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Sensor

N VENKAIAH
N. VENKAIAH Lecturer
Mechanical Engineering Department
NIT Warangal 506 004

Why Sensors?
Sensors and actuators are two
critical components of ever y
closed loop control system
(mechatronics system ).

A sensing unit can be as simple


as a single sensor or can consist
of additional compon ents such as
filters, amplifiers, modulators, and
other signal conditioners.
A typical mechatronic system
The controller accepts the
information from the sensing unit
information from the sensing unit, makes decisions based on the
control algorithm, and outputs
commands to the actuating unit.

The actuating unit consists of an


actuator and optionally a po wer
supply and a coupling mechanism.

1
Sensor vs Transducer
Sensor is a device that when exposed to a physical phenomenon
(temperature, displacement, force, etc.) produces a proportional
output
p g signal
(, , g,) (electrical, mechanical, magnetic, etc.).

Transducer is a device that converts one form of energy into


another form of energy.

Thermocouple - Sensor or Transducer?

"Both!"

Actuators

A typical actuating unit

Actuators are the muscle behind a mechatronics system

Accept a control command and produces a change in the physical


system.

Actuators are used in conjunction with the power supply and a


coupling mechanism

2
Characteristics
Characteristics o
f Actuators
Sensors and

Range & Span


Range : Limits between which the input can vary.

Span : Difference between max. and min. values of input

If the lowest point


p g pof calibration is X units and the highest point of calibration
is Y units and the calibration is continuous between these two points, then

Range = X to Y units

800 o c
Span = (Y-X) 700 o c
units 600 o c Range = 300 to 800 o c
500 o c Span = 800 – 300 = 500 o c
200 o c 300 400 o c
300 o cc

250 o c
150 o c Range = 50 to 200 o c 200 o c
Span = 200 – 50 = 150 o c 150 o c Range = 0 to 250 o c
100 o c
Span = 250 – 0 = 250 o c
50 o c
50 o c
0o c

Example 1 Example 2 6

3
Sensitivity
Ability of a measuring device to detect small
differences in a quantity being measured.

Ratio of the output per unit input 1


for m1
2

3
for m
4 2
5 kg

Ratio of the linear movement of the pointer


on the instrument scale to the change in the
value of the measured variable causing this
motion m

xxcm
==kg
Sensitivity cm
()kg()
mm--
2 1 21
mm
7

Sensitivity contd…
xxcm
== kg
Sensitivity cm
()kg()
mm --
21 2 1
mm

= slope
Input (mass)

If response is linear, slope remains


constant throughout.

1f
Sensitivityyp
is same at all inputs 0

fo r m
1 1
2
3
f or m
2
4
Length of the scale 5kg
Sensitivity = Span of the instrument

15 cm
= = 3 cm
kg 5 kg
m
8

4
Sensitivity contd…

Input (mass)

If response is non-linear, slope varies from point to point.

Therefore, sensitivity is different at different inputs

If the movement of the pointer is angular, sensitivity is expressed in


terms of degrees or radians of the angle per unit change in input

In digital instruments, the term scale factor is used instead of sensitivity

Threshold & Resolution


Threshold is the min. input which produces a small but definite change
in output when the input is increased gradually from a ‘ zero’ value.

Resolution is the min. input which produces a small but definite change
in output when the input is increased gradually from a ‘ non-zero ’ value.

Moral : However sophisticated the transducer may be, it can’t be used to


indicate an input less than its resolution

5
Hysteresis
Hysteresis represents the history
dependence of physical systems

A sensor is said to exhibit hysteresis


y
when there is a difference in output Error
depending on whether the value of
measurand is approached from below
or above
O
Measurand
Hysteresis = R -R
2 1

Causes

a. Mechanical friction

b. Elastic deformation

c. Thermal effects

d. Magnetic effects Input = 100 V

Accuracy
Degree to which the measured value agrees with the true value

In other words, it ,indicates


p the deviation of the output from the
known input

Accuracy or error = R-
I

As (R-I) decreases, error decreases


but
accuracy increases and vice-versa R

Mhd
Methods to express accuracy
1. As a % of
F.S.R
2. As a % of known
I/P I

6
Accuracy contd…
Case -1

Let the F.S.R be 200 V


Let the F.S.R be 200 V
Accuracy as specified by the manufacturer be ±1%

It means that,
R-I
Accuracy = 100 = ±1%
F.S.R
±1×200
R-I =
100
= ±2 V

If R =100 V at an instant, then 98 < I < 102


If R = 50 V, 48 < I
<52
Moral : Error remains the same throughout the range.

