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COTOTAL DOMINATION IN LINE GRAPHS

PAN FAROSH U. A.
1
, M. H. MUDDEBIHAL
2
& ANIL R. SEDAMKAR
3

1
Department of Mathematics, Anjuman Arts, Science and Commerce College, Bijapur, Karnataka, India
2
Department of Mathematics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarg, Karnataka, India
3
Department of Science, Government Polytechnic, Bijapur, Karnataka, India

ABSTRACT
A dominating set D of a line graph ( ) L G is a cototal dominating set if the induced subgraph ( ) ( )
V L G D has
no isolated vertices. The cototal domination number ( ) ( )
ct
L G is the minimum cardinality of a cototal dominating set of
( ) L G . In this paper, we study the graph theoretic properties of ( ) ( )
ct
L G and many bounds were obtained in terms of
elements of G. Also its relationship with other domination parameters were found.
KEYWORDS: Graph, Line Graph, Cototal Dominating Set, Cototal Domination Number
SUBJECT CLASSIFICATION NUMBER: AMS 05C69, 05C70.
INTRODUCTION
In this paper, we follow the notations of [1]. All the graphs considered here are finite and simple. As usual
p V = and q E = denote the number of vertices and edges of a graph G, respectively.
In general, we use X ( ) to denote the subgraph induced by the set of vertices X and ( ) N v and | | N v denote the
open and closed neighborhoods of a vertex v , respectively.
The notation ( )
0
G b
( ) ( )
1
G b is the minimum number of vertices (edges) in a maximal independent set of vertex
(edge) of G . The notation ( )
0
G a
( ) ( )
1
G a is the minimum number of vertices (edges) in a vertex (edge) cover of G.
Let ( ) deg v is the degree of vertex v and as usual ( ) G d ( ( ) G D ) is the minimum (maximum) degree. A vertex of degree
one is called an end vertex. The degree of an edge e uv = of G is defined by deg deg deg 2 e u v = + and
( )
'
G d
( ) ( )
'
G D is the minimum (maximum) degree among the edges of G.
A line graph ( ) L G is the graph whose vertices correspond to the edges of Gand two vertices in ( ) L G are
adjacent if and only if the corresponding edges in Gare adjacent (that is, are incident with a common vertex).
We begin by recalling some standard definitions from domination theory.
A set ( ) S V G _ is said to be a dominating set of G, if every vertex in ( ) V S is adjacent to some vertex in S .
The minimum cardinality of vertices in such a set is called the domination number of G and is denoted by ( ) G .
A dominating set S is called total dominating set, if for every vertex v V e , there exists a vertex u S e , u v = such that
u is adjacent to v . The total domination number of G, denoted by ( )
t
G is the minimum cardinality of total dominating
International Journal of Mathematics and
Computer Applications Research (IJMCAR)
ISSN(P): 2249-6955; ISSN(E): 2249-8060
Vol. 4, Issue 1, Feb 2014, 1-8
TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.
2 Pan Farosh U. A., M. H. Muddebihal & Anil R. Sedamkar
set of G.
A set ( ) ( )
D V L G _ is said to be dominating set of ( ) L G , if every vertex not in D is adjacent to a vertex in D of
( ) L G . The domination number of ( ) L G is denoted by ( ) ( )
L G is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set.
The concept of domination in graphs with its many variations is now well studied in graph theory (see [2] and [3]).
A dominating set ( ) S V G _ is a cototal dominating set, if the induced subgraph V S has no isolated vertices.
The cototal domination number, ( )
ct
G of G is the minimum cardinality of a cototal dominating set of G. This concept
was introduced by Kulli et. al.,[4].
Analogously, a dominating set D of a line graph ( ) L G is a cototal dominating set if the induced subgraph
( ) ( )
V L G D has no isolated vertices. The cototal domination number ( ) ( )
ct
L G is the minimum cardinality of a
cototal dominating set of ( ) L G . In this paper, we study the graph theoretic properties of ( ) ( )
ct
L G and many bounds
were obtained in terms of elements of G. Also its relationship with other domination parameters were found.
RESULTS
Initially we begin with the following observation.
Observation 1: A cototal dominating set D of ( ) L G is minimal if and only if for every vertex v D e , one of the
following condition holds:
- There exists a vertex ( ) ( )
v V L G D e , such that ( ) { } N u D v = .
- v is an isolated vertex in D .
- v is an isolated vertex in ( ) ( ) ( ) { } V L G D v .
Now we give the cototal domination number of line graphs for some standard graphs, which are straight forward
in the following Theorem.
Theorem 1
For any cycle
p
C with 3 p > vertices,
( ) ( ) ct p
L C = 2
3
p
p
| |

