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# COTOTAL DOMINATION IN LINE GRAPHS

PAN FAROSH U. A.
1
, M. H. MUDDEBIHAL
2
& ANIL R. SEDAMKAR
3

1
Department of Mathematics, Anjuman Arts, Science and Commerce College, Bijapur, Karnataka, India
2
Department of Mathematics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarg, Karnataka, India
3
Department of Science, Government Polytechnic, Bijapur, Karnataka, India

ABSTRACT
A dominating set D of a line graph ( ) L G is a cototal dominating set if the induced subgraph ( ) ( )
V L G D has
no isolated vertices. The cototal domination number ( ) ( )
ct
L G is the minimum cardinality of a cototal dominating set of
( ) L G . In this paper, we study the graph theoretic properties of ( ) ( )
ct
L G and many bounds were obtained in terms of
elements of G. Also its relationship with other domination parameters were found.
KEYWORDS: Graph, Line Graph, Cototal Dominating Set, Cototal Domination Number
SUBJECT CLASSIFICATION NUMBER: AMS 05C69, 05C70.
INTRODUCTION
In this paper, we follow the notations of . All the graphs considered here are finite and simple. As usual
p V = and q E = denote the number of vertices and edges of a graph G, respectively.
In general, we use X ( ) to denote the subgraph induced by the set of vertices X and ( ) N v and | | N v denote the
open and closed neighborhoods of a vertex v , respectively.
The notation ( )
0
G b
( ) ( )
1
G b is the minimum number of vertices (edges) in a maximal independent set of vertex
(edge) of G . The notation ( )
0
G a
( ) ( )
1
G a is the minimum number of vertices (edges) in a vertex (edge) cover of G.
Let ( ) deg v is the degree of vertex v and as usual ( ) G d ( ( ) G D ) is the minimum (maximum) degree. A vertex of degree
one is called an end vertex. The degree of an edge e uv = of G is defined by deg deg deg 2 e u v = + and
( )
'
G d
( ) ( )
'
G D is the minimum (maximum) degree among the edges of G.
A line graph ( ) L G is the graph whose vertices correspond to the edges of Gand two vertices in ( ) L G are
adjacent if and only if the corresponding edges in Gare adjacent (that is, are incident with a common vertex).
We begin by recalling some standard definitions from domination theory.
A set ( ) S V G _ is said to be a dominating set of G, if every vertex in ( ) V S is adjacent to some vertex in S .
The minimum cardinality of vertices in such a set is called the domination number of G and is denoted by ( ) G .
A dominating set S is called total dominating set, if for every vertex v V e , there exists a vertex u S e , u v = such that
u is adjacent to v . The total domination number of G, denoted by ( )
t
G is the minimum cardinality of total dominating
International Journal of Mathematics and
Computer Applications Research (IJMCAR)
ISSN(P): 2249-6955; ISSN(E): 2249-8060
Vol. 4, Issue 1, Feb 2014, 1-8
TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.
2 Pan Farosh U. A., M. H. Muddebihal & Anil R. Sedamkar
set of G.
A set ( ) ( )
D V L G _ is said to be dominating set of ( ) L G , if every vertex not in D is adjacent to a vertex in D of
( ) L G . The domination number of ( ) L G is denoted by ( ) ( )
L G is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set.
The concept of domination in graphs with its many variations is now well studied in graph theory (see  and ).
A dominating set ( ) S V G _ is a cototal dominating set, if the induced subgraph V S has no isolated vertices.
The cototal domination number, ( )
ct
G of G is the minimum cardinality of a cototal dominating set of G. This concept
was introduced by Kulli et. al.,.
Analogously, a dominating set D of a line graph ( ) L G is a cototal dominating set if the induced subgraph
( ) ( )
V L G D has no isolated vertices. The cototal domination number ( ) ( )
ct
L G is the minimum cardinality of a
cototal dominating set of ( ) L G . In this paper, we study the graph theoretic properties of ( ) ( )
ct
L G and many bounds
were obtained in terms of elements of G. Also its relationship with other domination parameters were found.
RESULTS
Initially we begin with the following observation.
Observation 1: A cototal dominating set D of ( ) L G is minimal if and only if for every vertex v D e , one of the
following condition holds:
- There exists a vertex ( ) ( )
v V L G D e , such that ( ) { } N u D v = .
- v is an isolated vertex in D .
- v is an isolated vertex in ( ) ( ) ( ) { } V L G D v .
Now we give the cototal domination number of line graphs for some standard graphs, which are straight forward
in the following Theorem.
Theorem 1
For any cycle
p
C with 3 p > vertices,
( ) ( ) ct p
L C = 2
3
p
p
| |