Accuracy contd…
Case -2
R-I
Accuracy = 100 = ±1%
I
As I and R are close to each other,, for
, ypthe
y sake of evaluation, I in denominator may be replaced by
R
R-I 100 = ±1%
R

Let at an instant R be equal to 100


V ±1×R ±1×100= ±1 V
R-I = 100 =
100
I=100 ±1V = 99 V - 101 V

Let R=50,
1
R-I= ±=±
0.5
2
I= 50 ±=
0.5 49.5V - 50.5 V
Moral : As reading decreases, error also decreases. This characteristic is against
the known tendency of instruments which exhibit higher errors at lower
readings

7
Precision (Reproducibility)
Ability of an instrument to reproduce certain reading with a given
accuracy.

Degree of agreement among repeated results


Degree of agreement among repeated results
Maximum deviation of the readings from the mean, expressed as a
percentage of F.S.R

V-V
Precision = 100 %
maxa
F.S.R
Conditions
Same measurement procedure
Same observer
Same measuring instrument, used under same conditions
Same location
Repetition over a short period of time.

Accuracy Vs Precision
A Famous Example
Neither Precise Nor Accurate

This is a random like pattern,


p
neither precise nor accurate.
The darts are not clustered
together and are not near the
bull's eye.

Precise, Not Accurate

This is a precise pattern, but not


accurate. The darts are
clustered together but did not hit
the intended mark.

16

8
Accurate, Not Precise

This is an accurate pattern, but not


precise. The darts are not
clustered, but their 'average'
position is the center of the bull's
eye.

Accurate and Precise

This pattern is both precise and


accurate. The darts are tightly
clustered and their average
position is the center of the bull's
eye.

17

Another Example

AB

Input = 100 V Input = 100 V


Readings: 103, 105, 104, 105, 103 V Readings: 99, 102, 98, 100, 101 V
F.S.R = 200
V
Va = 104 V,m a x = 105 V,m in = 103 V V a
= 100 V,m a x = 102 V,m in = 98 V
V V V V
5V ± ×±
Accuracy = 100 = 2.5%× 2 V Accuracy = 100 = 1%
200 V 200 V

± 1×±V2 V ± ×±
Precision = 100 = 0.5% Precision = 100 = 1%
200 V 200 V

9
Stability
Ability to give same output when used to measure a
constant input over a period of time.

Change in output over time is termed as drift

Linearity
Maximum deviation from a ‘straight-line’ response

Normally expressed as a percentage of the full-


scale value
scale value

10
Nonlinearities
Linear systems have the property of superposition

Input Response (output)


AA ’
BB ’
C (A+B) C ’ (A’+ B’)

Many real systems will exhibit linear or nearly linear behavior over
Many real systems will exhibit linear orsome
nearly linear
range behavior over
of operation. Therefore, linear system analysis is correct,
at least over this portion of a system’s operating envelope.

Unfortunately, most real systems have nonlinearities that cause them


to operate outside this linear region, and many common assumptions
about system behavior, such as superposition, no longer apply.

Various Nonlinearities
Static (Coulomb) Friction

Eccentricity

Backlash

Saturation

Deadband

11
Static (Coulomb) Friction

Static friction has two primary effects on mechatronic systems

1. Some of the actuator torque or force is wasted in overcoming


frictional forces, which leads to inefficiency from an energy
viewpoint.

2. Loss of repeatability in mechatronic systems

Eccentricity

Gear eccentricity
The true center of the gears pitch circle and the center of
rotation will be separated by a small amount, known as the
eccentricity. Small tooth-to-tooth errors can also cause local
variations in the pitch circle radius.

Eccentricity causes the mating gears, pulleys and chain drives to


have nonlinear geometrical relationship between them

Eccentricity impacts the accuracy of position measurements

12
Backlash
If two gears are not mounted on a
center-to-center distance that exactly
matches the sum of the pitch radii,
there will be a small clearance or
there will be a small clearance, or backlash, between the teeth.