|
\ .
for ( ) 0 mod3 p .
= 2
3
p
p
(

(

otherwise.
- For any star
1,n
K with 3 n > vertices,
( ) ( ) 1, ct n
L K = 1 .
- For any wheel
p
W with 3 p > vertices,
Cototal Domination in Line Graphs 3
=
3
1
3
p | |
+
|
\ .
for ( ) 0 mod3 p .
=
3
1
3
p (
+
(
(
otherwise.
- For any complete graph
p
K with pvertices,
( ) ( ) ct p
L K =
2
p
if pis even.
=
2
p (
(

if pis odd.
- For any complete bipartite graph
1 2
, p p
K with
1 2
p p p = + vertices,
( ) ( )
1 2
, ct p p
L K = { }
1 2
min , p p .
Theorem 2: If v be an end vertex of ( ) L G , then v is in every cototal dominating set of ( ) L G .
Proof: Let { } ( ) ( )
1 2
, ,...,
n
D v v v V L G = _ be the minimal cototal dominating set of ( ) L G . Suppose there exists a
vertex set ( ) ( )
1
D V L G D

_ be the
ct
- set of ( ) L G , assume there exists an end vertex ( ) ( )
v V L G e ,
1
v D

e . Now
consider any two vertices u and w such that
1
, u w D

e . Since
1
v D

e , v is in every u w path in ( ) L G . Further,


since ( ) deg 1 v = , where ( ) ( )
v V L G e , it follows that the set { }
( )
{ }
' 1
, D D u w v

= is also a minimal cototal dominating


set of ( ) L G . Clearly,
' 1
1 D D

= = , a contradiction to the fact that


1
D

is also a
ct
- set of ( ) L G . Hence,
1
v D

e and
v is in every
ct
- set of ( ) L G .
Theorem 3: If every non end vertex of a tree T is adjacent to at least one end vertex, then ( ) ( )
ct
L T p m s ,
where mis the number of end vertices in T .
Proof: Let { }
1 2
, ,...,
m
A v v v = be the set of all end vertices in T with A m = . Suppose C V A _ be the set of all
non end vertices, then each block incident with the vertices of C gives a complete subgraph in ( ) L T . Further,
if ( ) deg 2 u > , ( ) ( )
u V L T e , then { } ( ) ( )
1 2
, ,...,
n
D u u u V L T = _ forms a
ct
- set of ( ) L T . Suppose there exists at least
one vertex ( ) ( )
x V L T D e , such that ( ) deg 1 x = , then the set { } D x forms a minimal cototal dominating set of ( ) L T .
Therefore, { } D x p A s . Clearly, it follows that ( ) ( )
ct
L T p m s .
The following Theorem relates cototal domination number and domination number in terms of vertices of G.
Theorem 4: For any connected ( ) , p q -graph G, ( ) ( ) ( )
ct
L G G p + s except for the path
4
P .
Proof: Suppose
4
G P ~ , then in this case, ( ) ( ) ( )
ct
L G G p + s . Hence we consider the graph
4
G P = . Now if
C= { } ( )
1 2
, ,...,
k
v v v V G _ be the set of vertices with ( ) deg 2 v > , v G e . Then there exists a minimal vertex set
4 Pan Farosh U. A., M. H. Muddebihal & Anil R. Sedamkar
'
C C _ , which covers all the vertices in G. clearly,
'
C forms a - set of G. Let { }
1 2
, ,...,
k
B e e e = be the set of all edges
which are incident to the vertices of
'
C . Now without loss of generality, ( ) ( )
B V L G _ . Suppose, { }
1 2
, ,...,
n
I u u u = be the
set of all end vertices in ( ) L G , then
1
D I B = , where
1
B B _ forms a minimal cototal dominating set of ( ) L G . Clearly,
'
D C p s and hence, ( ) ( ) ( )
ct
L G G p + s .
In the following Theorems we give lower bounds to cototal dominating set of line graph.
Theorem 5: For any connected ( ) , p q - graph G with 3 p > vertices, ( ) ( ) ( )
1
2
ct
L G q G o s + . Equality holds
for
3 4
, P P and
7
P .
Proof: Let { }
'
1 2
, ,...,
n
A e e e = be the set of all end edges. Suppose { } ( )
' '
1 1 2
, ,...,
k
A e e e E G A = _ be the set of
edges such that
( )
, 2
i j
dist e e > , 1 i n s s , 1 j k s s , then
'
A F , where
'
1
F A _ , be the minimal set of edges which
covers all the vertices in G such that ( )
'
1
A F G o = . Now since ( ) ( ) ( )
E G V L G = by definition of ( ) L G ,
let D = { }
'
1 2
, ,...,
m
v v v A F _ be the minimal set of vertices which covers all the vertices in ( ) L G . Suppose the
subgraph ( ) ( )
V L G D does not contain any isolated vertex, then D itself is a
ct
- set of ( ) L G . Otherwise, if there
exists a vertex ( ) ( )
v V L G D e such that ( ) deg 0 v = in the subgraph ( ) ( )
V L G D , then { }
1
D D v = forms a minimal
cototal dominating set of ( ) L G . Since every graph contains at least two edges, it follows that
1
D s
'
2 q A F + .
Therefore, ( ) ( ) ( )
1
2
ct
L G q G o s + .
Suppose
3
G P ~ or
4
P . Then in this case
'
1
2 A o = = , where
'
A covers all the vertices of G. Further, since
1
D q = , it follows that ( ) ( ) ( )
1
2
ct
L G q G o = + .
Suppose
7
G P ~ . Then in this case
'
1
4 D A = = . Clearly, it follows that
'
1
2 D q A = + . Therefore,
( ) ( )
ct
L G ( )
1
2 q G o = + .
Theorem 6: For any connected ( ) , p q - graph G, ( ) ( )
2
ct
p
L G
(
s
(
(
except for
4
P .
Proof: Suppose
4
G P ~ , then ( ) ( )
2
ct
p
L G s . Hence we consider the graph
4
G P = . Now without loss of
generality, let { } ( ) ( )
1 2
, ,...,
n
D u u u V L G = _ be the minimal cototal dominating set of ( ) L G . Suppose
( ) ( )
0 V L G D = , then the result follows immediately. Further, if ( ) ( )
2 V L G D > , then ( ) ( )
V L G D contains at
least two vertices such that 2n p < . Clearly, it follows that ( ) ( )
2
ct
p
L G n
(
= <
(
(
.
In the following Theorem we give upper bound to the cototal dominating set of a line graph.
Cototal Domination in Line Graphs 5
Theorem 7: For any connected ( ) , p q - graph G,
( )
( ) ( )
1
1
ct
q
L G
G

