnnncrnuecxoro anannsa, n pesyntrare xoroporo onn pasenxnnct na 3
xareropnn n coornercrnnn c ntnonnxemo nmn crnnncrnuecxo ]ynxnne
n cpecrnamn ntpaxennx [Knxxena 1987: 21-55]. Hepnax rpynna rexcron
orpaxaer crnnt, no-anrnncxn nastnaemt inflated art-criticese, xoropt
ornnuaercx upesmepno cnoxnocrtm, nomnesnocrtm, a raxxe +monno-
nantno neperpyxennocrtm, cyexrnnno onenxo, uro sarpynxer
nonnmanne n npenxrcrnyer pannonantnomy nocnpnxrnm unrarenx
[Akhmanova, Idzelis 1978: 38-57].
Bropax rpynna nxnmuaer rexcrt, nsxrte ns nnreparypntx cnonape n
+nnnxnonen, xoropte ornocxrcx x ]ynxnnonantnomy crnnm nayuno
23
peun n, raxnm opasom, ntnonnxmr cnom ocnonnym ]ynxnnm ]ynxnnm
coomennx. Haxonen, rpertx rpynna nxnmuaer rexcrt, anropamn xoroptx
xnnxmrcx raxne ntammnecx nnunocrn, xax O.Vant, F. Boy, B. Bynt]
n p., ue rananr npoxnnncx n n xyoxecrnenntx, n nnreparyponeuecxnx
nponsneennxx. B +ro pasnonnnocrn ormeuaercx npeonaanne ]ynx-
nnn nosecrnnx, uro npnnnxaer ee x xyoxecrnenno peun.
Ocrannn n cropone nepnym rpynny rexcron no nnonne nonxrntm npn-
unnam, oparnmcx x nym pyrnm c nentm onapyxennx n nnx crnnncrn-
uecxn mapxnponanntx aprnxnentx ]opm cymecrnnrentntx n nocnontsy-
emcx nx +roro cneymmnmn xpnrepnxmn oropa: 1) orxnonenne or cno-
napntx anntx, 2) napymenne npannn ynorpenennx n 3) yuacrne n cos-
annn crnnncrnuecxnx npnemon.
Hsyuenne raxnx nnreparyponeuecxnx cnpanounnxon, xax Nineteenth
Century Literary Criticism [New Haven, London 1956], A History of Modern
Literary Criticism [Harris 2000] n p., noxasano, uro xareropnx aprnxnx
]ynxnnonnpyer n anno pasnonnnocrn n nonnom coornercrnnn co cno-
napntmn anntmn n npannnamn, nepeanax coornercrnymmne rpammarn-
uecxne snauennx, n, cneonarentno, aprnxnente ]opmt xnnxmrcx crnnn-
crnuecxn nerpantntmn [Harris 2000; Witalec 2003]. Hntmn cnonamn,
moxno xoncrarnponart oexrnnnym xareropnsannm mnpa npecrannre-
nxmn +roro nnreparypno-xpnrnuecxoro nanpannennx.
uro xacaercx nocnene pasnonnnocrn nnreparypno-xpnrnuecxnx
nponsneenn, ro, ycrynax xyoxecrnenno peun no oemy crnnncrnue-
cxoro ]ynxnnonnponannx xareropnn aprnxnx, ona, rem ne menee, coep-
xnr ocrarouno crnnncrnuecxn mapxnponannoro marepnana, ornnuamme-
rocx cnonmn ocoennocrxmn.
Hsnoxenne yono necrn, anannsnpyx aprnxnente ]opmt n coorner-
crnnn c nponeccamn acrparnponannx, xnaccn]nxannn n nnnnnyannsa-
nnn.
Ormernm cpasy xe, uro n ornnune or xyoxecrnenno peun n nnrepa-
rypno xpnrnxe npaxrnuecxn orcyrcrnyer raxo crnnncrnuecxn npnem,
xax onymenne aprnxnx
3
. Onaxo on moxer ncrpeuartcx n xauecrne nnn-
nnyantno ocoennocrn crnnx orentntx anropon, nanpnmep, B. Bynt],
rnopuecrno xoropo yer paccmorpeno orentno.

3
Hmeercx n nny onymenne onpeenennoro nnn neonpeenennoro aprnxnx, npn xoro-
pom nmx coxpanxer xareropnantnoe snauenne ncxpernsannn nnn cpannennx. Hoponee o
+rom cm. C)35*-$ >.B. Hyneno aprnxnt n crnnncrnuecxoe onymenne aprnxnx n anrnncxom
xstxe: npnnnnnt pasrpannuennx//Becrnnx PVH Cepnx Bonpoct opasonannx. Mocxna,
2008. N 2. C. 39-45. C)35*-$ >.B. Honn]ynxnnonantnocrt anrnncxnx aprnxne n xstxe n
peun. M., 2009. C. 109-129.
24
+W?OLAP1L@KA413 K ?O1H1?O1J3?>1Y C3HDY. Xorx n nnreparypno
xpnrnxe ycnnenne acrparnponannx nponcxonr snaunrentno pexe, uem n
no+snn n npose, ono, rem ne menee, sacnyxnnaer nnnmannx n cnny cnonx
ornnunrentntx ocoennocre.
Hmontrno noxasart, xax cnoeopasno n xanpe nnreparypno xpnrn-
xn moxer ]ynxnnonnponart raxoe cymecrnnrentnoe, xax man, xoropoe
uacro ncnontsyercx, xora anrop, ntraxct ocmtcnnrt cyrt xaxoro-nno
nponsneennx nnn ncero nnreparypnoro nanpannennx, ]oxycnpyer nnn-
manne na renennnxx n omecrnenno xnsnn, orpaxaemtx n nnreparype:
1) Man is free so far as his free instincts, the blood, the flesh, are
given an outlet. Man is free not through but in spite of social relations. (Ch.
Caldwell)
Kp. Cony+nn, anrnncxn no+r, nnreparypnt xpnrnx n ]nnoco],
ncnontsyer anannsnpyemym ]opmy n nmnnnnnrnom npornnonocrannennn
omecrny, xoropoe n ero xonnennnn cosaer orpannuennx nx exrentno-
crn uenonexa, n raxnm opasom, ntxnnxrcx nonoe snauenne ]opmt man -
cymecrno uenonexa, ero ]nsnuecxax npnpoa
4
. nx ycnnennx +ro mtc-
nn anrop ncnontsyer raxxe crnnncrnuecxn npnem nonropa
5
, uro cnoco-
crnyer xpxocrn n yenrentnocrn nsnoxennx.
B ]nnoco]cxnx pasmtmnennxx nnreparypntx xpnrnxon ]opma man
moxer ntcrynart n n pyrnx snauennxx, ntpaxax nent px npornnonoc-
rannenn:
2) Indeed, the bourgeoisie cannot any longer accept man in time, man
acting in the world, man changed by the world and man changing the
world, man actively creating himself historical man, because such ac-
ceptance implies condemnation of the bourgeois, recognition of the historical
fate of capitalism and of the forces at work in society which are chnging it.
(R. Fox)
B annom cnyuae uenonex/uenoneuecrno npornnonocrannxercx n npe-
menn, n npocrpancrny, n ncropnn, n Fory, n n +rom oxastnamrcx saecr-
nonanntmn crnnncrnuecxne npnemt nonropa n napacrannx
6
, uro, esyc-
nonno, ycnnnnaer ntpasnrentnocrt rexcra.

4
B xyoxecrnenno nnreparype nmx man otuno ncnontsyercx n couerannn c nmenem
God, uro orpaxaer npornnonocrannenne raxnx acrpaxrntx nonxrn, xax cnaocrt, cmepr-
nocrt n momt, nennune, eccmeprne.
5
Honrop - 2. (penpnsa) unrypa peun, cocroxmax n nonropennn snyxon, cnon n ntpaxe-
nn n nsnecrno nocneonarentnocrn. [Axmanona 1966: 327]
6
Tepmnn -$+$&%$-*" ananornuen repmnnam 03*.$0& nnn ()&?)/'V$' 5+$/$1*', xoro-
pte ncnontsymrcx nx oosnauennx ]nrypt peun, cocroxme n raxom pacnonoxennn uac-
re ntcxastnannx, uro xaxax nocneymmax uacrt oxastnaercx onee nactmenno, onee
ntpasnrentno nnn nneuarnxmme, uem npetymax. [ Axmanona 1966: 197]
25
Paccmorpennte cnyuan crnnncrnuecxoro ncnontsonannx nynentx ap-
rnxnentx ]opm yxastnamr na npoxnnenne ncxnmunrentno +xcnpeccnn-
no ]ynxnnn. B noannxmmem ontmnncrne npnmepon pasnnunte ntpa-
snrentnte cpecrna n npnemt npnmenxmrcx anropamn c nentm ntcxasart
cnoe ornomenne x anannsnpyemomy nponsneennm, ero anropy n axe
nenomy nnreparypnomy nanpannennm.
$HA??1X1>AC1D K ?O1H1?O1J3?>1Y C3HDY. Ecnn ycnnenne acrparn-
ponannx nponcxonr npn orcrynnennn or cnonapno nopmt, ro ycnnenne
xnaccn]nxannn n aprnxnentx ]opmax ocnontnaercx, n ocnonnom, na
napymennn ysyca. Orxnonenne or cnonapntx anntx cnyuaercx pexo n
rax xe xax n paccmorpennom panee marepnane, ncera orpannunnaercx
cpannnrentntmn onpeenennxmn:
3) And this again can be no other than the property of exciting a more
continuous and equal attention than the language of prose aims at, whether
colloquial or written. (S.T. Coleridge)
4) It would be convenient to believe that the Romantic Movement in Lit-
erature began with the storming of the Bastille in Paris. But, as we have seen,
Romanticism was trying to stir all the way through the Age of Reason: the
18
th
century had a nunmer of rebels, individualists, madmen, who - often
unsuccessfully, because of the difficulty of language worked at a literature
of instinct, emotion, enthusiasm, tried to return to the old way of the Eliza-
bethans and even the meadiaeval poets. It was perhaps because of the influ-
ence of the great conservative classicist, Dr. Johnson, that a Romantic litera-
ture did not come earlier.
Ecnn n nepnom npnmepe (3) cpannnrentnax ]opma nmenn attention, nc-
nontsyemax n napymennn nopmt, nepeaer nonoxnrentnym onenxy anro-
pa, ro no nropom (4) ono nouepxnnaer orpnnarentnoe ornomenne an-
ropa x nanpannennm pomanrnsma, nosmoxno, noxastnax raxnm opasom,
uro ono camo tno cnoeopasntm napymennem nnreparypntx rpannn.
3romy n nemano crenenn cnococrnyer npnem crnnncrnuecxoro nonropa,
xoropt xnnxercx ocnonntm n anno pasnonnnocrn peun, ncnontsym-
mnm napnnarentnte nmena. Paccmorpnm necxontxo npnmepon:
5) In 1927, before writing about Eliot had become a major literary indus-
try, I published an essay on his poetry, an essay which today I must regard
as uncritical and wholly inadequate. (A. L. Morton T.S. Eliot a Personal
View)
6) This may well be so, but this was perhaps just what appealed to us in
1923. Europe was still a waste land and any contrived appearance of a solu-
tion would have offended and repelled us. We were feeling our own way


26
toward a solution, or many of us were. We were not prepared to have a
ready-made solution foisted upon us. (A. L. Morton T.S. Eliot a Per-
sonal View)
7) He (the poet) must be quite aware of the obvious fact that art never im-
proves, but the material of art is never the same. He must be aware that the
mind of Europe the mind of his own country a mind which he learns
in time to be much more important than his own private mind is a mind
which changes, and that this change is a development which abandons noth-
ing en route which does not superannuate either Shakespeare, or Homer, or
the rock drawing of the Magdalenian draughtsmen. (T. S. Eliot Tradition
and the Individual Talent)
Bo ncex 3-x npnmepax nonrop ycnnnnaer snauennx cpannennx. B nep-
nom ns nnx (5) on nyxen anropy, urot cpannnrt cnoe conpemennoe or-
nomenne x rnopuecrny T.C. 3nnora, n ro, xoropoe on ntpasnn n cnoem
annem +cce, nouepxnyn ero nespenocrt,
B cneymmem orptnxe (6), paccyxax o noncxe npannntnoro ntxoa
ns cosanmerocx nonnrnuecxoro xpnsnca n penonmnnonno cnryannn n
Enpone, anrop nacrounno ncnontsyer xnaccn]nnnponannym ]opmy nme-
nn nx roro, urot nepeart cocroxnne rpenoxnoro oxnannx n omecr-
ne na ]one necranntnocrn n neonpeenennocrn.
B nocnenem npnmepe (7) ntop xnaccn]nnnponanno ]opmt onpe-
enxercx crpemnennem anropa nouepxnyrt, cxont naxntm n neoxon-
mtm nx no+ra, nmymero remy nx rnopuecrna, xnnxercx ocosnanne nm
nocroxnntx nepemen n xnsnn omecrna n mtmnennn. Ho+romy n ycnnn-
rentno ]opme on npononr pasnnny mexy onaxt ycnoenntmn nm
rpannnonntmn npecrannennxmn n nontmn nexnnxmn.
pyrne crnnncrnuecxne npnemt ncnontsonannx napnnarentntx nmen
ncrpeuamrcx snaunrentno pexe. Paccmorpnm, x npnmepy, ynorpenenne
xnaccn]nnnponanntx ]opm n cocrane ononpemenno nyx crnnncrnue-
cxnx ]nryp - anrnrest
7
n nepn]pasa:
8

8) In a climate with clearly defined seasons they will be aware of a living
time of the year when things grow and a dead time of the year, when
nothing grows. (Anthony Burgess The Beginnings of Drama)

7
Anrnresa (anrnresnoe npornnonocrannenne) anrn. antithesis. unrypa peun, cocroxmax
n anronnmnponannn coueraemtx cnon: cp. xonrpacr. [Axmanona 1966: 49]
8
Hepn]pas =napa]pasa. Anrn. paraphrase, periphrasis. 1. Onncarentnoe ntpaxenne. 2.
Tpon, cocroxmn n samene otunoro cnona (npocroro oosnauennx nexoroporo npemera
onnm cnonom) onncarentntm ntpaxennem. Beunt ropo (Pnm) [Axmanona 1966: 321, 312]
27
Honxrno, uro nmenno naroapx nepn]pasy cpannenne raxnx npemen
roa, xax ocent-snma n necna-nero opamaer na cex nnnmanne n nont-
maer crnnncrnuecxn norennnan rexcra.
Hs ncex crnnncrnuecxnx npnemon, ncnontsyemtx n nnreparypno
xpnrnxe, nanontmee pacnpocrpanenne nonyunna anronomasnx
9
, rax xax
nepeno nmenn cocrnennoro n napnnarentnoe oecneunnaer ycnnenne
cpannennx n aer ontmym cnooy ntpaxennx. Hanpnmep:
9) Trollope, it has often been said, is a lesser Thackeray. But the two
novelists cannot be linked in this kind of way. Trollope is big enough to exist
in his own right, and however inferior he may be to Thackeray as a writer,
there are grounds for considering him a more satisfying novelist.
10) Meredith is a prose Browning, and so is Browning. He used poetry
as a medium for writing in prose. (O. Wilde.)
11) But the odes of Keats and of Wordsworth, a poem or two by Col-
eridge, a few more by Shelly, discovered vast realms of the spirit, that none
had explored beforeI have read desultorily the writings of the young gen-
erations. It may be that among them a more fervid Keats, a more ethereal
Shelly, has already published numbers the world will willingly remember. (S.
Maugham)
Hecmorpx na ro, uro ome nx anannsnpyemtx orptnxon xnnxercx
+m]asa cpannennx n onenxa, ee nasnauenne n nnx cymecrnenno pasnnua-
ercx. B nepnom cnyuae (9) anronomasnx npnnnexaer nnnmannx unrarenx
ononpemenno x rnopuecrny Tponnona n Texxepex, uro n onpeenxer
rpammarnuecxoe snauenne ]opmt a lesser Thackeray. C ono cropont,
nouepxnnaercx omee mexy nnmn, a nmenno ro, uro oa onn xnnxmrcx
nncarenxmn +noxn xoponent Bnxropnn n npnnanexar onomy nnrepa-
rypnomy nanpannennm, a c pyro, yxastnaercx na pasnnune, xoropoe
cocronr n rom, uro no nennunne n macmray Tponnon snaunrentno ycry-
naer Texxepem, uro ycyrynxercx cpannnrentno ]opmo npnnararentno-
ro. C +ro rpannnonno rouxo spennx xpnrnx ne cornacen, na uem n
enaer axnenr.
B orptnxe 10 cpannenne cnococrnyer nponnn, napaoxcantnocrn n
a]opncrnunocrn, uro n nenom cnocrnenno rnopuecrny O. Vanta.
B npnmepe 11 raxne nsnecrnte no+rt, xax Knrc n Bennn, cnyxar o-
pasnom nnn ocnono nx cpannennx nx rnopuecrna c naunnammnmn anro-

9
Anronomasnx - 1. Oosnauenne nnna cnonom, nmemmnm ornneuennoe snauenne cno-
crnennoro nnn npnnnctnaemoro annomy nnny xauecrna. Heuncrt nm. uepr. 2. Tpon,
cocroxmn n mera]opnuecxom npnmenennn cocrnennoro nmenn nx oosnauennx nnna,
naenennoro cnocrnamn nepnonauantnoro (mnpoxoro nsnecrnoro no nnreparype, ncropnn n
r.n.) nocnrenx +roro nmenn. Orenno nm. pennnnen. [Axmanona 1966: 50]

28
pamn, nx monotmn nocneonarenxmn. C nomomtm anronomasnn anrop
ntpaxaer cno onrnmncrnunt nsrnx na nonym conpemennym no+snm,
npecrannrenn xoropo coxpanxmr rpannnn n n ro xe npemx cnocont
nx pasnnnart.
&4S1K1SBAH1<AC1D K ?O1H1?O1J3?>1Y C3HDY. Hpoemoncrpnpyem
cnauana ncnontsonanne n nenxx ycnnennx nmen napnnarentntx, xoropoe,
xax n n npnneennom ntme marepnane, cnxsano, n ocnonnom, c rem nnn
nntm orxnonennem or nopmt ynorpenennx:
12) While Miss Austen was delineating the restricted life of a provincial
lady, Scott, taking eight hundred years of Scots, English and French history
as his province, was changing the whole course of the novel throughout
Europe. Indeed, he was the European novelist, as Byron was the poet, and a
later generation of novelists, Balzac, Dumas, and the Russians among them,
were to look back to him as a father.
3ect anropcxn xypcnn, ntenxx onpeenennte aprnxnn, namepenno
nouepxnnaer ncxnmunrentnocrt nnreparypntx rananron Fapona n
Cxora, uro ronopnr o nx ntcoxo onenxe. Anannsnpyemte ]opmt n
annom rexcre ]axrnuecxn ntcrynamr +xnnnanenrom ycnnnrentntx
]pas: the great poet, the great European novelist (nennxn no+r/pomanncr,
no+r cpen no+ron, no+r c ontmo yxnt n r..) Cp.:
13) Contemporary with the great Tyndale was Sir Thomas More (1480-
1535), one of the precursors of the Renaissance, the New Learning a man
of bold imagination and vision. (A. Burgess Tudor Poetry and Prose)
B annom cnyuae aprnxnt yuacrnyer n cosannn xnanenoro +nnrera
10
.
Onaxo raxne ]opmt moryr ncnontsonartcx n nx ntpaxennx cyex-
rnnnoro orpnnarentnoro ornomennx nnn oexrnnno xapaxrepncrnxn.
Hanpnmep:
14) it is an aggressive, conscious, challenging person astride before a
fire, and a little distended by dinner and a sense of social and literary prece-
dences, who uses the first person in Thackeray's novels. It isnt the real
Thackeray; it isnt a frank man who looks you in the eyes and bares his soul
and demands your sympathy. (G.H. Wells - The Contemporary Novel)
15) It is somewhat similar to the opinion of the urbane Thackeray upon
Swift. (T.S. Eliot Ulysses, Order and Myth)
Homnmo yuacrnx n cosannn +monnonantno-onenounoro +nnrera, ap-
rnxnenax ]opma nmenn npecrannxer meronnmnm n oosnauaer n nepnom

10
3nnrer (opasnoe onpeenenne). Anrn. epithet. Pasnonnnocrt onpeenennx, ornn-
uammaxcx or otunoro +xcnpeccnnnocrtm, nepenocntm (rponnuecxnm) xapaxrepom. [Axma-
nona 1966: 527]

29
cnyuae npoxnnenne rnnnuno anropcxo manept Texxepex, a no nropom
ero nsrnxt.
Ouent uacro +nnrer ncnontsyercx ne n ornomennn anropa, a nx xa-
paxrepncrnxn nnreparypnoro nepconaxa nnn peantnoro ncropnuecxoro
nnna npn onncannn +noxn, uro cnnxaer annym pasnonnnocrt peun c
xyoxecrnenno nnreparypo. Hanpnmep:
16) That is the plot, but much of the charm of the play lies in its interludes
of song and dance, and old changes like the giant Huanebango and the mad
Venelia. (A. Burgess Early Elizabethan Drama)
17) St. Peter is made to appear to add his voice to the mythological
mourning, and he is made to compare the promising pure young Lycidas
with the grasping shepards of a corrupted English Church. (A. Burgess The
Age of Milton: End of a Period)
18) Milton is the hero of the poem, consciously in the flowing-haired
Adam, to whom woman, the lesser creature, looks up submissively; uncoun-
sciously in the magnificent Satan, the fearless rebel thrown out of the well-
ordered sunlit heaven which is really England of Charles II. (A. Burgess The
Age of Milton: End of a Period)
19) The eighteenth century, as he sees it, it, is sticking out into the nine-
teenth in the person of the wicked Lord Steyne. (Orwell G. - Critical Es-
says)
20) When he (Chaucer) was in his late thirties the young and unfortu-
nate Richard II ascended the throne, to be deposited and murdered a year
before Chaucers death by Bolingbroke, the rebel who became Henry IV. (A.
Burgess Chaucer and After)
Kax n xnaccn]nxannx, nnnnnyannsannx moxer conyrcrnonart anro-
nomasnn, c nomomtm xoropo ntenxmrcx n ycnnnnamrcx ueprt nennxnx
exrene ncxyccrna, cranmne mepnnom rananra pyrnx:
:21) He was the Byron of his age.
22) Virgil was the Homer of the Romans.
&4S1K1SBAHN4@-AKO@L?>@3 1?Q@HN<@KA413 >AO3P@L11 ALO1>HD K
T??3 %. %BHNX. Kax nsnecrno, naxno cocrannxmme rnopuecrna B.
Bynt] xnnxmrcx ee nnreparypno-xpnrnuecxne nponsneennx, xoropte
npnnecnn e ne mentmym nsnecrnocrt, uem pomant. Hx crnnt n nenom
ornnuaercx pasnoopasnem ncnontsonannx rpammarnuecxnx cpecrn, oxa-
stnammnx +monnonantno-+crernuecxoe nosecrnne na unrarenx. Hapxy
co crnnncrnuecxnm ]ynxnnonnponannem rnarontntx xareropn npemenn
n npemenno ornecennocrn (npemecrnonannx), cneyer ocoo ormernrt
n pont xareropnn aprnxnx.
30
Ocoennocrtm crnnncrnuecxoro ncnontsonannx xareropnn aprnxnx n
nnreparypno xpnrnxe B. Bynt] xnnxercx cnoeopasne n mnoroopasne
cpecrn. Ormernm, npexe ncero, uro n ee +cce nepexo or xonxpernoro x
acrpaxrnomy moxer ocymecrnnxrtcx c nomomtm nynentx aprnxnentx
]opm cymecrnnrentntx, panee nam ne ncrpeuanmnxcx, nanpnmep,
character n incident. Hepnoe ns nnx xnnxercx nnreparyponeuecxnm rep-
mnnom, o uem cnnerentcrnymr annte cnennantntx cnonape [Fowler
1978; Baldwick 1990; Quinn 2000], a nropoe - cnonapno ennnne ome-
ro xstxa [Macmillan 2002; Longman 2000]

Character - a person depicted in a narrative or drama (E. Quinn)
- personage in a narrative or drama (Ch. Baldwick)
- the fictional representation of a person (R. Fowler)
Incident - something that happens, especially in a violent, criminal, or
dangerous event (Macmillan)
- something that happens, especially something that is unusual
(Longman)
-
Honxrno, uro nanonee ecrecrnenntm opasom n crnnncrnuecxn ne-
rpantno peun oa nmenn peannsymr xnaccn]nnnponannte n nnnnnya-
nnsnponannte snauennx. Onaxo B. Bynt] orxnonxercx or nopmt n nc-
nontsyer nx n nonom, acrpaxrno-oomennom cmtcne nx oosnauennx
pesyntraron nyx rnopuecxnx nponeccon: cosannx cmxera, na xoropom
ocnontnaercx nonecrnonanne, n cosannx cncremt nepconaxe n nnrepa-
rypnom nponsneennn. B annom cnyuae onn npornnonocrannxmrcx, n nx
ntpaxennx +roro snauennx nanonee noxoxme n +xonomnuno, a rax-
xe ycnnnrentno oxastnaercx nynenax aprnxnenax ]opma cymecrnnrent-
noro. B pesyntrare oa nmenn npnoperamr ocote repmnnonornuecxne
snauennx:
:23) But as stories they are good, and, though incident is more important
than character, yet they contain a robust flavor which reminds us of Tom
Jones and Oliver Twist. (Modern fiction)
24) What she offers is, apparently, a trifle, yet is composed of something
that expands in the readers mind and endows with the most enduring form
of life scenes which are outwardly trivial. Always the stress is laid upon
character. (Jane Austen)
25) In middle age and in old age the art is practised mostly for its uses,
and friendships and other adventures and experiments in the art of reading
character are seldom made. But novelists differ from the rest of the world
because they do not cease to be interested in character when they have learnt
31
enough about it for practical purposes. They go a step further, they feel that
there is something permanently interesting in character itself... The study of
character becomes to them an absorbing pursuit; to impart character an
obsession. And this I find it very difficult to explain: what novelists mean
when they talk about character, what the impulse is that urges them so pow-
erfully every now and then to embody their view in writing. (Mr. Bennett and
Mrs. Brown)
Hocnenn npnmep yenrentno noxastnaer, xax B. Bynt] nontsyer-
cx onnm ns camtx nmnmtx cnonx npnemon - nonropom, naroapx xo-
ropomy rax nontmaercx ntpasnrentnocrt n +monnonantnocrt nsnoxennx.
Kax n y pyrnx nnreparypntx xpnrnxon, nynente aprnxnente ]opmt
y B. Bynt] ne ntxoxr sa pamxn crnnncrnuecxoro ncnontsonannx, rax
xax onn ncrpeuamrcx n rex onontno +monnonantntx n xpacountx pac-
cyxennxx o namepennxx anropa, re orcyrcrnyer cocrnenno onenxa,
xoropax, xax yxe ormeuanoct, xnnxercx ono ns naxnemnx cocrannxm-
mnx +ro pasnonnnocrn peun.
K cyryo crnnncrnuecxomy, +xcnpeccnnnomy ncnontsonannm
cneyer npnuncnnrt raxxe axrnnnoe onymenne aprnxne, xax yxe yxa-
stnanoct n nauane rnant, xnnxercx cnenn]nuecxo ocoennocrtm B.
Bynt], ornnuamme ee or pyrnx xpnrnxon. 3ror npnem nanonee uacro
ncrpeuaercx n napannentntx xoncrpyxnnxx, uro n nnane pnrmnuecxo
oprannsannn rexcra npnnnxaer ero x no+rnuecxo peun:
26) And so we reach these summits of emotion not by rant or rhapsody
but by hearing a girl sing old songs to herself as she rocks in the branches of
a tree... (Wuthering Heights)
27) The usual ceremonies and conventions which keep reader and
writer at arms length disappear. We are as close to life as possible. (The
Sentimental Journey)
28) For this state of things is, I think, inevitable whenever from hoar old
age or callow youth the convention ceases to be a means of communication
between writer and reader, and becomes instead an obstacle and an im-
pediment. (Mr. Bennett and Mrs. Brown)
29) Images, anecdotes, illustrations drawn from sea, sky, and earth race
and bubble from their lips. (Sir Walter Scott)
30) In the eyes of the nineteenth century all that Stern wrote was clouded
by his conduct as husband and lover. (The Sentimental Journey)
31) But it was not enough for Emily Bronte to write a few lyrics, to utter a
cry, to express a creed. In her poems she did this once and for all, and her
poems will perhaps outlast her novel. But she was novelist as well as poet.
(Jane Eyre and Wuthering Heights)
32
32) We notice different things; our observation of face and voice differs;
and thus Scotts characters, like Shakespeares and Jane Austens have the
seed of life in them(Sir Walter Scott. II. The Antiquary)
Onaxo, xax npannno, B. Bynt] ne orpannunnaercx nponsneennem
npemennoro nnn axe cnmmnnyrnoro nneuarnennx na unrarenx n, pyxo-
nocrnyxct cnonmn nenxmn n saauamn, n cront xe ntpasnrentno ]opme
nepeaer cnoe ornomenne x anropy, pomany, nepconaxy n r.n. 3ro na-
nmenne pacnpocrpanxercx n na onymenne aprnxne, xax, nanpnmep, n
cneymmem orptnxe, n xoropom onnounoe cymecrnnrentnoe repxer
aprnxnt nx noepxannx +m]ast, cosanaemo nnnepcne onnm ns
nsnmnenntx npnemon B. Bynt]:
33) The shameless man had the hardihood to confess to having been in
love with one princess or another almost all my life, and to add, and I hope
I shall go on so till I die, being firmly persuaded that if ever I do a mean
action, it must be in some interval betwixt one passion and another. The
wretch had the audacity to cry through the mouth of one of his characters,
Mais vive la joie... Vive 1'amour! et vive la bagatelle! Clergyman though
he was, he had the irreverence to reflect, when he watched the French peas-
ants dancing, that he could distinguish an elevation of spirit, different from
that which is the cause or the effect of simple jollity.In a word, I thought I
beheld Religion mixing in the dance.(The Sentimental Journey)
Axnenr na npnnanexnocrn Crepna x nepxnn neoxonm B. Bynt],
urot nouepxnyrt neconmecrnmocrt ero mnponocnpnxrnx n opasa xns-
nn c +rnm poom exrentnocrn, rpeymme or cnonx cnyxnrene acxe-
rnsma, xon]opmnsma, xoncepnarnsma n r.n., n raxnm opasom, no-nepntx,
n onontno nponnuno ]opme ntpasnrt mnenne o nem ero ronnrene, a
no-nroptx, cnon cocrnennte uyncrna x nemy n xax nncarenm, n xax
nnunocrn rnyouamee ynaxenne nepe cosarenem nonoro nnreparyp-
noro nanpannennx n ero xnsnenno croxocrtm.
Paccmorpen ncnontsonanne nynentx aprnxnentx ]opm n onymennx
aprnxnx n xyoxecrnenntx nenxx, oparnmcx x pyrnm napymennxm B.
Bynt] rpammarnuecxnx nopm, n uacrnocrn, ynorpenennxm nmen c neon-
peenenntm aprnxnem, xoropte cnyxar ne rontxo cosannm onpeenen-
noro crnnncrnuecxoro +]]exra, no n ntpaxamr ocnonnym mtcnt anropa.
Hanpnmep:
34) But the mind takes its bias from the place of its birth, and no doubt,
when it strikes upon a literature so alien as the Russian, flies off at a tan-
gent far from the truth. (The Russian Point of View)
B +rom +cce B. Bynt], nopono anannsnpyx nponsneennx pyccxnx
anropon Toncroro, ocroencxoro n uexona - npnxonr x ntnoy o
cnenn]nxe pyccxo nnreparypt, enamme ee cront nenoxoxe na xa-
33
xym-nno pyrym. Ho+romy necranaprnax ]opma cymecrnnrentnoro
literature c neonpeenenntm aprnxnem nannyumnm opasom ntpaxaer
nosnnnm anropa n nouepxnnaer pasnnny mexy snaxomo n nonxrno
anrnncxomy unrarenm nnreparypo n nenonxrno pyccxo nnreparypo.
Cnoeopasnem rnopuecxoro meroa B. Bynt] xnnxercx ncnontsonanne
pasnepnyrtx, nnn nocneonarentntx mera]op, uro ronopnr o ee ntco-
uamem macrepcrne nnreparopa.
11
Hnora na +rom onom npneme crponr-
cx nenoe +cce, rax xax on xnnxercx ocnonntm cpecrnom ntpaxennx an-
ropcxo nen. 3ro nanmenne ornocnrcx, nanpnmep, x +cce o Hopence
Crepne no nasnannem The Sentimental Journey. Paccmorpnm n nem
nenrpantnym mera]opy, pasneprtnanne xoropo nepasptnno cnxsano c
aprnxnentmn ]opmamn.
3arononox +cce otrptnaer nasnanne snamennroro pomana Crepna A
Sentimental Journey, n namepennoe nsmenenne aprnxnx nrpaer n nem
cymecrnennym pont. Hpexe ncero, onpeenennt aprnxnt n anno
]opme ycnnnnaer nepnonauantnoe snauenne, ntpaxennoe Crepnom, a
nmenno nyremecrnne, rnannax nent xoroporo cocronr n rom, urot nony-
unrt ne crontxo nonte snannx, cxontxo ncntrart nonte omymennx n
+monnn or yneenntx ocronpnmeuarentnocre. Kpome roro, annax
]opma npnoperaer raxxe n nonoe, emxoe mera]opnuecxoe snauenne,
pacxptnammeecx n +cce. B. Bynt] nmeer n nny n ror nyrt, xoropt
Crepn npomen xax onn ns cosarene nonoro nnreparypnoro nanpanne-
nnx, n ror nyrt, no xoropomy ner nocnpnnnmammn ero nponsneenne
unrarent, nocrnrax mnp ne rontxo pannonantno, no n no nce nonnore
uyncrn.
3arnanne npecrannxer coo xnmueno +nemenr n pasnepnyro mera-
]ope, npoxoxme cxnost nect ouepx, n noxpennxercx pyrnmn onon-
nxmmnmn ee +nemenramn:
It is thus that Sterne transfers our interest from the outer to the inner. It is
no use going to the guide-book; we must consult our own minds; only they
can tell us what is the comparative importance of a cathedral, of a donkey,
and of a girl with a green satin purse. In this preference for the windings of
his own mind to the guide-book and its hammered high road, Sterne is singu-
larly of our own age.
Kax n pyrne nnreparypnte xpnrnxn, conocrannxx rnopuecrno pas-
nnuntx anropon, B. Bynt] axrnnno nontsyercx anronomasne. Hanpnmep:

11
Hocneonarentnax (=pacmnpennax, ycrounnax) mera]opa anrn. sustained metaphor.
Px nnyrpenne cnxsanntx n nsanmno pyr pyra ononnxmmnx mera]op [Axmanona 1966:
131].
34
35) Nobody, of course stood more in need of the liberty to be himself than
Sterne. For while there are writers whose gift is impersonal, so that a Tol-
stoy, for example, can create a character and leave us alone with it, Sterne
must always be there in person to help us in our intercourse.(The Sentimental
Journey)
36) The drawbacks of being Jane Eyre are not far to seek. Always to be a
governess and always to be in love is a serious limitation in a world which is
full, after all, of people who are neither one nor the other. The characters of a
Jane Austen or of a Tolstoy have a million facets compared with these.
They live and are complex by means of their effect upon many different
people who serve to mirrow them in the round. (Jane Eyre and Wuthering
Heights)
Hent B. Bynt] n oonx orptnxax cocronr n rom, urot n onontno
xpxo n +xonomnuno ]opme pasxcnnrt pasnnny mexy nnreparypntm
nanpannennem peannsma n nnne Htna Toncroro nnn xen Ocrnn n cen-
rnmenrannsmom Crepna, a raxxe manepo Bapnorrt Fponre n Tomaca
Iapn, xoropax, no mnennm xpnrnxa, snaunrentno ycrynaer nepntm nym.
Toncro n Ocrnn ynomnnamrcx sect ne xax ynnxantnte anropt, nmem-
mne cno nnnnnyantnt nouepx, uro norpeonano t rpannnonnoro
ynorpenennx nx nmen, r.e. es aprnxnx, a xax rnnnunte nncarenn-
peanncrt. Hmenno +ro snauenne n nepeamr anannsnpyemte ]opmt,
cranmne xonxperntmn nmenamn, oosnauax sect nepexo x oomennm
c nomomtm xnaccn]nxannn.
Xenanne oparnrt nnnmanne unrarene na anropa n ntpasnrt emy
cnoe nocxnmenne nonnomaercx n anannsnpyemtx ouepxax xax c nomomtm
mnorouncnenntx necranaprntx aprnxnentx ]opm, ornocxmnxcx x an-
ronomasnn, rax n conyrcrnymmero e nectma xapaxrepnoro nx B. Bynt]
npnema nepeuncnennx. Paccmorpnm necxontxo npnmepon:
37) Reviewers we have but no critic; a million competent but no judge
Nowhere shall we find the downright vigour of a Dryden, or Keats with his
fine and natural bearing, his profound insight and sanity, or Flaubert and the
tremendous power of his fanaticism(How It Strikes a Contemporary)
38) Once upon a time, we must believe, there was a rule, a discipline,
which controlled the great republic of readers in a way which is now un-
known. This is not to say that the great critic the Dryden, the Johnson,
the Coleridge, the Arnold was an impeccable judge of contemporary
work, whose verdicts stamped the book indelibly and saved the reader the
trouble of reckoning the value for himself. The mistakes of these great men
about their own contemporaries are too notorious to be worth recording. But
35
the mere fact of their existence had a centralizing influence. (How It Strikes
a Contemporary)
39) In this interest in silence rather than in speech Sterne is the forerunner
of the moderns. And for these reasons he is on far more intimate terms with
us today than his great contemporaries the Richardsons and the Fieldings
(The Sentimental Journey)
Vnorpenenne ]opmt c neonpeenenntm aprnxnem ntenxer nmx, sa-
memax, ]axrnuecxn, nnonte ]past for examlpe, for instance nnn ycnnn-
rentnt oopor such author as. Ho onee xpxym crnnncrnuecxym oxpacxy
nonyuamr nmena cocrnennte c onpeenenntm aprnxnem, xoropte nast-
namr npecrannrene xnacca nennxnx nnreparypntx xpnrnxon, anropon c
ontmo yxnt. 3rnm momntm cpecrnom ycnnennx nnnnnyannsannn
n npnmepe 39 B. Bynt] nontsyercx nx roro, urot yenrt unrarenx n
ncxnmunrentnocrn nx nnreparypntx rananron, a raxxe ntpasnrt nocxn-
menne nepe nnmn.
B nocnenem ns npnneenntx orptnxon (40) n ycnnnrentno ]opme sa
cuer aprnxnx n mnoxecrnennoro uncna npecramr nmena nsnecrntx anr-
nncxnx anropon Pnuapcona n unnnnra, uro neoxonmo anropy nx
ntpaxennx xpnrnunoro ornomennx x nnm (a, nosmoxno, n x nx nocneo-
narenxm) na ]one xnnoro npenocxocrna Crepna.
Anronomasnx moxer oxnartnart n nmena nepconaxe, npn +rom, xax
npannno, annt npnem ncnontsyercx n conponoxennn nepeuncnennx:
40) Those marvellous little speeches which sum up in a few minutess
chatter, all that we need in order to know an Admiral Croft or a Mrs. Mus-
grove forever, that shorthand, hit-or-miss method which contains chapters of
analysis and psychology, would have become too crude to hold all that she
now perceived of the complexity of human nature. (Jane Austen)
41) But Turgenev did not see his books as succession of events; he saw
them as a succesion of emotions radiating from some character at the centre.
A Bazarov, a Harlov seen in the flesh, perhaps, once in the corner of a
railway carriage becomes of paramount importance and acts as a magnet
which has the power to draw things mysteriously belonging, though appar-
ently incongrous, together. (The Novels of Turgenev)
42) Never did any novelist make more use of an impeccable sense of hu-
man values. It is against the disc of an unerring heart, and unfailing good
taste, an almost stern morality, that she shows up those deviations from kind-
ness, truth and sincerity which are among the most delightful things in Eng-
lish literature. She (Jane Austen) depicts a Mary Crawford in her mixture
of good and bad entirely by this means. (Jane Austen)
36
43) Dickens would need to be doubled with Henry James, to be trebled
with Proust, in order to convey the complexity and the conflict of a Peckniff
who despises his own hypocrisy, of a Micawber who is humiliated by his
own humiliation. (The Death of the Moth and Other Essays)
44) The much more serious charge against Scott is that he used the wrong
pen, the genteel pen, not merely to fill in the background and dash off a
cloud piece, but to describe the intricasies and passion of the human heart.
But language is to use of the Lowels and Isabellas, the Darcies, Ediths and
Mortons? As well as the talk of the hearts of seagulls and the passions and
the intricasies and passion of walking sticks and umbrellas for indeed hese
ladies and gentlemen are scarcely to be distinguished from the winged deni-
zens of the crag. They are equally important; they squeak; they flutter... (Sir
Walter Scott)
45) As Peggotty and Barkis, the rooks and the workbox with the picture
of St. Pauls, Traddles who drew skeletons, the donkeys who would cross the
green, Mr. Dick and the Memorial, Betsey Trotwood and Jip and Dora and
Agnes and the Heeps and the Micawbers once more come to life with all
their apprtenances and peculiarities, are they still possessed of the old fasci-
nation or have they in the interval been attacked by that parching wind which
blows about books and, without our reading them, remodels them and
changes their features while we sleep? (David Copperfield)
46) The question is whether, if we venture ourselves a second time with
Vanity Fair, with the Copperfields, the Richmonds, we shall be able to find
some other form of pleasure to take the place of that careless rapture which
floated us along so triumphantly in the first instance. (On Re-reading Novels)
Bce saecrnonannte n npnneenntx orptnxax nmena nepconaxe
xnnxmrcx naxntm cpecrnom ntpaxennx mepo noxnant nx cosarenxm
sa ntcouamee macrepcrno x. Ocrnn, H. Typreneny, u. nxxency n B.
Cxorry.
Hnora B.Bynt] ncnontsyer anronomasnm n nacrontxo neotuno
]opme, uro nmx cocrnennoe npnoperaer nonn]onnunoe snyuanne:
47) The great novelist feels, sees, believes with such intensity of convic-
tion that he hurls his belief outside himself and it flies off and lives an inde-
pendent life of its own, becomes Natasha, Pierre, Levin, and is no longer
Tolstoy. When, however, Mr Moore creates a Natasha she may be charming,
foolish, lovely, but her beauty, her folly, her charm are not hers, but Mr
Moors. (The Death of The Moth and Other Essays)
3ect +ror npnem cnona ncnontsyercx nx pasxcnennx cyrn peann-
crnuecxoro meroa H. Toncroro: ntenennax ]opma oosnauaer nepcona-
xa pyroro anropa - nepeanncra, n cpannennn c reponne Bont n mn-
37
pa. V nnx moxer trt ono nmx n cxocrno xapaxrepon, no npnnnnnn-
antnax pasnnna cocronr n rom, uro xnsnt Haramn y Toncroro nounnx-
ercx saxonam peantnocrn, a xnsnt pyro Haramn ncxnmunrentno none
ee cosarenx.
H n r e p a r y p a n n c r o u n n x n
1. B?.$-)($ Q.G. Cnonapt nnnrnncrnuecxnx repmnnon. M.: Conercxax 3nnnxnonenx, 1966.
2. ;*-)5+$/)( ;.;. Crnnncrnxa. Teopnx no+rnuecxo peun. Ho+rnxa. M., 1963.
3. J-'L"($ >. B. Anrnoxstunax nnreparypnax xpnrnxa xax npemer rexcronornuecxoro
nsyuennx. ncc. xan. ]nnon. nayx. M., 1987.
4. J+$&$(#"-0) N.E. Connoxyntrypnoe nanpannenne n anrnncxom nnreparyponeennn 60-
70-x roon//Xyoxecrnennt rexcr n xonrexcr peantnocrn. M., 1977.
5. <"K"/"($ >. U. uynxnnx coomennx n ]ynxnnx nosecrnnx n conpemenntx anrnncxnx
nnreparyponeuecxnx paorax. Anrope]. xan. ]nnon. nayx. M., 1983.
6. !$3*"(&0$' =.;. Tepmnnonornx anrnncxoro nnreparyponeennx xax cncrema. Anrope].
xan. ]nnon. nayx. M., 1983.
7. [$0)(&0$' 8.G. uynxnnx nosecrnnx n ]ynxnnx coomennx xax rexcronornuecxax
nponema. ncc. xan. ]nnon. nayx. M., 1978.
8. Bkhmanova O.S., Idzelis R.F. What is the English We use? A Course in Practical Stylistics.
M., 1978.
9. Jacobson R. Linguistics and Poetics// Style in Language/Ed. By T.A. Sebeok. New York,
1960.
O0. Richards I. A. Practical Criticism: A Study of Literary Judgement. New York, 1974.
OO. Schlager N., Lauer J. Contemporary Novelists. 7
th
edition. St. James Press, 2001.
O2. Seymour-Smith M. Guide to Modern World Literature. L., 1973.
O3. Wellek R. Stylistics. Poetics and Criticism//Literary Style: A Symposium/Ed. By S. Chatman.
New York, 1971.

O. Baldwick Ch. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. Oxford, 1990.
2. A Dictionary of Modern Critical Terms/Ed. By Fowler R. L., 1978.
3. The Idea of Literature: the Foundations of English criticism. M., 1979.
4. A History of Modern Criticism. New Heaven and London: Yale Univ. Press, 1956.
5. Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture. Longman, 2000.
6. Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners. Macmillan, 2002.
7. Nineteenth Century Literature Criticism./Ed. By Laurie Lanzen Harris. Gale Research Com-
pany. Detroit, Michigan: Book Tower, 2000.
8. Orwell G.Critical Essays. Secker & Warburg, London, 1946.
9. Quinn E.A. A Dictionary of Literary and Thematic Terms. Facts on File. Inc., 2000.
O0. Woolf V. Mrs Dalloway and Essays. Raduga Publishers, M., 1984.
38
" 43>@O@L=Y @?@W344@?ODY 1?Q@HN<@KA41D AKO@L?>1Y
?OLAO3P1M K S1?>BL?3 O3AOLAHN4@M L3C34<11
0$-/*/$% 6*3)3)5*#"&0*? -$70 E.E. D).$-'%)($, 20O0
B nacroxmee npemx cymecrnymr pasnte nanpannennx nsyuennx nc-
xypca n, cneonarentno, pasnnunte onpeenennx annoro repmnna. Heo-
xonmo c camoro nauana ormernrt, uro xaxnx-nno enntx ycranonox n
nonnmannn ncxypca eme ne cnoxnnoct; rouno rax xe ne cymecrnyer
omenpnnxroro onpeenennx repmnna ncxypc nnn xe repmnna nc-
xypcnnnt ananns
1
.
Ho mnennm A.H. Fynarono
2
, norpenocrt n +rom nonom repmnne cnx-
sana c nymx rnanntmn ero ocoennocrxmn. Bo-nepntx, ncxypc, n ornn-
une or rexcra nnn peun, nxnmuaer nonxrne cosnannx nesanncnmo or roro,
xax ero onpeenxmr nontsonarenn. Bo-nroptx, ncxypc ne xnnxercx nn-
neno n sanepmenno nocneonarentnocrtm, ncxypc - +ro nce ro, uro
ntcxasano.
B anno crarte peut noer o ncxypce rearpantno penensnn xax
pasnonnnocrn rearpantnoro ncxypca. Ho crparernxmn ncxypca rear-
pantno penensnn yyr nonnmartcx cnocot ]opmnponannx nocnpnxrnx
n oprannsannn snann o rearpantntx nocranonxax, ncnontsyemte xpnrn-
xamn. Bce +rn cnocot opasymr cymecrno rearpantnoro ncxypca n
nenom. Ftnn ntneent nnnrnncrnuecxne n +xcrpannnrnncrnuecxne crpa-
rernn rearpantnoro ncxypca.
HHHIBHCTHuECKHE CTPATEIHH
CTHHHCTHuECKHE CTPATEIHH
1 ) C r p a r e r n x a n r o p n r e r a
Cctnxa na anropnrer neoxonma n ncxypce rearpantno penensnn
nx npnannx snaunmocrn anropnrernocrn nnn ocronepnocrn rexcry
crartn. Anropt penensn moryr cctnartcx na nsnecrntx nncarene, ax-
repon, axrpnc, na onpeenennt rearp n r.. Hanpnmep:

1
Kypxxona E.C. O nonxrnxx ncxypca n ncxypcnnnoro anannsa n conpemenno nnn-
rnncrnxe (Osop) // ncxypc, peut, peuenax exrentnocrt. uynxnnonantnte n crpyxrypnte
acnexrt. M., 2000.
2
Fynarona A.H. Konnenryannsannx snannx n ncxyccrnoneuecxom ncxypce // Becrnnx
Mocxoncxoro ynnnepcnrera. Cepnx 9, N4.
39
Mabou Mines inaugurated its new performance space, TORONADA,
with Ruth Maleczech in Happy Days (crparernx cctnxn na anropnrer
nsnecrno axrpnct) (Theatre journal)
A key to the productions tone can be found in Chekhovs letters (crpare-
rnx cctnxn na anropnrer nsnecrnoro nncarenx)(Theatre journal)
This is the same house in which last year the Maryland Stage Company
presented a brilliant over-the-top Tartuffe that Molire would have em-
braced (crparernx cctnxn na anropnrer rearpa)(Theatre journal)
2 ) C r p a r e r n x o r c t n x n x n c r o u n n x y
Pasnpax re nnn nnte nocranonxn, anropt moryr, nanpnmep, ynomn-
nart n cam ncrounnx, r.e. camo nponsneenne, na ocnone xoroporo tna
cenana annax nocranonxa. 3ro neoxonmo nx noepxannx nnrona-
nnn pyxecxo ecet c unrarenem, a raxxe nn]opmnponannx, nanomn-
nannx o rom, uro unrarent moxer ne snart nnn satrt. Hanpnmep:
Hardys novel is, you may recall, a stormy tale of sexual politics and class
foibles in which Tess Durbeyfield has her head turned by revelations of her
familys noble past and is seduced by her well-born cad of a cousin, Alec
DUrberville, burying her past to marry her true love Angel Clare before it
resurfaces to drive her to ruination.(Sunday Telegraph)
3 ) C r p a r e r n x c n n xe n n o r o c r n n x
3ra crparernx ouent naxna n ncxypce rearpantno penensnn n nc-
nontsyercx ouent uacro. Moxno cxasart, uro +ro omax ornnunrentnax
uepra ncxypca rearpantno penensnn n nenom. Crparernx cnnxennoro
crnnx nosnonxer xpnrnxy maxcnmantno npnnnsnrtcx x unrarenm, ro
ecrt ctrpart pont cnoero napnx, cnomart aptep mexy unrarenem n
apecanrom. Hanpnmep:
Eh, its grim up north. Especially when youre having a solitary Christ-
masand theres nothing quite as solitary as an old married couple whose
grown-up son has left home. (Whats On)
Hardy will be spinning in his grave. (Mail on Sunday)
4 ) C r p a r e r n x o n e n o u n o c r n
3ro conepmenno neoxonmax nx ncxypca rearpantno penensnn
crparernx, r.x. ona orneuaer saauam xpnrnxa npn nanncannn rearpantno
penensnn, a nmenno art onenxy cnexraxnm, nrpe axrepon n r.. Hanpn-
mep:
The best performances come from two RSC veteransDavid Hargreaves
is deeply moving as the blinded Gloucester, while John Normington gives a
lovely performance as the Fool, presenting him as an inexpressibly sad and
ancient music-hall comedian.(Daily Telegraph)
40
Bill Alexanders production is firm, but not inspired; four hours are a
trudge.(Observer)
Sian Brookes Cordelia is pure and sweet, but makes too little impres-
sion.(Mail on Sunday)
CEMAHTHuECKHE CTPATEIHH
C r p a r e r n x a x r n n a n n n o p a s o n n c o s n a n n n u n r a r e n x
3ra crparernx peannsyercx anropom crartn npn nomomn cemanrnuecxn
mnorosnauntx cnon (rnaronon, npnnararentntx, cymecrnnrentntx), npn
nomomn mera]opnuecxnx cpannenn, npocro opasntx cnonocouerann
nx roro, urot cosart onpeenennt opas nnn ntsnart acconnannn.
uame ncero +ra crparernx peannsyercx n nepecxase, xapaxrepncrnxe,
onenxe, onncannn ecrnnx, orentntx momenron n erane nocranonxn.
Hanpnmep:
The stiff-lipped Jeremy Child, who could moonlight as Prince Charless
stunt double, works his socks off as Greenslade and various other supporting
characters.(Evening Standard)
The cast is uniformly strong, with Christian Patterson outstanding as the
big-hearted Secombe, a carefree nut with a fondness for blowing raspber-
ries.(Evening Standard)
PHTOPHuECKHE CTPATEIHH
1 ) C r p a r e r n x n p e n o n o xe n n x
Crparernx npenonoxennx cnxsana c omtcnnnannem xpnrnxom or-
entntx momenron nocranonxn. Hanpnmep:
GOON, but not forgotten. There runs, down the middle of the theatre, an
invisible line. (Express)
2 ) C r p a r e r n x n n o a r e m t
Crparernx nnoa remt raxxe ouent naxna n ncxypce rearpantno pe-
nensnn, rax xax nno remt +ro nepnoe npenoxenne penensnn, c no-
momtm xoroporo xpnrnx ntraercx nponsnecrn nepnoe nneuarnenne na
unrarenx, ntsnart ero nnrepec x npenoxenno reme. Kpnrnxn moryr
naunnart penensnm c nneuarnennx or camoro nauana cnexraxnx n nrpt
xaxoro-nnyt axrepa:
At Stratford, Bill Alexanders King Lear begins with a joke as Corin
Redgraves frail King hobbles on, then leaps into action with a huge laugh,
having fooled us all. (Mail on Sunday)
nnn npocro c nneuarnennx or cnexraxnx:
41
How startled I was to find Corin Redgrave controversially transforming
King Lear into the semblance of a vigorous, middle-aged colonel from the
likes of Tunbridge Wells. (Evening Standard)
Hnora rema nnonrcx c nomomtm opamennx x cotrnxm n npo-
mnom, nanpnmep:
Fifty years before Charles Is head was cut off, his predecessor was voic-
ing firm opinions about kingship. In fact, James I penned The True Law Of
Free Monarchies, a treatise underlining a kings divine right and natural duty
to govern his subjects like a caring father with children. Political tensions
then arose over James handling of Parliament. An excellent programme note
about this accompanies the RSCs new staging of King Lear, reminding you
just how topical Shakespeares tragedy was with its anxieties about regal and
paternal authority. (Independent on Sunday)
Taxxe crartx moxer naunnartcx c nponnunoro ntcxastnannx. Hanpn-
mep:
Come back Cliff Richards Heathcliff, all is forgiven. (Mail on Sunday)
Hnora xpnrnxn c camoro nauana cctnamrcx na cnona pyroro xpnrn-
xa, nanpnmep:
As Ira Gershwin almost wrote in Porgy, Tess, You Aint My Woman
Now. (Spectator)
B nexoroptx cnyuaxx crartx naunnaercx c orcrpanennoro cyxennx,
nanpnmep:
Adaptations of classic novels are bad enough. (Guardian)
Playwrights are often advised to write about what they know.
(Scotsman)
Metaphors for aspiration abound in our culture, while the means by which
we reach our goals are profoundly restricted, primarily by social class.
(List)
nnn cpannennx:
Thomas Hardys heroine Tess was a mess wretched and doomed, and the
Tess Of The DUrbervilles musical (Savoy, London) is much the same.
(News of the World)
nnn nonpoca:
Did I really see lots of polar bears in armour that had apparently been dis-
carded by the extras in Braveheart chasing a phalanx of purple-clad prel-
ates?(The Times)
3 ) C r p a r e r n x n t e n e n n x o me r o
Crparernx ntenennx omero nomoraer xpnrnxam oparnrt nnnmanne
unrarene na cxonte ueprt, nanpnmep n nyx nocranonxax:
42
What the two shows share is an interest in the narrative arc of our lives,
seeing in the teenage years the breeding ground of future aspirations.(Time
Out)
4 ) C r p a r e r n x n t e n e n n x u a c r e
3ra crparernx cnxsana c ocyxennem orentntx momenron n nocra-
nonxe (onpeenenno cnent, momenra ecrnnx, nrpt axrepa n r..). Ha-
npnmep:
Ben Wright makes a vivid impression as the golden monkey who belongs
to Lyras treacherous femme fatale of a mother, Mrs. Coulter.(Evening
Standard)
There are some breathtaking images, such as the appearance of a beautiful
snow-goose with silken wings, the daemon of a Lapland witch, the reflection
of the sunset on the Arctic snow; and some truly moving ones too: the ashen,
hopeless Land of the Dead is marvelously imagined and Lyras meeting with
her dead self has a real potency.(Mail on Sunday)
5 ) C r p a r e r n x n p n n e e n n x n p n m e p o n
Kpnrnxn uacro npnnoxr npnmept, urot nornepnrt cnom rouxy
spennx:
Only a few flashesthe sardonic little lizard flick, for instance, that
Smith gives a two-word phrase of apparent sympathyshow us what they
might do if better served.(The Independent Review)
Its a lovely touch, for example, to reassign the song It Was a Lover and
Hiss Lass to an impromptu trio comprised of Orlando and that squabbling
couple, Silvius and Phebe.(Independent)
6 ) C r p a r e r n x o x c n e n n x
Anannsnpyx xaxne-nno momenrt nocranonxn, xpnrnxn uacro ntra-
mrcx narn nm oxcnenne npn nomomn, nanpnmep, npenoxenn c
because nnn c xoncrpyxnne the (only) reasonis. Hanpnmep:
Holmes also creates two execution scenes out of a single line of text, and
if he cannot mask his authors failures it is because this lies beyond anyones
skill.(The Times)
The only reason The Blues Brothers appears in the Theatre section and
isnt dismissively listed as a third-rate tribute-band show under Music is its
venue.(Time Out)
Cages have always been convenient on stage because they contain, dis-
play, and allow dialogue with their occupants.(Time Out)
43
7 ) C r p a r e r n x n t n o a n n n n o n e e n n x n r o r o n
Penensnx oxsarentno saxanunnaercx ntnoom, a nnora n naunnaercx
c nero. 3ro crparernx neoxonma nx noneennx nroron ocyxennx n
crarte, nx nepnonauantnoro nnn sanepmammero axnenrnponanne nnnma-
nnx unrarenx na cnoe rouxe spennx, a raxxe oxasannx +monnonantnoro
nosecrnnx na unrarenx urot cenart ero cnonm comsnnxom n anno
nonemnxe. B sanncnmocrn or +monnonantnoro nacrpoennx xpnrnxa n cra-
rte, ntno moxer trt orpnnarentntm, nanpnmep:
This is not a big play, and its change of key at the end is awkward and
unconvincing, but its quiet concern is refreshing.(Financial Times)
As the lonely star says, an actress has many lovers and no friends.
(Jewish Chronicle);
nnn nonoxnrentntm:
Excellent.(Independent on Sunday)
Great stuff.(Time Out)
Pexe noneenne nroron crartn moxer ntpaxartcx n nne conera, pe-
xomenannn, nanpnmep:
If youre feeling low, this wont cheer you uptake the dog out for a
walk instead.(Whats On)
nnn n nne mopann:
And there is no doubting the eventual moral: masks may hide honest
faces, true hearts beat beneath tinseled robes.(The Times)
8 ) C r p a r e r n x n p n n e e n n x o n p e e n e n n
Onpeenennx ncnontsymrcx xpnrnxamn, urot ntcxasart, raxnm o-
pasom, cnom rouxy spennx n nanxsart ee unrarenm. Hanpnmep:
Charm is an old-fashioned quality, most obviously elusive when it is be-
ing most shamelessly pursued.(Time Out)
Lear is a man who has never grown up, a spoilt child who has been in-
dulged all his life, and responds to any obstacle with a tantrum.(Daily
Telegraph)
Redgraves performance is a matter of fits and starts, veering between the
genuinely tragic and the awkwardly absurd.(Daily Telegraph)
It is what is not said, the silences laden with frustration and tension, that
is just as powerful as the spoken word in James Macdonalds sensitive pro-
duction.(Evening Standard)
Crparernx npnneennx xapaxrepncrnx
Fes +ro crparernn nenosmoxna nn ona penensnx. Kpnrnx ntnyxen
anart xapaxrepncrnxn nmxm nnn xnnennxm na ror cnyua, ecnn unra-
rent ne snaer o uem nnn xom ner peut, a raxxe, urot nanxsart cnom
rouxy spennx. Hanpnmep:
44
Nowadays the major problem with this unattractive play lies not so much
in the character of Isabella, the young woman who will not consent to be
raped as the price for saving her brothers life.(The Times)
Frances, a novelist, has called on Madeleine, a curator of Islamic art, to
talk about the man they shared.(The Independent Review)
In Howard Daviess listless staging, which resembles a Zen tennis match,
both women are wan and muted.(The Independent Review)
A salesman begins to believe his own patter, in a comedy that examines
the border between fiction and reality.(The Independent Review)
Caryl Churchills new play, a collaboration with the director Stephen
Daldry that examines the concepts of nature and nuture.(The Independent
Review)
1 0 ) C r p a r e r n x a n e n n n p o n a n n x x n p e t y mn m c o t -
r n x m n n n n p e m e n n
Tearpantnoe ncxyccrno nosnnxno ne nuepa, no+romy conepmenno ecre-
crnenno, uro xpnrnxn ouent uacro ntramrcx narn npxmym nnn xocnen-
nym cnxst mexy rexymnm cotrnem nnn xnnennem n cotrnem n npo-
mnom, nnn mexy nacroxmnm npemenem n npomemnm, urot sannrepe-
conart unrarenx, sacrannrt ero ymart. Hanpnmep:
In 1953, Michael Redgrave enjoyed an annus mirabilis at Stratford, end-
ing a season in which he also starred as Shylock and Antony with a raptur-
ously received King Lear. Now, more than half a century on, Corin Redgrave
is following in his fathers illustrious footsteps as King Lear.(Daily Tele-
graph)
Over the past couple of years Roy Williams has firmly established him-
self as one of the most powerful and penetrating dramatists working in Brit-
ain today. His play Fallout, loosely based on the Damilola Taylor killing,
won my vote for the best new drama of 2003, a scorchingly intense analysis
of black youth culture on a benighted London sink estate. Now the Nationals
Cottesloe Theatre is wisely reviving Sing Yer Heart Out for the Lads (2002),
first seen in the temporary Loft space, with a new director and an almost
completely new cast.(Daily Telegraph)
In Elizabethan times, the role would have been played by a boy.(Jewish
Chronicle)
Singin in the rain almost drowns in director Paul Kerrysons obsessive
need to recreate the iconic 1952 movie.(Sunday Express)
45
HAHOIOBIE CTPATEIHH
C r p a r e r n x s a a n a r t n o n p o c t ( n p x m t e n x o c n e n -
n t e ) n o r n e u a r t n n n n e o r n e u a r t n a n n x
Anropt anrnoxstuntx rearpantntx penensn npneramr x nonpocn-
rentntm ]opmam namnoro uame, uem anropt, nanpnmep, +xonomnuecxnx
crare
3
. 3ror ]axr eme pas nouepxnnaer +xcnpeccnnnocrt ncxypca
rearpantno penensnn. B onnx cnyuaxx, xpnrnxn ncnontsymr nonpocn-
rentnte xoncrpyxnnn, urot npnnneut nnnmanne unrarene x ocyxae-
mo reme, n pyrnx mtcnn ncnyx. B +rom cnyuae xpnrnx moxer cam xe
ornernrt na nocrannennt nonpoc, ecnn on ne pnropnuecxn, r.e. ne rpe-
ymmn ornera. Heoxonmo raxxe ormernrt, uro, necmorpx na ocra-
rouno ontmoe xonnuecrno npoanannsnponanntx penensn, nn n ono
nam ne ncrpernnnct pacunenennte nonpoct. To xe camoe ormeuaer E.H.
Manmra, ronopx o +xonomnuecxnx crartxx
4
. Hanpnmep:
The question of whether Christopher is really mentally ill, or the victim of
an ethnocentric diagnosis; of whether Robert is expedient or experienced;
and whether Bruce is arrogant or intuitive, is left deliberately unanswered.
(Time Out)
Would Smith swan about, trailing clouds of neurotic grandeur? Or would
Dench, less showy but more steely, carry off the honours? Alas, this question
remains hypothetical.(The Independent Review)
How has Francess recent success affected this former downtrodden wife?
Does Madeleines love of the East have anything to do with the independence
that made her so attractive to Martin? (The Arabs say, Life is a bridge; on a
bridge you build no house.) (The Independent Review)
We never, though, get a sense of the time that has elapsed, of how it has
changed the two women and their relationship to Martina, how they have
discovered new aspects to him, or regarded him from a different point of
view.(The Independent Review)

3
Manmra E.H. Hpnunnt ynorpenennx nonpocnrentntx ]opm n anrnoxstuntx raserax
// stx. Cosnanne. Kommynnxannx. Btnycx 19, M., 2001, c.42-44.
4
Tam xe, c.44.