Gear backlash is just one of many


phenomena that can be characterized Gear backlash
as hysteresis

Backlash exhibits effects similar to those for eccentricity, i.e., a


loss of repeatability, particularly when approaching a measured
point from different directions.

The gear backlash problem is so prevalent and potentially harmful


that many manufacturers go to great lengths to minimize the effect:

Backlash
How to minimize backlash?

• Gears mounted closer together than the


theoretically ideal spacing,

• Split “anti-backlash” gears that are spring


loaded to force teeth to maintain engagement
at all times,

• External spring-loaded mounts for one of the


gears to force engagement, or

13
Saturation

All real actuators have some


maximum output capability
maximum output capability

Input beyond a certain value does


not cause any change in output

This type of nonlinearity must be considered in mechatronic


control system design, since maximum velocity and force or torque
limitations affect system performance.

Control systems modeled with linear system theory must be


carefully tested or analyzed to determine the impact of saturation
on system performance.

Deadband and Deadtime


Deadband or deadspace of a transducer is the range of input
values for which there is no output.

Deadtime is the length of time from the application of an input


until the output begins to respond and change

Thermostat deadband

14
Sensors - Classification
By their measurement objective

Position: Linear/Rotational sensors


Proximity sensors
Acceleration sensors
Force, torque sensors
Pressure sensors
Flow sensors
Temperature sensors
Temperature sensors Light sensors
Smart material sensors
Micro and nano-sensors

Position
Sensors

15
LVDT

Transformer

16
Transformer
The trans former so defined is a tightly coupled transformer (all
flux links both coils)

Loosely coupled transformers


Loosely coupled transformers
Only part of the flux produced by one coil links the second coil

The magnetic path is said to be open

These are more often used in sensors

Constructional Details
A primary winding center ed between a pair of identically wound
secondary windings, symmetrically spaced about the primary

The moving element is a separate tubular armature of magnetically


permeable material called the core, which is free to move axially within
the coil's hollow bore and mechan ically coupled to the object whose
position is being measured.

17
Working Principle
Arm atu re
(I ro n co re )

E1

E E
in in
E E = E -E
ou t ou t 1 2
E2

Tr an sfo rme r
Tr an sfo rme r

Voltage is proportional to the core displacement

Displacement of core, D = MEou t

Linear Variable Differential Transformer

18
LVDT - Application

41

Resistive Potentiometer
Resistance of an electrical conductor
L
R = Where,
A
= Resistivity
iii (h ) (ohms-m)
L = Length of conductor, m
A = Cross-sectional area of conductor, m 2

Potentiometer Valve Position Indicator


42

19
Capacitance
Capacitance: the ratio between charge and potential of a body

C =Q C coulombs/volt (or farad, F)


V
V
V
V
Capacitance is only defined for two conducting bodies, across
which the potential difference is connected.
Body B is charged by the battery to a positive charge Q and body
A to an equal but negative charge –Q.
Any two conducting bodies, regardless of size and distance
between them have a capacitance
between them have a capacitance.

43

Capacitive Transducer
Plates/Electrodes
Capacitance of a capacitor is given by

e
r
A
C d= ee farads
0 r d

C
where
e = Permittivity of vacuum = 8.854x10 F/m
-12
0

e = Dielectric constant of the medium between the plates


r

Am= Overlapping area between plates, 2

dm= Distance between the plates,

44

20
Capacitance Transducer

Measurement of changes in capacitance enables the estimation of d, A,


and er through suitable calibration

Capacitance may be measured using a capacitance bridge

Capacitance bridge expresses the capacitance changes in terms of


capacitance impedance Z in ohms.

1
Z =
fc 2p

where
f = frequency, Hz
c = capacitance, farads

45

Sensors - Classification
By their measurement objective

Position: Linear/Rotational sensors


Proximity sensors
Acceleration sensors
Force, torque and pressure sensors
Flow sensors
Temperature sensors
Light sensors
Light sensors
Smart material sensors
Micro and nano-sensors

21
Proximity Sensors

Proximity Sensors

22
Proximity Switches
Mechanical limit switches

Often called “microswitches”


Often called microswitches
Activation causes electrical contacts to either “break”
(“normally closed” or NC switch) or “make”
(“normally open” or NO switch) or both NC and NO