(
s +
(
A +
(
(
.
Proof: Let { } ( ) ( )
1 2
, ,...,
n
D v v v V L G = _ be the minimum set of vertices which covers all the vertices in ( ) L G .
Suppose the subgraph ( ) ( )
V L G D has no isolated vertex, then D itself is a
ct
-set of ( ) L G . Otherwise,
let H = { }
1 2
, ,...,
m
v v v ( ) ( )
V L G D _ be the set of vertices with ( ) deg 0
i
v = , 1 i m s s . Now make ( ) deg 1
i
v = by
adding vertices { } ( ) ( )
i
u V L G D _ and ( ) { }
i i
N v u e . Clearly, { }
1 i
D D H u _ forms a minimal cototal dominating
set of ( ) L G . Since for any graph G, there exists at least one vertex ( ) ( ) , deg v v G = A and ( ) ( )
q V L G = , it follows that,
( )
1
1
1
q
D
G
(
s +
(
A +
(
(
. Therefore,
( )
( ) ( )
1
1
ct
q
L G
G

(
s +
(
A +
(
(
.
The following Theorem relates domination number of G and cototal domination number of ( ) L G in terms of
vertices and diameter of G.
Theorem 8: For any connected ( ) , p q - graph G, ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
ct
L G diam G p G + s + .
Proof: Let { } ( )
1 2
, ,...,
n
J e e e E G = _ be the minimal set of edges which constitute the longest path between any
two distinct vertices ( ) , u v V G e such that ( ) ( ) , dist u v diam G = .Now, let { } ( )
1 2
, ,...,
n
C v v v V G = _ be the set of all non
end vertices in G. Then
'
C C _ forms a - set of G. Further, let { }
1 2
, ,...,
k
F e e e = be the set of edges which are
incident to the vertices of
'
C . Now in ( ) L G , suppose { } ( ) ( )
1 2
, ,...,
n
I u u u V L G = _ be the set of vertices with
( ) deg 1
i
u = , 1 i n s s . Then D =
'
I F , where { }
'
1 2
, ,...,
k
F u u u F = _ in ( ) L G corresponding to the edges of F ,
forms a cototal dominating set of ( ) L G . Clearly, it follows that ( )
'
, D dist u v p C s and
hence ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
ct
L G diam G p G + s + .
The following Theorem relates domination and cototal domination number of ( ) L G in terms of edges of a graph.
Theorem 9: For any connected ( ) , p q - graph G, ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
ct
L G L G q + s + .
Proof: Let
'
I be the set of vertices with ( ) deg 2
i
v > ,
'
i
v I e , 1 i n s s in ( ) L G . Further, let
{ }
' '
1 2 1
, ,...,
k
I v v v I = _ such that ( ) , 2 dist u v > . Then there exists a minimal set of vertices
' '
2
I I _ which covers all the
vertices in ( ) L G . Clearly,
'
2
I forms a - set of ( ) L G . Suppose the subgraph ( ) ( )
'
2
V L G I does not contain any
isolated vertex, then
'
2
I D = itself is a minimal cototal dominating set of ( ) L G . Otherwise, we consider the following two
cases.
Case 1: If ( ) L G contains end vertices. Then in this case, { }
1 2
, ,...,
m
I v v v = be the set of all end vertices.
Furthermore, let
'' '
I I _ be the set of vertices with ( ) , 2 dist x y > ,
''
, x I y I e e such that
''
I I D = covers all the
6 Pan Farosh U. A., M. H. Muddebihal & Anil R. Sedamkar
vertices in ( ) L G , and the subgraph ( ) ( )
V L G D does not contain any isolated vertex. Clearly, D is a
ct
- set of
( ) L G .
Case 2: If ( ) L G does not contain any end vertex. Then in this case, let
' ' '
1
I I _ and
( )
'' '
1 2
I N I e . Clearly,
' ' '