46
3KCTPAHHHIBHCTHuECKHE CTPATEIHH
HHuOPMAHHOHHIE CTPATEIHH
1 ) C r p a r e r n x n x n mu e n n x n o n e s n o n n ] o p m a n n n
3ro crparernx, xoropax orpaxaer uncro npaxrnuecxn nnrepec (npn-
nneut spnrenx n rearp) nno ntnonnxer nn]opmarnnnym ]ynxnnm. Ha-
npnmep:
Order your 2005 binder now. Send us 10/ us $20/ t20 for one.
(Theatre record)
We sell back numbers tooask for details.(Theatre record)
Box office: 0870 609 1110.(The Times)
Lyceum Theatre 08702439000.(Time Out)
Shaftesbury Avenue, W1 (02074945065) to 1 Dec.(The Independent
Review)
2 ) C r p a r e r n x p a c x p t r n x n a n a s o n a
3ra crparernx aer nosmoxnocrt xpnrnxam pacxptrt rnynny roro
nnn nnoro xnnennx, uacro nponnuno, npn nomomn xoncrpyxnnn
fromto. Hanpnmep:
This show is largely an unknown quantity from composer to walkons and
seems destined to remain so.(Sunday Telegraph)
Stephen Edwardss music surges from stupefying vapidity to overblown
generalized emotion.(Independent)
Musically monotonous, the lyrics vary from banal to lamentable.(Mail
on Sunday)
3 ) C r p a r e r n x c p a n n n n a n n x
3ro ouent uacro ncnontsyemax crparernx n ncxypce rearpantno pe-
nensnn. Anropt nmxr npnnonrt onenounte mera]opnuecxne cpanne-
nnx nnn otunte cpannennx nx ntpaxennx cnoero ornomennx x ynn-
ennomy. Hanpnmep:
Salkind pulled out all the stops, forcing the weak-willed, hesitant man to
the floor, covering his body with hers, and crying out like a bitch in heat:
Youre mine, mine, all mine(Theatre journal)
Alasdair Harvey as Alec DUrberville strides about the stage in his boots
and moustache like the pantomime baddie and gets to ravish Tess against a
swirling red mist.(Financial Times)
She fizzes when shes ferocious; when she weeps, her face looks like a
flower opening up to the rain.(Observer)
47
4 ) C r p a r e r n x m o e n n p o n a n n x c n r y a n n n n o c n p n x r n x
B ncxypce rearpantno penensnn nepexo moynnpyercx cama cnrya-
nnx nocnpnxrnx nx roro, urot yenrt unrarenx n npanore cnoe rouxn
spennx n oxasart na nero +monnonantnoe nosecrnne. Hanpnmep:
But at times the apparatus offers a very hackneyed notion of dreaming
oops, Im in public in my underwear! Oh nonow I have to sing to an audi-
ence. Technically, it is wonderfulthe steady drone behind Christopher
Shutts sound design, Chris Daveys subfusc lighting, Vicki Mortimers walls
that menace and recede. But the feeling it evokes are marooned: a dream is
insubstantial; but this is insubstantial in the wrong ways.(Independent)
Hnora xpnrnx peannsyer +rn nenn c nomomtm pasnnuntx xoncrpyx-
nn:
1) xoncrpyxnn c if (ecnn), nanpnmep:
If you expect contemporary playwrights to dramatise the issues of the
present, Herbert Applemans play(Time Out)
If, however, you are happy to surrender your mind to a story based
loosely on the real-life character of Lord Chesterfield and his efforts to secure
his son Philip a place in high society(Time Out)
If that is the case, director Michael Friday and his cast are certainly press-
ing the right buttons.(Time Out)
If Dench had played the droll, superior mistress and Smith the betrayed
wife, the characterizations might have had some piquancy.(The Independ-
ent Review)
2) xoncrpyxnn c as if (ecnn t), nanpnmep:
He shares a spliff with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, addresses the actors
as if backstage at the RSC today, and turns the dumb show into a clubbing
extravaganza.(Time Out)
He is a profoundly intelligent actor and sometimes that leads to a ten-
dency to explain his state of mind rather than to experience his feelings as if
for the first time.(Time Out)
She speaks each line as if shes discovering it.(Observer)
3) xoncrpyxnn c rnaronom imagine (r.e. +ro npecrannenne roro,
uro morno t trt), nanpnmep:
Imagine Gabriel Garca Marquz or Isabel Allende after spending a few
years surfing in Australia, and you have a pretty good idea of this piece.
(Whats On)
Stephen Edwards musicimagine Vaughan Williams on drugsand
Justin Flemings lyrics were not a total disaster.(Express)
48
BH3VAHIHIE CTPATEIHH
1 ) C r p a r e r n x s p n r e n t n o r o n o s e c r n n x
3ra crparernx nosnonxer xpnrnxam oxasart ononnnrentnoe spnrent-
noe n +monnonantnoe nosecrnne na unrarenx c nomomtm ]ororpa]n
ns cnexraxnx

(Time Out)
nnn cnoeopasntx uepno-entx xapnxaryp. Hanpnmep:
(Theatre record)
49
2 ) C r p a r e r n x n a n n c a n n x o r e n t n t x c n o n n n e n t x
n p e n o xe n n o n t mn m n y x n a m n n n n o n e e x p y n -
n t m mp n ] r o m
B xauecrne cnoero poa pexnamt nx unrarenx, a rax xe cnocoa ce-
nart axnenr na uem-nno nnn npocro npnnneut nnnmanne anropt nontsy-
mrcx rem, uro nnmyr orentnte cnona n axe nente npenoxennx ont-
mnmn yxnamn nnn xe onee xpynntm mpn]rom, uem nect ocrantno
rexcr. Hanpnmep:
I ALWAYS find it deeply disappointing when writers I admire trot out
the drearily familiar, alarmingly fashionable theatre is dead theory.
(Daily Telegraph)
One of the worst legacies of that otherwise tremendous musical, Les Mis-
erables, has been the expulsion of humour from the contemporary musical
theatre.(Daily mail)
RUBY WAX dominates the stage version of Roald Dahls childrens
classic THE WITCHES at Wyndhams Theatre in London.(Sun)
Taxnm opasom, moxno ronopnrt o rom, uro n rearpantntx penensnxx
npecrannent nnnrnncrnuecxne (crnnncrnuecxne, cemanrnuecxne, pnro-
pnuecxne n nanoronte) n +xcrpannnrnncrnuecxne (nn]opmannonnte n
nnsyantnte) rpynnt crparern. Hcnontsonanne +rnx crparern xnnxercx
xornnrnnntm nponeccom, nonnexammnm pasnte xstxonte yponnn, a
raxxe onnm ns nanonee naxntx n neoxonmtx xapaxrepncrnx nc-
xypcnnnoro anannsa.
H n r e p a r y p a
U73$%)($ B.!. Konnenryannsannx snannx n ncxyccrnoneuecxom ncxypce // Becrnnx Mocx.
yn-ra. Cepnx 9. unnonornx. N4.
J7K+'0)($ >.G. O nonxrnxx ncxypca n ncxypcnnnoro anannsa n conpemenno nnnrnncrnxe
[Osop] // ncxypc, peut, peuenax exrentnocrt. uynxnnonantnte n crpyxrypnte
acnexrt. M., 2000.
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Pearson Longman, 2007.
Theatre Record, 20002009.
50
514PK1?O1J3?>13 @?@W344@?O1 S1?>BL?A &4O3L43O-#!&
A.B. F"("3"($, 20O0
uro nt enaere, xora saxonre n Hnrepner? Ho anntm pasnnuntx
nccneonann, ontmnncrno Hnrepner-nontsonarene orneuamr na +ror
nonpoc rax: npocmarpnnam nnn ornpannxm +nexrponnym noury, nmy uro-
nnyt n noncxonnxax, nsyuam xapry, cmorpm noroy, conepmam no-
xynxn, ysnam o nonocrxx... Koneuno, +ror cnncox moxno npoonxart, no
on ne cnyuano npepnancx na npocmorpe nonocre. Ho anntm nccne-
onarentcxo xomnannn Pew Internet, nmenno +ry nent npecneyer oxono
71% ncex nnrepner-nontsonarene CBA (no anntm nccneonannx
3xonomnxa onnan-nonocre, onynnxonannoro n mapre 2010 r.).
B anno crarte nam npecronr paccmorpert nnnrnncrnuecxne oco-
ennocrn onnan-CMH, npenmymecrnenno onnan-nepcn neuarntx
CMH (na npnmepe Hnrepner-caron pnrancxnx raser The Times n The
Guardian). Ho ne cronr satnart n o pyrnx nonocrntx Hnrepner-
ncrounnxax.
Houemy nmenno nonocrntx? eno n rom, uro, xax noxastnamr pas-
nnunte nccneonannx, npocmorp n/nnn urenne nonocre +ro ocnonno
cnoco omennx unrarene c onnan-CMH. 3ror ]axr xnnxercx nornep-
xennem cranmero yxe crepeornnntm npecrannennx o rom, uro xnmue-
no ocoennocrtm onnan-rexcron xnnxercx nx neontmo pasmep. Ha
camom ene, cronr nsrnxnyrt xorx t na nonocrnte arrperaropt (Google
News, Yahoo News, nexc Honocrn) onn ns nanonee nonynxpntx
ncrounnxon nonocre n Hnrepnere. Cnoe nasnanne +rn cart nonyunnn or
anrnncxoro cnona aggregate conpart, cocpeorounnart, noromy uro n
ocnone nx paort nexnr npnnnnn oropa nonynxpntx (nanonee unrae-
mtx n xommenrnpyemtx) nonocre, onynnxonanntx na anropnrerntx
Hnrepner-pecypcax. Inannt anrop +rnx nonocrntx CMH noncxonax
mamnna, xoropax ornpaer nynnxannn n coornercrnnn c sanpocamn xon-
xperntx nontsonarene nnn nce Hnrepner-aynropnn. Ho anntm Pew
Internet, npocmorp nonocrntx arrperaropon y unrarene sannmaer snaun-
rentno mentme npemenn, uem npocmorp caron raser (n cpenem, menee
rpex mnnyr). 3ro ronopnr o rom, uro ontmnncrno unrarene arrperaro-
pon nnmt npocmarpnnamr sarononxn n xparxoe onncanne nonocre, ne
nanaxct n erann. Ecnn xe onn xorxr onee nopono osnaxomnrtcx c
xaxo-nno nynnxanne, noncxonax mamnna nanpannxer nx na car opn-
rnnantno nonocrn na onom ns anropnrerntx Hnrepner-ncrounnxon, n
uame ncero nm xnnxercx car rpannnonnoro CMH. He cronr, onaxo,
satnart o rom, uro nonocrnte arrperaropt, xax npannno, emoncrpnpy-
51
mr cctnxn cpasy na mnorne nynnxannn no ono reme, uro moxer oxa-
sartcx onee nonntm oropaxennem nonocrn, uem coomenne nmoro ns
CMH no orentnocrn. B ononnenne x nonocrxm, arrperaropt raxxe
npeocrannxmr connaammne no remarnxe nsopaxennx, nneo cmxert,
+nnnxnonenuecxne crartn ns nonynxpno Hnrepner-+nnnxnonenn
Wikipedia, n r. .
Ionopnrt o ocoennom nnnrnncrnuecxom cnoeopasnn nonocrntx ar-
rperaropon ne npnxonrcx, rax xax onn, n omem-ro, xnnxmrcx oropaxe-
nnem crare, cosanntx pyrnmn CMH.
Onaxo nmontrnoe nanmenne ornocnrentno nonocrntx arrpera-
ropon saxnmuaercx n rom, uro +ror rnn CMH nanonee xpxo npecrannxer
nonym n nectma nnnxrentnym xommynnxannonnym moent pull, xoropax
npnmna na cmeny moenn push n c]epe CMH, mapxernnra n nontx rex-
nonorn. Kommynnxannonnax moent push, npncymax nocrenenno yxo-
xme n npomnoe moenn nenn]pontx CMH, xapaxrepnsyercx onocro-
ponne cnxstm mexy CMH n aynropne, xora cpecrna maccono
nn]opmannn npenaramr uenonexy nexoropoe coomenne, paccunrannoe
na macconym aynropnm n uacro neaxryantnoe nx nero nnuno; n spnre-
nm (a raxxe unrarenm n cnymarenm) nnuero ne ocraercx, xax nno npn-
nxrt +ro coomenne, nno npemenno orxasartcx or xommynnxannn c an-
ntm CMH. Kaxt xonxpernt npecrannrent aynropnn, ncrynax n
xommynnxannm c xonxperntm CMH, nnmen npana ntnpart ro coome-
nne n ry ero ]opmy, xoropym nmenno emy n nmenno ceuac xorenoct t
nonyunrt.
Moent pull nepenopaunnaer npecrannenne o maccono xommynnxa-
nnn, nanpannxx ee ne crontxo or CMH x aynropnn, cxontxo or aynro-
pnn x CMH. Hoxnnenne +ro xommynnxarnnno moenn no mnorom ox-
sano pasnnrnm rexnonornn noncxa nn]opmannn, peannsonanno n Hnrep-
nere, naroapx xoropo Hnrepner-CMH nonyunnn ontme nosmoxno-
cre n pexnme peantnoro npemenn pearnponart na sanpoct aynropnn,
n npeocrannxrt nn]opmannm, nanonee npnnnxennym x romy, uro
nmer xaxt xonxpernt nontsonarent Hnrepnera n onpeenennt
momenr. Pasnnrne rexnonorn raxxe nosnonnno rpannnonntm CMH
yconepmencrnonart ]opmar xommynnxannn c aynropne. Tax, ono ns
]opm peannsannn +ro moenn moxno nasnart noxnnenne nnmentx
renexananon, paccunranntx na onee ysxne cermenrt aynropnn n sann-
cnmocrn or nx nnrepecon: xanant o xnnorntx, o moe, o xynnnapnn,
ncxyccrne, nonocrnte xanant, xanant, emoncrpnpymmne rontxo
myntr]nntmt, nnn rontxo ]nntmt, nnn rontxo ]nntmt onpeenennoro
xanpa, n r. .
Moent pull na carax raser npecrannena nosmoxnocrtm noncxa
nynnxann; cncremo oparno cnxsn, npn xoropo xommenrapnn unra-
52
rene nopo npecrannxmr ne mentmn nnrepec, uem nnnnnnponanmax
nx crartx; cncremo r+ron xnmuentx cnon, xoropte npncnannamrcx
xaxo nynnxannn n nosnonxmr npnnxstnart crartn pyr x pyry (x
npnmepy, nx roro, urot npocnenrt ncropnm pasnnrnx xaxoro-nno
cotrnx nnn ncropnm ocnemennx xaxo-nno remt). Taxnm opasom,
Hnrepner-nepcnn raser nx mnornx cranonxrcx onee yontm cnocoom
unrart ro, uro pantme cymecrnonano rontxo na ymare. Ho pasne rontxo
]axrop yocrna npnnnexaer unrarene n Hnrepner-nepcnxx raser, nnn
rontxo orcyrcrnne ocryna n Hnrepner nnn nantxon ero ncnontsonannx
cxnonxer ntop n nontsy neuarno nepcnn?
uero xe unrarenn oxnamr or neuarno n onnan-nepcn raser? Kax
ormeuaer nsnecrnt nnepnancxn nnnrnncr T.A. nan ex, n conpe-
menno xypnanncrnxe nponsomen cymecrnennt cnnr. Bcnecrnne
+roro, ocnonno npeporarnno craptx mena crann: xpnrnxa, ecnpn-
crpacrnocrt, naexnte ncrounnxn, rounocrt n ontr; a nontx mena
cxopocrt, xommenrapnn, orxptrte ncrounnxn, nocroxnnoe ononnenne.
T.A. Ban ex raxxe xnnxercx anropom crare, nocnxmenntx raxnm
conpemenntm nanpannennxm nnnrnncrnxn, xax xornnrnnnax nnnrnncrnxa
n ncxypc-ananns, xoropte x naxoxy nanonee +]]exrnnntmn nx ana-
nnsa ncxypca onnan-CMH. 3]]exrnnnocrt npnmenennx +roro noxoa
nornepxamr cnona E.O. Menxepnnxo, ntcxasannte n crarte Tep-
mnn ncxypc n rnnonornx menancxypca: B cnyuae menancxypca
raxo noxo cranonnrcx ocoenno axryantntm, no nosnonxer ronopnrt
o napamerpax ntenennx menancxypca n coornercrnnn c xornnrnnntmn
ycranonxamn apecanra (r. e. neonornuecxo nanpannennocrt roro nnn
nnoro rexcra, remn nexmn n ornomennem, xoropte n nem sanoxent),
xapaxrepncrnxamn neneno aynropnn, na xoropym +ror rexcr nanpannen,
n, naxonen, nnnrnncrnuecxnmn n +xcrpannnrnncrnuecxnmn crparernxmn
noaun nn]opmannn, sanoxenntmn nenocpecrnenno n rexcre
1
.
Ho cnonam Ban exa, n reuenne mnornx ner ncxypc-ananns no-
uepxnnaer neoxonmocrt nsyuennx xonrexcra nx nonnmannx mnornx
acnexron ncxypca. Cymecrnenntmn n raxnx xonrexcrax oxastnamrcx
connantnax c]epa (nanpnmep, opasonanne, nonnrnxa), ecrnne, conep-
mammeecx nocpecrnom rexcra nnn pasronopa (nanpnmep, saxonoarent-
nax exrentnocrt, oyuenne, n r. .), yuacrnnxn n mnoroopasne nx xom-
mynnxarnnntx, connantntx n npo]eccnonantntx pone, a raxxe orno-
mennx mexy yuacrnnxamn xommynnxannn (nanpnmep, pacnpeenenne
nnacrn), ocranonxa (npemx, mecrononoxenne) n, nosmoxno, raxxe nexo-
ropte pyrne connantnte ocoennocrn xommynnxarnnnoro cotrnx.
uacrtm xonrexcra, onaxo, raxxe xnnxmrcx nexoropte xornnrnnnte

1
Menxepnnxax E.O. Tepmnn ncxypc n rnnonornx menancxypca. B c.: Becrnnx
Mocxoncxoro ynnnepcnrera Cep.10. Xypnanncrnxa. 2006. N2, c. 53
53
xapaxrepncrnxn yuacrnnxon xommynnxannn, raxne, xax nx nenn, yexe-
nnx, snannx n cyxennx. He npnnnmax nx no nnnmanne, mt ne cmoxem
nonxrt, nouemy nmn ronopxr nnn nnmyr uro-nno, nnn nouemy onn
aanrnpymr ro, uro ronopxr nnn nnmyr, x snannxm nnn yexennxm cno-
nx apecaron (nepeno mo A.F.) [discourse analysis since many
years emphasizes the relevance of the study of context for our understanding
of many aspects of discourse. Relevant in such contexts are the social domain
(e.g., Education, Politics), the global act partially accomplished by text or
talk (e.g., legislation, teaching, etc), the participants and their various com-
municative, social and professional roles, the relations between participants
(such as that of power), the setting (time, location) and maybe some other
social or interactional properties of communicative event. Part of the context,
however, are also some of the 'cognitive' properties of the participants, such
as their aims, beliefs, knowledge and opinions. Without taking into account,
we cannot understand why people are speaking or writing at all, or how they
show adapt what they say or write to the knowledge or other beliefs of the
recipients]
2
.
Kax nnmer O.B. Anexcanpona n crarte stx cpecrn maccono nn-
]opmannn xax uacrt xonnexrnnnoro npocrpancrna omecrna, rexcrt
cpecrn maccono nn]opmannn npecrannxmr coo nmenno ncxypc,
onn ncera nnamnunt n conpemennt, onn nocnpnnnmamrcx yuacrnnxa-
mn xommynnxannn n xonrexcre nponcxoxmnx cotrn
3
.
Paccmarpnnax xstx neuarntx n Hnrepner-nepcn raser xax pasnte
rnnt ncxypca, moxno ntennrt nexoropte ncxypcnnnte mapxept,
pasnnuammne nx mexy coo. Onnm ns raxnx mapxepon moxno nasnart
nonocrnte sarononxn. Hexoropte ocoennocrn nx nocrpoennx nornep-
xamr renennnm o nnepcn]nxannn onnan- n neuarntx CMH na no-
nocrno rnn n rnn anannrnuecxn.
Bostmem, x npnmepy, raxne nonocrnte sarononxn ns raser The Guard-
ian n The Times: Universities warn Brown over cuts (cp. sarononox ne-
uarno nonocrn Universities: cuts will bring us to our knees) (the Guard-
ian); Britain steps out of recession as growth is revised upwards (cp. saro-
nonox neuarno nonocrn Economy on the edge) (The Times). Moxno
samernrt, uro yponent +xcnpeccnnnocrn namnoro ntme n neuarno nep-
cnn, uem n onnan-nynnxannn. 3ro oxastnaer, uro crnnt Hnrepner-
nynnxann crpemnrcx x npeentno nn]opmarnnnocrn, oranax npnopn-

2
Teun A. van Dijk, Cognitive Discourse Analysis. An introduction. University of Amster-
dam, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona. Version 1.0. October 25, 2000, p. 1
3
Anexcanpona, O.B. stx cpecrn maccono nn]opmannn xax uacrt xonnexrnnnoro
npocrpancrna omecrna // stx CMH xax oexr mexncnnnnnnapnoro nccneonannx:
Vuenoe nocone c.96
54
rer oneparnnnocrn nynnxannn. A crnnt neuarno nynnxannn ntpaxaer
ornomenne, +monnm, pacxptnax remy c necxontxo pyro nosnnnn.
Eme ono nenocpecrnennoe oxasarentcrno raxoro pasnnunx mexy
Hnrepner- n neuarntm ncxypcom +ro saxnnenne rnannoro peaxropa
rasert The Guardian Anana Pacpnxepa, o rom, uro n ocnone onnan-
nonnrnxn nsannx nexnr npnnnnn 24/7, xora rnanntm npnopnrerom n
xnmuentm ]axropom npn cosannn onnan-nepcnn xnnxercx ecnpeptn-
noe ononnenne marepnanon, npecrannenntx na care. H rnanntm opa-
som, +ro xacaercx oneparnnno nynnxannn nonocre.
Cronr oparnrt nnnmanne na ro, uro nepnt Hnrepner-sarononox,
npnneennt n xauecrne npnmepa, n ornnune or neuarnoro sarononxa,
coepxnr nmx npemtep-mnnncrpa Bennxopnrannn Iopona Fpayna, a
nropo cnono peneccnx remt, ntstnammne ontmo nnrepec y
unrarene. Coornercrnenno, nent nxnmuennx +rnx cnon n sarononxn
neoxonmocrt coornercrnnx sarononxon nonynxpntm noncxontm sanpo-
cam nontsonarene Hnrepnera, nocpecrnom nannunx n nnx nonynxpntx
xnmuentx cnon n annom cnyuae Brown n recession.
To, uro Hnrepner-nepcnn neuarntx CMH moxno npornnonocrannrt, c
ono cropont, nx neuarntm ananoram, a c pyro ocrantntm Hnrep-
ner-CMH, nomoxer pacxptrt camte pasnnunte ocoennocrn +roro rnna
ncxypca.
antnemne nccneonannx, nocnxmennte ncxypcy Hnrepner-CMH,
onxnt nponnrt cner na raxne ocoennocrn, xax remarnuecxax oprannsa-
nnx neuarntx n Hnrepner-nepcn raser, cnnraxcnuecxoe nocrpoenne
sarononxon, anoncon n camnx nynnxann. Taxxe npecrannxercx axry-
antntm nccneonanne ocoennocre nontx ]opmaron, noxnnnmnxcx n
Hnrepner-CMH +ro norn xypnanncron, myntrnmennte xanpt (nn-
eo-penopraxn, nnrepntm, noxacrt n r. .), ocoennocre xnnoro
ocnemennx cotrnx n cosannx noxa nynnxann, orpaxammnx pasnn-
rne xaxo-nno remt.
H n r e p a r y p a
1. B3"0&$-/+)($ Q.;. stx cpecrn maccono nn]opmannn xax uacrt xonnexrnnnoro
npocrpancrna omecrna // stx CMH xax oexr mexncnnnnnnapnoro nccneonannx:
Vuenoe nocone. M., 2003.
2. C)K+)&03)-&0$' N.9. Bonpoct nsyuennx menarexcron: ontr nccneonannx conpemen-
no anrnncxo menapeun. M., 2005.
3. 8"-/L"+*10$' >.Q. Tepmnn ncxypc n rnnonornx menancxypca // Becrnnx Mocx.
yn-ra. Cep.10. Xypnanncrnxa. 2006. N2. C. 50-55.
4. Teun A. van Dijk. Cognitive Discourse Analysis. An introduction. University of Amsterdam,
Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona. Version 1.0. October 25, 2000.
http://www.discourses.org/UnpublishedArticles/cogn-dis-anal.htm
5. Lee Rainie talks with Media Life about the economics of online news,
http://www.pewinternet.org/Commentary/2010/March/Media-Life.aspx
55
"?@W344@?O1 <4AJ341D @L134O1L@KA44@?ON SK1U341D B
>1OAM?>1Y PHAP@H@K SK1U341D lai 1 qu
0$-/*/$% 6*3)3)5*#"&0*? -$70 <'- G')-$-4, C7 H7-12I-4 (JED), 20O0
Inaront nnxennx n xnracxom xstxe yxe onroe npemx xnnxmrcx
oexramn npncrantnoro nsyuennx nnnrnncron. Ocooe nnnmanne yenx-
ercx pacxptrnm cemanrnuecxnx snauenn rnaronon nnxennx lai
(=npnrn) n qu (=yrn). Ocnontnaxct na cymecrnymmnx nccneonannxx
n cneyx sa xonnennne pamxa cotrnx nnxennx [Tanmn 1985] n reo-
pne o exrnuecxnx rnaronax nnxennx [unnnmop 1997], npnmenxx
xornnrnnnt noxo, mt nontraemcx npoanannsnponart ocoennocrn
snauennx opnenrnponannocrt nnxennx y xnracxnx rnaronon nnxe-
nnx lai n qu.
B Cnonape conpemennoro xnracxoro xstxa, Boctmncrax cnonax
conpemennoro xnracxoro xstxa n Tonxonom cnonape xnracxnx rnaro-
non rnaron lai ronxyercx xax nepennxenne ns pyroro mecra x mecro-
naxoxennm ronopxmero, a rnaron qu nepennxenne ns mecronaxox-
ennx ronopxmero x pyromy mecry, r.e. onn oosnauamr npornnono-
noxnte ecrnnx. Cornacno rpannnonno rouxe spennx, na mecronaxo-
xenne ronopxmero opnenrnpyercx xax rnaron lai, rax n rnaron qu.
Cornacno xonnennnn pamxa cotrnx nnxennx, nmoe cotrne
nnxennx n npocrpancrne moxer nxnmuart n cex 4 penenanrntx xomno-
nenra: figure (]nrypa nnn oexr), ground (]on nnn opnenrnp), path
(nyrt), motion (nnxenne) [Tanmn 1985]. Cotrnx nnxennx nocnpnnn-
maercx n xornnrnnno opaartnaercx xaxnm-nno nanmarenem (rono-
pxmnm), no+romy no ]onom (opnenrnpom), xax npannno, nonnmaercx
mecronaxoxenne ronopxmero. Hmoe nepememenne +ro nepememenne
orxya-ro xya-ro: ono opasyercx nepexoom ns ncxonoro nynxra
(HH) n npocrpancrne (n xoropom oexr naxonrcx n nauantnt momenr
npemenn) n xoneunt nynxr (KH) (n xoropt oexr nonaaer n xoneu-
nt momenr npemenn) [Bmenen 2002: 181]. Taxnm opasom, cemanrnue-
cxne snauennx rnaronon lai n qu moryr nnnmcrpnponartcx n npecrannen-
ntx nnxe cxemax:
Omax opas-cxema lai:

Hanpnmep:
56
Fuqin (oexr) cong Beijing (HH) lai Shanghai (KH) / Q%"1 M+*"?$3 *2
!"0*-$ ( F$-?$@.
Omax opas-cxema qu:

Hanpnmep:
Fuqin (oexr) cong Beijing (HH) qu Shanghai (KH) / Q%"1 7"?$3 *2
!"0*-$ ( F$-?$@.
Cornacno u. unnnmopy [unnnmop 1997], rnaront lai n qu raxxe moryr
nastnartcx exrnuecxnmn rnaronamn nnxennx, nocxontxy onn oosna-
uamr nanpannenne nepennxennx oexra n npocrpancrne no nnsocrn
nnn yanennocrn ornocnrentno opnenrnpa. Cpen nnx rnaron lai
nnxnn exrnuecxn rnaron, ero cemanrnuecxoe snauenne nnsxo x
opnenrnpy, a rnaron qu antnn exrnuecxn rnaron, ero cemanrnue-
cxoe snauenne yanenno or opnenrnpa. Opnenrnpom exrnuecxnx cnon
cunraercx mecronaxoxenne ronopxmero n momenr peun.
nnxenne n npocrpancrne recno cnxsano co npemenem. Pasrpannunnax
npocrpancrno nnxennx n npemx, mt pncxyem norepxrt ns nonx spennx
npemenno acnexr npocrpancrna. 3nauennx rnaronon lai n qu moryr rpax-
ronartcx nocpecrnom coornomennx npocrpancrna n npemenn [unnnmop
1997], uro noxasano n npecrannenntx nnxe cxemax (T
1
npemx nauana
nnxennx; T
n
npemx sanepmennx nnxennx; P
1
mecro nauana nnxe-
nnx; P
n
mecro sanepmennx nnxennx):
Hpocrpancrnenno-npemennax opas-cxema lai:
T
1
. T
2
T
n
(npemx)
P
1
. P
2
P
n
(mecro)
(opnenrnp)
Ecnn P
n
connaaer c opnenrnpom, +ro rnaron lai, xoropt nmeer sna-
uenne nnsxo x opnenrnpy.
Hpocrpancrnenno-npemennax opas-cxema qu:
T
1
. T
2
T
n
(npemx)
P
1
. P
2
P
n
(mecro)
(opnenrnp)
Ecnn P
1
connaaer c opnenrnpom, +ro rnaron qu, xoropt nmeer sna-
uenne yanenne or opnenrnpa.
nx rnarona lai n xnracxom xstxe raxxe xapaxrepen cnnr opnenrn-
pa, nanpnmep:
1. Mecrom sanepmennx nnxennx (opnenrnpom) xnnxercx mecronaxo-
xenne cnymammero n momenr peun:
Wo zai shanghai, ni deng Wo, Mingtian Wo lai Beijing / X ( F$-?$",
L/* ."-', 2$(%+$ ' M+*"/7 ( !"0*-.
57
u. unnnmop nastnaer raxoe xstxonoe xnnenne exrnuecxo npoex-
nne [unnnmop 1997]. B nenxx ntpaxennx ynaxennx x cnymammemy
ronopxmn ne opnenrnpyercx na cnoe mecronaxoxenne, a nepeopnenrn-
pyercx na mecronaxoxenne cnymammero.
2. Mecrom sanepmennx nnxennx (opnenrnpom) xnnxercx mecronaxo-
xenne ronopxmero n momenr sanepmennx nnxennx:
Ni mingtian lai Xuexiao / W$(%+$ %R M+*/",4 ( 7-*("+&*%"% (n mo-
menr peun ronopxmero ner n ynnnepcnrere. Kora sanrpa rt npnemt n
ynnnepcnrer, ronopxmn oxsarentno yer).
3. Mecrom sanepmennx nnxennx (opnenrnpom) xnnxercx nocroxnnoe
mecronaxoxenne ronopxmero n momenr sanepmennx nnxennx:
Ta mingtian lai Beijingdaxue, henyihan mingtian Women dou buzai /
W$(%+$ )- M+*/"% !"0*-&0*@ 7-*("+&*%"%, -), 0 &)L$3"-*I, -$& -"
K7/"%.
u. unnnmop ronopnr o rax nastnaemo pono ase. B nonxrne
pono ast moxno nxnmunrt ne rontxo pono om ronopxmero, xax
+ro npenaraer u. unnnmop, no n mecro paort nnn mecro poxennx. To
ecrt +ro moxer trt nmoe mecro, xoropoe xaxercx naxntm nx ronopx-
mero n c xoroptm on cex cnxstnaer.
Kpome roro, nnno ronopxmero (1, 2, 3) raxxe moxer nnnxrt na opnen-
rnp. C rouxn spennx H.O. uepnexo, moxno ntennrt pasnnunte rnnt
cyexra-nanmarenx +ro cyexr-nonecrnonarent (napparop, anrop
rexcra); cyexr peun nanmarent cymecrnymmn n nnnmsopnom
npocrpancrne rexcra (ronopxmn); cyexr cnymammn nanmarent,
exonpymmn rexcr, ro ecrt anrop rexcra urennx (merananmarent)
[uepnexo 1996: 63]. B crarte Hexoropte nonpoct o ononnennxx na-
npannennx lai n qu Hm Rexya ormeuaer, uro n coornercrnnn c nnnom
nonexamero npenoxennx opnenrnp rnaronon lai n qu moxer nsmenxrt-
cx [Hm Rexya 1980: 36-39]:
1. Hpn npncyrcrnnn ronopxmero nnn ynorpenennn nepntmn nnnom
nx nonecrnonannx opnenrnpom xnnxercx mecronaxoxenne ronopxmero
nnn nepnoro nnna, nanpnmep:
- Wei, xingqitian ni neng huilai ma? / - B33), ( ()&0+"&"-4" %R M+*-
/",4? (opnenrnp moe mecronaxoxenne).
2. Hpn ynorpenennn rpertnm nnnom nx nonecrnonannx ronopxmn
moxer npnnxrt mecronaxoxenne nonecrnyemoro nnna sa opnenrnp, na-
npnmep:
Ou Yanghai shoule zhongshang. Gheshang de ren yedou henkuai xi-
ale che, xiang Ou Yanghai paolai / Q7 X-?$@ M)37#*3 %'L"37I %+$(.7.
<I/* (R,3* *2 .$,*-R * M+*K"L$3* 0 Q7 X-?$@ (opnenrnp mecro-
naxoxenne nonecrnyemoro nnna Q7 X-?$@.)
58
3. Hpn ynorpenennn rpertnm nnnom nx nonecrnonannx ronopxmn
moxer npnnnmart nonecrnyemoe mecro sa opnenrnp, nanpnmep:
Huichangli ye zuole bushao ren, zheshi hai buduan youren jinlai / ; 0)--
6"+"-1-2$3" 7L" &*/'% -" .$3) 3I/"@, -) (&" "V" (?)/'% (opnenrnp
nonecrnyemoe mecro 0)-6"+"-1-2$3).
Taxnm opasom, moxno cenart cneymmne ntnot:
1. Opnenrnpom rnaronon lai n qu otuno xnnxercx mecronaxoxenne
ronopxmero n momenr peun.
2. nx rnarona lai xapaxrepen cnnr opnenrnpa, xoroptm, nosmoxno,
xnnxercx: a) mecronaxoxenne cnymammero n momenr peun (exrnue-
cxax npoexnnx); ) mecronaxoxenne ronopxmero n momenr sanepmennx
nnxennx; n) nocroxnnoe mecronaxoxenne ronopxmero n momenr sanep-
mennx nnxennx (ponax asa).
3. Bnnxnne nnna ronopxmero (1, 2, 3) na opnenrnp: a) npn npncyrcr-
nnn ronopxmero nnn ynorpenennn nepntmn nnnom nx nonecrnonannx,
opnenrnpom xnnxercx mecronaxoxenne ronopxmero nnn nepnoro nnna; )
npn ynorpenennn rpertnm nnnom ronopxmn moxer npnnnmart mecro-
naxoxenne nonecrnyemoro nnna sa opnenrnp; n) npn ynorpenennn
rpertnm nnnom ronopxmn moxer npnnnmart nonecrnyemoe mecro sa
opnenrnp.
H n r e p a r y p a
1. Bocemtcor cnon conpemennoro xnracxoro xstxa / Ho pe. <I@ F7&'-. on. ns.
Hexnn, 2005.
2. <I ="?7$. Hexoropte nonpoct o ononnennxx nanpannennx lai n qu // Hpenoananne n
nccneonanne xstxon, 1980. Btn. 3. C. 36-44.
3. Cnonapt conpemennoro xnracxoro xstxa. / Ho pe. cnonape Hncrnryra xstxosnannx
xnracxo axaemnn omecrnenntx nayx. 5-e ns. Hexnn, 2005.
4. Tonxont cnonapt xnracxnx rnaronon. / Ho pe. M+n Hsyn, ux+n Xya+, M+n Hnn-
xa n Ha B+ntnant. 4-e ns. Hexnn, 2005.
5. ["+-"@0) <.Q. Hosnnnx nanmarenx n xyoxecrnennom rexcre xax nmnnnxarypa
mera]opnuecxo nomnnannn // Becrnnx Mocx. yn-ra. Cep. 9: unnonornx, 1996. N1.
C. 55-68.
6. F."3"( B.C. Hs nynxra A n nynxr B // Hornuecxn ananns xstxa. Cemanrnxa nauana n
xonna. Orn. pe. E.C. B+7%I-)($. M., 2002. C. 181-194.
7. Fillmore C. Lectures on Deixis. Stanford, California: CSLI Publications, 1997.
8. Talmy L. Lexicalisation Patterns: Semantic Structure in Lexical Forms // Language Typol-
ogy and Syntactic Description. Vol III: Grammatical Categories and the Lexicon. Cam-
bridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. P. 57-149.
59
5&/(%"*&*+$-&$+
+4PH1M?>1M ALO1>HN K H14PK@S1SA>O1J3?>@2 @?K3Z3411
0$-/*/$% 6*3)3)5*#"&0*? -$70 >.B. C)35*-$, 20O0
Xorx anrnncxnm aprnxnxm ncera yenxnoct onxnoe nnnmanne, xax
n mnorouncnenntx nayuntx nccneonannxx, rax n rpammarnuecxnx cnpa-
nounnxax, ynorpenenne ero n peun nnocrpannen ocraercx ceptesno
nnnrnonaxrnuecxo nponemo.
nx ocnoennx +roro cnoxnoro rpammarnuecxoro xnnennx n nacroxme
crarte npenaraercx npnmenenne xornnrnnnoro meroa, xoropt cocronr
n coornecennn cemanrnxn aprnxnentx ]opm nmenn c nponeccamn acrpa-
rnponannx, xnaccn]nxannn n nnnnnyannsannn, nanpannxemtmn na
npemer mtcnn (pe]epenr)
1
. B pesyntrare ]opmnpymrcx coornercrnym-
mne npecrannennx o nem, pasnnuammnecx no crenenn acrpax-
nnn/xonxpernsannn
2
. Taxo noxo oxcnxer nosmoxnocrt ynorpene-
nnx onoro nmenn n pasntx aprnxnentx ]opmax
3
.
Taxnm opasom, aprnxnt paccmarpnnaercx xax rpammarnuecxax xare-
ropnx nmenn cymecrnnrentnoro, coepxanne xoropo onpeenxercx on-
nosnnne acrpaxnnn n xonxpernsannn. Ha ocnonannn nponeennoro
xornnrnnnoro nsyuennx ]ynxnnonnponannx aprnxnentx ]opm n anrnn-
cxom xstxe tnn yrounent nx xareropnantnte snauennx
4
. Tax, nynenax
aprnxnenax ]opma cymecrnnrentnoro nmeer snauenne npornnonocranne-
nnx, uro cocrannxer cymnocrt nponecca acrparnponannx. Hanpnmep:

1
3nauennx acrpaxnnn, xnaccn]nxannn n nnnnnyannsannn nx onpeenennoro, neon-
peenennoro n nynenoro aprnxne onpeennn A.H. Cmnpnnnxn. Cm. [Cmnpnnnxn 1959:
381-383]
2
I. Inom cunran nponecct naprnxynxpnsannn (ntenenne) n renepannsannn (oome-
nne) ocnono xareropnn aprnxnx (n uncna) cymecrnnrentnoro. Cm. [Inom 1992: 55-57;
Hewson 1972: 63-64]
3
B yueno nnreparype npounoe mecro sannmaer crpyxrypnt noxo, xoropt oxc-
nxer ntop aprnxnx nexcnxo-rpammarnuecxnmn cnocrnamn nmenn cymecrnnrentnoro, n,
raxnm opasom, enaercx axnenr na cyryo xstxontx ]axropax (nexcnxo-]paseonornuecxnx
n mop]o-cnnraxcnuecxnx, nnnxmmnx na ynorpenenne aprnxne. [Hnanona, Fypnaxona,
Houennon 1981;. Kauanona, Hspanennu 1994; Kptnona, Iopon 2000; Biber et al. 1999;
Crystal 1995; Curme 1957; Close 1964: 37-59; Murphy 2006; Strang 1968; Quirk 1972].
4
Hoponee o +rom cm. C)35*-$ >.B. Cncremnt craryc anrnncxnx aprnxne n xor-
nnrnnnom ocnemennn//unnonornuecxne nayxn. Mocxna, 2008. N 3. N4. C)35*-$ >.B. Ho-
nn]ynxnnonantnocrt anrnncxnx aprnxne n xstxe n peun. Mocxna: URSS, 2009.