|
\ .
for ( ) 0 mod3 p .
= 2
3
p
p
(

(

otherwise.
- For any star
1,n
K with 3 n > vertices,
( ) ( ) 1, ct n
L K = 1 .
- For any wheel
p
W with 3 p > vertices,
Cototal Domination in Line Graphs 3
=
3
1
3
p | |
+
|
\ .
for ( ) 0 mod3 p .
=
3
1
3
p (
+
(
(
otherwise.
- For any complete graph
p
K with pvertices,
( ) ( ) ct p
L K =
2
p
if pis even.
=
2
p (
(

if pis odd.
- For any complete bipartite graph
1 2
, p p
K with
1 2
p p p = + vertices,
( ) ( )
1 2
, ct p p
L K = { }
1 2
min , p p .
Theorem 2: If v be an end vertex of ( ) L G , then v is in every cototal dominating set of ( ) L G .
Proof: Let { } ( ) ( )
1 2
, ,...,
n
D v v v V L G = _ be the minimal cototal dominating set of ( ) L G . Suppose there exists a
vertex set ( ) ( )
1
D V L G D

_ be the
ct
- set of ( ) L G , assume there exists an end vertex ( ) ( )
v V L G e ,
1
v D

e . Now
consider any two vertices u and w such that
1
, u w D

e . Since
1
v D

## e , v is in every u w path in ( ) L G . Further,

since ( ) deg 1 v = , where ( ) ( )
v V L G e , it follows that the set { }
( )
{ }
' 1
, D D u w v

