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Heat Transfer Characteristics

in Cyclone Separator of a
Circulating Fluidized Bed
Unit
DR. P. MAHANTA
IIT GUWAHATI
2
What is a CIB??
CFB- A novel and
more efficient
combustion
technology for low
grade fuels
Offers wide fuel
flexibility, low
environmental
pollution, high
availability
3
Core-annulus structure
Voidage variation
4
In CFB the bed materials
are entrained in the gas
stream to form a refluxing
suspension
Intense gas-solids mixing
and good-solids contact
create an isothermal system
DETAILS OF A TYPICAL
CFB BOILER
Working Principle
5
Staged combustion
Coal occupies 5 to 10%
of the bed volume
Bed material stores up
energy
STAGED COMBUSTION
6
Fuel flexibility
Bed materials acts as a large thermal flywheel
High heat release rate
Efficient sulphur removal
S + O2 So
2
+ 9260 kJ/kg.
Caco
3
Cao + co
2
- 1830 kJ/kg. Caco
3
Cao + So
2
+ O
2
Caso
4
+ 15,141 kJ.
Low No
x
emission
Advantages of CIB
7
Works at II1 Guwahati
Design and development of a CFB
unit
To study the effect of various
operating parameters on axial and
radial distributions of heat transfer
coefficient in cyclone separator
Study on nano particle fluidzation
8
Scope of the Present Investigations
The outer skin temperature of the
cyclone is relatively high, entailing high-
energy losses by natural convection and
radiation
cyclones are made water or steam
cooled to enhance the capacity of boiler
9
Scope of the Present Investigations contd.
In the upper splash region of CFB due
to fully developed gas-solid flow better
solid-gas contacting takes place
Low solid concentration on upper splash
region reduces the erosion problem on
heat exchanging surfaces
10
Mechanism of heat transfer in CIB
Heat transfer to the walls of a CFB is due to the conduction from
clusters of particles falling along the wall, thermal radiation and
convection to uncovered surface area .
Fraction of the wall coverage by particles and the average
contact time of particles to the wall .
h = h
pc
+ h
gc
+ h
rad
= (1- f
o
) h
pc
+ f
o
h
gc
+ h
rad
Where f
o
: fraction of surface covered by gas bubbles.
dq = h (T
B
- T
W
) dA
11
Details of Set-up developed
12
13
Heat transfer probe
Details of Heat Transfer Probe
14
Cyclone Separator
15
U-Tube Manometers
Dimensions:
Height= 120 cm
Width=92 cm
No. of Tubes=16
Pitch= 4 cm
16
Air Ilow Measurement
17
Pressure Drop Measurement
18
Measurement of Solid Circulation Rate
19
Temperature measurement on
upper splash region
20
Temperature Measurement on Upper Splash region
21
Measurement of Mean particle size of sand
22
Experimental conditions
Bed Material: Sand
Mean particle size of sand: 271 m
Fluidizing velocity : 2.94.6 m/s
Solid circulation rate : 4-20 kg/m
2
s
Heat fluxes :
849.673 W/m
2
1593.137 W/m
2
Bed inventories:10 kg to 16 kg.
23
Working Formulae
Voidage ( )
P
b =
(1-
mf
). L
mf .
(
s
-
g
) . g

g
h
p
W
L
b
. )
100
(

=
S
L
L
h
.
. 10

=1-
: Difference of height in manometer
fluid, Cm of water.
L
h
Experimental Set-Up and Procedures Contd..
24
Suspension Density
g s sus
. ) 1 ( . + =
Superficial Velocity
p s m
p
=

72 . 1 /
0104 . 0
0179 . 0
U
o =
m/s
Solid Circulation Rate
t
L
mf a s
) 1 (
=
s
G
L
a :
Accumulation height, m
25
Measurement of Mean Particle Size of Sand
1
1
__
1
d
X
d
p

=
X
1
: weight fraction of solids of diameter d
1
26
Wall-to-bed local heat transfer coefficient
t
q
h

=
"
) (
B S ht
T T A
VI
h

=
A
ht
: Area of heat exchanging surface.
T
B
:Bed temperature
T
s
: surface temperature.
27
S1UD\ ON NANO PAR1ICLLS
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
Stage 4
Stage 5
Stage 6
Hydrodynamic Behavior
28
Axial voidage distribution
linear for low operating
conditions
decreases along the
cyclone height
increases for higher
gas velocities
Voidage variations along the
cyclone height
Heat Transfer and Hydrodynamic Study in Cyclone
+
I = 16 kg
Distance from the inlet of cyclone , m
V
o
i
d
a
g
e

f
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
q" = 771.895 w/m
2
Uo = 4.496 m/s
Uo = 3.881 m/s
Uo = 2.986 m/s
0.75
0.8
0.85
0.9
0.95
1
1.05
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8
29
I=10 kg
I=16 kg
Voidage variations along the cyclone height
Axial voidage distribution contd
+
Distance from the inlet of cyclone , m
V
o
i
d
a
g
e

f
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
Uo = 4.429 m/s, Gs = 15.97 kg/m2s
I = 10 kg q" = 771.892 w/m
2
Uo = 3.08 m/s, Gs=5.57 kg/m2s
Uo = 3.875 m/s, Gs =10.59 kg/m2s
0.84
0.86
0.88
0.9
0.92
0.94
0.96
0.98
1
1.02
1.04
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8
+
I = 16 kg
Distance from the inlet of cyclone , m
V
o
i
d
a
g
e