60
He was never tormented by doubt of his own motives. Right and wrong
stood for him as immutable as the two poles. He had never wandered in that
twilight country where the nuances of evil and good cast their perplexing
shadows. He had great determination and infinite patience. He was kind
without being sentimental and meticulous for detail without losing sight of
the whole. Looking at his career, no one could have called him brilliant. But
if he was incapable of high intelligence he was equally incapable of stupid-
ity. (P.D. James)
uopma nmenn c neonpeenenntm aprnxnem nepeaer snauenne cpan-
nennx, xoropoe oycnonnnnaer nponecc xnaccn]nxannn:
It was a whistling note like a birds. (J. Conrad) The man, also tall and
blond sported a royal blue towelling shirt and a pair of light trousers, and her
immediate reation was that she liked him the better of the two. He had a
more relaxed and rather humorous face. (E. Lemarchand)
uopma nmenn c onpeenenntm aprnxnem nmeer snauenne ncxpernsa-
nnn (or anrn. discreet pasentnt), nx xoroporo xapaxrepno orcyrcr-
nne xax npornnonocrannennx, rax n cpannennx:
There was romance in every place. But Venice, like Oxford, had kept the
background for romance, and, to the true romantic, background was every-
thing, or almost everything. (O. Wilde)
Thrown by accident into her society many years ago, my soul from our
first meeting, burned with fires it had never before known; but the fires were
not of Eros (E. Poe)
Hpnneennte npnmept emoncrpnpymr nopmarnnnoe ncnontsonanne
aprnxnentx ]opm n coornercrnnn c xonnexrnnno xareropnsanne mnpa,
xoropym oycnonnnnaer perynxpnoe ocymecrnnenne nponeccon acrparn-
ponannx (npornnonocrannennx), xnaccn]nxannn (cpannennx) n nnnnn-
yannsannn (ncxpernsannn).
3aaue nacroxme crartn xnnxercx oocnonanne ncnontsonannx xor-
nnrnnnoro meroa nsyuennx aprnxne n nnnrnonaxrnuecxnx nenxx.
Hpemer nccneonannx cocrannxmr napymennx ynorpenennx aprnxne-
ntx ]opm, ormeuenntx n xopnyce xstxonoro marepnana, nxnmuammero
opasnt nnctmenno peun nnocrpanntx cryenron, nsyuammnx anrnn-
cxn xstx. Cop n ananns anntx npononncx n 2003 r. Henrpom xopnyc-
ntx nccneonann anrnncxoro xstxa npn Karonnuecxom ynnnepcnrere r.
Hyn+n (Fentrnx) n pamxax mexynaponoro npoexra Error Tagging Pro-
ject. Hent npoexra cocroxna n ntxnnennn nanonee rnnnuntx rpammarn-
uecxnx, nexcnuecxnx n nexcnxo-rpammarnuecxnx omnox n counnennxx
na npenoxennym remy y cryenron, ocrnrmnx cpenero yponnx oyue-
nnx (intermediate), ns raxnx crpan, xax Fonrapnx, annx, Hontma, Hcna-
nnx, nonnx, Hrannx n Poccnx. Poccncxnmn yuacrnnxamn crann cryen-
rt 3-ro xypca anrnncxoro orenennx ]nnonornuecxoro ]axyntrera MIV
61
nm. Homonocona.
5
Hponeennt ananns counnenn onapyxnn nent px
nponem n ocnoennn nexcnxn n rpammarnxn anrnncxoro xstxa, o uem
cnnerentcrnyer xnaccn]nxannx onymenntx omnox. Cpen nnx no-
rpemnocrn n ynorpenennn aprnxnentx ]opm cymecrnnrentntx sannma-
mr ocrarouno samernoe mecro: xorx nx xonnuecrno n pasntx paorax
cymecrnenno pasnnuaercx or 0 o 30, ncero n 63 counnennxx tno nt-
xnneno 543 cnyuax
6
. Houepxnem, uro +rn omnxn xnnxmrcx cyryo
rpammarnuecxnmn (a ne nexcnuecxnmn nnn nexcnxo-rpammarnuecxnmn),
rax xax n +rnx cnyuaxx nenpannntno nepeanntmn oxasannct xareropn-
antnte snauennx coornercrnymmnx cymecrnnrentntx, n ro npemx xax nx
nexcnuecxne snauennx conepmenno rouno ntpaxamrcx ntpanntmn
nmenamn, uro nonnocrtm coornercrnyer xonrexcry
7
.
Hpannntnt ntop nexcnuecxnx cpecrn ronopnr o rom, uro, pyxono-
crnyxct cnonmn namepennxmn, pyccxoxstunte cryenrt nanpannxnn na
ocyxaemt n counnennn npemer nyxnt nm n nornuecxn onpanan-
nt mtcnnrentnt nponecc. Onaxo ntop aprnxnx nepe nepno nc-
nontsonanntm nmenem nponcxonn neocosnanno, nnrynrnnno, rax xax ne
yunrtnanact cnxst, cymecrnymmax mexy rpammarnxo n mtcnnrentno
exrentnocrtm. Tounee ronopx, ne npnnnmanact n pacuer pont, ntnon-
nxemax aprnxnem n cocrane nmennoro xomnnexca, xoropax cocronr n rom,
urot oneut pesyntrar oprannsymmero n onpeenxmmero mtcnnrent-
noro nponecca n coornercrnymmym xstxonym ]opmy.
Honxrno, uro cront nenarononyunoe nonoxenne en, cnoxnnmeecx n
+ro onacrn anrnncxo rpammarnxn, cnxsano c orcyrcrnnem rpammarn-
uecxnx ananoron n cncreme pyccxoro xstxa, uro oycnonneno pasnnunxmn
n anrnoxstuno n pyccxoxstuno xareropnsannn mnpa. B cnxsn c +rnm
ananns nenpannntntx ynorpenenn aprnxne n paorax pyccxoxstuntx
cryenron ocnontnaercx na xornnrnnntx npnnnnnax n no+romy npono-
nrcx n coornercrnnn c 3-mx mtcnnrentntmn nponeccamn, cocrannxm-
mnmn xareropnsannm n anrnncxom mtmnennn, a nmenno nponeccamn
acrparnponannx, xnaccn]nxannn n nnnnnyannsannn, naxoxmnmn
ntpaxenne n aprnxnentx ]opmax cymecrnnrentntx.
annt noxo x pemennm nocrannenntx saau onpeenxer nocrpoe-
nne anno crartn, nxnmuamme 3 uacrn, xaxax ns xoroptx nocnxmena
nenpannntnomy rpammarnuecxomy ntpaxennm coornercrnymmero xornn-

5
Pyxononrenem +roro npoexra n Poccnn tna npo]eccop xa]ept anrnncxoro xstxo-
snannx ]nnonornuecxoro ]axyntrera MIV nm. M.B. Homonocona H.F. Innmnann.
6
Hpn nocuere ne yunrtnannct nonropt omnox, r.e. nenpannntnoe ncnontsonanne ap-
rnxnx nepe onnm n rem xe nmenem n pamxax onoro +cce.
7
Henpannntnoe ynorpenenne nexcnuecxnx ennnn cunranoct nexcnuecxo omnxo, n
n +rom cnyuae npnnonnoct rpeyemoe cnono-samena. Cpen paccmorpenntx ynorpenenn
raxnx cnyuaen onapyxeno ne tno.

62
rnnnoro nponecca n counnennxx pyccxoxstuntx cryenron. Peut ner o
nenepnom ynorpenennn aprnxnentx ]opm, nanpnmep, nynenoro n onpe-
enennoro aprnxnx nmecro neonpeenennoro aprnxnx n r.n., xoropoe nx
xparxocrn n antnemem yer nastnartcx sameno rpeyemo aprnx-
neno ]opmt.
Henocpecrnennomy xornnrnnnomy anannsy marepnana npemecrno-
nann xonnuecrnennt nocuer n xnaccn]nxannx omnox, xoropte noxa-
sann ocoennocrn nx pacnpeenennx. B uacrnocrn, ontme ncero tno
ormeueno cnyuaen sament onpeenennoro aprnxnx 203 ns 543 (37,4%)
]opmamn nynenoro aprnxnx 185 (34%) n neonpeenennoro aprnxnx 18
(3,4), xoropte nenpannntno oosnauamr nponecc nnnnnyannsannn.
Ha nropom mecre no uncnennocrn oxasannct cnyuan sament nyneno-
ro aprnxnx 127 (23,3%) onpeenenntm aprnxnem 95 (17,5 %) n neon-
peenenntm aprnxnem 32 (6%).
3amena neonpeenennoro aprnxnx cocrannna 118 cnyuaen (21,7%),
cpen xoroptx onpeenennt aprnxnt tn nenepno ncnontsonan 39 pas
(7,2%), a nyneno aprnxnt 79 pas (14,5%).
Ocoo tno nteneno 95 cnyuaen (17,5 %) ynorpenenn nmen ram,
re oxnanoct rpammarnuecxoe onymenne aprnxnx nx nepeaun xnaccn-
]nnnponannoro snauennx mnoxecrnennocrn. Cpen nnx ocoenno uac-
rorntm oxasancx onpeenennt aprnxnt: ero neaexnarnoe ncnontsona-
nne cocrannno 92 npnmepa (16,9%). Ocranmnecx 3 cnyuax (1,1%) npe-
crannxmr coo ynorpenenne neonpeenennoro aprnxnx nepe ]opmamn
mnoxecrnennoro uncna.
Hpecrannennax crarncrnxa xnnxercx, na nam nsrnx, ocrarouno ne-
oxnanno, rax xax npornnopeunr omemy mnennm anrnoxstuntx n
pyccxoxstuntx npenoanarene anrnncxoro xstxa, cornacno xoropomy
nepnocrenenno omnxo nsyuammnx xnnxercx upesmepnax nnnnnya-
nnsannx npemera c nomomtm onpeenennoro aprnxnx. Honyuennte namn
annte yxastnamr na ro, uro na nepnt nnan ntxonr nmenno neo-
onenxa xonxpernsannn.
Kpome roro, npnneennte nn]pt ronopxr raxxe o ceptesntx npone-
max, ncntrtnaemtx namnmn cryenramn npn orpaxennn nponecca xnac-
cn]nxannn, xoropt onxnt nepeanart xax ]opmt enncrnennoro
uncna c neonpeenenntm aprnxnem, rax n mnoxecrnennte ]opmt c ony-
mennem aprnxnx. Ormeuennte omnxn n cymme opasymr onontno nt-
coxoe uncno 210 (118+92), uro or omero xonnuecrna cocrannxer 48 %.
Haxonen, samena nynenoro aprnxnx, npecrannennax nanmentmnm
uncnom omnox, raxxe menxer n onpeenenno mepe npecrannennx o rex
rpynocrxx, c xoroptmn cranxnnamrcx pyccxoxstunte nsyuammne anr-
nncxn xstx npn ynorpenennn nynenoro aprnxnx.
63
Kornnrnnnt ananns omnox npononrcx c ncnontsonannem cnonap-
ntx anntx nx coornercrnymmnx cymecrnnrentntx
8
, neoxonmom nx
roro, urot nonxrt, nacxontxo nn]opmarnnntmn n nonesntmn onn mor-
nn trt nx cryenron, yuacrnonanmnx n +xcnepnmenre.
7A?ON [. Hponecc acrparnponannx n ero nenpannntnoe rpammarnue-
cxoe ntpaxenne n peun pyccxoxstuntx cryenron, nsyuammnx anrnn-
cxn xstx
Hocxontxy annt pasen crartn nocnxmen xornnrnnnomy nponeccy
acrparnponannx n rpammarnuecxomy ntpaxennm xareropnantnoro sna-
uennx acrpaxnnn, ro paccmorpennm n nem nonexar oosnauammne ero
nencuncnxemte nmena cymecrnnrentnte c acrpaxrntm snauennem. Ta-
xnm opasom, n nenrpe nnnmannx oxastnaercx neonpanannax xonxpern-
sannx acrpaxrntx npecrannenn o npemere mtcnn c nomomtm coor-
nercrnymmnx aprnxnentx ]opm. 3aaua cocronr n rom, urot oxasart,
uro npnunno ncex omnountx ynorpenenn xnnxercx neocosnannocrt
nnmymnmn conepmaemoro nmn acrparnponannx npn paccyxennn na
remy counnennx n cnxsannoro c +rnm xornnrnnntm nponeccom npornno-
nocrannennx, xoropax n npnnonr x samene nynenoro aprnxnx.
Tax xax nmecro rpammarnuecxn npannntntx nynentx ]opm cymecrnn-
rentntx ynorpenxnnct xax onpeenennte, rax n neonpeenennte aprnx-
nn, xaxoe ns +rnx 2-x rnnon napymenn yer paccmorpeno orentno.
)Q@OL3WH3413 12344=Y X@L2 ? @QL3S3H344=2 ALO1>H32 K23?O@
4BH3K=Y ALO1>H3K=Y X@L2. Bnonne ecrecrnenno, uro n counnennxx na
ony n ry xe remy pasnte anropt ncnontsonann onnaxonym nnn noxo-
xym nexcnxy n onycxann onnaxonte omnxn n ynorpenennn c nnmn
aprnxne. Cpen nanonee uacro ncrpeuammnxcx n cocrane nenpannnt-
ntx aprnxnentx ]opm tnn ormeuent raxne ornneuennte nmena, xax
reality, life n time. Oparnmcx x nepnomy ns nnx n paccmorpnm cnauana
cnonapnte annte, cornacno xoroptm ero moxno ynorpenxrt co ncemn
3-mx aprnxnxmn. Hmontrno ormernrt, uro cnonapt Maxmnnnan ne npo-
nonr nnxaxnx cemanrnuecxnx pasnnun nx annoro cnona, n ro npemx
xax ronxont cnonapt nsarentcrna Oxc]opcxoro ynnnepcnrera nte-
nxer 2 cnao ornnuammnxcx pyr or pyra snauennx, nepnoe ns xoroptx
nnnmcrpnpyercx ynorpenennem nynentx aprnxnentx ]opm, a nropoe
xapaxrepnsyercx ncnontsonannem ]opm c neonpeenenntm n onpeenen-
ntm aprnxnxmn: Cp.: 1. the true situation and the problems that actually
exist in life, in contrast to how you would like life to be. 2. a thing that is

8
Hcrounnxom marepnana nocnyxnnn cneymmne cnonapn: [Longman 1998. Macmillan 2002.
Oxford 2005.]
64
actually experienced or seen, in contrast to what people might imagine. (Ox-
ford)
The real character or nature of things, not what you imagine or think is
possible. (Macmillan)]
1. a) She refuses to face reality. (Oxford)
b) You're out of touch with reality. (Oxford)
c) Her version of events bore absolutely no relation to reality. (Macmil-
lan)
d) This is a man who lost touch with reality. (Macmillan)
e) He is no longer able to differentiate between reality and fantasy.
(Macmillan)
f) Outwardly she seemed confident but in reality she felt extremely nerv-
ous.(Oxford)
g) Reports put the death toll at 50, when in reality it was closer to 200.
(Macmillan)
2. a) Will time travel ever become a reality? (Oxford)
b) After years of hard work, his dream has become a reality. (Macmillan)
3. a) Our politicians are completely out of touch with the realities of the
situation. (Oxford)
b) This decision reflects the realities of the political situalion. (Oxford)
annt marepnan xcno noxastnaer, uro xareropnx reality nxnmuaer 3
rnna npecrannenn o npemere mtcnn, xoropte cymecrnenno pasnnuamr-
cx no crenenn acrpaxnnn/xonxpernsannn. Hynente ]opmt nepeamr
nanntcmee acrpaxrnoe snauenne, xoropoe ocnontnaercx na xareropn-
antnom npornnonocrannennn peantnocrn n noopaxennx. uopmt c neon-
peenenntm aprnxnem ntpaxamr cyxennoe n onee xonxpernoe snauenne
pesyntrar exrentnocrn, r.e. nepexot or meurt x peantnocrn, n ocnone
xoroporo nexnr cpannenne, a nmenno coornecenne roro nnn nnoro cot-
rnx c noopaxennem n peantnocrtm. Haxonen, ]opmt c onpeenenntm
aprnxnem nmemr camoe ysxoe n no+romy camoe xonxpernoe ns nosmox-
ntx acrpaxrntx snauenn, cnxsannoe c onpeenenno cnryanne, nc-
xnmuamme nosmoxnocrt xax cpannennx, rax n npornnonocrannennx.
Oparnmcx renept x rpammarnuecxn nenpannntntm ynorpenennxm an-
noro nmenn:
1) This is a real world of imagination and your inner mind. You may live
in the world of imagination and people would say that you dont depend on
*the reality
9
. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0012.5>
2)As far as I know, opium is a drug that causes strong dependence and
puts people into a dreamlike state, during which they cannot comprehend
*the reality, nor be in accord with it.<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0011.6>

9
3nax * ncnontsyercx nx oosnauennx nenpannntntx aprnxnentx ]opm nmenn.
65
3)Aristotle argued with Plato by emphasizing the value of the objective
world and speaking about connections between the world of images and *the
reality. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0018.6>
4)And what about those dreams which go far beyond the scope of *the
reality? <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0019.6>
5) But in all times, in all places, there were people who were regarded as
eccentrics, strange persons, or even slightly mad those who didnt accept
*the reality. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0019.6>
6)However, imagination is something that belongs to human nature, and
people do dream, whether they are satisfied with *the reality or not.
7)But unfortunately they were disappointed, because their dreams had no
connection with *the reality, with the real state of affairs.
8)Literature is a brilliant exercise for speculating about *the reality.
<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0005.2>
Hecmorpx na ro, uro annte npnmept tnn nsxrt ns pasntx counne-
nn, ocnemammnx pasnym nponemarnxy, nx oennxer cxonoe nc-
nontsonanne paccmarpnnaemoro cymecrnnrentnoro n cemanrnuecxom
npornnonocrannennn pyrnm nmenam c omnm snauennem noopaxenne,
noopaxaemt mnp, ntmtcen. 3ra onnosnnnx uerxo ntpaxena nexcnue-
cxn no ncex npnmepax xpome N5, re ona rontxo nopasymenaercx: peut
ner o nmxx, ne npnnnmammnx peantnocrt, n, cneonarentno, xnnymnx
n cnoem, noopaxaemom mnpe. Hpn +rom +xcnnnnnrnoe npornnonocranne-
nne nanonee nonno ntpaxamr acrpaxrnte nencuncnxemte cymecrnn-
rentnte imagination n literature, xoropte cemanrnuecxn xonrpacrnpymr c
acrpaxrntm n nencuncnxemtm nmenem reality (npnmept 1, 6). Ocrant-
nte nmena, npornnonocrannennte emy no snauennm, npecrannent acr-
paxrntmn, no ncuncnxemtmn nmenamn: dreams, images.
Honox nrorn, neoxonmo ormernrt necoornercrnne acrpaxrnoro
mtmnennx y pyccxoxstuntx cryenron (xoropoe npannntno ntpaxaercx
nexcnuecxn) n rpammarnuecxnmn cpecrnamn ero ntpaxennx. Hecmorpx
na ro, uro anropt mtcnxr nnonne acrpaxrno n npn +rom ocymecrnnxmr
cnocrnennoe anrnoxstunomy mtmnennm npornnonocrannenne, rem ne
menee, onn ne cnxstnamr +ro npornnonocrannenne c oxsarentntm ynor-
penennem nynenoro aprnxnx. Koneuno, nsyuammne anrnncxn xstx
mornn t onee +]]exrnnno ncnontsonart xax annte cnonape, rax n
rpammarnuecxnx cnpanounnxon. Ho n nnx no nnonne nonxrntm npnunnam
orcyrcrnymr ronxonannx xareropnantntx snauenn cymecrnnrentntx.
)Q@OL3WH3413 12344=Y X@L2 ? 43@QL3S3H344=2 ALO1>H32 K23-
?O@ 4BH3K=Y ALO1>H3K=Y X@L2. B annom pasene npoonxaercx pac-
cmorpenne nponecca xstxonoro acrparnponannx n ero neaexnarnoro
orpaxennx n counnennxx pyccxoxstuntx cryenron ]opmo c neonpee-
nenntm aprnxnem. B xonnuecrnennom ornomennn npnmepon npnnonrcx
66
mentme, no onn n ne mentme crenenn emoncrpnpymr neocosnannocrt
npnnnexaemoro n nponecce nanncannx acrparnponannx, a raxxe crpem-
nennx x xonxpernsannn npemera mtcnn.
Hmemmncx marepnan aer nosmoxnocrt npecrannrt ero n nne nyx
rpynn: n nepnym rpynny, camym manouncnennym nomnn cymecrnnrent-
nte, otuno ynorpenxmmnecx xax xonxpernte nmena, no nmecre c rem
onycxammne napnarnnnocrt n ynorpenennn aprnxne, a nropym rpynny
cocrannnn cocrnenno acrpaxrnte cymecrnnrentnte. B nepnym rpynny
nomnn cymecrnnrentnte man n machine. B npnnonmom nnxe npnmepe
npoxnnxercx pasnnna mexy nymx mtcnnrentntmn nponeccamn acr-
parnponannx n xnaccn]nxannn, n no+romy nmemrcx rpeymmne noxcne-
nnx ne aprnxnente ]opmt nmenn man npannntnax n nenpannntnax:
But a man can never be a robot, though sometimes he has to come up to
this invisible edge between *a man and *a machine, but it is too dangerous.
<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0009.4>
Hecmorpx na snaunrentnoe nnemnee cxocrno ne napt oxastnamrcx
npnnnnnnantno pasntmn n nnane ntpaxaemoro nmn xareropnantnoro
snauennx. Hepnax napa nnonne aexnarno nepeaer snauenne cpannennx,
rax xax poor npecrannxer coo mexannsm, cosannt xax noone
uenonexa, urot onerunrt emy xnsnt n ntnonnxrt rxxenym nnn nenn-
repecnym paory. Ho+romy nnemne poor (n n ]anracrnuecxnx ]nntmax,
n n peantnocrn) uacro noxox na uenonexa: y nero ecrt ronona, ryno-
nnme, pyxn, norn, n on moxer axe ronopnrt.
Bo nropo nape nmen neonpeenennt aprnxnt yxe ne coornercrnyer
mtcnn anropa counnennx. Paccyxax n nponox oomenne, on ne same-
rnn, xax nonxncx na camt ntcoxn yponent acrpaxnnn, n ocnone xo-
roporo nexnr npornnonocrannenne yxonnocrn uenonexa, ero rnopuecxo-
ro nauana n esyxonnocrn mamnnt, necnocono nnuero cosart es
uenonexa. O +rom cnnerentcrnyer npoonxenne:
A man is the only being having a soul. This abstract notion of which po-
ets have sung praises for ages is naughty and hard to predict. <ICLE-RUS-
MOSC-0009.4>
Ormernm, uro raxoe ynorpenenne nmenn machine, xorx n rpammarn-
uecxn nerounoe, xnnxercx necranaprntm. uro xacaercx nopmarnnnoro
ynorpenennx, ro cnonapt npenaraer rontxo ony nnnmcrpannm:
Theses companies do everything by machine theses days. (Macmillan)
Hpnneennte na npnmepa na cpannenne acrparnponannx n xnaccn-
]nxannn noxastnamr, uro pyccxoxstuntm nsyuammnm anrnncxn xstx
onontno nenpocro npeoonert rpannnonnocrt nocnpnxrnx oonx cyme-
crnnrentntx xax xonxperntx n ocosnart nannune mnpoxoro nanasona
naptnponannx ynorpenennx onoro n ro xe nmenn, xoropoe cnocono c
nomomtm aprnxnx nepeanart pasnte npecrannennx, cocrannxmmne
67
xareropnm. K romy xe nm xpane cnoxno raxxe nponecrn pasnnny mexy
npornnonocrannennem n cpannennem, rax xax n pyccxom xstxe +rn onepa-
nnn ne nmemr rpammarnuecxoro ntpaxennx, a n noncenenno xnsnn
uacro cmemnnamrcx.
Hornepxennem romy moryr cnyxnrt mnorouncnennte orentnte
ynorpenennx nmenn man n acrpaxrnom snauennn, xoropoe anropt ne-
aexnarno nepeamr c nomomtm neonpeenennoro aprnxnx:
As soon as insects which spoil crops and bacilla which ruin living be-
ingshealth get used to the counteraction made by *a man he has again to find
out new means to fight against them. For instance, vaccines against those
bacilla which cause catching deseases, such as typhoid, smallpox, plague and
now AIDS. As soon as *a man invents a medium to counteract their effect,
new kinds of threats appear much stronger and more malign than the previ-
ous... <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0001.5>
And never, as far as our civilization is concerned *a man has come so
close to self-destruction. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0002.4>
Military service gives *a man an opportunity to feel himself *a part of his
country. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0003.5>
Kax cneyer ns npnneennoro marepnana, nx rpamornoro ynorpene-
nnx rpeyercx nonnmanne ocoennocre anrnoxstunoro mtmnennx n n
cnxsn c +rnm ocosnanne ronxocre ncnontsonannx aprnxne npn cymecr-
nnrentnom, xoropte onpeenxmrcx pasnnuennem raxnx onepann, xax
npornnonocrannenne n cpannenne, perynnpymmnx nponecct acrpaxnnn-
xonxpernsannn.
7A?ON 2. Hponecc xnaccn]nxannn n ero nenpannntnoe rpammarnue-
cxoe ntpaxenne
Kax yxe ormeuanoct panee, nponecc xnaccn]nxannn n anrnncxom
xstxe npecrannxer camym snaunrentnym rpynocrt nx nsyuammnx.
Xorx n xonnuecrnennom ornomennn samena neonpeenennoro aprnxnx
(118 cnyuaen) ycrynaer samene onpeenennoro aprnxnx (203 cnyuax),
cma cneyer ornecrn n mnorouncnennte cnyuan nenpannntnoro ynor-
penennx onpeenennoro n neonpeenennoro aprnxnx ram, re rpeona-
noct rpammarnuecxoe onymenne aprnxnx nx oosnauennx mnoxecrnen-
nocrn (95 cnyuaen). B saaun annoro pasena nxonr nopont pasop
omnox c nentm oxasart neocosnannocrt conepmaemoro pyccxoxstunt-
mn cryenramn nponecca xnaccn]nxannn n asono nx nero xornnrnn-
no onepannn cpannennx, uro oxcnxer nenepnt ntop rpammarnue-
cxnx cpecrn.
B coornercrnnn c nmemmnmcx marepnanom, yyr nocneonarentno
paccmorpent rpn rpynnt napymenn: samena neonpeenennoro aprnx-
68
nx onpeenenntm aprnxnem, samena rpammarnuecxoro onymennx ap-
rnxnx n samena neonpeenennoro aprnxnx nynentm aprnxnem.
)Q@OL3WH3413 @QL3S3H344@P@ ALO1>HD K23?O@ 43@QL3S3H344@P@
ALO1>HD. Hs omero uncna omnox n oosnauennn nponecca xnaccn]n-
xannn (118), na sameny neonpeenennoro aprnxnx onpeenenntm ap-
rnxnem npnxonrcx 39 cnyuaen, n cpen nnx ne tno naeno nn onoro
ynorpenennx, xoropoe t xnnnoct cnecrnnem nponecca nnnnnyann-
sannn. Hanomnnm, uro nx nnnnnyannsannn xapaxrepno nonnoe orcyr-
crnne xax npornnonocrannennx, rax n cpannennx. Hanpornn, n nmemmem-
cx marepnane nmemrcx nce npnsnaxn cpannennx, r.e. yxasanne na cxocrna
n pasnnunx npemera mtcnn, ornocnmoro x nexoropomy xnaccy.
Kpane pexnmn xnnxmrcx cnyuan ynorpenennx nmen es cpannn-
rentntx onpeenenn. Hanpnmep:
And this is dangerous mainly for children, because they are forced to
watch this till the time they begin to understand the difference and the neces-
sity of making *the choice every time they watch a film or a TV pro-
gramme.<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0012.5>
*The company might employ an uneducated worker and pay him less
money than to a professional one. ...<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0003.5>
B npnneenntx ntcxastnannxx onpeenennt aprnxnt nepe nte-
nenntmn cymecrnnrentntmn ne moxer cunrartcx onpananntm, rax xax
no ncex nnx npncyrcrnyer xareropnantnoe snauenne cpannennx. B nepnom
npnmepe uenonex ornocnrcx x xnaccy nme, n npn +rom cam xnacc ne
nnnnnyannsnpyercx, net peut ner o rontxo rex nmxx, xnsnt xoro-
ptx ocnoxnxercx ]nnancontmn nponemamn, a, snaunr, onn nmnnnnnrno
cpannnnamrcx c remn, xomy nx yaercx nsexart. Bo nropom npenoxe-
nnn anrop nmeer n nny ntop, xoropt ncera, xax yxe ormeuanoct
panee, cnxsan co cpannennem. B annom cnyuae ronopnrcx o ntope ns
nyx nosmoxntx nocrynxon, xoropte exenenno enaer uenonex, nxnm-
uax renennsop, a nmenno cmorpert nnn ne cmorpert ry nnn nnym npo-
rpammy. Haxonen, n rpertem npnmepe onpeenennt aprnxnt tn t
onpananntm rontxo, ecnn t anrop yxastnan na xonxpernym xomnannm,
yxe ynomnnanmymcx n rexcre. 3ect xe xomnannx nmnnnnnrno cpannn-
naercx c pyrnmn pannonenntmn enontmn oprannsannxmn (firm,
business n p.).
B nenom ocoennocrtm ncex omnountx ynorpenenn nmenntx
]opm c onpeenenntm aprnxnem nmecro neonpeenennoro aprnxnx xnnx-
ercx nannune onncarentntx onpeenenn, xoropte npnsnant ycnnnnart
cpannenne, a ne ycrpanxrt ero, uro xapaxrepno nx orpannunnammnx
onpeenenn npn xonxpernsannn. Paccmorpnm px omnox, ncrpernn-
mnxcx n nmenntx ]opmax c onpeenennxmn, ntpaxenntmn npnnararent-
ntmn. Houepxnem, uro onpeenennx nocxr nropocrenennt xapaxrep n
69
rontxo ycnnnnamr nponecc cpannennx, noxastnax, uro npemer mtcnn,
ntpaxaemt nmenno ]opmo c aprnxnem nonexnr xnaccn]nxannn.
Ocoenno noxasarentntm nx cpannennx xnnxercx ynorpenenne npnna-
rarentnoro similar:
The religions of all civilizations were their products and followed *the
similar pattern: religions enhanced progress at the beginning and then inhib-
ited it. Now we are witnesses of *the similar process concerning television.
<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0019.2>
Kax cneyer ns annoro ntcxastnannx, anrop ycranannnnaer cxocrno
mexy moenxmn pasnnrnx n nponcxoxmnmn n omecrne nponeccamn,
xoropoe nmnnnnnrno npenonaraer n pasnnunx.
B cneymmnx npnmepax nannune onpeenenn raxxe oecneunnaer
ycnnenne nmnnnnnrnoro cpannennx:
The university gives us *the theoretical basis and the main skills for our
future profession. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0013.5>
The aggravation of social relations leads to the decline of moral principles
and tension between people and forms *the negative attitude. <ICLE-RUS-
MOSC-0009.6>
From 1997 we have a more humane Criminal Code. Many convicted per-
sons will not be executed . I think that it is *the progressive step of our soci-
ety.<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0009.6>
One can hardly deny how radically the atmosphere changes in spring
when newly appeared leaves and blossoming trees give a stream of freshness.
Why not make life *the constant spring? <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0001.5>
The last great discovery the computer and computer games made it
possible to get into *the endless amount of realities.
The argument for that is that nobody can expect perfecr justice so it is un-
reasonable to adopt *the unjust imperfect solution...<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-
0004.4>
Even Marxs own theory and idea of *the glowing communist future were
a kind of opium for those who were eager to build it.<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-
0015.6>
They content that capital punishment undoubtedly guarantees the popula-
tion protection against the most cynical and incorrigible murderers, because
to their mind, there will not be *the second chance for the criminals.<ICLE-
RUS-MOSC-0009.6>
C nomomtm onpeenenn nnyrpn xnaccon, oosnauaemtx nmenamn
basis, attitude, step, spring n solution, nponsomna antnemax xnaccn]n-
xannx, n opasymrcx coornercrnymmne noxnacct, xoropte nmnnnnnrno
cpannnnamrcx c pyrnmn noxnaccamn: a theoretical basis a practical
basis; a negative attitude positive attitude; a progressive step a regres-
sive step; a constant spring a short (normal) spring; an endless amount a
70
small amount; an unjust imperfect solution a just perfect solution; a glow-
ing future a sad, pessimistic future; the second chance a third/fourth
chance.
)Q@OL3WH3413 @QL3S3H344@P@ ALO1>HD K23?O@ PLA22AO1J3?>@P@
@QBZ341D ALO1>HD. Kax yxe ronopnnoct, samena rpammarnuecxoro
onymennx aprnxnx nx oosnauennx mnoxecrnennocrn npoxnnnact n
anannsnpyemom marepnane mnoroxparno, o uem ronopxr nn]pt. Bcero
ormeueno 95 cnyuaen, cpen xoroptx cneyer ntennrt 63 nenpannntntx
ynorpenenn onpeenennoro aprnxnx c ]opmamn cymecrnnrentntx no
mnoxecrnennom uncne, 29 cnyuaen nenpannntnoro ynorpenennx conpa-
rentntx cymecrnnrentntx c onpeenenntm aprnxnem n 3 ynorpenennx
neonpeenennoro aprnxnx c nmenntmn ]opmamn mnoxecrnennoro uncna.
Hocnenxx rpynna ns rpex nepeuncnenntx paccmarpnnartcx ne yer, rax
xax npnunna +rnx rpytx omnox npecrannxercx conepmenno ouenn-
no n xpoercx n xpane nennnmarentnocrn nnmymnx n npenepexennn
x onomy ns camtx crpornx npannn anrnncxo rpammarnxn.
uro xacaercx camo mnorouncnenno rpynnt omnox, ro nx cneyer
pasxcnnrt, noxasan neonpanannocrt ynorpenenn onpeenennoro
aprnxnx, nocxontxy n nnx xnno npncyrcrnyer cpannenne. Oparnmcx x
npnmepam:
They (women) abandon themselves to work and do their best to work as
men do and even better , to achieve ther results *the men achieve. <ICLE-
RUS-MOSC-0002.5>
A great danger is gaps in the ozone layer which let through *the harmful
rays destroying all *the living cells. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0001.5>
Life in big industrialized densely populated cities has made citizens weak
and less resistatnt to various illnesses. It causes nervous breakdowns and
different psychological and physical deseases, such as depression, *the feel-
ings of envy, competition, mutual misunderstanding and even suicides.
<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0001.5>
In general, nature is such a harmonious system that it can control its inner
processes by either making up for *the lost elements or decomposing unnec-
essary compound substances into simpler elements... It it quite obvious that a
man who breaks into the harmoniously established worldwith *the machines,
industry and radioactive substances will weaken the capacity of natural proc-
esses for self- regulation and could cause an ecological imbalance.<ICLE-
RUS-MOSC-0001.5>
And without discussing the quality of thses plays we cant say that they
are not *the works of art. Maybe being a little bit unusual, *the works of
modern art need even more imagination to understatnd them, than *the old
ones.<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0012.5>
71
Hpnneenntx npnmepon, cocrannxmmnx rontxo manym uacrt ncex
nmemmnxcx, nnonne ocrarouno, urot ynnert, nacxontxo neaexnar-
ntm n xaxom ns nnx xnnxercx onpeenennt aprnxnt, rax xax x snaue-
nnm mnoxecrnennocrn, ntpaxaemo ]opmo nmenn no mnoxecrnennom
uncne, on oannxer snauenne nceomnocrn npemera mtcnn, uro coor-
nercrnyer n pyccxom xstxe ncnontsonannm mecronmennx ("&4. Hnaue
ronopx, nesanncnmo or roro, ecrt nepe cymecrnnrentntm npnnararent-
noe all nnn ner, unrarent onxen nocnpnnnmart +rn ynorpenennx cne-
ymmnm opasom: all the men, all the harmful rays, all the living cells, all
the feelings of envy n r.. Mexy rem, anropt nmemr n nny xnaccn]nxa-
nnm, cpannnnax myxunn n xenmnn, npente n nonesnte xocmnuecxne
nyun, pasnnunte nerarnnnte nocnecrnnx nnoxo +xonornn n r.n. Pexo,
no nce xe ncrpeuaercx n +xcnnnnnrnoe cpannenne, xax, nanpnmep, n coun-
nennn, n xoropom npononrcx pasnnna mexy conpemenntmn nponsnee-
nnxmn ncxyccrna n paoramn npomnoro.
3naunrentnt nnrepec npecrannxmr coo omnxn, cocroxmne n
ynorpenennn onpeenennoro aprnxnx c cymecrnnrentntmn people n
society, nepe xoroptmn onpanannoe orcyrcrnne aprnxnx xnnxercx, no
cyrn, ero rpammarnuecxnm onymennem, rax xax n +rnx cnyuaxx ono pan-
nonenno orcyrcrnnm aprnxnx nepe nmenntmn ]opmamn no mnoxecrnen-
nom uncne. Paccmorpnm nopono ncnontsonanne cymecrnnrentnoro
society, xoropoe no xonnuecrny omnox npenocxonr nce ocrantnte nme-
na n nmemmemcx marepnane. Ono onycxaer napnarnnnocrt n ncnontso-
nannn aprnxnentx ]opm, o uem cnnerentcrnymr cnonapnte annte.
Cpannnm cnauana 3 rpynnt npnmepon, nsnneuenntx ns pasntx ronxontx
cnonape:
1. a) Society has to be prepared to support its elderly people. (Macmillan)
b) The scheme aims to encourage the reintegration of prisoners into soci-
ety. (Macmillan)
c) The protesters were drawn from a broad cross-section of society.
(Macmillan)
d) Racism exist at all levels of society. (Oxford)
e) policies that will benefit society as a whole (Oxford)
f) Good writing has still a place in contemporary society. (Macmillan)
g)The novels reflect the values of Victorian society. (Macmillan)
h) The picture outraged polite society. (Macmillan)
i) They were discussing the problems of Western society. (Oxford)
j) Their daughter married into high society. (Oxford)
2. a) The question is whether we have sufficient resources to sustain an
industrial society. (Macmillan)
72
b) Never forget that we live in a multicultural society. The question is
whether we have sufficient resources to sustain an industrial society. (Mac-
millan)
c) demand created by a consumer society (Oxford)
d) Can Britain ever be a classless society? (Oxford)
3. a) The American Society of Newspaper Editors (Oxford
b) She joined the local history society and made some new friends.
(Macmillan)
c) a member of the drama society (Oxford)
d) He joined the local history society and made some new friends.
(Macmillan)
Hpnneennt marepnan noxastnaer, uro n xstxe npeonaamr ynor-
penennx annoro nmenn es aprnxnx, snauenne xoroptx c]opmynnpona-
no cneymmnm opasom: people in general living together in organized
communities, with laws and traditions controlling the way towars one an-
other (Macmillan). Hnaue ronopx, society n people xnnxmrcx cnnonnmamn,
a nmx people onpeenxercx n cnonape xax mnoxecrnennax ]opma cymecr-
nnrentnoro person.
10
Hsyuenne nnnmcrparnnno ]paseonornn raxxe no-
rnepxaer, uro orcyrcrnne aprnxnx cnococrnyer rpammarnuecxomy oo-
snauennm mnoxecrnennocrn na ]one cpannennx: nsrnxt ontmoro xo-
nnuecrna nme, nx npancrnennte n xyntrypnte nennocrn, a raxxe nop-
mt noneennx conocrannxmrcx, no-nepntx, c nsrnxamn n noneennem
orentntx npecrannrene, npornnopeuamnmn npnnxrtm nopmam (npn-
mept 1 b, c, d, g), n, no-nroptx, c ycroxmn omecrna pyro +noxn,
pyroro rocyapcrna nnn xe pyro connantno rpynnt nnyrpn crpant,
r.e. ocosnamrcx no npemennom, reorpa]nuecxom n connantnom cpannennn
(npnmept 1 f-j). Hpornnonocrannennx trt ne moxer, rax xax +ro npo-
rnnopeunr nornxe anrnoxstunoro mtmnennx: xax n camnx nme, nx
nsrnxt nentsx npornnonocrannxrt n cnny ome uenoneuecxo npnpot,
cnoconocrn mtcnnrt n ntcxastnart cnoe mnenne.
Cpannenne n ]opme mnoxecrnennocrn, ntpaxaemoe nmenem society,
nnrepecno conocrannrt co cpannennem n nne ennnunocrn, r.e. xora
annoe nmx ynorpenxercx c neonpeenenntm aprnxnem. 3ect yxe ne
nmeercx n nny enenne nacenennx ro nnn nno crpant na rpynnt.
Hpecrannennx o omecrne n nenom nonepramrcx cpannennm na ocno-
nannn nexoroptx npnsnaxon, nanpnmep, n coornercrnnn c yponnem rex-
nnuecxoro pasnnrnx (npnmept 2 a, c), nannunx xnaccon (npnmep 2 d),
nannonantnoro cocrana (npnmep 2 b), +ro snauenne cyxaercx o rnna
omecrna. Opamaer na cex nnnmanne ror ]axr, uro n +rom xnaccn]nnn-
ponannom cmtcne annoe cymecrnnrentnoe moxer ynorpenxrtcx rontxo