Switch Contact Configurations

23
Standard Basic Switches

Capacitive Proximity Sensor


Metallic and non-metallic objects can be sensed

Produces electrostatic field

Max. sensing distance: up to tens of cm

24
Capacitive Proximity Sensor cont’d…
Construction & Operation
Typically, a hollow cylindrical conductor forms one plate of the sensor
The second plate of the sensor is a disk at the opening of the cylinder.
When an object nears the sensing surface it enters the electrostatic field of
the electrodes and changes the capacitance in an oscillator circuit. As a
result, the oscillator begins oscillating. The trigger circuit reads the
oscillator ’s amplitude and when it reaches a specific level, the output state
of the sensor changes. As the target moves away from the sensor the
oscillator ’s amplitude decreases, switching the sensor output back to its
original state.

Capacitive Proximity Sensor cont’d…


Dielectric Constants

The larger the dielectric number of a material the easier it is to detect.

25
Capacitive Proximity Sensor cont’d…

Relationship of the dielectric constant of a target and the sensor’s


ability to detect the target

Rated sensing distance,

Capacitive Proximity Sensor cont’d…


Detection through Barriers

Water has a much higher dielectric


gp constant than that of plastic.
This gives the sensor the ability to “see through” the plastic and
detect the water.

26
Capacitive Proximity Sensor cont’d…

Size Does Matter!

• Dimensions
Dimensionsof the
of the
sensor
sensor
makes
makes
a big
a big
difference
difference
in span
in span
andand
sensitivity

• Large diameter sensors will have a larger span while small


diameter sensor will have a shorter span

Capacitive Proximity Sensor cont’d…


Commercial Capacitive Sensors

27
Inductive Proximity Sensor
Metallic objects (best with ferrous metals)

Oscillation amplitude changes

Robust

Max. distance 5 –15 mm

Inductance
Two types of inductance:

1. Self inductance: the ratio of the flux produced by a circuit (a


conductor
dt il) i or
it lfa dcoil)
th tin
th itself
t d it and thecurrent that produces it.
Usually denoted as Li .
i

2. Mutual inductance: the ratio of the flux produced by circuit i in


circuit j and the current in circuit i that produced it.
Denoted as Mi .
j

A mutual inductance exists between any two circuits as long as


A mutual inductance exists between any two circuits
there is as long as field (flux) that couples the two.
a magnetic

This coupling can be large (tightly coupled circuits) or small


(loosely coupled circuits).

28
Inductive Proximity Sensor
cont’d…
Inductive proximity sensor contains:
At the very least a coil (inductor)
Gt ti fi ld
Generates a magnetic field

Operation

As the sensor gets closer to the sensed surface the inductance


of the coil increases if the sensed surface is ferromagnetic

It is then sufficient to use a means of measuring this


inductance to infer proximity and position

Practical Construction of
Inductive Sensors

29
Eddy Current Sensor
Many inductive proximity sensors are of eddy current type.

If there is a metal object in close proximity to this alternating field,


then eddy currents are induced in it
then eddy currents are induced in it.
The eddy currents themselves produce a magnetic field. This field
distorts the original magnetic field.

As a result, the impedance of the coil changes (Z=R+j Lto


Z’=R’+j L’) and so the amplitude of the alternating current.

At some preset level, this change can be used to trigger a switch.

Used for detection of non-magnetic but conductive materials

Inductive Sensors

30
Eddy Current Sensors

Ultrasonic Proximity Sensor


Works on reflection of ultrasound

Cover long distances (several meters) compared to other prox. sensors


Cover long distances (several meters) compared to other prox. sensors
Sensitive to almost all surfaces

Used mainly for distance measurements

31
Ultrasonic Proximity Sensor
cont’d…
Operation
A high frequency voltage is applied to a disk, causing it to
vibrate at the same frequency.
The vibrating disk produces high-frequency sound waves.
When transmitted pulses strike a sound-reflecting object, echoes
are produced.
The duration of the reflected pulse is evaluated at the transducer.

Ultrasonic Proximity Sensor


cont’d…
Operation
The emitted pulse is actually a set of 30 pulses at an amplitude of
200 kv. The echo can be in microvolts.

32
Ultrasonic Proximity Sensor
cont’d…
Operation

Depending upon the sensor, the blind zone is from 6 to 80 cm.