f
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
q" = 771.895 w/m
2
Uo = 4.496 m/s
Uo = 3.881 m/s
Uo = 2.986 m/s
0.75
0.8
0.85
0.9
0.95
1
1.05
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8
30
Suspension density profile
Uo = 3.875 m/s
Uo = 4.429 m/s
Uo = 3.084 m/s
I = 10 kg q" = 771.895 w/m
2
Distance from the inlet of cyclone , m
S
u
s
p
e
n
s
i
o
n

d
e
n
s
i
t
y
,

k
g
/
m
3
100
50
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8
I=10 kg
I=16 kg
Suspension density variations along the cyclone height
S
u
s
p
e
n
s
i
o
n

d
e
n
s
i
t
y
,

k
g
/
m
3
Distance from the inlet of cyclone , m
2
I = 16 kg q" = 771.895 w/m
Uo = 2.986 m/s
Uo = 3.881 m/s
Uo = 4.496 m/s
200
100
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8
31
Axial distribution of the local heat
transfer coefficient
Variations of local heat transfer coefficient along the
cyclone separator height
I=10 kg
s
2
2
s
Distance from the inlet of cyclone, m
I = 10 kg
2
k
L
o
c
a
l

h
e
a
t

t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
,

w
/
m
q" = 771.895 w/m
Uo = 3.875 m/s
Uo = 4.429 m/s
U o = 3.084 m/s
250
255
260
265
270
275
280
285
290
295
300
305
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
32
q" = 411.68 w/m2, Gs = 20.48 kg/m2s
q" = 771.985 w/m2, Gs = 20.53 kg/m2s+
L
o
c
a
l

h
e
a
t

t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
,

w
/
m
2
k
Distance from the inlet of cyclone , m
I = 16 kg Uo = 4.496 m/s
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
320
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
Variations of local heat transfer coefficient along the cyclone height
for different heat flux conditions
33
Radial distributions of the local heat
transfer coefficient
Uo = 3.084 m/s
Uo = 3.875 m/s
Uo = 4.429 m/s
Nondimensional distance across the cyclone width
k
2
L
o
c
a
l

h
e
a
t

t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r

c
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
,
w
/
m
I=10 kg, q"= 771.895 w/m
2
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
H=0.50 m
Radial distributions of heat transfer coefficient
I=10 kg
34
Uo = 3.084 m/s
Uo = 3.875 m/s
Uo = 4.429 m/s
Nondimensional distance across the cyclone width
k
2
L
o
c
a
l

h
e
a
t

t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r

c
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
,
w
/
m
I=10 kg, q"= 771.895 w/m
2
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
I = 13 kg q" = 771.895 w/m2 h = 0.50 m
Uo = 3.132 m/s, Gs = 8.23 kg/m2s
Uo = 3.913 m/s, Gs = 10.96 kg/m2s
Uo = 4.562 m/s, Gs = 18.03 kg/m2s
L
o
c
a
l

h
e
a
t

t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
,

w
/
m
2
k
Nondimensional distance across the cyclone width
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
I=10 kg
I=13 kg
H=0.50 m
Radial distributions of the local heat transfer coefficient contd..
Radial distributions of heat transfer coefficient
H=0.50 m
35
h = 0.10
h = 0.30
L
o
c
a
l

h
e
a
t

t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
,

w
/
m
2
k
Nondimensional distance across the cyclone width
I = 16 kg Uo = 4.562 m/s, Gs = 18.98 kg/m2s q" = 411.68 w/m2
h = 0.50
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Radial distributions of the local heat transfer coefficient contd..
Radial distributions of heat transfer coefficient
H=0.10 m
H=0.30 m
H=0.50 m
36
m
I = 13 kg
I = 16 kg
I = 10 kg
L
o
c
a
l

h
e
a
t

t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
,

w
/
m
2
k
Nondimensional distance across the cyclone width
h = 0.10 Uo = 4.429 m/s 4.562 m/s q" = 411.68 w/m2
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Radial distributions of the local heat transfer coefficient contd..
Radial distributions of heat transfer coefficient
I=10 kg
I=13 kg
I=16 kg
37
Lffect of gas superficial velocity
I = 16 kg
I = 13 kg
I = 10 kg
2
k
2
Gas superficial velocity, m/s
q" = 411.68 w/m
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

h
e
a
t

t
r
a
n
s
f
e
r

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
,

w
/
m
142
144
146
148
150
152
154
2.8 3 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4 4.2 4.4 4.6
Variation of average heat transfer coefficient with gas superficial velocity
I=13 kg
I=16 kg
I=10 kg
38
Suspension density profile
Uo = 4.429 m/s, Gs = 14.42 kg/m2s
Uo = 3.875 m/s, Gs = 6.23 kg/m2s
Uo = 3.084 m/s, Gs = 4.05 kg/m2s
Height above the distributor plate, m
I = 10 kg
S
u
s
p
e
n
s
i
o
n

d
e
n
s
i
t
y
,

k
g
/
m
q" = 1593.137 w/m
2
3
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2
Suspension density variations along the cyclone height
39
Conclusion
The axial and radial distribution profiles of the
heat transfer coefficient in the cyclone separator
and are consistent with the corresponding solids
concentration
The heat transfer coefficient in the cyclone is
found to be increasing with increase in the solid
loading as well as gas superficial velocity
At a certain distance from the entry of the
cyclone downstream along the height, the local
heat transfer coefficient is found to be maximum
40
Conclusion contd
On the upper splash zone of riser an increasing-
decreasing trend of local heat transfer coefficient
Heat transfer coefficient increases with solid
circulation rate
The heat transfer coefficient generally increases
with the solids holdup, but their relationship
experiences different trends under the different
operating conditions and at different cyclone and
riser locations
41