10
[Macmillan 2000: 1050]
73
c onpeenennem, urot noxasart antnemym xnaccn]nxannm, nnn cy-
xareropnsannm nnyrpn xnacca.
uro xacaercx ]opm annoro nmenn c onpeenenntm aprnxnem, ro onn
ymecrnt n rex ocrarouno pexnx cnyuaxx, xora coornercrnymr ysxomy
npecrannennm, nnxax ne cnxsannomy co cpannennem. Tora onn oosna-
uamr neontmoe uncno nme, nonneuenntx n onpeenennt nn ex-
rentnocrn, uacro ocymecrnnxemo na orpannuenno reppnropnn, nanpn-
mep, n xaxo-nno ono crpane (npnmep 3- a) nnn onom ropoe (npnme-
pt 3 b, c, d) n r.n. Hannune onpeenenn raxxe xnnxercx oxsarentntm,
rax xax onn saxpennxmr onn xaxo-nno npnsnax (nne cpannennx c py-
rnmn npnsnaxamn), n no+romy nocxr orpannunnammn xapaxrep.
Oparnmcx renept x rpammarnuecxn nenpannntnomy ncnontsonannm
cymecrnnrentnoro society n peun cryenron:
In my opinion, we cant say with certainty, categorically that a persons
financial reward should be commensurate with his contribution to *the soci-
ety. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0016.2>
I cant say I am absolutely sure that it is right, but this fact, in my opinion,
shows us vividly the level of *the society, in which it is believed that every-
body has the right to have good living conditions...<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-
0016.2>
People of such professions, including the most famous ones, and scien-
tists should definitely form the elite of *the society. Though it is not in this
country, in general it should be true. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0016.2>
We have to face the fact that feminists have caused a lot of harm both to
*the society and the womens liberation movement, to the whole idea of
womens liberation. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0002.5>
*The society must protect people from cruelty, all of them, including
criminals. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0003.4>
*The society has to give the helping hand to someone who stumbled.
Our aim (I mean the aim of *the society) is to rehabilitate criminals and
not to make them suffer or to humiliate them. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0004.4>
On the one hand, it seems to be an indisputable question that criminals
should be isolated from *the society. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0012.2>
*The society doesnt benefit from prisoners work. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-
0012.2>
Maybe it could be better not to put those people in prison, whose crimes
are not very serious and who are not somehow dangerous to *the society.
<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0012.2>
And no doubt, it is in the interest of *the society not to let these new
crimes be committed. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0012.2>
A criminal is alienated from *the society and sometimes even from his
family. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0012.2>
74
If a person is quite normal, has no previous conviction and is not danger-
ous to *the society, the court may put that person on probation. (It is possible
only with criminals who committed less dangerous crimes). I dont mean too
soft sentences for people who are dangerous to *the society and should be
isolated from *the society. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0001.2>
Humane methods which will give criminals a chance to become fully val-
ued members of *the society must be put forward. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-
0002.2>
In most criminal cases it is *the society that must take the responsibility.
<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0002.2>
Hcxox ns coepxannx, annte npnmept nenecoopasno pasennrt
na ne rpynnt, nepnax ns xoroptx nxnmuaer npnmept 1-4, a nropax nce
ocrantnte. nx nepno rpynnt xapaxrepno conocrannenne omecrna n
nenom c ee orentntmn npecrannrenxmn: n nepntx nyx ntcxastnannxx
nce unent omecrna ypannnnamrcx n npanax na ocronoe nosnarpaxe-
nne sa cno rpy na nontsy omecrna, a no nropom n npane na xopomne
ycnonnx xnsnn. B rpertem n uerneprom npenoxennxx, ronopx o ponn
yuentx n omecrne (xoropte cocrannxmr ero +nnry) n ]emnnncrcxoro
nnxennx, anropt ntenxmr n nem uacrt n raxnm opasom cpannnnamr ee
c nentm no npo]eccnonantnomy n connantno-neonornuecxomy npnsna-
xam.
B ocrantntx, ocrarouno onopontx no coepxannm ntcxastnann-
xx, anropt sarparnnamr n ocnonnom remy npecrynnocrn n ornomennx x
ne omecrna. B nnx onapyxnnaercx mnoro omero co cnonapntm nn-
nmcrparnnntm marepnanom. Pasnnna saxnmuaercx n rom, uro, ncnontsyx
nyxnte nexcnuecxne cpecrna, anropt napymamr rpammarnuecxym nop-
my, rax xax c rouxn spennx nocnrene anrnncxoro xstxa c nomomtm
onpeenennoro aprnxnx anannsnpyemoe nmx npnoperaer neonpananno
xonxpernoe snyuanne. A net peut ner o cpannennn npecrynnnxon c
npancrnenntmn n saxononocnymntmn nmtmn, cocrannxmmnmn ont-
mnncrno, nnn o cpannennn omecrna co croponnnxamn ]emnnncrcxoro
nnxennx, naxoxmnmncx n mentmnncrne. Taxnm opasom, paccmorpen
nce npnmept, xax ns cnonapx, rax n ns counnenn c yuerom xareropnant-
noro snauennx cpannennx, moxno c]opmynnponart snauenne nmenn
society, ynorpenxemoro es aprnxnx, xax ontmnncrno n nmnnnnnrnom
nnn +xcnnnnnrnom cpannennn c mentmnncrnom, xoropoe n cnom oue-
pet, xax npannno, ntpaxaer ncuncnxemoe nmx no mnoxecrnennom uncne.
Taxnm opasom, n paccmorpennom marepnane ne tno onapyxeno ro-
ro maxcnmantnoro cyxennx snauennx, xoropoe coornercrnonano t ntc-
me crenenn xonxpernsannn npemera mtcnn. Hanpornn, no ncex npe-
crannenntx orptnxax ns counnenn anropt npononnn mtcnennym xnac-
cn]nxannm n nx +roro cpannnnann npecrannennx o npemere mtcnn.
75
)Q@OL3WH3413 4BH3K@P@ ALO1>HD K23?O@ 43@QL3S3H344@P@ ALO1>-
HD. Marepnanom annoro pasena xnnxercx neonpanannoe orcyrcrnne
aprnxnx ram, re rpammarnuecxax nopma rpeyer neonpeenennoro aprnx-
nx. Hocxontxy annax omnxa npoxnnxercx n ocnonnom n cymecrnnrent-
ntx c acrpaxrntm snauennem, ecrt ocnonanne nonarart, uro nmenno +ro
ocroxrentcrno n npnneno x napymennm, rax xax acrpaxnnx otuno
cnxstnaercx c nencuncnxemocrtm. B cnxsn c +rnm annoe napymenne mt
cunraem sameno nynenoro aprnxnx. Ho+romy npn paccmorpennn mare-
pnana n namn saaun nxonr oxasarentcrno nannunx xareropnantnoro
snauennx cpannennx, a raxxe orcyrcrnne cnocrnennoro acrparnpona-
nnm npornnonocrannennx. Ormernm, uro rpyte omnxn, cocroxmne n
onymennn neonpeenennoro aprnxnx nepe xonxperntmn ncuncnxemtmn
cymecrnnrentntmn n enncrnennom uncne, ns anannsa tnn ncxnmuent.
Haunem c cymecrnnrentnoro soul, enncrnennoro ns ncex, ynorpe-
nennoro es onpeenennx. 3ro osnauaer, uro n rpammarnuecxn npannnt-
no ]opme, r.e. c neonpeenenntm aprnxnem ono onxno oosnauart
xnacc, nnyrpn xoroporo antnemax xareropnsannx ne npononrcx:
People engaged in the sphere of entertainment and show business have
always taken it into consideration. A man is the only being having *0 soul.
This abstract notion of which poets have sung praises for ages. <ICLE-RUS-
MOSC-0009.4>
ecrnnrentno, anrop npnuncnxer uenonexa x xnaccy xnntx cymecrn,
nmemmnx ymy, cpannnnax ero c pyrnmn cymecrnamn, xoropte ee ne
nmemr. 3ror cnyua cymecrnenno ornnuaercx or npannntnoro ynorpe-
nennx annoro nmenn c nynentm aprnxnem:
She committed herself body and soul to fighting for the cause. (Oxford)
They barely have enough money to keep body and soul together. (Ox-
ford)
His poetry contains many beautiful images, but it lacks soul. (Macmillan)
Hpn pasnnne n nexcnuecxom snauennn, npoxnnxmmecx n +rnx cno-
napntx nnnmcrpannxx, no ncex nnx npocnexnnaercx xareropnantnoe
snauenne npornnonocrannennx. B nepnom npenoxennn yxonnax cnna
uenonexa ncrynaer n onnosnnnm ero ]nsnuecxo oprannsannn, no nropom
yxonnte norpenocrn npornnonocrannxmrcx marepnantntm, a n
rpertem yma acconnnpyercx c uyncrnom, xoropoe oxastnaercx n xon-
rpacre c mtcntm.
B ocrantntx cnyuaxx sament neonpeenennoro aprnxnx nepe nme-
nem nensmenno npncyrcrnymr onpeenennx, xoropte ocymecrnnxmr
antnemym xareropnsannm nnyrpn xnacca. Oparnmcx x npnmepam ne-
aexnarnoro aprnxnenoro ncnontsonannx c cymecrnnrentntmn, xoropte
cnocont nastnart pasnnunte npecrannennx n sanncnmocrn or aprnxne-
no ]opmt, no npn +rom rpannnonno ornocxrcx x paspxy acrpaxrntx
76
culture, education, knowledge, state. Hx raxxe oennxer ro, uro ono
npenmymecrnenno ncnontsymrcx c nynentm n neonpeenenntm aprnx-
nem. Cp.:
1. a) The Minister of Culture (Oxford)
b) If you are looking for culture, Paris is the place for you. (Macmillan)
2. a) Some organizations encourage a culture of secrecy. (Macmillan)
b) We are living in a consumer culture. (Oxford)
1. There should be closer links between education and industry. (Oxford)
2. a) A college/university education (Oxford)
b) He wants his children to get a good education. (Macmillan)
1. Solicitors should possess detailed knowledge of certain aspects of the
law. (Macmillan)
2. He has a wide knowledge of painting and music. (Oxford)
Btpaxax n ntcme crenenn acrpaxrnte npecrannennx, nmx culture
n nenom nastnaer rnopuecrno, npoxnnxmmeecx n ncxyccrne, n npornno-
nocrannxercx orcranocrn, nepasnnrocrn, a nmena knowledge n education
oosnauamr snanne, xomnerenrnocrt, opasonanne n onnosnnnn nesna-
nnm n nenexecrny. Knaccn]nnnponanntmn npecrannennxmn, nepea-
naemtmn nmn, xnnxmrcx, coornercrnenno, cocroxnne rpynn nme, xoro-
pte ornnuamrcx ocotm crnnem mtmnennx n noneennx n cpannennn c
pyrnm nosmoxntm crnnem noneennx, n snannx onoro uenonexa, xoro-
pte cpannnnamrcx no oemy n c]epe npnmenennx, nnn yponent opaso-
nannx no cpannennm c pyrnm, menee ntcoxnm n npecrnxntm. Hmenno
+rn npecrannennx nmemr n nny anropt counnenn, ynorpenxx, rem ne
menee, annte cymecrnnrentnte es aprnxnx:
These industrial landscapes and other things of the same kind are possible
because a century ago there lived people who created new aesthetics of con-
structive art and architecture. They sought for new forms to express their
feelings and their minds generated images that became foundation stones of
*0 new culture. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0004.2>
Still, I believe there is a world of difference between *0 real education
and mere training aimed at the student acquiring a set of skills that he will be
able to apply mechanically in his future work. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0006.4>
When human society was not so developed people had only *0 rudimen-
tary knowledge of the world around them. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0005.2>
Paccmorpnm eme na acrpaxrntx cymecrnnrentntx, xoropte onyc-
xamr nce rpn aprnxnente ]opmt, no, no-nnnmomy, uame ncnontsymrcx c
onpeenenntm aprnxnem future n imagination. Cp.:
1. a) In future, ask before you borrow my clothes. (Macmillan)
b) Be more careful in future. (Oxford)
2. a) She has a great future ahead of her. (Oxford)
b) The people of Grozny face an uncertain future. (Macmillan)
77
3. a) We need to plan for the future. (Oxford)
b) I have no plans to go abroad in the near future. (Macmillan)
Xorx no ncex rpex ]opmax annoe cymecrnnrentnoe oosnauaer nepn-
o npemenn, mexy nnmn ecrt pasnnunx. B camom acrpaxrnom cmtcne
nosnrnnnoe yymee npornnonocrannxercx nerarnnnomy nacroxmemy, rax
xax +ro cnxsano c noxenannem ronopxmero n ero naexo na ynyume-
nne.
11
B xnaccn]nnnponannom cmtcne, yymee xnnxercx nepnoom n
xnsnn uenonexa, nnyrpn xoroporo, xax npannno, npononrcx nmnnnnnr-
noe cpannenne no xapaxrepy n npnsnaxam. Haxonen, xora ronopx-
mn/nnmymn pasenxer cnom xnsnt na nacroxmee n yymee, oa ne-
pnoa oxastnamrcx nnnnnyannsnponanntmn. B cneymmem orptnxe
ns counnennx, anrop, xoneuno, nmeer n nny nepno npemenn n yymem,
xoropt cpannnnaercx c rexymnm momenrom, uro noxpennxercx cpannn-
rentno ]opmo npnnararentnoro:
Our imagination promps us where to go. It helps to find a way out of our
stresses, it gives us hope for *0 better future. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0013.2>
Ananornunax omnxa ncrpeuaercx n n ntcxastnannn co cnonom past, n
xoropom cpannnnamrcx nepnot npomnoro n yymero, n npn +rom onn
oa ne cnxstnamrcx c onpeenenntm momenrom nacroxmero nnn momen-
rom peun:
We all know that there is no future without *0 past. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-
0002.6>
Hpnneem cnonapnte annte nx cymecrnnrentnoro imagination:
1. a) She was no longer able to distinguish between imagination and re-
ality. (Oxford)
b) The speakers visual aids showed a remarkable lack of imagination.
(Macmillan)
2. A child with a vivid imagination (Macmillan)
3. a) Her tight-fitting dress left nothing to the imagination. (Oxford)
b) They didnt have the necessary imagination to deal with complex
problems. (Macmillan)
Hs cnonapnoro marepnana cneyer, uro n camom acrpaxrnom cmtcne
noopaxenne npornnonocrannxercx peantnocrn xax +xcnnnnnrno (1 a),
rax n nmnnnnnrno (1 b). Boopaxenne orentntx nme n]]epennnpy-
ercx na ocnonannn nmnnnnnrnoro cpannennx, pasenxxct na enoe n
onee pasnnroe, oraroe. Ho uame ncero peut ner o noopaxennn ropx-
mero, nanpannxemoro na xonxpernt npemer, uro npnnonr x nnnnn-
yannsannn npecrannennx.

11
Ormernm, uro n amepnxancxom napnanre anrnncxom n +rnx cnyuaxx ynorpenxercx
npenmymecrnenno onpeenennt aprnxnt, uro moxno oxcnnrt nnnnnyannsanne nyx
orpesxon npemenn npomnoro n yymero, pasenxemtx momenrom peun. [Oxford
2005:.634]/
78
uro xacaercx marepnana, nonepraemoro anannsy, ro n npnnonmtx
nnxe orptnxax nmnnnnnrno cpannnnamrcx pasnte rnnt noopaxennx,
no +ro naxonr neaexnarnoe rpammarnuecxoe ntpaxenne:
If there were no fantasy in peoples mind, if we excluded dreaming from
our everyday lives, life simply would not be interesting enough and it is my
opinion that people with *0 vivid imagination make this world more excit-
ing.<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0005.2>
People with *0 passive imagination (which cant or doesnt affect the
world) partly use adopted images.<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0004.2>
Taxnm opasom, npnneennt marepnan nnont oxastnaer necoorner-
crnne namepenn anropon ntpanntm rpammarnuecxnm cpecrnam ntpa-
xennx: npononmax no ncex npecrannenntx cnyuaxx xnaccn]nxannx n
]opme cpannennx namna ntpaxenne n neonpanannom ncnontsonannn
nynentx aprnxnentx ]opm.
7A?ON 3. Hponecc nnnnnyannsannn n ero nenpannntnoe rpammarn-
uecxoe ntpaxenne
Kax yxe yxastnanoct nnauane, nponeennt xonnuecrnennt ananns
noxasan npeonaanne omnox, cocroxmnx n samene onpeenennoro
aprnxnx (203 ns 543). Hanomnnm, uro +rn annte npornnopeuar pacnpo-
crpanennomy mnennm, cornacno xoropomy pyccxoxstuntm ronopxmnm n
nnmymnm no-anrnncxn cnocrnenno nsnnmnee ynorpenenne nmenno
onpeenennoro aprnxnx nmecro nyx pyrnx ]opm, n nenom cnnerentcr-
nymmee o renennnn x nnnnnyannsannn. Hanpornn, na ocnonannn no-
nyuenno namn crarncrnxn oxasanoct, uro +ror xornnrnnnt nponecc
ntstnaer nanontmne sarpynennx.
Ho+romy neoxonmo nponecrn nopont pasop napymenn rpam-
marnuecxo nopmt c nentm oxasart neocosnannocrt conepmaemoro
pyccxoxstuntmn cryenramn nponecca nnnnnyannsannn, xoropt
oycnonnnnaercx orcyrcrnnem onepann cpannennx n npornnonocranne-
nnx n raxnm opasom npnnonr x maxcnmantnomy cyxennm npemera
mtcnn.
Konnuecrnennt n xauecrnennt ananns omnox ntxnnn neocrarou-
nocrt cxemt, xoropax ncnontsonanact npn ocyxennn nponeccon acr-
parnponannx n xnaccn]nxannn, r.e. xora n nenrpe nnnmannx tna ront-
xo neaexnarnax aprnxnenax ]opma cymecrnnrentnoro, ncnontsonanmax-
cx nsamen rpammarnuecxn npannntno. Hpnmennrentno x nnnnnyann-
sannn raxne ocroxrentcrna, esycnonno, yunrtnannct, n n pesyntrare
tno ycranonneno xonnuecrnennoe coornomenne ]opm c neonpeenen-
ntm aprnxnem n orcyrcrnnx aprnxnx xax 18 x 185, npn +rom n cnyuaxx
orcyrcrnnx aprnxnx n panno crenenn npncyrcrnyer nyneno aprnxnt n
onymenne aprnxnx. Ho rnanntm noxoom, orneuammnm onee n]]e-
79
pennnponannomy pasrpannuennm marepnana, cran yuer nenpannntnoro
ntpaxennx rnnon pe]epennnn poono, xstxono, cnryarnnno n ynn-
xantno xax pasnonnnocrn yrounxmme pe]epennnn.
12
Henecoopas-
nocrt pe]epennnantnoro noxoa ocoenno npoxnnxercx n ornomennn
onpeenennoro aprnxnx, nocxontxy npn +rom yunrtnamrcx xax xstxonte,
rax n +xcrpannnrnncrnuecxne ]axropt, oycnonnnnammne ero ntop.
3rnm ]axrnuecxn onpeenxercx cno npannn ynorpenennx onpeenenno-
ro aprnxnx, xoropte tnn napyment n anannsnpyemtx counnennxx. H,
rax xax on npnnnxaercx x ncnontsyemomy namn xornnrnnnomy noxoy,
mt counn nenecoopasntm nocnontsonartcx nm npn anannse +rnx napy-
menn. B pesyntrare tno nteneno 4 ocnonntx paspxa omnox: 1)
napymennx xstxono pe]epennnn, 2) napymennx cnryarnnno pe]epen-
nnn; 3) napymennx ynnxantno pe]epennnn; 4) napymennx poono pe-
]epennnn.
Haunem paccmorpenne marepnana c napymenn xstxono pe]epennnn,
xoropte oxasannct camtmn mnorouncnenntmn n cocrannnn 148 (ns 203)
cnyuaen. Cpen nnx cneyer ormernrt napymennx npxmo ana]opnuecxo
pe]epennnn, rpeymme onpeenennoro aprnxnx nepe nonropno ynor-
penxemtm nmenem (nnn ero cnnonnmom), n napymennx xocnenno ana-
]opnuecxo pe]epennnn, r.e. nponycxon onpeenennoro aprnxnx n cnyuae
nopasymenaemo nonropno cctnxn na npemer mtcnn (pe]epenr). Hep-
nt ns yxasanntx rnnon napymenn npoxnnncx rontxo n rpex cnyuaxx:
One of my closest friends was engaged to a perfect young man. They
really loved each other and decided to get married, but the main thing was
that he couldnt provide her with the way of life she thought she had de-
served. Who possibly could imagine that shuch a firm relationship can be
dissolved in two weeks. The girl suddenly met her old friend whom she
hadnt seen since school graduation. That man was a kind od businessman,
who had made some shady dealings for self-prosperity. So, he was a very
advanced person with many influential connections, euro-apartment on
Tverskaya street and, perhaps, a villa somewhere in Spain... The proposal
was made, two more days were left for reflections and finally everything was
O.K. *0 Poor outcast was left to drag out a miserable existence and *a lovely
pair spent a lovely honey-moon in France. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-000.6 >
Kax cneyer ns xonrexcra, samena onpeenennoro aprnxnx cnauana
nynentm, a sarem neonpeenenntm aprnxnxmn cymecrnenno napymaer
nornxy nsnoxennx, rax xax n nepnt nperenenr na pont myxa, n nropo,
cosanmn c reponne +roro nonecrnonannx cemtm, yxe ynomnnannct n
rexcre. Hecmorpx na ro, uro nx +roro ncnontsonannct pasnte nmena
cymecrnnrentnte, sect ne rpeyercx ontmnx nornuecxnx ycnnn, uro-
t pacnosnart onn n ror xe npemer mtcnn. B cnere pasnnnaemoro namn