## = is also a minimal cototal dominating

set of ( ) L G . Clearly,
' 1
1 D D

## = = , a contradiction to the fact that

1
D

is also a
ct
- set of ( ) L G . Hence,
1
v D

e and
v is in every
ct
- set of ( ) L G .
Theorem 3: If every non end vertex of a tree T is adjacent to at least one end vertex, then ( ) ( )
ct
L T p m s ,
where mis the number of end vertices in T .
Proof: Let { }
1 2
, ,...,
m
A v v v = be the set of all end vertices in T with A m = . Suppose C V A _ be the set of all
non end vertices, then each block incident with the vertices of C gives a complete subgraph in ( ) L T . Further,
if ( ) deg 2 u > , ( ) ( )
u V L T e , then { } ( ) ( )
1 2
, ,...,
n
D u u u V L T = _ forms a
ct
- set of ( ) L T . Suppose there exists at least
one vertex ( ) ( )
x V L T D e , such that ( ) deg 1 x = , then the set { } D x forms a minimal cototal dominating set of ( ) L T .
Therefore, { } D x p A s . Clearly, it follows that ( ) ( )
ct
L T p m s .
The following Theorem relates cototal domination number and domination number in terms of vertices of G.
Theorem 4: For any connected ( ) , p q -graph G, ( ) ( ) ( )
ct
L G G p + s except for the path
4
P .
Proof: Suppose
4
G P ~ , then in this case, ( ) ( ) ( )
ct
L G G p + s . Hence we consider the graph
4
G P = . Now if
C= { } ( )
1 2
, ,...,
k
v v v V G _ be the set of vertices with ( ) deg 2 v > , v G e . Then there exists a minimal vertex set
4 Pan Farosh U. A., M. H. Muddebihal & Anil R. Sedamkar
'
C C _ , which covers all the vertices in G. clearly,
'
C forms a - set of G. Let { }
1 2
, ,...,
k
B e e e = be the set of all edges
which are incident to the vertices of
'
C . Now without loss of generality, ( ) ( )
B V L G _ . Suppose, { }
1 2
, ,...,
n
I u u u = be the
set of all end vertices in ( ) L G , then
1
D I B = , where
1
B B _ forms a minimal cototal dominating set of ( ) L G . Clearly,
'
D C p s and hence, ( ) ( ) ( )
ct
L G G p + s .
In the following Theorems we give lower bounds to cototal dominating set of line graph.
Theorem 5: For any connected ( ) , p q - graph G with 3 p > vertices, ( ) ( ) ( )
1
2
ct
L G q G o s + . Equality holds
for
3 4
, P P and
7
P .
Proof: Let { }
'
1 2
, ,...,
n
A e e e = be the set of all end edges. Suppose { } ( )
' '
1 1 2
, ,...,
k
A e e e E G A = _ be the set of
edges such that
( )
, 2
i j
dist e e > , 1 i n s s , 1 j k s s , then
'
A F , where
'
1
F A _ , be the minimal set of edges which
covers all the vertices in G such that ( )
'
1
A F G o = . Now since ( ) ( ) ( )
E G V L G = by definition of ( ) L G ,
let D = { }
'
1 2
, ,...,
m
v v v A F _ be the minimal set of vertices which covers all the vertices in ( ) L G . Suppose the
subgraph ( ) ( )
V L G D does not contain any isolated vertex, then D itself is a
ct
- set of ( ) L G . Otherwise, if there
exists a vertex ( ) ( )
v V L G D e such that ( ) deg 0 v = in the subgraph ( ) ( )
V L G D , then { }
1
D D v = forms a minimal
cototal dominating set of ( ) L G . Since every graph contains at least two edges, it follows that
1
D s
'
2 q A F + .
Therefore, ( ) ( ) ( )
1
2
ct
L G q G o s + .
Suppose
3
G P ~ or
4
P . Then in this case
'
1
2 A o = = , where
'
A covers all the vertices of G. Further, since
1
D q = , it follows that ( ) ( ) ( )
1
2
ct
L G q G o = + .
Suppose
7
G P ~ . Then in this case
'
1
4 D A = = . Clearly, it follows that
'
1
2 D q A = + . Therefore,
( ) ( )
ct
L G ( )
1
2 q G o = + .
Theorem 6: For any connected ( ) , p q - graph G, ( ) ( )
2
ct
p
L G
(
s
(
(
except for
4
P .
Proof: Suppose
4
G P ~ , then ( ) ( )
2
ct
p
L G s . Hence we consider the graph
4
G P = . Now without loss of
generality, let { } ( ) ( )
1 2
, ,...,
n
D u u u V L G = _ be the minimal cototal dominating set of ( ) L G . Suppose
( ) ( )
0 V L G D = , then the result follows immediately. Further, if ( ) ( )
2 V L G D > , then ( ) ( )
V L G D contains at
least two vertices such that 2n p < . Clearly, it follows that ( ) ( )
2
ct
p
L G n
(
= <
(
(
.
In the following Theorem we give upper bound to the cototal dominating set of a line graph.
Cototal Domination in Line Graphs 5
Theorem 7: For any connected ( ) , p q - graph G,
( )
( ) ( )
1
1
ct
q
L G
G

(
s +
(
A +
(
(
.
Proof: Let { } ( ) ( )
1 2
, ,...,
n
D v v v V L G = _ be the minimum set of vertices which covers all the vertices in ( ) L G .
Suppose the subgraph ( ) ( )
V L G D has no isolated vertex, then D itself is a
ct
-set of ( ) L G . Otherwise,
let H = { }
1 2
, ,...,
m
v v v ( ) ( )
V L G D _ be the set of vertices with ( ) deg 0
i
v = , 1 i m s s . Now make ( ) deg 1
i
v = by
adding vertices { } ( ) ( )
i
u V L G D _ and ( ) { }
i i
N v u e . Clearly, { }
1 i
D D H u _ forms a minimal cototal dominating
set of ( ) L G . Since for any graph G, there exists at least one vertex ( ) ( ) , deg v v G = A and ( ) ( )
q V L G = , it follows that,
( )
1
1
1
q
D
G
(
s +
(
A +
(
(
. Therefore,
( )
( ) ( )
1
1
ct
q
L G
G