An object placed in the blind zone will produce an unstable output

Ultrasonic Proximity Sensor


cont’d…

33
Ultrasonic Proximity Sensor
cont’d…

Microwave Proximity Sensor

Based on radio waves (10 – 90GHz)

Very long perception distance


Very long perception distance
Used mainly for distance measurement

34
Optical Proximity Sensor

Based on reflecting light, usually (near) infrared

Pf dd f i d tilf th bj t
Performance dependsonsurface, size and material of theobject

Automatic Door Opener

35
Case Sorting – By Size

Production Counting

36
Sensors - Classification
By their measurement objective

Position: Linear/Rotational sensors


Proximity sensors
Acceleration sensors
Force, torque and pressure sensors
Flow sensors
Temperature sensors
Light sensors
Light sensors Smart material sensors
Micro and nano-sensors

Acceleration
Sensors

37
Acceleration Sensors

Seismic (Inertial)
Accelerometers

38
Piezoelectric Accelerometer
What is piezoelectricity?

Certain crystalline materials can generate charge when subjected to


Pi l t i ff t mechanical
hildf ti deformation
(t i) (strain) -
Piezoelectriceffect
Converse is also true

Strain causes a redistribution of charges and results in a net electric


dipole (a dipole is kind of a battery!)
84

Piezoelectric Accelerometer cont’d

Polarizing (poling) a piezoelectric material

(a) Random orientation of polar (b) Polarization in DC electric field (c) Remnant polarization after
domains prior to polarization electric field is removed

85

39
Piezoelectric Accelerometer cont’d

Piezoelectric materials

The piezoelectric effect occurs only in non conductive materials.

Two main groups: crystals and ceramics.

The most well-known piezoelectric material is quartz (S i O2 ).

86

Piezoelectric Accelerometer cont’d

Potential difference due to force applied is given by

Egt=
p

where

g = voltage sensitivity of the


crystal
(depends on the material of the crystal
and
the direction in which crystal surface is cut w.r.t crystal
axis)

t = thickness of the crystal

p = lied
app pressure

87

40
Piezoelectric Accelerometer cont’d

These sensors operate from frequency as low as 2 Hz and up to


about 5 kHz

Possess high linearity and a wide operating temperature range

88

Relative Acceleration Pick-up

89

41
Sensors - Classification
By their measurement objective

Position: Linear/Rotational sensors


Proximity sensors
Acceleration sensors
Force, torque and pressure sensors
Flow sensors
Temperature sensors
Light sensors
Light sensors Smart material sensors
Micro and nano-sensors

Force, Torque and


Pressure Sensor
s
91

42
Elastic Transducers
Elastic Transducers
Spring System

is displacement
Relationship
F
xand between force
Relationship
F
xand
is displacement
between force linear

F = K where K is the spring constant


x
Gd 4
KD
=N w
8 3
m

G = Shear
Shear modulus
modulus of
of the
the material
material of
of the
the spring
spring
G
d = Diameter of the wire
w

Dm = Mean diameter of the coil

N = Number of coils in the spring.


92

Elastic Transducers
Elastic Transducers

The force is applied to the end of the cylinder and the deformation
is measured as the difference between the uncompressed and
compressed length.

All elastic devices share this common basis, but the method of
measuring the distortion of the elastic element varies
considerably.

The material used - tool steel, stainless steel, aluminum or


beryllium copper 93

43
Elastic Transducers
Elastic Transducers
Proving Ring
Diameter of the ring changes when a
force is applied along the diameter.

With an micrometer

Compression test on soil

With an LVDT sensor 94

Strain Gauge Load Cell


Strain Gauge Load Cell
Beam-Type
R R +
1 1 R2
R
3
V
0
V
s
Ai
s
i
Animation

R + e R R
4 3 -
2
l b
R
4
t V0 12
- RR =- (1)
e P VRRR ++
s 14 2 3
R
The bridge is said to be balanced and produces no output
The bridge is said to be balanced and produces no output