12
Cm. nsnoxenne reopnn pe]epennnn n [Longman 2000: 260-269].
80
xornnrnnnoro noxoa raxxe ne npecrannxercx nosmoxntm ynnert n
nepnom ynorpenennn npornnonocrannenne, a no nropom cpannenne.
Hpnneem ananornunt npnmep, n xoropom onpeenennt aprnxnt
samenxercx onymennem aprnxnx.
Trying to escape from Cyprus Daedalus made wings of feather and wax
for himself and his son Icarus. So did the man I read about. He was eager to
show that legends can become true, but he failed... As well as *0 heroes did.
<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0002.6 >
annt npnmep ornocnrcx, xoneuno, x rpyemnm napymennxm
rpammarnuecxnx npannn n nornxn n nenom, rax xax nepnoe yxasanne na
nepconaxe nponsnonrcx axe ne c nomomtm napnnarentntx nmen n
xnaccn]nnnponannom snauennn, a naroapx xonxpernsnpymmnm nmenam
cocrnenntm.
Hapymennx xocnenno ana]opnuecxo pe]epennnn onapyxnnamrcx
n 52 npnmepax ynorpenennx nmen. Ha nam, nsrnx, +ro uncno morno t
trt n ontme, rax xax ocosnanne +roro rnna pe]epennnn rpeyer or
pyccxoxstuntx nsyuammnx anrnncxn xstx ne cnocrnenntx nx mtm-
nennm mtcnnrentntx onepann n coornercrnymmero pyccxo rpammarn-
xe ntpaxennx. Hanpnmep, n cneymmnx ntcxastnannxx nnmymnm ne
yanoct ycranonnrt nornuecxym cnxst mexy xonxperntmn, nnnnnya-
nnsnponanntmn panee npemeramn n pyrnmn, nenocpecrnenno x nnm
ornocxmnmncx:
Let us hope that some changes shall be made to the whole system of *0
armed forces; and people whose interests, physical and psychologucal abili-
ties shouldnt allow them to serve in the army, will not be forced to do it.
<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0006.5>
Simultaneously with the restructuring of legislation the reform of *0
criminal execution system is being implemented. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0015.5
>
The State can declare and secure by law the high moral and legal princi-
ples which are not always perceived and learned adequately by all the levels
of *0 population. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0009.6 >
As far as *0 younger generation is concerned, I can speak about my
nephew who is three years old. He is keen on cartoons. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-
0007.5 >
Another sort of crime is fraud. It becomes more and more popular in *0
commercial sphere. There appeared a new star in the Russian Ma-
fia.<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0006.2>
In our case boys who serve in the army according to the law can find
themselves at war involuntarily. More than that they can be subjected to the
risk of being killed. This is unfair. I think every state should have a system of
81
military service (for protecting *0 borders) and a system of volun-
teers<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0007.2 >
Hpnneennte orptnxn tnn nsxrt ns counnenn, ocnemammnx conn-
antno-nonnrnuecxne nponemt Poccnn, n no+romy ona n xnnxercx rem
nnnnnyannsnponanntm npemerom, xoropt onpeenxer nce nonecrno-
nanne n rpeyer onpeenennoro aprnxnx nepe nmenamn, nastnammnmn
nacenenne Poccnn n nxoxmne n nero nospacrnte rpynnt, ee noopyxen-
nte cnnt, npanonym cncremy, +xonomnuecxoe nonoxenne, n r..
Ho axe ecnn anrop n cnonx paccyxennxx na re xe remt n ne yxast-
naer xonxpernym crpany, ro n rora nce ornocxmnecx x ne nonxrnx
onxnt nocnpnnnmartcx xax nnnnnyannsnponannte. B cneymmnx
ntcxastnannxx, nanpnmep, raxnmn nonxrnxmn xnnxmrcx spnrentcxax
aynropnx (xaxo-nno crpant), npomtmnennax penonmnnx n npocrte
nmn xax uacrt nacenennx:
Vulgar as it may be, television forms our world view: we see only those
things that we are shown; if TV-makers consider something to be uninterest-
ing for the largest part of *0 viewership or not spectacular enough, then we
will never learn of its existence. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0007.4 >
These are inevitable consequences of *0 industrial revolution. <ICLE-
RUS-MOSC-0001.5 >
When two countries fight with each other, the government of these coun-
tries pay for it at the expense of *0 common people. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-
0010.4 >
Hnnnnyannsannm n nocnennx nyx npnmepax snaunrentno ycnnn-
namr orpannunnammne onpeenennx. Ocoenno +ro npoxnnxercx n no-
cnenem npenoxennn, anrop xoroporo nmnnnnnrno pasenxer nacenenne
(nmo crpant) na nnacrt npeepxamnx n npocrtx nme (no ne nporn-
nonocrannxer nx pyr pyry).
Ho nanontmee xonnuecrno omnox, a nmenno 93 npoxnnnoct n napy-
mennxx xstxono xara]opnuecxo pe]epennnn, r.e. nponycxe aprnxnx
npn nannunn orpannunnammero onpeenennx n nocrnosnnnn x nmenn. Hx,
n ornnune or napymenn xocnenno ana]opnuecxo pe]epennnn, npe-
nonaramme snaunrentnte nornuecxne ycnnnx, npnxonrcx ornecrn
npexe ncero sa cuer nepexnocrn n nennnmarentnocrn anropon, necno-
conocrn onennrt pont xstxontx cpecrn, npeentno cyxammnx npe-
mer mtcnn. Hpnneem necxontxo npnmepon raxoro neaexnarnoro ynor-
penennx:
The most severe reactionary measure with respect to the soldiering people
was the setting-up of military settlements. This novelty was needed because
of *0 financial inability of the Government to supply the army with food and
ammunition. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0005>
82
As far as todays situation in the military service is concerned, this com-
pulsory system seems to be outdated. No civilized democratic society can
neglect *a free will of any of its citizens. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0005>
But the first reason was his debt. Poor thing, he was so busy with differ-
ent complex reasoning that he just forgot about *0 money he had to return.
<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0006.6>
Cosmos television using special antennas is also available now. With its
help we can watch *0 TV programmes of the whole world. <ICLE-RUS-
MOSC-0007.6>
It happened because with the beginning of perestroika and glastnost *0
people of the Soviet Union knew the truth about the situation in the army,
about such things as Afghanistan. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0015.2>
There is no need to enumerate *a great number of names of people who
made it possible to fly into space, to have such a aid as a personal computer,
to creatre real miracles in the fields of chemistry, biology and many other
sciences. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0009.4>
*0 the Political and economic course of the majority of countries is based
on the development of friendly relationships between nations.<ICLE-RUS-
MOSC-0004.5>
If I m not mistaken it was the Victorian Times that brought up *0 a ques-
tion about the status of women. *0 An unconventional phenomenon of a fe-
male writer appeared. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0010.2>
The process of supplanting ordinary television with commercial one
shows that financial interests sometimes do not correspond with *0 interests
0f television administration and viewers. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0007.6>
Coepxanne onpeenenn n npnneenntx ntcxastnannxx ne ocrannx-
er comnenn n ntcme xonxpernsannn npemera mtcnn, rax xax ono nc-
xnmuaer nosmoxnocrt xaxoro-nno ntopa, r.e. cpannennx, ne ronopx yxe
o npornnonocrannennn.
3amernm, onaxo, uro nx pyccxoxstuntx nsyuammnx anrnncxn
xstx cymecrnennym rpynocrt npecrannxer coo pasrpannuenne orpa-
nnunnammnx n onncarentntx onpeenenn, xoropte cnnraxcnuecxn
nnxax ne pasnnuamrcx, r.e. moryr trt ntpaxent xax nomomtm npe-
noxno ]past c of, rax n npnarountm npenoxennem. Ecnn cpannnrt
rontxo uro paccmorpennte cnyuan c npnmepamn ns uacrn 2, n xoroptx
onepannx cpannennx neaexnarno nepeaercx c nomomtm onpeenennoro
aprnxnx, a raxxe xommenrapnn x nnm, cranonnrcx xcno, uro npn nnemnem
]opmantnom cxocrne, na rnna onpeenenn cymecrnenno pasnnuamrcx
nparmarnuecxn. Onncarentnte, nnn cpannnrentnte onpeenennx cnoco-
crnymr nee cpannennx n npeocrannxmr ntop roro nnn nnoro rnna nnn
pasnonnnocrn n cocrane xnacca, rora xax orpannunnammne onpeene-
nnx raxo ntop nonnocrtm ncxnmuamr. Ho n re, n pyrne nocxr nropo-
83
crenennt, nounnennt xapaxrep no ornomennm x nmenn, xoropomy
ornonrcx rnannax pont n ntpaxennn nno cpannennx, nno ero orcyrcr-
nnx (nmecre c npornnonocrannennem).
Hapymennx poono pe]epennnn, r.e. orcyrcrnne onpeenennoro ap-
rnxnx nepe cymecrnnrentntm n enncrnennom uncne, oosnauammnm
nect xnacc npemeron, cocrannnn 22 npnmepa. Paccmorpnm nanonee xa-
paxrepnte ns nnx:
The list of home duties may be continued without end and obviously *0
woman needs more time to care about herself. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0004.6 >
And in the few hours that are left *0 woman must tidy up the flat, cook
lunch and dinner, go shopping, washing and ironing and do a lot of other
things.<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0004.6>
Punishment achieve penalty, correction of *0 criminal, by imposing im-
prisonment, payment of a fine etc. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0001.2>
All the modern inventions and achievements were born in this super com-
puter called *0 human mind. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0009.4 >
She slaves all day to do all those domestic things which her husband ex-
pests her to do: she goes shopping, she cleans the house, she does the cook-
ing, she does dishes, she collects the kids from school. And even *0 weekend
turns out to be a continuation of daily routine. Having guests at *0 country
cottage means for Martha not enjoying the pleasures and scenery, but hard
work, cooking vetetables and washing up afterwards. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-
0010.2 >
In my opinion, the place of dreams and imagination in the modern world
is that of *0 creator with reference to his creation or that of *0 king in his
kingdom. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0014.2 >
After all, what is the idea of spending your green years in the subdued ex-
cellence of libraries and reading halls unless you can have hope of enjoy-
ment. Enjoying a thought relishing it, testing it for depth and exploring its
modern application is what *0 university student is to make his primary goal.
<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-00014.6 >
It (story) warns us somehow that *0 city, as well as *0 country, has as-
sumed a Godlike power over some people. Both of these places could serve
us a starting point for new ideas to be born. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0010.6>
B npnneenntx npnmepax npemerom mtcnn anropon nensmenno xn-
nxercx nect xnacc, xoropt rem camtm nnnnnyannsnpyercx. Kaxt
pas xonrexcr nornepxaer orcyrcrnne npornnonocrannennx nnn cpanne-
nnx. 3ro xopomo nnno n nocnenem npnmepe, n xoropom cononaramrcx
(a ne npornnonocrannxmrcx nnn cpannnnamrcx) ne cocrannxmmne nmo
crpant ropo n centcxax mecrnocrt.
Kpome roro, xorenoct t nouepxnyrt orcyrcrnne cpannennx n npn-
mepe c necroxnm cnoxntm cnonom university student, n npanxy xoroporo
84
nocnrenn xstxa nnecnn onpeenennt aprnxnt. Vnorpenenne neonpee-
nennoro aprnxnx sect conepmenno nenpanomepno, rax xax n annom
cnyuae orcyrcrnyer mtcnt o ypannnnannn nonoxennx ncex cryenron
ynnnepcnreron. Cp., nanpnmep, co cneymmnmn ntcxastnannxmn, n xo-
roptx nponcxonr +xcnnnnnrnoe n nmnnnnnrnoe cpannenne:
She is a college student, while her boyfriend is a university student. A
university student has the advantage of a good educaion.
Hapymennx cnryarnnno pe]epennnn, r.e. nponycx onpeenennoro
aprnxnx nepe cymecrnnrentntm, oosnauammnm nsnecrnoe annomy
xstxonomy xonnexrnny npecrannenne, tnn ntxnnent n xonnuecrne
ncero 9 cnyuaen. 3ra rpynna omnox nxnmuaer orcyrcrnne onpeenennoro
aprnxnx nepe nmenamn, oosnauammne nonxrnte n nsnecrnte ncem
nnnnnnsonanntm nmxm npemert, xnnennx n r.n., nesanncnmo or nx
nannonantno npnnanexnocrn, nanpnmep, the Bible, the telephone, the
computer, the world, the market, the space, the universe n p. :
If you are well-educated theoretically you have every chance of achieving
success in *0 real world. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0009.2 >
While stimulating the religious intentions of the masss leaders could their
own business behind their backs. It also must be pointed out that in Marxs
time people were taught in religion from early childhood. Everybody had to
study *0 Bible (or perhaps *0 Torah, (in Marxs case), and to attend chrch
services... <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0011.6 >
I wonder if people felt the same when *0 telephone first appeared... I am
not against *0 telephone. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0001.4 >
Not all people can draw and *0 computer can help them to reveal their
images. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0008.6 >
We study economic to know the laws of *0 market. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-
0013.5>
Then isnt it wonderful to travel around the world without stirring a fin-
ger...; we can go down under the sea and watch sharkd and octopus and what
not; we can have a look at our planet from birds-eye view or even from *0
outer space. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0007.4 >
This allusion to the famous poem seems to be very much to the point in
language study, since language in its primary oral form is nothing more than
a diachronic bridge between generations of people and *0 universe. <ICLE-
RUS-MOSC-00014.6 >
Hocnenxx rpynna napymenn n xonnuecrne 24 cnyuaen ornocnrcx x
ynnxantno pe]epennnn n npecrannxer coo neonpanannoe onymenne
aprnxnx nepe cymecrnnrentntmn, nastnammnmn ynnxantnte xnnennx.
K nnm ornocxrcx nmena cocrnennte, a raxxe cymecrnnrentnte c onpe-
enennem, ntpaxenntm nmenem cocrnenntm. naxt ns nnx n anann-
snpyemom marepnane ncrpernnnct apennarypt nasnann rocyapcrn, a
85
nmenno Coennenntx Braron Amepnxn n Oennennoro Koponencrna
Bennxopnrannn:
However to my mind the main difference between the future European
Community and *0 USA, for example, lies in the sphere of cultural traditions.
<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0018.2 >
Voters in other European countries such as *0 U.K. were far from unani-
mous about the signing of the Treaty. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0010.5>
B rpex cneymmnx npnmepax napymennx ynnxantno pe]epennnn
saxnmuamrcx n onymennn onpeenennoro aprnxnx nepe nasnannxmn
crpan n onpeenennt ncropnuecxn nepno: The latest example of this
kind of war are the hostilities in *0 former Yugoslavia. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-
0016.6 >
If we dwell upon *0 Roman Empire we will, obviously, realize that its
gradual development was based on the process of state extension. <ICLE-
RUS-MOSC-0018.2 >
In itself a structure based on volunteer service goes back to the earliest
stage of *0 Russian State. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0018.2 >
B nepnom ns npnneenntx ntcxastnann ncnontsyercx nmx cocr-
nennoe c orpannunnammnm onpeenennem, a na nocnennx nxnmuamr
napnnarentnte nmena c onpeenennxmn, ntpaxenntm nmenamn cocr-
nenntmn. Ananornuntmn xnnxmrcx n ocrantnte npnmept onymennx
aprnxnx, n xoroptx nastnamrcx nmn, ncropnuecxne cotrnx n +noxn,
mexynaponte nonnrnuecxne n +xonomnuecxne oennennx, rocyap-
crnennte yupexenn n nncrnryrt:
At the beginning of the 20
th
century *0 brothers Lumiere created their
Train Arriaval a short documentary film which lasted only a few minutes
and such a wonderful future. *0 <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0007.6 >
*0 name Schliemann was written down in golden letters, because he made
valuable contributions to civilizations. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0002.6>
Such acts as *0 Vietnam War and * bombardment of Hiroshima and Na-
gasaki seem to be practically impossible nowadays. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-
0004.5>
*0 Christian era originated a new ideology with its canons and laws.
<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0015.6 >
Sheer carelessness may lead to horrid disasters, such as *0 Chernobyl
tragedy which still has its long lasting effects. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0001.5 >
*0 Maastricht Treaty established in O993 is the most complete expression
of the tendencies observed in the European economy, policy and social
spheres since World War II.<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0010.5 >
Last year the question of Russia joining to *0 European Community was
raised. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0015.5 >
86
But I am afraid, now it is impossible to abolish all clauses of *0 Russian
Criminal Code which provide for capital punishment... <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-
0009.6 >
Many years ago my father was a sudent at *0 Moscow Aviation Institute.
But he had a dream of becoming a pilot. <ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0015.2 >
There appeared a new star in Russian criminality. *0 Russian Mafia is,
of course, less impressive than Stalin but commercial crimes ans, especially,
business fraud hit the highest level last year and continue to increase now.
<ICLE-RUS-MOSC-0006.2 >
Marepnan noxastnaer, uro npnunno onymenntx omnox xnnnact
neocosnannocrt nnmymnmn ynnxantnocrn onnctnaemtx xnnenn, xoro-
pte moryr trt enncrnenntmn n ncropnn uenoneuecrna nnn nx orent-
no nsxro crpant, uro ncxnmuaer nosmoxnocrt npornnonocrannennx n
cpannennx, n, naxonen, rpeyer coornercrnymmero rpammarnuecxoro
oosnauennx. Kpome roro, conepmenno neoocnonanntm npecrannxercx
no ncex +rnx cnyuaxx n onymenne aprnxnx npn nnnnnyannsannn, nos-
moxnoe rontxo n crnnncrnuecxnx nenxx, xoropte anropt rexcron nepe
coo ne crannnn
13
.
Hponeennoe nccneonanne nosnonxer cenart cneymmne nt-
not.
1. Vnorpenenne aprnxnentx ]opm nmenn n peun pyccxoxstuntx cry-
enron n snaunrentno crenenn nocnr neocosnannt, nnrynrnnnt xa-
paxrep, uro cnxsano c nenonnmannem ponn n nasnauennx aprnxnx n cncre-
me xstxa.
2. Ocnonntm npenxrcrnnem nx ocnoennx rpamornoro ynorpenennx
aprnxnentx ]opm nmenn xnnxercx nocneonarentnoe npnmenenne na ncex
yponnxx oyuennx rpannnonnoro, crpyxrypnoro meroa, xoropt coor-
nocnr ynorpenenne aprnxnx c nexcnxo-rpammarnuecxnmn cnocrnamn
cymecrnnrentnoro. Ho+romy n cnpanouno nnreparype npaxrnuecxoro
xapaxrepa ocnonnoe nnnmanne yenxercx raxnm nexcnxo-rpammarnuecxnm
paspxam cymecrnnrentntx n anrnncxom xstxe, xax ncuncnxe-
mte/nencuncnxemte n cocrnennte/napnnarentnte, rora xax enenne
na acrpaxrnte n xonxpernte nmena nonyuaer, n nyumem cnyuae, nan-
mentmee ocnemenne. 3ro nopoxaer y pyccxoxstuntx cryenron nesna-
nne n neocosnannocrt mnpoxoro nanasona cemanrnuecxo xareropnn
acrpaxnnn/xonxpernsannn, ee xonrnnyantnoro, nsanmonepexonoro
xapaxrepa n, rnannoe, ee nenocpecrnenno cnxsn c xareropne aprnxnx.
3. Heocrarxom reopernuecxnx rpammarnx, n xoroptx yunrtnaercx
cnxst xstxontx crpyxryp n mtmnennx, xnnxercx ncnontsonanne manoco-

13
O crnnncrnuecxom ]ynxnnonnponannn xareropnn aprnxnx n anrnncxom xstxe cm.
C)35*-$ >.B.Crnnncrnuecxoe ]ynxnnonnponanne xareropnn aprnxnx n anrnncxom xst-
xe//Becrnnx uIHV Cepnx unnonornx. uenxnncx, 2008. N 10
87
epxarentno repmnnonornn (onpeenennocrt/neonpeenennocrt) nnn
cnnmxom acrpaxrno repmnnonornn (pe]epennnx, acrpaxnnx, xnaccn-
]nxannx, nnnnnyannsannx), uro raxxe ocnoxnxer nocnpnxrne anrnn-
cxnx aprnxne.
4. Hcnontsonanne xornnrnnnoro noxoa n npenoanannn, naunnax c
npoonxammero yponnx, nosnonnno t ycrpannrt yxasannte rpynocrn
nyrem ycranonnennx cnxsn mexy aprnxnentmn ]opmamn nmenn n crox-
mnmn sa nnmn mtcnnrentntmn onepannxmn npornnonocrannennx, cpan-
nennx n ncxpernsannn, neymnmn x ]opmnponannm coornercrnymmnx
npecrannenn o npemere. Hocneonarentnoe npnmenenne xornnrnnnoro
anannsa na marepnane nnnmcrparnnno ]paseonornn cnonape morno t
cnococrnonart ]opmnponannm y nsyuammnx anrnncxn xstx nantxon
anrnoxstunoro mtmnennx n raxnm opasom ocnoennx anrnoxstunoro
mnpa.
H n r e p a r y p a n n c r o u n n x n
9*@). 9. Hpnnnnnt reopernuecxo nnnrnncrnxn. Hepeno c ]p. Ho pe. H.M. Cxpennno.
M., 1992.
A($-)($ A.!., U7+3$0)($ ;.;., !)#"M1)( 9.9. Teopernuecxax rpammarnxa conpemennoro
anrnncxoro xstxa. M., 1981.
J.E. J$#$3)($, >.>. A2+$@3"(*#. Hpaxrnuecxax rpammarnxa anrnncxoro xstxa. Hs. 8-e,
nepepaorannoe n ononnennoe K.H.Kauanono. M., 1994.
J+R3)($ A.!., 9)+/)- >.8. Ipammarnxa anrnncxoro xstxa. M., 2000.
G.*+-*10*@ B.A. Mop]onornx anrnncxoro xstxa. M., 1959.
Biber D., Johansson S., Conrad S., Finegan E. Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written
English. Longman, 1999. C. 256-267.
Close R.A. The New English Grammar. Lessons in English as a Foreign Language. George
Allen@Unwin Ltd, 1964. P. 37-59.
Crystal D. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge, 1995.
Curme J.O. English Grammar. N.Y., 1957:
Hewson J. Article and Noun in English. The Hague-Mouton. 1972. P. 63-64.
Murphy R. English Grammar in Use. Cambridge, 2006.
Strang B. Modern English Structure. L., 1968.
Quirk R., Greenbaum S., Leech G., Svartvic J. A Grammar of Contemporary English. London,
1972.
Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture. Longman, 1998.
Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners. Macmillan, 2002.
Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary. Oxford, 2005.
88
,@S 1234 ?BZ3?OK1O3HN4=Y
1 QL1J14= >@22B41>AO1K4=Y 43BSAJ
QBROB-?OBS34O@K QL1 1<BJ3411 ,$&
J7#$@ 8*+ G$?*K /L$- (B65$-*&%$-), 20O0
B Poccnn n sa pyexom nsnecrnt paort npo]eccopa R.A. Copoxnna,
nocnxmennte nonpocam naxynnsannn n xommynnxarnnntx neyau [Copo-
xnn 1989; Texcr xax xnnennn xyntrypt 1989]. Hpana, nayunax rpannnx
paccmorpennx nponem nocnr enpononenrpncrcxn xapaxrep ornocnrent-
no xyntrypt n xstxa n cosaer rem camtm naxyny n ornomennn xstxon n
xyntryp nntx xyntrypntx apeanon. B cnonx paorax mt xorenn t noc-
nonnnrt annym naxyny, nocnpnnxn n nepenecx nnoornopnte nen
R.A. Copoxnna n nearornuecxym n ]nnonornuecxym rpannnm Hpana.
Btop anno remt n nontmennt nnrepec x ne n cpee npenoa-
narene PKH Kayntcxoro rocyapcrnennoro ynnnepcnrera ne cnyuaen:
+ro ona ns nponem, c xoropo mnorne nymry-npenoanarenn PKH cran-
xnnamrcx n xoe mnoronernero ontra npenoanannx pyccxoro xstxa xax n
mxonax, rax n n nysax A]ranncrana.
Moxno paccxasart na sanxrnn, uro n n pyccxom xstxe n n xstxe nym-
ry nmx cymecrnnrentnoe nmeer xareropnm poa, no n camom nponecce
]opmnponannx nantxon ycrno peun n nepenoa n a]rancxo aynropnn
npoonxamr omymartcx ontmne rpynocrn, xacammnecx ]ynxnnonn-
ponannx poa nmenn cymecrnnrentnoro n pyccxom xstxe. ononnnrent-
nax cnoxnocrt oycnonnnnaercx rem, uro namn cryenuecxne aynropnn
sauacrym nocxr cmemannt xstxono xapaxrep: na sanxrnxx npncyrcr-
nymr nocnrenn nyx xstxon nymry n apn.
Cymecrnnrentnoe n xstxe nymry nmemr na poa, a n xstxe apn
nourn nonnocrtm orcyrcrnyer rpammarnuecxax xareropnx poa. B pyc-
cxom xe xstxe nmx cymecrnnrentnoe nmeer uertpe poa: myxcxo, xen-
cxn, cpenn n omn. Hpn ocnoennn n npaxrnxe npenoanannx ycrno
peun n nepenoa nosnnxamr nponemt y nocnrene xstxa nymry n apn
npn nsyuennn pyccxoro xstxa.
Hama paora nocnxmaercx xonrpacrnnnomy cpannennm xareropnn po-
a n pyccxom xstxe n xstxe nymry c rouxn spennx meronxn npenoana-
nnx PKH n nymryxstuno cryenuecxo aynropnn. Hent xonrpacrnnno-
ro anannsa nyx xstxon onncanne uacrnuno rpammarnxn, cocrannenno
ns cymmt pasnnun mexy rpammarnxamn ncxonoro xstxa n xstxa-nenn.
3ra pasnnunrentnax rpammarnxa naxonrcx n nenrpe nnnmannx naxrn-
uecxoro nporpammnponannx. Fesycnonno, +ro ne osnauaer, uro cxonte
89
mexy coo pasent rpammarnxn nyx xstxon ne onxnt nxnmuartcx n
nporpammy oyuennx. 3ro nensexno npnneno t x ncxaxennm npe-
crannennx cryenra o xstxe-nenn. B nmom cnyuae +ra uacrnunax rpam-
marnxa oxastnaer nnnxnne na ntop n rpaannm yuenoro marepnana,
onpeenxx rem camtm crynenn oyuennx n nocneonarentnocrt noaun
marepnana [Honoe n sapyexno nnnrnncrnxe 1989: 358].
Ormernm raxxe npanomepnocrt n nosmoxnocrt xonrpacrnnnoro cpan-
nnrentnoro noxoa x nym xstxam. Hymry ornocnrcx x npancxo rpynne
nnoenponecxnx xstxon, pyccxn xstx x cnanxncxo rpynne nnoenpo-
necxnx xstxon, no+romy nx rpammarnuecxne xareropnn moxno cpannn-
nart [Hpnnnnnt onncannn 1976: 105].
Kpynnemn nnnrnncr n onacrn pyccxoro xstxa n xstxa nymry
K.A. Heeen onn ns xpynnemnx cnennanncron n cpannnrentnom
nsyuennn pyccxo-nymry rpammarnuecxnx napannene opamaer nnnma-
nne na ro, uro n nymry nmx cymecrnnrentnoe uacrt peun, nxnmuammax
cnona, xoropte oosnauamr npemert, xnnennx, ornneuennte nonxrnx n
orneuamr na nonpoct 1)0 0%)?, 1\ #%)? [Heeen 2005: 21]. Ho xare-
ropnm nmen cymecrnnrentntx nonoxrcx cnona, ntpaxammne npe-
mernocrt n npecrannxmmne ee n ]opmax poa, uncna n naexa [Hee-
en 2005: 46]. A]rancxne xstxonet nnrepnpernpymr annoe xstxonoe
xnnenne, ncxox nx nntx nnnrnncrnuecxnx ncropnuecxnx rpannn ne-
cxontxo nnaue. Hmenno n pasnnunn xstxoneuecxnx rpannn eper cnoe
nauano nponema xornnrnnntx crparern n ocnoennn xareropnn poa n n
ponom xstxe nymry, n n xstxe neponom pyccxom.
Hpnneem rpaxronxy xareropnn poa n apacxo nnnrnncrnuecxo
rpannnn, npecrannenno nmenamn 3xpa, Pnmrnna n Xnemxax: nasna-
nnx neme, xauecrno n ornneuenntx nonxrn [Pnmrnn 1991: 14]. A
raxxe: nmx +ro cnono, xoropoe n necnxsn c npemenem moxer nsopaxart
pasnte npemert n xnnennx [Xnemxa 2001:35]. 3xp onpeenxer nmx
rax: Hmx cnono, xoropoe na ocnonannn pasnoro ntcxastnannx moxer
ntpasnrt pasnte nnannte npemert n xnnennx, nanpnmep, xament, po-
na, myxunna, uenoneunocrt, xpacora, sopontx, sopon [3xp 2003:20].
eno, xoneuno, ne n repmnne npemernocrt (no npemernocrt
+ro ne uro nnoe, xax npemer n mnpoxom cmtcne cnona; ecrecrnenno, uro
snauenne npemernocrn crannrcx n cnxst c rpammarnuecxnmn xareropnx-
mn cymecrnnrentnoro. Hmoe cymecrnnrentnoe, xaxnm t nn tno ero
nnnnnyantnoe nexcnuecxoe snauenne (nopr]ent, yntxa, necna, ycnoe-
nne, mxrxocrt, uernepr, rpyxmncx, nantro, mopoxenoe), nmeer snaue-
nne npemernocrn, naroapx cnonm rpammarnuecxnm xareropnxm. uop-
myna nmeer snauenne npemernocrn onee rouna, uem oosnauaer npe-
mer. Hocnenxx ranr n cee onacnocrt yxnantnoro ocmtcnennx, ntst-
90
naer npecrannenne npexe ncero o xaxnx-ro nemax, marepnantntx cym-
nocrxx, enaer nensexntm ocyxenne cemanrnxn cnon rnna 7&()"-*",
.'50)&%4. O nnx otuno ronopnrcx, uro onn oosnauamr ecrnne n
ornneuennn or nponsnonrenx n xauecrno n ornneuennn or nocnrenx.
K coxanennm, na ceronxmnn ent a]rancxax cncrema opasonannx
n nnane nororonxn yunrene n nepenounxon nyxstuntx pyccxn-
nymry ne pacnonaraer aexnarntmn yuentmn noconxmn. Cymecrnyer
nacroxrentnax norpenocrt n cosannn cpannnrentno xonrpacrnnno
rpammarnxn nymry-pyccxoro xstxa.
B nenxx npaxrnuecxnx npenoananne PKH n nymry-aynropnn, yt
ro yymne yunrenx nnn nepenounxn, neoxonmo cosart xopnyc
nnnrnncrnuecxnx omnox cryenron [Cocnnna 2006: 35; Biber 2002].
B meronuecxnx nenxx xonrpacrnnno neoxonmo onncart:
- ornomenne xaxoro cnona pyccxoro xstxa x onomy ns rpex poon
myxcxomy, xencxomy n cpenemy (/). myxcxo po, 0).-$%$ xen-
cxn po, )0-) cpenn po);
- ornomenne xaxoro cnono xstxa nymry x onomy ns nyx poon
myxcxomy n xencxomy (0)%\ xomnara xencxn po, 0)+ om myx-
cxo po, r. e. sect moxno nnert cxocrno, no n pyccxom xstxe ecrt
eme n cpenn po, xoroporo ner n xstxe nymry;
- ornomenne poa nmen cymecrnnrentntx, oosnauammnx xnnte cy-
mecrna, xax n pyccxom, rax n n xstxe nymry x onpeenxemomy nony. K
myxcxomy poy ornocxrcx cnona no snauennm (nasnannx cymecrnnrent-
ntx myxcxoro nona): h$3\0 mantunx, M3$+ oren, 2)@ ctn +rn cnona
n n pyccxom, n n xstxe nymry ornocxrcx x myxcxomy poy; ?)+ cecrpa,
.)+ mart, %+)+ rerx +rn cnona n oonx xstxax ornocxrcx x xencxo-
my poy;
- ornomenne x omemy poy n pyccxom xstxe, n xoropom cymecrnymr
cnona, couerammnecx c cymecrnnrentntmn myxcxoro n xencxoro poon:
;+$# M+*,"3; ;+$# M+*,3$, Q- 0+753R@ &*+)%$; Q-$ 0+753$' &*+)%$.
H n r e p a r y p a
W'+ 8. B. Ipammarnxa xstxa nymry. Hemanap, 2003. 80 c.
<"K"/"( J.B. A]ranncran: stx, Hnreparypa, 3rnorpa]nx. M., 2005. 244 c.
Honoe n sapyexno nnnrnncrnxe. Btn. 25: Konrpacrnnnax nnnrnncrnxa. M.: Hporpecc,
1989. 408 c.
Hpnnnnnt onncannx xstxon mnpa. M.: Hayxa, 1976. 326 c.
D*,%*- G. stxosnanne (rpammarnxa xstxa nymry). Kayn., 1991. 180 c.
Copoxnn R.A., Mapxonnna H.R. Hannonantno-xyntrypnax cnenn]nxa xyoxecrnennoro
rexcra. M.: Hayxa, 1989. 140 c.
91
G)&-*-$ >.!. Kopnycnt noxo x xnaccn]nxannn n anannsy nnnrnncrnuecxnx omnox
yuamnxcx // Axryantnte saaun nnnrnncrnxn, nnnrnonaxrnxn n mexxyntryp-
no xommynnxannn. Vntxnoncx: VITV, 2006. C. 32-35.
Texcr xax xnnenne xyntrypt / B-%*M)( 9.B., C)-&0*? Q.B., 8$+0)(*-$ A.=., G)+)0*- =.B.
Honocnnpcx: Hayxa, 1989. 197 c.
H(",0$@ 8.G. uononornx n mop]onornx xstxa nymry. Mmnxen, 2001. 320 c.
Biber D., Conrad S., Reppen R. Corpus linguistics: Investigating language structure and use.
Cambridge, 2002. 520 c.
92
"W=PL=KA413 A4PH1M?>1Y 1S1@2: KAL1A4O= <ASA41M
0$-/*/$% 6*3)3)5*#"&0*? -$70 B.B. A2)%)($, 20O0
Ocot nnrepec y nsyuammnx anrnncxn xstx ntstnaer xnnenne
otrptnannx nnom, xora oxnnnxercx yxnantnoe snauenne onoro nnn
onee xomnonenron nnomt, n xonrexcr cnococrnyer pasnnrnm opasa,
nexamero n ocnone ]paseonornuecxo ennnnt .
Cneymmne orptnxn ns pasnnuntx nponsneenn xyoxecrnenno
nnreparypt moryr trt npenoxent cryenram]nnonoram n xauecrne
saann nx anannsa +roro npnema:

Indeed his friend the policeman, turning his head, saw that the round face
of the little cleric had gone quite blank, as it had a way of doing sometimes;
he seemed to be staring through his moonlike spectacles at the newly deco-
rated wall.
I may as well offer you a penny for your thoughts, said Inspector
Greenwood, turning from the counter with a sigh, as nobody seems to want
my pennies for anything else. This seems to be the only room in the house
that isnt full of ladders and whitewash; and this is so empty that there isnt
even a potboy to give me a pot of beer.
Oh ... my thoughts are not worth a penny, let alone a pot of beer, an-
swered the cleric, wiping his spectacles, I dont know why ... but I was
thinking how easy it would be to commit a murder here. (Chesterton G.K.
The Scandal of Farther Brown)

Good God, cried Craken with the intense invocation of the atheist. Do
you think I don't want to apply Economics? Only, when we apply it, you call
it red ruin and anarchy; and when you apply it, I take the liberty of calling it
exploitation. If only you fellows would apply Economics, its just possible
that people might get something to eat. We are the practical people; and that's
why youre afraid of us. Thats why you have to get two greasy Capitalists to
start another Lectureship; just because I've let the cat out of the bag.
Rather a wild cat, wasnt it? said the Bursar smiling, that you let out of
the bag?
And rather a gold-bag, wasnt it, said Craken, that you are tying the
cat up in again? (Chesterton G.K. The Scandal of Farther Brown)

This was, indeed, no less a person than Mr. Grandison Chace, of Boston,
an American traveller who had halted for a time in his American travels by
taking a lease of the adjoining estate; a somewhat similar castle on a some-
93
what similar hill. He delighted in his old castle, and he regarded his friendly
neighbour as a local antiquity of the same type. For Flambeau managed, as
we have said, really to look retired in the sense of rooted. He might have
grown there with his own vine and fig-tree for ages. He had resumed his real
family name of Duroc; for the other title of "The Torch" had only been a title
de guerre, like that under which such a man will often wage war on society.
He was fond of his wife and family; he never went farther afield than was
needed for a little shooting; and he seemed, to the American globe-trotter, the
embodiment of that cult of a sunny respectability and a temperate luxury,
which the American was wise enough to see and admire in the Mediterranean
peoples. The rolling stone from the West was glad to rest for a moment on
this rock in the South that had gathered so very much moss. (Chesterton G.K.
The Secret of Farther Brown)

Mr. Carvers mouth set into a smile that may have been meant to be gra-
cious, but looked rather grim. Im afraid I shall be too busy for pleasure this
evening, he said.
How doth the little busy bee, observed Devine, equally enigmatically.
Your bees must be very busy if they keep you at it all night. I was wonder-
ing if
Well, demanded Carver, with a certain cool defiance.
Well, they say we should make hay while the sun shines, said Devine.
Perhaps you make honey while the moon shines.
There came a flash from the shadow of the broad-brimmed hat, as the
whites of the mans eyes shifted and shone.
Perhaps there is a good deal of moonshine in the business, he said: but
I warn you my bees do not only make honey. They sting. (Chesterton G.K.
The Secret of Farther Brown)

Two more figures appeared in that subterranean passage under the stage:
the first was Ashton Jarvis, a jolly fellow who generally acted villains, but
who had surrendered that high vocation' for the moment to the curly-headed
youth with the nose. The other figure was short and square and clad all in
black; it was Father Brown from the church round the corner.
Father Brown seemed to take it quite naturally and even casually, that he
should be called in to consider the queer conduct of one of his flock, whether
she was to be regarded as a black sheep or only as a lost lamb. But he did not
seem to think much of the suggestion of suicide. (Chesterton G.K. The Secret
of Farther Brown)

He turned to gather up his hat and umbrella; but when he had got to the
door he seemed to remember something and turned back. Coming up close to
94
Outram, he gazed up into his face with a rather helpless expression, as of a
dying fish, and made a motion as if to hold him by the waistcoat.
General, he almost whispered, for Gods sake dont let your wife and
that other woman insist on see big Marne again. Let sleeping dogs lie, or
youll unleash all the hounds of hell.
The general was left alone with a look of bewilderment in his brown eyes,
as he sat down again to play with his pins. (Chesterton G.K. The Secret of
Farther Brown)

Nobody ever stopped him in the street to say, with gladsome looks, My
dear Scrooge, how are you? When will you come to see me? No beggars
implored him to bestow a trifle, no children asked him what it was oclock,
no man or woman ever once in all his life enquired the way to such and such
a place, of Scrooge. Even the blind mens dogs appeared to know him; and,
when they saw him coming on, would tug their owners into doorways and up
courts; and then would wag their tails as though they said, No eye at all is
better than an evil eye, dark master! (Dickens C. A Christmas Carol)

And how did little Tim behave? asked Mrs Cratchit when she had ral-
lied Bob on his credulity, and Bob had hugged his daughter to his hearts
content.
As good as gold, said Bob, and better. Somehow, he gets thoughtful,
sitting by himself so much, and thinks the strangest things you ever heard. He
told me, coming home, that he hoped the people saw him in the church, be-
cause he was a cripple, and it might be pleasant to them to remember upon
Christmas Day who made lame beggars walk and blind men see. (Dickens
C. A Christmas Carol)

Mrs Tetterby, his lady-mother, who had been sitting with her bonnet and
shawl thrown back, as aforesaid, thoughtfully turning her wedding-ring round
and round upon her finger, now rose, and divesting herself of her out-of-door
attire, began to lay the cloth for supper.
Ah, dear me, dear me, dear me! said Mrs Tetterby. Thats the way the
world goes!
Which is the way the world goes, my dear? asked Mr Tetterby, looking
round.
Oh, nothing, said Mrs Tetterby.
Mr Tetterby elevated his eyebrows, folded his newspaper afresh, and car-
ried his eyes up it, and down it, and across it, but was wandering in his atten-
tion, and not reading it.
Mrs Tetterby, at the same time, laid the cloth, but rather as if she were
punishing the table than preparing the family supper, hitting it unnecessarily
95
hard with the knives and forks, slapping it with the plates, dinting it with the
salt-cellar, and coming heavily down upon it with the loaf.
Ah, dear me, dear me, dear me! said Mrs Tetterby. Thats the way the
world goes!
My duck, returned her husband, looking round again, you said that be-
fore. Which is the way the world goes?
Oh, nothing! said Mrs Tetterby. (Dickens C. The Haunted Man And
The Ghosts Bargain)

A chilled, slow, earthy, fixed old man. A cadaverous old man of meas-
ured speech. An old man who seemed as unable to wink as if his eyelids had
been nailed to his forehead. An old man whose eyes two spots of fire had
no more motion than if they had been connected with the back of his skull by
screws driven through it, and riveted and bolted outside, among his grey
hairs.
The night had turned so cold, to Mr Goodchilds sensations, that he shiv-
ered. He remarked lightly, and half apologetically, I think somebody is
walking over my grave.
No, said the weird old man, there is no one there.
Mr Goodchild looked at Idle, but Idle lay with his head enwreathed in
smoke.
No one there? said Goodchild.
There is no one at your grave, I assure you, said the old man. (Dick-
ens C. The Ghost In The Bride's Chamber)

You will excuse me, said the gentleman contemptuously, if I am too
much in advance of common humanity to trouble myself at all about it. I
have passed the night as indeed I pass the whole of my time now in spiri-
tual intercourse.
Oh! said I, something snappishly.
The conferences of the night began, continued the gentleman, turning
several leaves of his notebook, with this message Evil communications
corrupt good manners.
Sound, said I; but, absolutely new?
New from spirits, returned the gentleman.
I could only repeat my rather snappish Oh! and ask if I might be fa-
voured with the last communication.
A bird in the hand, said the gentleman, reading his last entry with great
solemnity, is worth two in the bosh.
Truly I am of the same opinion, said I; but shouldn't it be bush?
It came to me, bosh, returned the gentleman. (Dickens C. The Haunted
House)
96

He took me into his box, where there was a fire, a desk for an official
book in which he had to make certain entries, a telegraphic instrument with
its dial, face and needles, and the little bell of which he had spoken. On my
trusting that he would excuse the remark that he had been well educated, and
(I hoped I might say without offence) perhaps educated above that station, he
observed that instances of slight incongruity in such wise would rarely be
found wanting among large bodies of men; that he had heard it was so in
workhouses, in the police force, even in that last desperate resource, the
army; and that he knew it was so, more or less, in any great railway staff. He
had been, when young (if I could believe it, sitting in that hut he scarcely
could), a student of natural philosophy, and had attended lectures; but he had
run wild, misused his opportunities, gone down and never risen again. He had
no complaint to offer about that. He had made his bed, and he lay upon it. It
was far too late to make another. (Dickens C. The Signalman).
97
/+)7/+9 E&:/8
!AHAD Q@HN?>AD H3>?1>@PLAX1D 1 O3L214@PLAX1D
>A> 4@KAD ?X3LA H14PK1?O1J3?>@M L3XH3>?11
[

/)0%)+ 6*3)3)5*#"&0*? -$70 ;.9. J734M*-$,
/)0%)+ 6*3)3)5*#"&0*? -$70 ;.B. N$%$+*-)(, 20O0
Fnaroapx Hncrnryry pycncrnxn Hosnncxoro ynnnepcnrera ynnenn
cner ne nonnnxn nontcxo nexcnxorpa]nn, xnnxmmnecx npemerom
annoro osopa. 3rn sonornnxn mant, no, na nam nsrnx, upesntuano
oporn nx nnnrnncrnuecxnx nsoperenn. Xorx penensnpyemte paort
cnxsant c pasntmn onacrxmn nexcnxorpa]nn, nx ponnr ncxnmunrentno
rmarentnt noxo x npesenrannn ro rpynnt nexcnxn, xoropax xnnxer-
cx n nnx npemerom onncannx.
Haunem osop c nynnxannn B noncxax nono nontcxo nexcnxn.
Marepnant ns npecct 1932-1933 rr. anropcrna na Banxnntunxa (nx
xparxocrn yem nastnart annym nynnxannm Marepnant). 3ro
acnexrnt cnonapt, npecrannxmmn coo cnonapnym ntopxy ns
Fnnnorpa]nuecxoro cnonapx nontcxoro xstxa cnonapx oxymenra-
nnonno-xpononornuecxoro rnna, n xoropom aercx oxymenrannx nnra-
nn, coepxamnx annym xonxpernym nexcemy. Fnnnorpa]nuecxn
cnonapt nontcxoro xstxa, npecrannxmmn nontcxym nexcnxy n ee
xpononornuecxom cpese, nsaercx xpynntmn mnororomntmn mnpoxo-
]opmarntmn cepnxmn (cm., nanp., [Wawrzynczyk 2000; Wawrzynczyk,
Malek 2004]). O coepxnmom +roro cnonapx moxno nonyunrt uacrnunoe
npecrannenne n Hnrepnere na care www.leksykapolska.pl. Kpynno
mnpoxo]opmarno nsarentcxo nnnnnarnno xnnxercx n Fnnnorpa-
]nuecxn cnonapt pyccxoro xstxa (cm., nanp., [Wawrzynczyk, Malek
2004]), coepxamn xpononornuecxne xoopnnart npnnonmtx n nem
nexcem n ncrounnxonte xoopnnart (yxasanne na nnreparypnte n pyrne
ncrounnxn).
Anrop penensnpyemo paort nouepxnnaer, uro ona xnnxercx nxna-
om n nonynxpnsannm Fnnnorpa]nuecxoro cnonapx nontcxoro xstxa.
Xapaxrepno ocoennocrtm paccmarpnnaemtx Marepnanon xnnxercx
ro, uro xaxax nexcema cnaxena n nem xonxperntmn xoopnnaramn ee
ynorpenennx, a nmenno: xpononornuecxax xoopnnara aer arnponxy ee
ynorpenennx (n xnnre nnn n nepnonuecxom nsannn). Koopnnara mec-
ra coepxnr nasnanne nsannx, n xoropom ]nrypnpyer annax nexcema, n