(
s +
(
A +
(
(
.
The following Theorem relates domination number of G and cototal domination number of ( ) L G in terms of
vertices and diameter of G.
Theorem 8: For any connected ( ) , p q - graph G, ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
ct
L G diam G p G + s + .
Proof: Let { } ( )
1 2
, ,...,
n
J e e e E G = _ be the minimal set of edges which constitute the longest path between any
two distinct vertices ( ) , u v V G e such that ( ) ( ) , dist u v diam G = .Now, let { } ( )
1 2
, ,...,
n
C v v v V G = _ be the set of all non
end vertices in G. Then
'
C C _ forms a - set of G. Further, let { }
1 2
, ,...,
k
F e e e = be the set of edges which are
incident to the vertices of
'
C . Now in ( ) L G , suppose { } ( ) ( )
1 2
, ,...,
n
I u u u V L G = _ be the set of vertices with
( ) deg 1
i
u = , 1 i n s s . Then D =
'
I F , where { }
'
1 2
, ,...,
k
F u u u F = _ in ( ) L G corresponding to the edges of F ,
forms a cototal dominating set of ( ) L G . Clearly, it follows that ( )
'
, D dist u v p C s and
hence ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
ct
L G diam G p G + s + .
The following Theorem relates domination and cototal domination number of ( ) L G in terms of edges of a graph.
Theorem 9: For any connected ( ) , p q - graph G, ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
ct
L G L G q + s + .
Proof: Let
'
I be the set of vertices with ( ) deg 2
i
v > ,
'
i
v I e , 1 i n s s in ( ) L G . Further, let
{ }
' '
1 2 1
, ,...,
k
I v v v I = _ such that ( ) , 2 dist u v > . Then there exists a minimal set of vertices
' '
2
I I _ which covers all the
vertices in ( ) L G . Clearly,
'
2
I forms a - set of ( ) L G . Suppose the subgraph ( ) ( )
'
2
V L G I does not contain any
isolated vertex, then
'
2
I D = itself is a minimal cototal dominating set of ( ) L G . Otherwise, we consider the following two
cases.
Case 1: If ( ) L G contains end vertices. Then in this case, { }
1 2
, ,...,
m
I v v v = be the set of all end vertices.
Furthermore, let
'' '
I I _ be the set of vertices with ( ) , 2 dist x y > ,
''
, x I y I e e such that
''
I I D = covers all the
6 Pan Farosh U. A., M. H. Muddebihal & Anil R. Sedamkar
vertices in ( ) L G , and the subgraph ( ) ( )
V L G D does not contain any isolated vertex. Clearly, D is a
ct
- set of
( ) L G .
Case 2: If ( ) L G does not contain any end vertex. Then in this case, let
' ' '
1
I I _ and
( )
'' '
1 2
I N I e . Clearly,
' ' '
2 2
I I D = ,
' ' '
2
I I _ covers all the vertices in ( ) L G such that the induced subgraph ( ) ( )
V L G D has no isolated
vertex, hence D itself is a
ct
- set of ( ) L G . Since ( ) ( ) ( )
E G V L G = , D forms a minimal cototal dominating set of
( ) L G . Therefore, it follows that
'
2
1 D I q s + and hence ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
ct
L G L G q + s + .
The following Theorems relates total domination number of G and cototal domination number of ( ) L G .
Theorem 10: For any connected ( ) , p q - graph G, ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0 ct t
L G G G | s + .
Proof: Let { } ( )
1 2
, ,...,
m
K u u u V G = _ be the maximum set of vertices such that ( ) , 2 dist u v > and
( ) ( ) N u N v x = , , u v K e and ( ) x V G K e . Clearly, ( )
0
K G | = . Let { } ( )
1 2
, ,...,
i
S v v v V G K = _ , be the
minimal set of vertices which covers all the vertices in G. Suppose the subgraph S has no isolated vertices, then S
forms a
t
- set of G. Otherwise, there exists at least one vertex ( ) w N S e such that { } S w forms a minimal total
dominating set of G. Now by definition of ( ) L G , the edges which are incident with the vertices of S in G corresponds
to the set of vertices
'
S = { } ( ) ( )
1 2
, ,...,
m
v v v V L G _ .Let F be the set of vertices with ( ) deg 1 v = , v F e . Suppose,
{ }
'
1 2
, ,...,
j
I v v v S = _ be the set of vertices such that ( ) , 3 diam a b > , where , a F b I e e . Further, D F I = covers all
the vertices in ( ) L G . Then D forms a
ct
- set of ( ) L G . Otherwise, there exists a vertex ( ) ( ) z N F N I e such that
{ } D F I z = forms a minimal cototal dominating set of ( ) L G . Clearly, it follows that { } D S w K s and