RR
when 12 =
RR++
RR
14 2 3

R R
or when 4 = 3

RR++
RR
14 2 3

44
Strain Gauge Load Cell
Strain Gauge Load Cell
Beam-Type

e
Output voltage, isVproportional to strain ( )induced
0
V
VG
0 = e
V
s

To determine force
applied
M
fI = y
y Pl e
=
bt 3E 12 2
t
e = 6l
bt2P
E

Strain Gauge Load Cell


Strain Gauge Load Cell
Pillar-Type
F s
F e =- =-
L
A·EE

·F
e =+ =-
T
eL A ·E
R ,R
eT 3 1
Poisson’s
ratio
R ,R
2 4
e
L
L
R +
1 R
2
V0
V
s

F
R R
4 3 -

45
Strain Gauge Load Cell
Strain Gauge Load Cell
Ring-Type

R +
1 R2
V
0
V
s

R R
4 3 -

Bridge Configurations Bending


BendingLoads
Loads
Bridge Configurations -
Quarter Bridge R
e
1
R2
V
0
V
S

R R
4 3

Assume that R1 is an active strain gage that has undergone a change in


R resistance,
it 1
,when
h ththe
tt itest
t hispecimen
h it i bddhtowhich
b it is bonded has been
R subjected to stress.
Equation (1) can then be rewritten as:
V RR R +
0 1 =-
12
VR RRRR+ + +
s 1 1423

46
Bridge Configurations Bending
BendingLoads
Loads
Bridge Configurations -
Quarter Bridge cont’d
Assuming that all gauges have the same initial resistance,
then equation (2) reduces to:

R1
V0 11 11 RR +
=-=
1 e R2
RR
VRR 2242 + () V
s 1 1 11 0
RR + V
RR S
But gauge factor, G = 11
e
R R
V0 e 4 3
=+
G
V 42 e
s
G
Non-linearity Effect of Thermal Magnitude of
Error axial loads effects output
0.1% for every Yes Yes Least
1000 µ strans

Quarter bridge is not recommended!

Bridge Configurations Bending


BendingLoads
Loads
Bridge Configurations -
Half Poisson Bridge e
V
0
V
S

-e

V0 Ge (1+
)
=+-
Vs 42 1 e ()
G

Non-linearity Error Effect of Thermal Magnitude of


axial loads effects output
Reduced to apprx. (1- )% Yes Ni l Increased by a factor of
for every 1000 µstrans apprx. (1+ )

47
Bridge Configurations Bending
BendingLoads
Loads
Bridge Configurations -
Half Bridge e
V0
V
S
S

-
e

V0 G e
=
Vs 2

Non-linearity Effect of Thermal Magnitude of


Error axial loads effects output
Nil Nil Nil About double that of
single gauge

Bridge Configurations Bending


BendingLoads
Loads
Bridge Configurations -
Full Bridge e -e +

V
0
V
s
s

-e e -

V0 G
= e
Vs

Non-linearity Effect of Thermal Magnitude of


Error axial loads effects output
Nil Nil Nil Maximum

48
Bridge Configurations Axial
AxialLoads
Loads
Bridge Configurations -
2 Gauges in Opposite Arms
e
V
0
V
0
V
S

V0 G e
=+
2e
VG s
+
e
2VG Non-linearity Effect of Thermal effects Magnitude of
Error bending loads output
0.1% for every Nil Yes Less
1000 µ strans

Bridge Configurations Axial


AxialLoads
Loads
Bridge Configurations -
Full Poisson Bridge
e-e +

V
0
V s
V

-ee -

V0 Ge (1+
)
=+-
Vs 21 e ()
G
Non-linearity Error Effect of Thermal Magnitude of
bending loads effects output
Reduced to apprx. (1- )% Nil Nil Increased by a factor of
for every 1000 µstrans apprx. (1+ )

49
Hydraulic & Pneumatic
Hydraulic
Load Cells& Pneumatic
Load Cells
Used for sensing large static or slowly varying forces
Used for sensing large, static, or slowly varying forces
Typical accuracies: 0.1% of F.S.R.

These load cells are comprised generally of a rig id outer structure ,


some medium that is used for measuring the applied force, and the
measuring gage .

106

Hydraulic Load Cell

Applied force tends to compress the liquid (oil) within the cylinder
The generated pressure is directly proportional to the applied force

F=PA

Suitable for use in explosive atmospheres

50
Hydraulic Load Cell

108

Pneumatic Load Cell

Force-balance principle

Force is applied on one side of a piston or a diaphragm and is


Force is applied on one side of a piston or a diaphragm andpneumatic
balanced by is pressure on the other side.