1
Pen. na xn.: Jan Wawrzy]czyk. W poszukiwaniu nowego slownictwa polskiego. Materialy
z prasy lat 1932-1933 / Instytut Rusycystyki Uniwersytetu Ldzkiego. Ldz, 2009. 20 s.;
Zbigniew Fedus. Siatkwka. Slowniczek rosyjsko-polski z kluczem polsko-rosyjskim / Instytut
Rusycystyki Uniwersytetu Ldzkiego. Ldz, 2008. 55 s.
98
ee nocrpannunym noxannsannm. Marepnant noxastnamr, uro ecxrn-
nernx, npomemne nocne nropo mnpono nont, npnnnecnn n conpemen-
nym nontcxym nexcnxy snaunrentno mentme nexcnuecxnx nonann, uem
+ro npnnxro cunrart. Ocnonno ntno anropa cnonrcx x romy, uro rono-
pnrt o npnnanexnocrn xaxo-nno nexcemt x nono nexcnxe cneyer c
ontmo ocropoxnocrtm, urot ne nonacrt nnpocax n ne ornecrn x ne-
onornsmam n neocemanrnsmam nexcnuecxne ennnnt, xoropte ncrpeua-
nnct eme o nropo mnpono nont n axe n XIX nexe n panee.
. Banxnntunx nouepxnnaer, uro nporpecc n nn]pnsannn nnnorex,
n ene nepenoa n xomntmrepnt ]opmar xpanxmnxcx n nnnorexax
nsann, nosnonxer paccunrtnart na noxnnenne nontx nosmoxnocre nx
rmarentno nepn]nxannn nexcnxn c rouxn spennx ee nonnsnt n xpono-
nornuecxo ornecennocrn n nenom. Hoxnnenne raxnx nosmoxnocre ne
sa ropamn n cnxsn c rem, uro nsannx, xpanxmnecx n nontcxnx nnnore-
xax, yxe ceuac nocneonarentno nepenocxrcx na +nexrponnte nocnrenn.
Paccmarpnnaemax paora coepxnr nexcnxy ns +nexrponntx pecypcon,
xoroptmn pacnonaraer ee anrop, n Banxnntunx nsnecrnt nontcxn
pycncr n nononncr. 3ro raxne nexcnuecxne ennnnt, xoropte nnn noo-
me orcyrcrnymr n neymnx axaemnuecxnx cnonapxx nontcxoro xstxa,
nnn npnnoxrcx n nnx es xpononornuecxo ornecennocrn x nepnoncrou-
nnxam, a amrcx nnmt uepes nnrart nepnoa 1945-1967 rr.
Vxastnaercx, uro n Marepnanax npnmept ns ncrounnxon npnnoxr-
cx n neaxryannsnponannom, neoconpemenennom, rpa]nuecxom onnxe
ro ecrt n rom onnxe, xoropt npncym nm n ncrounnxe (coxpanxercx n
npncymax ncrounnxy nynxryannx). Houepxnnaercx ocoax naxnocrt
nxnmuennx nexcem n cnonapt n nx ncxonom ncrounnxonom onnxe. Ta-
xo rpa]nuecxn onnx nouepxnnaer nnnnnyantnt, orentnt xa-
paxrep nexcnuecxo ennnnt xax oexra, nomemaemoro n cnonnnx cno-
napx. B cnxsn c +rnm nouepxnnaercx, uro oxymenrannonno-
xpononornuecxn cnonapt ne onxen ocrannxrt n cropone nonpoct nsme-
nenn n op]orpa]nn, ee xoneann, crannnsannn (c. 6). Pasnnunx n
nexcnxorpa]nuecxom onnxe yxastnamr na pasnnunx cnocoa tronannx
nexcem, na nx ncropnuecxym cnenn]nxy. Anrop ncxonr ns roro, uro, x
npnmepy, foto-amator ]oro-nmnrent +ro ne ro xe camoe, uro
fotoamator ]oronmnrent. 3rant nsmenenn n onnxe nexcemt n ynxsxe
c xpononornsanne n noxannsanne ee ynorpenennx mnoroe moryr pac-
cxasart o xnsnn cnona n xstxe. Bce npnnonmte n pommpe npnmept
ornocxrcx x nepnoy 1932-1933 rr.
Coepxamnecx n Marepnanax npnmept xnnxmrcx, na nam nsrnx,
nmontrntm n npoyxrnnntm nonem nx nnnrnncrnuecxo pe]nexcnn.
Hent px npnmepon cnxsan c ]axramn ns c]ept cnonoopasonannx, c
npnnnecennem nontx cmtcnon nyrem cy]]nxcannn. Tax, or nontcxoro
cnona akademia ropxecrnennoe copanne n cnonape nmeercx opasona-
nne akademijka (c. 5), xoropoe na ocnone xonrexcra moxno tno t ce-
manrnsnponart xax neontmoe ropxecrnennoe meponpnxrne, nnn ma-
99
nentxoe ropxecrno. Cp. xonrexcr: chlopcy urzadzili mala na czesc
Dostojnego Goscia akademijk napnn ycrponnn n uecrt nouernoro rocrx
manentxoe ropxecrno.
B Marepnanax nmemrcx n pyrne opasonannx ymentmnrentnoro
xapaxrepa: anonsik oxnnenne or anons oxnnenne, dyplomik n-
nnomunx dyplom nnnom, miljardzik mnnnnapnx or miljard (conpem.
miliard) mnnnnap, paryzaneczka napnxanouxa. Ouennno, uro npounax
renennnx nontcxoro xstxa x ymentmnrentntm ]opmannxm yxonr
cnonmn xopnxmn n rnynnt ncropnn xstxa.
Marepnant emoncrpnpymr ontmym cnooy nocnrene nontcxo-
ro xstxa n opasonannn cnoxntx nonxrnntx xomnnexcon na ase cyme-
crnnrentntx: poludnio-poludnio-zachd mro-mro-sana, radiotygodnik
panoexeneentnnx. B ro xe npemx Marepnant xnnxmr coo cnne-
rentcrno ocoo npoyxrnnnocrn npnnararentntx, xoropte ]opmnpymr
cnoxnte cmtcnonte arpnyrnnnte xomnnexct. B npnneennte nnxe
npnmept nxnmuent raxxe onpeenxemte nmn cymecrnnrentnte. Px
raxnx xomnnexcon xnnxer coo rpex-, uertpexunennte n mnorounennte
crpyxrypt: batalistyczno-taktyczno-strategiczny aranncrnuno-
raxrnuecxn-crparernuecxn (rebusy i krzyzwki peyct n xpoccnopt),
psycho-anatomiczno-fizjologiczny ncnxo-anaromnuecxo-
]nsnonornuecxn (zwiazki cnxsn), sentymentalno-patrjotyczno-
wojskowy cenrnmenrantno-narpnornuecxn-noennt (historie ncropnn).
Pexopcmenom no mnorounennocrn xnnxercx arpnyrnnnax ]opmannx
francusko-polsko-czechoslowacko-jugoslowiansko-rumunski ]pannyscxo-
nontcxo-uexocnonanxo-mrocnancxo-pymtncxn (blok nox). nyunen-
ntx opasonann upesntuano mnoro cosaercx nneuarnenne nesamx-
nyrocrn +roro pxa: handlowo-reklamowy roprono-pexnamnt (tendencja
renennnx), krajoznawczo-etnograficzny xpaeneuecxo-
+rnorpa]nuecxn (wdrwki nyremecrnnx), popularno-imformacyjny
nonynxpno-nn]opmannonnt (artykuly crartn), popularno-patrjotyczny
nonynxpno-narpnornuecxn (tresc coepxanne), propagandowo-
sportowy nponaranncrcxo-cnoprnnnt (zawody copennonannx),
sensacyjno-detektywistyczny cencannonno-erexrnnnt (film xnno-
]nntm), spoleczno-panstwowy omecrnenno-rocyapcrnennt (formy
]opmt), sportowo-oswiatowy cnoprnnno-npocnernrentnt
(Towarzystwo Omecrno), sportowo-turystyczny cnoprnnno-rypncrn-
uecxn (jazda esa), wewntrzno-turystyczny nnyrpenne-rypncrn-
uecxn (ruch nnxenne).
Cpen nyunenntx ]opmann nmemrcx napeunte opasonannx co
cnoxno cmtcnono crpyxrypo: wychowanie zawodowo-teoretycznie
nocnnranne, paccmarpnnaemoe n npo]eccnonantno-reopernuecxom nna-
ne, sportowo-idealistycznie n cnoprnnno-neanncrnuecxo nnocxocrn.
B Marepnanax ncrpeuaercx ontmoe xonnuecrno opasonann
(nentnoo]opmnenntx n pasentnoo]opmnenntx) c mexynapontmn
+nemenramn (pro-, pseudo-, super, supra-, ultra-, trans-). Cp.: prosynodalny
100
npocnnoantnt; pseudo-amator nceno-nmnrent, pseudoobywatelka
ncenorpaxanxa, pseudo-ozdoba nceno-yxpamenne, pseudowiniarnia
ncenonnnnt norpe/marasnn; supergalaktyka cynepranaxrnxa;
transoceaniczny rpancoxeannuecxn (lotnik nerunx); ultra-cizki yntr-
pa-rxxent (motocykl moronnxn), ultra-nowoczesny yntrpa-
conpemennt (Earl Carroll Theatre n Htm-Hopxe), ultrateatralny yntrpa-
rearpantnt (Pirandello Hnpanenno) n suprateatralny cynparearpant-
nt (Pirandello Hnpanenno). Hent px raxnx uacre cnon npecran-
nxer coo repmnno+nemenrt c xpxo ntpaxenntm repmnnonornuecxnm
xapaxrepom (auto-, konstrukcyjno-, radjo-/radio-, sportowo-, techniczno-,
dolno-, nisko-). Cp.: radjo-samochd panoanromonnt, radiosluchawki
panonaymnnxn. dolnosterowany (yxn. *nnxnenpnnont) c nnx-
nnm npnnoom (model moent), nisko-kompresyjny nnsxo-
xomnpeccnonnt (tlok nopment).
Opamaer na cex nnnmanne ro, uro ontmoe xonnuecrno repmnnono-
rnuecxnx ]opmann mornnnponano uncnnrentntmn, nanpnmep:
dwuchsetka (yxn. nyxcorxa) moronnxn, cnocont pasnnnart cxopocrt
o 200 xm, dwucylindrwka nyxnnnnnpont nnrarent, dwutaktwka
nyxraxrnt nnrarent; dwunastowoltowy nenanarnnontront
akumulator axxymynxrop, dwulancuchowy nynenno (transmisja nepe-
aua), dwusworzniowy nymxnopnent (polaczenie coennenne),
jednodyskowy ononcxont (sprzglo cnennenne), trjbiegowy c
rpemx nepeauamn/ trzybiegowy c rpemx nepeauamn (skrzynka xopoxa
nepeau).
Apennarypt rex ner npecrannxmr coo mop]onornuecxne opa-
sonannx c npospauno nnyrpenne crpyxrypo: auto-klub anro-xny,.
Hmemrcx n apennarypt-nasnannx ]npm: Autoblok Anronox (napman-
cxax anroycnax ]npma), Bankrutpol Fanxpyrnon. Opamaer na cex
nnnmanne n cnooa ]opmnponannx cnoxntx repmnnon nnera n cnoxntx
npnnararentntx c yuacrnem repmnnon nnera: blkitno-siwy ronyonaro-
cnst (nenra Bncnt), czarno-rudy uepno-ptxn (macrt mtmn), czarno-
srebrny uepno-cepepxnt (rene]on), zielonopiry senenonept (nrn-
na), zlto-jedwabny xenro-menxont (sananec).
Houepxnem, uro nce onncannte ]opmannn ornocxrcx x nauany rpn-
nartx roon, n raxnm opasom, nx xnsnt n xstxe sa]nxcnponana yxe n
ror renept yxe anexo orcroxmn or conpemennocrn nepno. Ormernm na
nonxx, uro mnorne ns nmemmnxcx n Marepnanax ]opmann c xoom
npemenn npnopenn n nontcxom xstxe nentnoo]opmnennoe nanncanne, a
op]orpa]nuecxax napnanrnocrt nanncannx +nemenron cnon uepes -j- nnn
uepes -i- (nanpnmep, radjo-/radio-) cmennnact cranntno-ycrounntm
nanncannem uepes i.
Bropax ns paccmarpnnaemtx nynnxann npecrannxer cnoprnnnt
orpacneno nyxstunt cnonapt: Boneon. Pyccxo-nontcxn cnonapt c
nontcxo-pyccxnm xnmuom 3nrnena ueyca (anee Cnonapt). Kasa-
noct t, nocne ntxoa n cner ontmoro n axe, moxno cxasart, rnranr-
101
cxoro nyxromnoro pyccxo-nontcxoro n nontcxo-pyccxoro cnoprnnnoro
cnonapx +roro xe anropa [Fedus 2005; Fedus 2007] nynnxannx no or-
entno cnoprnnno orpacnn moxer noxasartcx yxe npemerom pocxomn.
Tem ne menee, xax npecrannxercx, n pesyntrare ee nsyuennx nanpamnna-
ercx nent px ntnoon, naxntx nx repmnnonornuecxo nexcnxorpa-
]nn xax raxono n n ro xe npemx penenanrntx nx xornnrnnno c]ept
namero mtmnennx.
Cnonapt no cyrn xnnxercx xax pyccxo-nontcxnm, rax n npaxrnuecxn n
ro xe mepe nontcxo-pyccxnm. On cocronr ns nyx pasenon: cocrnen-
no xopnyca cnonapx pyccxo-nontcxoro, n nnexca Hontcxo-pyccxoro
xnmua. Cnxst oonx pasenon oecneunnaercx rem, uro n xopnyce cnona-
px xaxoe sarononounoe cnono cnaxeno nopxxontm nomepom. B nn-
excno xe uacrn nmemrcx nn]ponte orctnxn x xopnycy. Taxnm nyrem
oecneunnaercx npnnxsxa nexcem nnexcno uacrn x xopnycy n conpx-
xennocrt oonx pasenon pyr x pyry, naroapx uemy nontcxne nexce-
mt nnexca oecneunnamrcx pyccxnmn +xnnnanenramn. Fnaroapx raxo
crpyxrype ocrnraercx nsanmnax xonneprnpyemocrt oenx uacre cnonapx
n snaunrentnax +xonomnx cnonapnoro neuarnoro mecra, npnuem ne n
ymep narnxnocrn n yocrny ero nontsonarenx.
B Cnonape npecrannent ne rontxo orentnte cnoprnnnte repmnnt,
cnxsannte c noneonom, no n (raxoe cosaercx nneuarnenne) ncx nn]pa-
crpyxrypa noneona. Bosmoxno, ne nnmne ryr yer xoncrarannx, uro
npecrannennax n cnonape npo]eccnonantnax xaprnna mnpa nponsnonr
ontmoe nneuarnenne ne rontxo na cnennanncra cnoe cnoxno crpyx-
rypno pasnernnennocrtm n coepxarentno cocrannxmme. Hpn +rom
cnonapt ntnonnxer nnonne xonxpernym yrnnnrapnym nent cnyxnrt
cnonapem-nocpennxom n cnoprnnnom npornnoopcrne poccncxnx n
nontcxnx cnoprcmenon, npeocrannxrt +xnnnanenrnxy nx nonnonenno
mexxstxono xommynnxannn no ncnnnnnne ()3"@K)3.
Opamaer na cex nnnmanne, uro repmnnonornx noneona xorx n co-
epxnr nnrepnannonantnt nnacr, rem ne menee ona ne noneprnact
nponeccam nnrepnannonannsannn n ro mepe, n xaxo +ro moxno tno t
npenonoxnrt. Haunem c roro, uro noneon no-nontcxn oosnauaercx
nymx nexcemamn: siatkwka or cnona siatka cerxa n pilka siatkowa
yxn. cerount mxu. B nenom pxe cnyuaen, xora nx oosnauennx
xaxoro-nno nonxrnx n pyccxom xstxe ntcrynaer nnrepnannonantnt
repmnn, ero nnsann n nontcxom xstxe npecrannxer coo ncxonno nont-
cxym nexcemy nnn raxxe nnrepnannonannsm, no pyro, nexenn n pyc-
cxom xstxe. Tax, pyccxn repmnn noxnponanne (xnno nnocrpannoro
nponcxoxennx) nmeer cnonm nontcxnm +xnnnanenrom nnonne nontcxoe
cnono zastawianie. B ro xe npemx /#/1234(5 ()3"@K)3 nmeer nontcxn
+xnnnanenr siatkwka ofensywna yxn. nacrynarentnt noneon
(araxymmn n ofensywny +ro opasonannx or sanmcrnonanntx cnon, no
or conepmenno pasntx). Hepexo n rom cnyuae, xora moxno tno t
oxnart nexcnuecxnx ananorn nnrepnannonantnoro rnna, n nontcxom
102
xstxe ntcrynamr ncxonno nontcxne cnona, cp.: npo]eccnonantnt no-
neon siatkwka zawodowa, cnoprnnnt noneon siatkwka
wyczynowa.
Fpocaercx n rnasa nannune mnorouncnenntx nepenontx +xnnnanen-
ron- cnnonnmon npnnonmtm n cnonape pyccxnm repmnnam. Tax, pyccxo-
my cnonocouerannm (R?)/ .'#$ *2 *5+R aercx rpn nontcxnx nepeno-
ntx +xnnnanenra: pilka martwa yxn. meprnt mxu, pilka poza gra mxu
nne nrpt, aut ayr; na cnono M$+%*' amrcx +xnnnanenrt set, partia.
Pyccxnm repmnnam M)/$#$, M$&, M"+"/$#$ coornercrnyer nontcxn rep-
mnn zagrywka. Bo ncex cnonx ]parmenrax Cnonapt xnnxercx narnx-
ntm cnnerentcrnom ecrnnx saxona mexxstxono acnmmerpnn.
Mexxstxonte pasnnunx moryr xacartcx crpyxrypt cnonocouerannx,
cp.: myxcxo noneon siatkwka mzczyzn (yxn. noneon myxunn),
n xencxn noneon siatkwka kobiet (yxn. noneon xenmnn). Hs
annoro conocrannennx +xnnnanenrnxn cneyer, uro n pyccxom xstxe
repmnn ()3"@K)3 nonyuaer cornaconannoe onpeenenne, a n nontcxom
xstxe necornaconannoe.
Boneon, xax nsnecrno, npecrannxer coo pacnpocrpanennym xo-
mannym nrpy. Moxno cenart ntno o rom, uro cnoprnnnt cnonapt,
opnenrnponannt nnmt na ony cnoprnnnym ncnnnnnny, napxy c
]ynxnne npeocrannennx nepenouecxnx repmnnonornuecxnx +xnnna-
nenron, a snaunr n ]ynxnne nocpennxa n mexxstxono xommynnxa-
nnn, ntnonnxer n pyrym ]ynxnnm xornnrnnnym, coepxnr n ontmo
xornnrnnnt sapx. B paccmarpnnaemom cnonape cnoprnnnax ncnnnnnna
npecrannena co nce ee nn]pacrpyxrypo, uro naxno xax nx npo]ec-
cnonanon, rax n nx necnennanncron c rouxn spennx xornnrnnntx acnex-
ron annoro remarnuecxoro noxa, npesenrannn ero nponemntx c]ep,
onentx rouex n momenron rpnym]a.
H n r e p a r y p a
Fedus Z. Wielki slownik sportowy rosyjsko-polski. Fontmo pyccxo-nontcxn cnoprnnnt
cnonapt. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Takt, 2005. 458 s. (Semiosis Lexicographica, vol.
XVII).
Fedus Z. Wielki slownik sportowy polsko-rosyjski. Fontmo nontcxo-pyccxn cnoprnnnt
cnonapt. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Takt, 2007. 428 s. (Semiosis Lexicographica, vol.
XXXII).
Wawrzy]czyk J. Slownik bibliograficzny jzyka polskiego. Wersja przedelektroniczna. T. 1: A
C. Warszawa, 2000. 364 s. (Semiosis Lexicographica, vol. VI).
Wawrzy]czyk J., Ma^ek E. Slownik bibliograficzny jzyka polskiego. Z materialw do Slownika
bibliograficznego jzyka polskiego. Terminologia lingwistyczna. Wybrane terminy
wiedzy o kulturze i literaturze. Neologizmy, hapaks legomena / Instytut lingwistyki
stosowanej Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego. Warszawa, 2004. 554 s. (Semiosis
Lexicographica, vol. XVI).
103
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@WZ32B D<=>@<4A41I
/)0%)+ 6*3)3)5*#"&0*? -$70 ;.9. J734M*-$,
/)0%)+ 6*3)3)5*#"&0*? -$70 ;.B. N$%$+*-)(, 20O0
Osop nocnxmen mnnem nontcxoro yuenoro Bnronta Mantuaxa, an-
ropa onee 600 neuarntx paor no cnanncrnxe, nnoenponencrnxe, o-
memy xstxosnannm (cm. nocnxmennym ero 70-nernemy mnnem xnnry
Munus amicitiae. Studia jzykoznawcze dedykowane Witoldowi
Manczakowi w siedemdziesiciolecie urodzin, ntmemym n Kpaxone no
peaxnne A. Foxnxxono n Cranncnana Bnnxxa [Munus amicitiae.
1995]).
Hasnanne annoro osopa ronopnr o rom, uro npo]eccop B. Mantuax
xnnxercx xstxoneom c ncxnmunrentno mnpoxnmn nayuntmn ropnsonra-
mn. He yyun n cocroxnnn ocnernrt ncex acnexron exrentnocrn yueno-
ro, oparnmcx x nexoroptm ero rpyam, npexe ncero monorpa]nuecxnm
nccneonannxm, cnxsanntm co cnanncrnxo n nnoenponencrnxo. B
Cnncxe nnreparypt npnneem raxxe nexoropte crartn, nanonee no-
xasarentnte nx nayunoro npo]nnx yuenoro. Ocoo ormernm, uro ero
nxna n cnanncrnuecxym nayxy n ncropnm cnanxncxnx xstxon, +rnmo-
nornm, upesntuano nennx. Hcxnmunrentno naxen n ero nxna n ncro-
pnm cnanncrnxn, n uacrnocrn, n eno pasnenunnannx pacxoxnx yrnep-
xenn n ycrapenmnx yexenn.
Ocranonnmcx na nexoroptx acnexrax monorpa]nn oncropnuecxax
mnrpannx cnanxn n nponcxoxenne nepxonno-cnanxncxoro xstxa
(Manczak 1995). Monorpa]nx cocronr ns uertpex rnan, saxnmuennx n
nnnorpa]nn. B nepno rnane Cymnocrt xstxonoro pocrna amrcx
nnrepecnte cneennx no nonpocy nsyuennx xstxontx ceme: cymecrno-
nanne nnoenponecxnx xstxon tno orxptro n 1786 r., cymecrnonanne
yrpo]nncxnx xstxon n 1739. Onaxo yxe n 1610 r. H.R. Cxannrep
(Scaliger) oranan cee oruer n cymecrnonannn pomancxnx, repmancxnx n
cnanxncxnx xstxon (c. 8). Hemenxn cnennanncr no nocrountm xstxam
H. Hyont] (XVIII n.) tn nepntm, oparnnmnmcx x nponeme camo
cyrn xstxonoro pocrna, npnnnmax sa ocnony rpammarnuecxoe pocrno.
B. Mantuax n xauecrne xpnrepnx xstxonoro pocrna ntnnraer xpnrepn
nannunx mexy pocrnenntmn xstxamn perynxpntx coornercrnn, n ro
xe npemx on onponepraer nent px nonoxenn ns cepnn npnnxro cun-
rart. Tax, na ocnone nponeennoro anannsa xonxpernoro marepnana n
crarncrnuecxnx ntxnaox on yxastnaer, uro mexy nontcxnm n pyccxnm
ontme ]onernuecxnx cxocrn, uem mexy yxpanncxnm n nontcxnm xst-
104
xamn, xorx npnnxro nouepxnnart ontmee pocrno mexy nontcxnm n
yxpanncxnm.
Hpaxrnuecxn cnoonoe snanne ontmoro xonnuecrna pennnx n co-
npemenntx xstxon cnococrnyer macmranocrn oxnara B. Mantuaxom
xstxonoro marepnana. B. Mantuax yxastnaer, uro npnnnnn, cornacno
xoropomy xstxonoe pocrno sanncnr or rpammarnuecxo crpyxrypt, tn
nocrannen no comnenne ancrpncxnm yuentm I.P. 3ontra, xoropt n
1960 r. n oxropcxo ncceprannn, nocnxmenno mecry apmxncxoro xst-
xa cpen pyrnx nnoenponecxnx xstxon, nen nocuer ne nexcem xax
raxontx, a nx ynorpenenn n rexcrax. B. Mantuax enaer ntnot, uro
rpannnonnoe mnenne, cornacno xoropomy crenent pocrna sanncnr or
rpammarnuecxo crpyxrypt, omnouno <...>, crenent pocrna sanncnr
ncxnmunrentno or nexcnxn, npn rom, uro cnona nao cunrart n raxnx
rexcrax, re onn coxpanxmr raxym cymecrnennym uepry, xaxo xnnxercx
uacrornocrt nx ynorpenennx (c. 20). Bet xstx +ro ne uro nnoe, xax
rexcrt, ycrnte n nnctmennte (c. 23).
Hcxox ns +roro nnoenponecxn xapaxrep ]pannyscxoro xstxa co-
nepmenno ouennen, rax xax no ]pannyscxnx rexcrax ontmnncrno cnon
nmeer nnoenponecxn xapaxrep (c. 25). Ha ocnone repmnnonornuecxo-
ro anannsa snamennrax nxoromnx Coccmpa '2R0 n +"#4 osnauaer, no B.
Mantuaxy, c ono cropont, rpammarnxy n nexcnxy (ro ecrt langue), a c
pyro cropont rexcrt (parole) (c. 23). B. Mantuax opamaer nnn-
manne na npnnnnnnantnt xapaxrep pasnnun mexy rpannnonntmn
xonnennnxmn xstxonoro pocrna n npenaraemo nm xonnennne: Hpn-
nnmax no nnnmanne cnononsmenenne, moxno oxasart pocrno mexy
nectma orpannuenntm xonnuecrno ]nexrnnntx xstxon (npnmenxx xpn-
repn cnononsmenennx nenosmoxno axe oocnonart pomano-repmancxn
xapaxrep anrnncxoro xstxa nnn cnanxncxn xapaxrep onrapcxoro xst-
xa, <> mero, cocroxmn n onpeenennn xstxonoro pocrna c nomo-
mtm conocrannennx nexcnxn n napannentntx rexcrax, nocnr ynnnepcant-
nt xapaxrep: on penenanren nx ncex xstxon mnpa xax ]nexrnnntx,
rax n ne]nexrnnntx (c. 26). B. Mantuax opamaer nnnmanne na ro, uro
px xstxoneuecxnx ncxyccn, n rom uncne n ncxyccn no nonoy xst-
xonoro pocrna, nnonne paspemnm, ecnn yunrtnart xonnuecrnennt ac-
nexr xstxontx xnnenn. On nouepxnnaer, uro sanmcrnonanntx cnon n
cnanxncxnx xstxax mentme, uem ncxonntx, n xauecrne ncxnmuennx
moxer rax cnyunrtcx, uro n rexcrax xonnuecrno sanmcrnonann naunnaer
npentmart xonnuecrno ncxonntx cnon. Tora xstx ns ono xstxono
cemtn nepexonr n pyrym (c. 27).
B pasene Hpaponna cnanxn B. Mantuax ormeuaer, uro nponema
npaponnt cnanxn, ee mecrononoxenne, ornocnrcx x crapemnm n
nmemmnm ncxnmunrentno ntcoxn panr nponemam cnanncrnxn. He-
105
cmorpx na omnpnym nnreparypy no +romy nonpocy, ennoymnx yuentx
ne nanmaercx nnnort o cero nx. B. Mantuax aer xparxn osop mno-
rouncnenntx n pasnoopasnemnx xonnennn c yxasannem nx rnanntx
npecrannrene. Cymmnpyx cyrt +rnx xonnennn, B. Mantuax yxastnaer,
uro yuente n cnonx noncxax npaponnt cnanxn n xauecrne mecra ee me-
cropacnonoxennx (n conoxynnocrn nastnaemtx nmn pernonon n reppnro-
pn) yxastnamr na omnpnemym reppnropnm or Hat sa Vpan, or
ynax no ncroxn nenpa (c. 32). Pemenne nponemt ocnoxnxercx cny-
uaxmn nsmenennx yuentmn rouxn spennx. B. Mantuax saaercx nonpocom,
xax oxcnnrt nmemmnecx pasnnunx no nsrnxax na noxannsannm npapo-
nnt cnanxn. Ono ns oxcnenn nannunx pasnornacn on naxonr n
orcyrcrnnn ennoro mnennx no nonoy noxannsannn no npemenn nepnoa
cymecrnonannx npacnanxncxoro xstxa, npoonxnrentnocrn +roro nepno-
a n +ranon pasnnrnx +roro xstxa, npemenn ero pacnaa n nauana ]opmn-
ponannx n ero nepax camocroxrentntx +rnoxstxontx rpynn.
Osop B. Mantuaxa narnxno emoncrpnpyer, uro ronopx o npacna-
nxncxom xstxe, ne nce yuente nmemr n nny onn n ror xe nepno (c.
33). Ho eme onee necxo npnunno nannunx paspoca no mnennxx B.
Mantuax cunraer stxocrt aprymenrannn n nonpoce o mecronaxoxennn
npaponnt cnanxn. Mnorne nccneonarenn ntrannct pemnrt nonpoc
nyrem cctnox na pyrnx anropon, satnax o neocrarouno crenenn rou-
nocrn n ocronepnocrn +rnx cnnerentcrn. Tax, n ynomnnannxx Hronemex
o Benercxom sannne ocraercx saraxo mecro noxannsannn raxonoro. Ho
+romy nonoy cymecrnyer ontmo pasnoo no mnennxx: ner nn peut
oo nce Fanrnxe nnn o xaxo-ro ee uacrn o Iantcxom, Pnxcxom sann-
nax nnn o xaxom-nno eme. B. Mantuax nonaraer, uro pasnoopasne nn-
repnperann ronopnr o nerounocrn camoro nonxrnx Benercxoro sannna
panno xax n nntx reorpa]nuecxnx nonxrn n nponsneennxx pyrnx an-
ropon.
B. Mantuax npnnonr aprymenrannm A.A. Baxmarona, yrnepxanme-
ro, uro nasnanne onoro ns nentx npnroxon nenpa C"&-$ ronopnr o
rom, uro mnrpannx cnanxn ocymecrnnxnact n cenepnom nanpannennn. 3ra
aprymenrannx n cnom ouepet ntsnana nospaxennx y M. uacmepa, yxa-
sanmero na cymecrnonanne n uexnn n Mopannn nyx pex no nasnannem
C"&-$, xoropte raxxe xnnxmrcx nentmn npnroxamn. Ecnn yuecrt ror
]axr, uro n cnone 3"(R@ coepxnrcx n cemanrnxa M3)?)@, nasnanne C"&-$
nx nastnannx nenoro npnroxa moxer npecrannxrt coo +n]emnsm
raxonoro. B saxnmuenne cnoero anannsa B. Mantuax ronopnr o neoxo-
nmocrn yrnynennx nayuno ast +rnorenernuecxnx nccneonann, n
uacrnocrn nccneonann +rnorenesa cnanxn. On yxastnaer, uro nocra-
nonxa +rnorenernuecxnx nccneonann na nayunte pentct nx cnnenrn-
sannx onxna ocymecrnnxrtcx na ase nocrynaron: 1) orenennx apry-
106
menron, noammnxcx nponepxe c nomomtm crarncrnxn, or aprymenron,
ne nonexamnx raxoro poa nepn]nxannn, 2) neoxonmocrn onopt
ncxnmunrentno na nepn]nnnpyemte aprymenrt. Cpen ero ntnoon, n
uacrnocrn, ror, uro xstxn-cocen, xax npannno, noxoxn pyra na pyra
ontme, uem xstxn, reppnropnantno ne cononoxennte (rax, cnonanxn
xstx ontme noxox na nontcxn, uem na cepoxopnarcxn). On raxxe
noxastnaer, uro ornomennx xstxonoro pocrna npoxnnxmr ynnnrent-
nym cranntnocrt (c. 35).
Bor n coxpamennn nexoropte ntnot B. Mantuaxa: repmancxne xst-
xn ontme noxoxn na cnanxncxne, uem na anrncxne, orcma n oncro-
pnuecxn nepno cnanxne, xax n n ncropnuecxn nepno, npoxnnann
mexy repmanamn n anramn. Hontcxn xstx nmeer ontme cxocrn c
pennenpyccxnm, uem c nnroncxnm, uro osnauaer, uro cnanxne xnnn nc-
xono nnxe x mecram nocenenn pennnx npyccon, uem nnronnen.
Hrantxncxax nexcnxa nmeer ontme ananorn c nontcxnm, uem c nnron-
cxnm, orcma n oncropnuecxn nepno, xax n n ncropnuecxn, cnanxne
npoxnnann nnxe x Hrannn, uem x anram. Iepmancxne xstxn ontme
noxoxn na cnanxncxne, uem na pomancxne Hpnancxn xstx ontme no-
xox na nontcxn, uem na nnroncxn, orcma n oncropnuecxn nepno,
xax n n ncropnuecxn, xentrt xnnn x cnanxnam nnxe, uem x anram.
B. Mantuax nouepxnnaer, uro ns ncex rnopenn xyntrypt, xax ma-
repnantno, rax n yxonno, xstx +nonmnnonnpyer menennee ncero (c.
47), n cnxsn c uem y xstxosnannx neconsmepnmo ontmne nosmoxnocrn n
pexoncrpyxnnn npomnoro, uem y pyrnx rymannrapntx nayx. Tax, mero
conocrannennx nexcnxn n napannentntx rexcrax, nanncanntx na conpe-
menntx pomancxnx xstxax, nosnonxer c ontmo rounocrtm pexoncr-
pynponart xpononornm pnmcxnx sanoenann, xoropte nauannct 2400 ner
nasa (c. 47).
C nentm ntxnnennx nexcnuecxnx coornercrnn n cnanxncxnx xstxax
B. Mantuaxom tnn npnmenent npoyxrnnnte merot conocrannennx n
cocrannent omnpnemne cnncxn nexcnuecxnx coornercrnn mexy
conpemenntmn cnanxncxnmn xstxamn (c. 50-158). B nenom xe n mono-
rpa]nn tnn noxasant npoyxrnnnte merot conocrannennx nexcnxn n
napannentntx rexcrax, c nomomtm xoroptx pemannct nonpoct xstxono-
ro pocrna, npaponnt cnanxn, npaponnt roron, xnaccn]nxannn poman-
cxnx xstxon, oncropnuecxo mnrpannn cnanxn, nponcxoxennx crapo-
cnanxncxoro xstxa. nntm ocronncrnom npnmenxemtx B. Mantuaxom
meronx xnnxercx nx crarncrnuecxoe asnponanne, naroapx xoropomy
ocrnraercx nosmoxnocrt nepn]nxannn nonyuaemtx pesyntraron.
B monorpa]nn Bannnoncxax amnx (Manczak 1999) oxnartnaercx
omnpnt marepnan nnoenponecxnx n pacnpocrpanenntx na reppnro-
pnn Enpont n Asnn nennoenponecxnx xstxon c rouxn spennx ncroxon
107
nx pasnnrnx, xstxonoro pocrna n penneme noxannsannn nx nocnre-
ne. B xnnre nmeercx ne rnant: 1. Hcropnuecxn nepno n 2. on-
cropnuecxn nepno, xoropte n cnom ouepet pacnaamrcx na pasent
n nopasent. Tax, pasen Hnoenponecxne xstxn nepno rnant
npecrannen nopasenamn Cnanxncxne xstxn, Fanrncxne xstxn,
Iepmancxne xstxn, Pomancxne xstxn, Kentrcxne xstxn, Ipeue-
cxn xstx, Anancxn xstx, Htrancxn xstx.
B pasene Hennoenponecxne xstxn nmemrcx nopasent Vrpo-
]nncxne xstxn, Tmpxcxne xstxn, Facxcxn xstx, 3rpyccxn
xstx. Bo nropo rnane oncropnuecxn nepno nmemrcx pasent
Hont mero: conocrannenne nexcnxn a napannentntx rexcrax, Hpa-
ponna roron, Hpaponna cnanxn. Ocranonnmcx na pasene Hnoen-
ponecxax npaponna, n xoropom nouepxnnaercx, uro na nnoenpone-
cxnx xstxax ronopnr nononnna ncero uenoneuecrna (53%) n nnuro ne
ronopnr o rom, uro nponeccy nnoenponensannn npecronr saropmosnrt-
cx (c. 129). B. Mantuax nonemnsnpyer c pasntmn rouxamn spennx no
nonpocy o nnoenponecxo npaponne, n uacrnocrn, on opamaercx x
nsnecrntm paoram no +romy nonpocy T.B. Iamxpennse n Bxu. Bc. Hna-
nona, nonarammnx, uro nnoenponecxax npaponna naxonnact y osepa
Vpmnm (ro ecrt na apmxncxo xstxono reppnropnn).
B. Mantuax ntcxastnaercx no +romy nonoy: +ro mnenne nenpan-
onoono, rax xax uro xacaercx xstxonoro cxocrna c pyrnmn nnoen-
ponecxnmn xstxamn, apmxncxn xstx n moem cnncxe naxonrcx na
npenocnenem mecre. 3ro xstx, n xoropom cnet cycrpara nnnt na
xaxom mary (c. 141). B. Mantuax nouepxnnaer snaunmocrt +rnorene-
rnuecxnx nccneonann, cnxsanntx c npaponno, ne rontxo camnx no
cee, no raxxe n cnxsn c nx ontmnm snauennem nx +rnmonornn (c.
142). On nouepxnnaer cnanxncxym n ononpemenno yrpo-]nncxym +rn-
monornm nasnannx Bonrn n yxastnaer, uro na reppnropnn Hontmn nme-
ercx necxontxo pex c nasnannem Wilga Bnntra, coepxamnx n nasnannn
+nemenr (3$5$. C +rnm nasnannem roxecrnenna n nomnnannx nrnnt
wilga nnonra, nenne xoropo npenemaer oxt. Omn ntno ns +rno-
renernuecxnx nccneonann B. Mantuaxa rnacnr, uro ncropnx nnoen-
ponecxnx napoon ne xnnxercx anrnreso nx npetcropnn (xax npe-
crannxmr cee mnorne nccneonarenn), no, nanpornn, xnnxercx npoon-
xennem npetcropnn nnoenponecxnx napoon (c. 143), uro nornep-
xaercx n pacueramn B. Mantuaxa, ntnonnenntmn nm na ocnone nexcn-
xn, ocneonanno n napannentntx rexcrax.
B monorpa]nn Hponcxoxenne crapocnanxncxoro xstxa n 3orpa]-
cxoe enanrenne (Manczak 2006) ocyxaemax nponemarnxa nnrepnpe-
rnpyercx n mnpoxom nnane n nmeer ntxo n xstxoneuecxne mn]t. an-
nax monorpa]nx cocronr ns uertpex rnan n Fnnnorpa]nn. B rnane
108
Cymnocrt xstxonoro pocrna anrop opamaercx x nponeme xpnrepnen
xstxonoro pocrna, n n uacrnocrn, x onomy ns nepntx ntcxasanntx
mnenn no +romy nonoy x mnennm H. Hyont]a o rom, uro xstxonoe
pocrno npoxnnxercx ne n cnonapnom cocrane, a n rpammarnxe. B. Mant-
uax yxastnaer, uro raxoe mnenne, xorx n cnny nnepnnn n nonropxnoct
mnornmn yuentmn, xnnxercx omnountm, n n anannsnpyemo rnane mno-
roxparno ero onponepraer. B. Mantuax yxastnaer, uro nonpoc o pocrne
cnanxncxnx xstxon, o nx ntenennn ns nnoenponecxnx napxy c rep-
mancxnmn, anrncxnmn n pyrnmn xstxamn co nce ouennnocrtm on-
xen pemartcx na ocnone anannsa nexcnxn, a ne rpammarnxn.
Touno rax xe nonpoc o enennn cnanxncxnx xstxon na nocrounocna-
nxncxne, sananocnanxncxne n mxnocnanxncxne raxxe npeonpeenxercx
nexcnuecxnmn cxocrnamn, a ne rpammarnuecxnmn. Mero, c nomomtm
xoroporo B. Mantuax onpeenxer crenent xstxonoro pocrna mexy pas-
ntmn xstxamn cnanxncxnmn n pyrnmn nnoenponecxnmn xstxamn, a
raxxe crenent pocrna nnyrpn cnanxncxnx xstxon, crponrcx na anannse
napannentntx rexcron. Ha ocnone raxoro anannsa nm, n uacrnocrn, onpe-
enxercx ontmee cxocrno ]pannyscxoro xstxa n nartnn, uem nartnn n
rorcxoro. Ha ocnone anannsa B. Mantuax enaer ntno o omnounocrn
mnennx o rom, uro xxot rpammarnuecxax crpyxrypa npeonpeenxer
xstxonoe pocrno. B ecrnnrentnocrn xe ne ]onernuecxne npnsnaxn n
cnononsmennrentnte mop]emt, no xopnn nosnonxmr onpeennrt crenent
xstxonoro pocrna, c rem, uro xopnn cneyer nccneonart ne n cnonapxx,
a n napannentntx rexcrax (c. 11). H anee: n noannxmmem ontmnn-
crne cnyuaen camo ycrounno uacrtm cnona oxastnaercx xopent (c.
16). B noepxxy cnoero resnca B. Mantuaxom n crarncrnuecxo opa-
orxe npnnoxrcx annte no conocrannrentnomy anannsy rpammarnue-
cxnx n nexcnuecxnx cnocrn xstxon n napannentntx rexcrax. nx ycra-
nonnennx xstxonoro pocrna B. Mantuax npnmenxer mero conocrann-
rentnoro anannsa rpammarnxn n nexcnxn n napannentntx rexcrax.
Xorx npnnnnn H. Hyont]a yuente ne ocmennnannct xpnrnxonart, na
npaxrnxe xe onn nepexo orxonnn or ero npnnnnna, nponosrnamammero
sanncnmocrt xstxonoro pocrna or rpammarnuecxo crpyxrypt. Hpn +rom
B. Mantuax nocrynnpyer neoxonmocrt nccneonannx xstxonoro pocr-
na ne nyrem nocuera nexcem n cnonapxx, no nyrem nx nocuera neno-
cpecrnenno n rexcrax, no nmenno n nnx cnona coxpanxmr cymecrnen-
nt npnsnax, xonm xnnxercx uacrornocrt nx ynorpenennx (c. 19). B.
Mantuax aprymenrnpyer cno nocrynar rem, uro net n cam xstx ecrt ne
uro nnoe, xax rexcrt, ycrnte nnn nnctmennte (c. 20). H anee: rpam-
marnxa n cnonapt nnmt pesyntrar xstxoneuecxnx ecrnn, a npeme-
rom nnnrnncrnxn xnnxmrcx rexcrt (c. 21). Hpn +rom coccmponcxoe
langue nopasymenaer rpammarnxy n cnonapt, a parole rexcrt; npn
109
+rom cnnxponnoe, naxponnoe n nanxponnuecxoe xstxosnanne no Coc-
cmpy nopasymenaer, no cyrn, yxe nsnecrnte nonxrnx onncarentnoe,
ncropnuecxoe n omee xstxosnanne.
Hapannentnte nepenot rexcron Cnxmennoro nncannx na nonacxom
n nnxnenyxnnxom xstxax emoncrpnpymr onee recnoe xstxonoe pocr-
no mexy nonacxnm n nnxnenyxnnxnm, uem mexy nontcxnm n +rnmn
xstxamn. B ro xe npemx crarncrnuecxne nccneonannx noxastnamr
ontmee xstxonoe pocrno nontcxoro c xamycxnm, uem c nonacxnm n
nnxnenyxnnxnm, uro oxcnxercx 1000-nernnm nepnoom xnsnn xamy-
on n cocrane nontcxoro rocyapcrna, cnecrnnem uero crano npenpame-
nne xamycxoro xstxa n nanexr nontcxoro xstxa.
B. Mantuax yxastnaer na npnnnnnnantnte pasnnunx mexy rpannn-
onntm noxoom x xstxonomy pocrny n noxoom, npenaraemtm nm.
On yxastnaer, uro ncxox ns xpnrepnen cnononsmenennx nosmoxno ycra-
nonnenne pocrna nnmt mexy nectma orpannuenntm uncnom xstxon
(raxo xpnrepn ne nosnonxer axe ycranonnrt pomancxn xapaxrep
]pannyscxoro, repmancxn xapaxrep anrnncxoro n cnanxncxn xapaxrep
onrapcxoro xstxon). B ro xe npemx mero ycranonnennx xstxonoro po-
crna na ocnone conocrannennx nexcnxn n napannentntx rexcrax nocnr
ynnnepcantnt xapaxrep, rax xax moxer trt pacnpocrpanen na nce xst-
xn mnpa, xax ]nexrnnnte, rax n ne]nexrnnnte.
B pasene Ienesnc craponepxonnocnanxncxoro xstxa n Mapnnncxoe
enanrenne B. Mantuax, nouepxnnax, uro xstxonoe pocrno npeonpe-
enxercx ne ]onernxo n ne cnononsmenennem, a nexcnxo, npenpnnn-
maer conocrannrentnt ananns nexcnuecxnx coornercrnn crapocnanxn-
cxoro xstxa n ncex conpemenntx cnanxncxnx xstxon. On conocrannxer
nepenot noctmn pasenon Mapnnncxoro enanrennx, ycranannnnaer n
npeenax raxoro conocrannennx cnoero poa nepapxnm cxocrn. Fonee
ncero nexcnuecxnx cxocrn npoxnnxercx mexy crapocnanxncxnm n pyc-
cxnm xstxamn (1065), sa nnmn ner cepcxoxopnarcxn xstx. 3arem cne-
ymr cnonencxn, maxeoncxn, onrapcxn, nontcxn, enopyccxn,
yxpanncxn, uemcxn, cnonanxn, nepxnenyxnnxn n nnxnenyxnnxn
xstxn. Taxnm opasom, nanontmee xonnuecrno nexcnuecxnx cxocrn
onapyxnnaercx mexy crapocnanxncxnm n pyccxnm xstxamn n cnxsn c
rem, uro n ncropnuecxn nepno pyccxn noneprcx ontmomy nnnxnnm
nepxonnocnanxncxoro xstxa (npnnonrcx npnmep pacnpocrpanennoro
ntpaxennx a spancrnyer Conercxn Coms!, n xoropom aconmrno
nce cnona nmemr craponepxonnocnanxncxym poocnonnym). C nomomtm
roro xe rnna anannsa B. Mantuax noxasan, uro cnonencxn xstx cnxsan
onee ncero c sananocnanxncxo rpynno xstxon, n ro npemx xax cep-
cxoxopnarcxn n onrapcxn onapyxnnamr cnxst c nocrounocnanxncxn-
mn xstxamn. Hpn +rom mxnocnanxncxne xstxn npoxnnxmr ontme
110
cxocrn c pyccxnm xstxom, uem c enopyccxnm n yxpanncxnm. Hexcnue-
cxoe cxocrno mexy cepcxoxopnarcxnm n crapocnanxncxnm xstxamn
ornonr cepcxoxopnarcxomy pont cnoero poa npomexyrounoro snena
mexy cnonencxnm, c ono cropont, n maxeoncxnm n onrapcxnm c
pyro cropont. Vunrtnax xe sananocnanxncxne ncroxn cnonencxoro
xstxa, crapocnanxncxn xstx paccmarpnnaercx xax cnoeopasnt xom-
npomncc mexy maxeoncxo-onrapcxnm nanexrom n mopancxo-
nannoncxnm napeunem (c. 20). Hpn +rom enaercx npenonoxenne, uro
Knpnnn n Me]on, ocymecrnnnmne nepenot c rpeuecxoro na nsnecr-
noe nm maxeoncxo-onrapcxoe napeune, nnocnecrnnn nnocnnn n cnon
nepenot onpeenennte mon]nxannn, urot nepenonmte nmn rexcrt
tnn nonxrnee sanantm cnanxnam.
B rnane Kpnrnxa nropo nopmt M. x. Fapronn B. Mantuax yxa-
stnaer, uro n xstxosnannn yxe onee 80 ner rocnocrnyer mnenne nrant-
xncxoro pomanncra Fapronn o rom, uro xstxn nnn ronopt, ynorpenxe-
mte na nepn]epnn anno reppnropnn, nocxr onee apxanuecxn xapax-
rep, uem xstxn nnn napeunx, ntcrynammne n nenrpe anno reppnropnn
(c. 30). Hcxox ns annoro npnnnnna, Fapronn cosan rax nastnaemte
nopmt, xacammnecx coornomennx xstxontx xnnenn n nx noxannsannn
na semnom mape. B ono ns raxnx nopm nponosrnamaercx npnnnnn, uro
nonannn onee mnorouncnennt na ncxonno reppnropnn sapoxennx
xstxa, uem na reppnropnn ero nocneymmero pacnpocrpanennx. B. Mant-
uax nouepxnnaer, uro raxoe mnenne ncera xasanoct emy nppannonant-
ntm. nx ntxcnennx ncrnnt B. Mantuax conocrannn nopmy Fapronn c
omnpntm nexcnuecxnm marepnanom cnonapx Buck A. A Dictionary of
Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages (+ror cno-
napt coepxnr +xnnnanenrt na narnncxom, ncnancxom, ]pannyscxom,
nrantxncxom n pymtncxom xstxax).
Honnt marepnan +xcnepnnn ns +roro cnonapx, npoanannsnponanntx
B. Mantuaxom, noxastnaer omnounocrt oomennx M. x. Fapronn o
rom, uro nepn]epnnte xstxn onee apxanunt, nexenn nenrpantnte:
Xorx n nepn]epnnom ncnancxom xstxe ontme apxansmon, uem n nen-
rpantnom ]pannyscxom, no nenrpantnt ]pannyscxn emoncrpnpyer
ontmee xonnuecrno apxansmon, uem nepn]epnnt pymtncxn xstx, a
nenrpantnt nrantxncxn xstx no xonnuecrny apxansmon npentmaer oa
nepn]epnntx xstxa: xax ncnancxn, rax n pymtncxn (c. 32). Btme-
ynomxnyrt M+*-1*M U$+%)3* noneprcx nepn]nxannn B. Mantuaxom na
rexcrax.
Tax, B. Mantuax conocrannn ]parmenr ns napono nartnn c ero
nrantxncxnm, ncnancxnm n pymtncxnm nepenoamn. Hpn +rom n +xcnep-
nnponanntx ]parmenrax ns Enanrennx onee ncero cxocrn c nartntm
(ro ecrt onee ncero apxansmon onapyxnnoct n nrantxncxom rexcre, a
111
nmenno, 320 (c. 32), sarem cneyer ncnancxn (256), a nanmenee raxontx
nmeercx n pymtncxom xstxe (98). H +ro orxptrne xnnxercx ouepentm
oxasarentcrnom roro, uro M. x. Fapronn ne npan n uro nepn]epnnte
onacrn ne xnnxmrcx onee xoncepnarnnntmn, nexenn nenrpantnte. B.
Mantuax yxastnaer, uro n cnoe xnnre or 1991 r. an nonym xnaccn]nxa-
nnm pomancxnx xstxon, cocrannennym na ocnone nx nexcnuecxnx cxocrn
n rexcrax. B +ro xnnre na +rnmonornuecxom marepnane noxasano, uro
nrantxncxn xstx xnnxercx onee apxanuntm, uem nepn]epnnte xstxn
ncnancxn n pymtncxn.
B. Mantuax nouepxnnaer, uro naroapx romy, uro nam nsnecren npa-
pomancxn xstx nartnt, moxer trt pemen nonpoc o rom, xaxo xstx
xnnxercx apxanuntm, a xaxo ne xnnxercx. Ha marepnane repmancxnx
xstxon nponepnrt aexnarnocrt M+*-1*M$ U$+%)3* cnoxnee, nocxontxy,
no-nepntx, cam M. x. Fapronn ne ntcxasan cnoero mnennx no nonoy
roro, xaxne ns repmancxnx xstxon cunrart nenrpantntmn, a xaxne nepn-
]epnntmn, a no-nroptx, nparepmancxn xstx ne sa]nxcnponan. Oue-
nnno, uro rorcxn xstx (sanncannt n IV nexe) tn nnxe x nparep-
mancxomy, uem conpemennte xstxn. B. Mantuax nonaraer, uro nenrpant-
ntm moxno tno t cunrart nnxnenemenxn nanexr, ecnn yuecrt, uro
na cenep or nero ntcrynamr cxannnancxne xstxn, a na sana ronnan-
cxn, ]pnscxn n anrnncxn. Hpn +rom nexcnuecxnx coornercrnn
mexy rorcxnm n nnxnenemenxnm tno 99, a mexy rorcxnm n mnecxnm
49, uro xnnxercx ouepentm oxasarentcrnom npornn yrnepxennx o
rom, uro xxot nepn]epnnte xstxn onee xoncepnarnnnt, uem nen-
rpantnte (c. 33). B. Mantuax ceryer na ro, uro sa nocnenne 40 ner ero
ntnot o omnounocrn mnennx Fapronn samanunnannct, ro ecrt, c o-
no cropont, nnxro ero ne noepxan, c pyro cropont nnxro ne
ncrynnn c nnm n ncxyccnm.
B rnane Ienesnc craponepxonnocnanxncxoro xstxa n 3orpa]cxoe
enanrenne B. Mantuax nn]opmnpyer o rom, uro n 2004 r. n nayunom
xypnane Rocznik Slawistyczny ntmna ero crartx, osarnannennax Cra-
ponepxonnocnanxncxn xstx ne ecrt crapoonrapcxn, cnaxennax
xommenrapnem pexonnernn xypnana o rom, uro em ne pasenxmrcx ns-
noxennte n crarte nsrnxt, nonemnxa c +rnmn nsrnxamn npenpnnxra
ne tna. B annom pasene B. Mantuax, npoonxnn paory no rexcrono-
my conocrannennm nexcem, nepexonr or conocrannennx pasenon Mapn-
nncxoro enanrennx x conocrannennm rex xe pasenon yxe na marepnane
3orpa]cxoro enanrennx. Hpn +rom nm conmannct, n uacrnocrn, nnxe-
cneymmne npnnnnnt: 1) npn conocrannennn anannsnponannct rontxo
cnona cnanxncxoro nponcxoxennx, 2) yunrtnannct nnmt cnona, nmem-
mne coornercrnnx no ncex anannsnpyemtx rexcrax, 3) pocrnenntmn
cunrannct cnona c onnm n rem xe xopnem, 4) ecnn xomnosnry n onom
112
xstxe coornercrnonann na cnona n pyrom xstxe, npnnnmannct no nnn-
manne oa xopnx xomnosnra, 5) ecnn xomnosnry nnn cpamennm n onom
xstxe coornercrnonan nnmt onn xopent n pyrom xstxe, anrop npnnn-
man no nnnmanne nnmt onn +ror xopent. Taxnm nyrem tn cocrannen
nepeuent nexcnuecxnx coornercrnn mexy crapocnanxncxnm rexcrom n
ero nepenoamn na conpemennte cnanxncxne xstxn c yxasannem uacror-
nocrn cnon n conocrannxemtx rexcrax (c. 39-84). B. Mantuax nouepxn-
naer, uro c rouxn spennx nexcnuecxnx cnxse co crapocnanxncxnm xst-
xom, onee ncero nx onapyxnnaercx n cepcxoxopnarcxom, menee n
cnonencxom, eme mentme n maxeoncxom n onrapcxom. On yxastnaer
na neoxonmocrt mnpoxo nayuno ncxyccnn no ocyxaemtm nm
nonpocam, rax xax nmenno n raxo armoc]epe moxer pasnnnartcx nayxa, n
orpnnarentnym pont orcyrcrnnx raxono n samanunnannx pesyntraron
paort xonner.
H n r e p a r y p a
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