2 2
I I D = ,
' ' '
2
I I _ covers all the vertices in ( ) L G such that the induced subgraph ( ) ( )
V L G D has no isolated
vertex, hence D itself is a
ct
- set of ( ) L G . Since ( ) ( ) ( )
E G V L G = , D forms a minimal cototal dominating set of
( ) L G . Therefore, it follows that
'
2
1 D I q s + and hence ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
ct
L G L G q + s + .
The following Theorems relates total domination number of G and cototal domination number of ( ) L G .
Theorem 10: For any connected ( ) , p q - graph G, ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0 ct t
L G G G | s + .
Proof: Let { } ( )
1 2
, ,...,
m
K u u u V G = _ be the maximum set of vertices such that ( ) , 2 dist u v > and
( ) ( ) N u N v x = , , u v K e and ( ) x V G K e . Clearly, ( )
0
K G | = . Let { } ( )
1 2
, ,...,
i
S v v v V G K = _ , be the
minimal set of vertices which covers all the vertices in G. Suppose the subgraph S has no isolated vertices, then S
forms a
t
- set of G. Otherwise, there exists at least one vertex ( ) w N S e such that { } S w forms a minimal total
dominating set of G. Now by definition of ( ) L G , the edges which are incident with the vertices of S in G corresponds
to the set of vertices
'
S = { } ( ) ( )
1 2
, ,...,
m
v v v V L G _ .Let F be the set of vertices with ( ) deg 1 v = , v F e . Suppose,
{ }
'
1 2
, ,...,
j
I v v v S = _ be the set of vertices such that ( ) , 3 diam a b > , where , a F b I e e . Further, D F I = covers all
the vertices in ( ) L G . Then D forms a
ct
- set of ( ) L G . Otherwise, there exists a vertex ( ) ( ) z N F N I e such that
{ } D F I z = forms a minimal cototal dominating set of ( ) L G . Clearly, it follows that { } D S w K s and
hence ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0 ct t
L G G G | s + .
Theorem 11: For any connected ( ) , p q - graph G with 3 p > , ( ) ( ) ( ) 1
ct t
L G G p + s + . Equality holds
for
4 6 7 5
, , , P P P C .
Proof: Let S be the
t
- set of G. By the minimality for every vertex v S e , the induced subgraph S v
contains an isolated vertex. Let { }
1
: S v v S = e and A be the set of isolated vertices in
1
S ,
1
B S A = . Furthermore, let
C be the minimum set of vertices of
1
S S such that each vertex of A is adjacent to some vertex of C . Clearly, C A s .
Now, let { }
'
1
S S S C = and every
'
i i
u v S e , 1 i k s s , such that
( )
' '
t
S S = . Hence
'
S forms a smaller total
dominating set of G. Now without loss of generality, since ( ) ( ) ( ) V L G E G = , let { } ( ) ( )
1 2
, ,...,
n
F v v v V L G = _ be the
set of vertices corresponding to the edges which are incident to the vertices of
'
S in G. Let { }
1 2
, ,...,
m
D v v v F = _ such
that for every ( ) ( )
i
x V L G D e , there exists at least one neighbor ( ) ( )
i
y V L G D e where 1 i j s s , which covers all
the vertices in ( ) L G . This implies that
'
D S 1 p s + . Therefore, ( ) ( ) ( ) 1
ct t
L G G p + s + .
Cototal Domination in Line Graphs 7
Suppose
4 6
, G P P ~ . Then in this case, either
'
1,
2 2
p p
D S = + = or
'
, 1
2 2
p p
D S = = + . Therefore, in both
cases, ( ) ( ) ( ) 1
ct t
L G G p + = + .
Suppose
5 7
, G C P ~ . Then in this case,
'