This counteracting pressure is proportional to the force

51
Pneumatic Load Cell
Applications

To measure relatively small weights in industries where cleanliness and


safety are of prime concern.

Merits

Inherently explosion proof

Insensitive to temperature variations

No contamination

Demerits/Limitations

• Relatively slow speed of response

• Clean, dry and regulated air or nitrogen is needed

Piezoelectric Methods
Charge amplifier is required to integrate the electric charges

No need of power supply

Under a force of 10 kN, piezoelectric transducer deflects only 0.00l mm.

Very much suitable for dynamic measurements.

Extremely fast events (like shock waves in solids, or impact printer and
punch press forces) can be measured

They can operate over a wide temperature range and survive temperatures
They can operate over a wide temperature range and
ofsurvive temperatures
up to 350 0 C.

Industrialized piezoelectric load washers 111

52
Piezoelectric Methods cont’d
Multi-component crystal force sensor

Measures the forces in three orthogonal axes

Each ring is cut along a specific axis and the orientation of the sensitive
Each ring is cut along a specific axis and the orientation of the sensitive
axis coincides with the axis of the force component to be measured.

Each disc produces a charge proportional to the force component specific


to that disc.

112

Inductive Method
A change in mechanical stress on a ferromagnetic material causes its
permeability to alter.

The changes in magnetic flux are converted into induced voltages in the
The changes in magnetic flux are converted into induced
pickup voltages
coils. - in the effect or ma gnetostriction.
Villari

Force to be measured is applied on the core, stressing it and causing a


change in its permeability and inductance.

Strong in nickel–iron alloys.

Poor linearity and hysteresis problems

113

53
Capacitive Transducer
Plates/Electrodes
Capacitance of a capacitor is given by

e
r
A
C d= ee0 farads
r d

C
where
e = Permittivity of vacuum = 8.854x10 F/m
-1 2
0

e = Dielectric constant of the medium between the plates


r

Am= Overlapping area between plates, 2

dm= Distance between the plates,

114

Capacitance Transducer

Fi d F t l t d
Fixed or Foot electrode

Diaphragm
P (Movable electrode)

115

54
What is torque?
Torque is a measure of how much a force acting on an object causes
that object to rotate

Torque = Force x Distance


Torque = Force x Distance

Example 1: Distance = 1 m, Force = 100 N, Torque = 100 N-


m.
Example 2: Distance = 2 m, Force = 100 N, Torque = 200 N-
m. 116

Fundamentals Concepts
angular displacement , , over some time interval, t

angular velocity , = / t

angular acceleration , a = / t.

Tangential force Ft = Fcosß

The off-axis force F at P produces a torque T =( Fcosß) l tending to rotate


the body in the CW
117

55
Fundamentals Concepts
The resultant , of any number of torques acting at different
locations along a body is found from their algebraic sum
of each such torque is subjected to an equal, but
The
source
Theeach such torque is subjected to an equal, but
source
of oppositely directed, reaction torque.
A nonzero resultant torque will cause the body to undergo a
proportional angular acceleration (Newton’s second law)
Tr = Ia
where I = Moment of inertia of the body around the axis (i.e., its
polar moment of inertia), (kg m 2 )

polar moment of inertia), (kg m )


When a =0, Tr is also zero; the body is said to be in equilibrium .
For a body to be in equilibrium, there must be either more than one
applied torque, or none at all

118

Fundamentals Concepts
In a typical shaft, the shear stress t varies linearly from zero at the axis to a
maximum value at the surface. The shear stress, t , at the surface of a shaft of
m
diameter, d , transmitting a torque, T , is found from

t p = 16T
m
d3

Real materials are not perfectly rigid but have instead a modulus of rigidity , G ,
which expresses the finite ratio between t and shear strain , .

The ma im m strain in a solid ro nd shaft therefore also eistsat its srface


The maximum strain in a solid round shaftandtherefore also exists
can be found from at its surface

t 16T
p = m =
m3
G dG

119

56
Fundamentals Concepts

Transmitting torque T over length L


twists the shaft through angle f .

Manifestation of shear strain as an angular displacement between axially


separated cross sections
separated cross sections
32LT
f p=
dG
4

120

Torque Measurement

Schematic arrangement of devices for torque and power measurement

121

57
Torque Transducer Technologies
Surface Strain

Convert surface strain ( m


) into an electrical signal proportional to
the transmitted torque.