hence ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0 ct t
L G G G | s + .
Theorem 11: For any connected ( ) , p q - graph G with 3 p > , ( ) ( ) ( ) 1
ct t
L G G p + s + . Equality holds
for
4 6 7 5
, , , P P P C .
Proof: Let S be the
t
- set of G. By the minimality for every vertex v S e , the induced subgraph S v
contains an isolated vertex. Let { }
1
: S v v S = e and A be the set of isolated vertices in
1
S ,
1
B S A = . Furthermore, let
C be the minimum set of vertices of
1
S S such that each vertex of A is adjacent to some vertex of C . Clearly, C A s .
Now, let { }
'
1
S S S C = and every
'
i i
u v S e , 1 i k s s , such that
( )
' '
t
S S = . Hence
'
S forms a smaller total
dominating set of G. Now without loss of generality, since ( ) ( ) ( ) V L G E G = , let { } ( ) ( )
1 2
, ,...,
n
F v v v V L G = _ be the
set of vertices corresponding to the edges which are incident to the vertices of
'
S in G. Let { }
1 2
, ,...,
m
D v v v F = _ such
that for every ( ) ( )
i
x V L G D e , there exists at least one neighbor ( ) ( )
i
y V L G D e where 1 i j s s , which covers all
the vertices in ( ) L G . This implies that
'
D S 1 p s + . Therefore, ( ) ( ) ( ) 1
ct t
L G G p + s + .
Cototal Domination in Line Graphs 7
Suppose
4 6
, G P P ~ . Then in this case, either
'
1,
2 2
p p
D S = + = or
'
, 1
2 2
p p
D S = = + . Therefore, in both
cases, ( ) ( ) ( ) 1
ct t
L G G p + = + .
Suppose
5 7
, G C P ~ . Then in this case,
'
2
p
F D
(
= =
(
(
. Clearly, we obtain, ( ) ( ) ( ) 1
ct t
L G G p + = + .
The following Theorem relates cototal domination number of graph and its line graph.
Theorem 12: For any connected ( ) , p q - graph G, ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1
ct ct
L G G p G o + s + + . Equality holds for
3
P .
Proof: Let ( ) v V G e such that ( ) ( ) deg v G o = and { } ( )
1 2
, ,...,
n
S v v v V G = _ be the minimal set of vertices
which covers all the vertices in G such that ( )
ct
S G = . Now without loss of generality, in ( ) L G , let
{ } ( ) ( )
1 2
, ,...,
k
D u u u V L G = _ be the minimum set of vertices such that for every ( ) x N u e where ( ) ( )
x V L G D e ,
u D e and ( ) N x | = in ( ) ( )
V L G D . Clearly, D forms a minimal cototal dominating set of ( ) L G . Therefore it follows
that ( ) 1 D S p G o s + + and hence ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1
ct ct
L G G p G o + s + + .
Suppose
3
G P ~ . Then in this case, ( ) S V G = and ( ) ( )
D V L G = . Since for any tree, ( ) 1 G o = , it follows
that ( ) 1 D S p G o = + + . Therefore, ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1
ct ct
L G G p G o + = + + .
Theorem 13: For any connected ( ) , p q - graph G,
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
'
'
1
ct
q
L G q G
G
o s s
A +
, except for path
with 4 p s vertices.
Proof: Let G be a graph with 5 p > vertices. Further, let ( ) e E G e with ( ) ( )
'
deg e G o = . Now by definition of
( ) L G , ( ) ( )
e u V L G = e and D be the cototal dominating set of ( ) L G such that ( )
lct
D G = . If ( )
'
2 G o s , then
( ) ( )
2 V L G > and ( ) ( )
2
ct
q L G > . Clearly, ( ) ( ) ( )
'
2
ct
L G q q G o s s . Suppose, ( )
'
2 G o > , then for any edge
( ) f N e e , ( ) f w N u = e , ( ) ( ) ( ) { } D V L G N u w _ and hence ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
'
1 1
ct
L G q G o s + + . Therefore, in any
case, ( ) ( )
ct
L G s ( )
'
q G o .
Now, since every vertex in ( ) ( )
V L G D is adjacent to at least one vertex of D . Hence each vertex in
( ) ( )
V L G D contributes at least one to the sum of the degrees of vertices of D and ( ) ( )
deg
i
i
v D
V L G D v
e
s

. And the
fact that for any edge ( ) e E G e and ( ) ( )
'
deg e G = A , we have
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
'
deg
ct ct
v D
q L G V L G D v L G G
e
= s s A

. Therefore,
( )
( ) ( )
'
1
ct
q
L G
G
s
A +
.
Finally, we give Nordhaus Gaddum type result.
Theorem 14: For any connected ( ) , p q - graph G,
8 Pan Farosh U. A., M. H. Muddebihal & Anil R. Sedamkar
- ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
ct ct
L G L G p + s + .
- ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
ct ct
p
L G L G
(
s
(
(
except for
4
P .
REFERENCES