2
p
F D
(
= =
(
(
. Clearly, we obtain, ( ) ( ) ( ) 1
ct t
L G G p + = + .
The following Theorem relates cototal domination number of graph and its line graph.
Theorem 12: For any connected ( ) , p q - graph G, ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1
ct ct
L G G p G o + s + + . Equality holds for
3
P .
Proof: Let ( ) v V G e such that ( ) ( ) deg v G o = and { } ( )
1 2
, ,...,
n
S v v v V G = _ be the minimal set of vertices
which covers all the vertices in G such that ( )
ct
S G = . Now without loss of generality, in ( ) L G , let
{ } ( ) ( )
1 2
, ,...,
k
D u u u V L G = _ be the minimum set of vertices such that for every ( ) x N u e where ( ) ( )
x V L G D e ,
u D e and ( ) N x | = in ( ) ( )
V L G D . Clearly, D forms a minimal cototal dominating set of ( ) L G . Therefore it follows
that ( ) 1 D S p G o s + + and hence ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1
ct ct
L G G p G o + s + + .
Suppose
3
G P ~ . Then in this case, ( ) S V G = and ( ) ( )
D V L G = . Since for any tree, ( ) 1 G o = , it follows
that ( ) 1 D S p G o = + + . Therefore, ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1
ct ct
L G G p G o + = + + .
Theorem 13: For any connected ( ) , p q - graph G,
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
'
'
1
ct
q
L G q G
G
o s s
A +
, except for path
with 4 p s vertices.
Proof: Let G be a graph with 5 p > vertices. Further, let ( ) e E G e with ( ) ( )
'
deg e G o = . Now by definition of
( ) L G , ( ) ( )
e u V L G = e and D be the cototal dominating set of ( ) L G such that ( )
lct
D G = . If ( )
'
2 G o s , then
( ) ( )
2 V L G > and ( ) ( )
2
ct
q L G > . Clearly, ( ) ( ) ( )
'
2
ct
L G q q G o s s . Suppose, ( )
'
2 G o > , then for any edge
( ) f N e e , ( ) f w N u = e , ( ) ( ) ( ) { } D V L G N u w _ and hence ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
'
1 1
ct
L G q G o s + + . Therefore, in any
case, ( ) ( )
ct
L G s ( )
'
q G o .
Now, since every vertex in ( ) ( )
V L G D is adjacent to at least one vertex of D . Hence each vertex in
( ) ( )
V L G D contributes at least one to the sum of the degrees of vertices of D and ( ) ( )
deg
i
i
v D
V L G D v
e
s

. And the
fact that for any edge ( ) e E G e and ( ) ( )
'
deg e G = A , we have
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
'
deg
ct ct
v D
q L G V L G D v L G G
e
= s s A

. Therefore,
( )
( ) ( )
'
1
ct
q
L G
G
s
A +
.
Finally, we give Nordhaus Gaddum type result.
Theorem 14: For any connected ( ) , p q - graph G,
8 Pan Farosh U. A., M. H. Muddebihal & Anil R. Sedamkar
- ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
ct ct
L G L G p + s + .
- ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
ct ct
p
L G L G
(
s
(
(
except for
4
P .
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2. T. W. Haynes, S. T. Hedetniemi and P. J. Slater, (1998), Fundamentals of domination in graphs, New York,
Marcel Dekker, Inc.
3. T. W. Haynes, S. T. Hedetniemi and P. J. Slater, (1999), Domination in graphs, Advanced Topics, New York,
Marcel Dekker, Inc.
4. V. R. Kulli, B. Janakiram and R. R. Iyer, (1999), The cototal domination number of a graph, J. Disc. Math. Sci.
and Cry, 2, 179 184.