Strain gauges are aligned along a principal strain direction (45° to


the axis)
122

Torque Transducer Technologies


Surface Strain

ee ==-=- e
24 1 3
e
16T
==2e dG
ma x 1 3 p dG
3

But we know that T = Torque


=
V Fe F Fg age Gage factor
=·=
0max
E
V g age ga ge 1
2 ==G Shear modulus
s + 2(1 )

58
Torque Transducer Technologies
Shear Stress
Principal stresses and the shear stress are identical

124

Torque Transducer Technologies


Twist Angle

Difference in tooth-space phasing between two identical “toothed”


wheels attached at opposite ends of a compliant “torsion bar” is
wheels attached at opposite ends of a compliant torsion
used bar is the torque
to determine

The phase displacement of the periodic electrical signals from the


two “pickups” is proportional to the peripheral displacement of
salient features on the two wheels, and hence to the twist angle of
the torsion bar and thus to the torque.

59
Dynamometers
(Dynos
)

127

Classification of Dynamometers (Dynos)

1. Absorption dynamometers

Energy or Power - Frictional resistance – Heat

a. Prony brake (Mechanical) dynamometer

b. Water brake (Hydraulic) dynamometer

2. Transmission dynamometers

Neither add to nor subtract from the transmitted energy or power

Placed at appropriate location

128

60
Absorption Dynamometer
Prony Brake Dynamometer

T=Fr
P = T= 2p NT/60

While the drag torque tends to rotate the clamped-on apparatus, it


is held stationary by the equal but opposite reaction torque Fr.

Used to test large electric motors and engines 129

Water Brake Dynamometer

Principle of viscous coupling

Engine shaft is coupled to a rotor that spins inside a concentric housing.

61
Water Brake Dynamometer
Fill the housing with water until
the engine is held at a steady rpm
against the load.

Th t i hi d d b
Thewater iswhipped aroun d by the spinning rotor

Housing pushes the water back


on to the rotor.

Housing tends to rotate in


response to the torque produced

But is restrained by the load cell

Torque = Force measured at the load cell x Distance

131

Water Brake Dynamometer


Merits
Low acquisition cost

Limited maintenance

High durability.

132

62
Eddy-Current Dynamometer

The varying flux intensity in the


magnetic face, or inductor ring,
magnetic face, or inductor ring, develops eddy currents which flow
near the inner surface of the ring.
These eddy currents set up a
magnetic field which react with the
fields centered in the rotor teeth.

Reaction between the two sets of magnetic fields causes an attraction in


tangential direction between the two members of the dynamometer thereby
developing a braking torque which is in proportion to the strength of the
eddy current reactive fields developed by the rotor teeth.

133

Eddy-Current Dynamometer

134

63
Transmission Dynamometers
Passive devices neither appreciabl y add to nor subtract from the energy
involved in the test system

2P
2P
Annular
P P
gear

F Lever S
w S

Spur gear Pinion W


a
L

Epicyclic Train Dyno


2P a =
WL
Torque, T = R = Pitch circle radius of the spur gear in m
PR

135

Pressure Measurement

136

64
What is Pressure?

Pressure is defined as force per unit area that a fluid exerts on


its surroundings.

The SI unit for pressure is the pascal (N/m 2 )

Why Measure Pressure?

Pressure is invariably an important process parameter .

Pressure difference is used many a time as a means of


measuring the flow rate of a fluid.

Measurement of pressure helps in force measurement

137

Units of Pressure
1 atm. pressure = 1.013 25 bar = 760 mm of Hg

1 bar = 10 5 Pa = 100 kPa

1 Pa = 1 2

N/m

138

65
Terminology

Atmospheric reference

Absolute reference

139

Static & Dynamic Pressure

66
Static Pressure
Static pressure is the pressure at a point in an equilibrium fluid
The absolute pressure at a depth H in a liquid

P =P+( gH) abs


= P +
P ( gH)
Where:
P = absolute pressure at depth H.
ab s
P = the external pressure at the top of the liquid.
For most open systems this will be atmospheric pressure.
= the density of the fluid.
g = the acceleration due to gravity (g = 9.81 m/s 2 )).
H = the depth
pp at which the pressure is desired.

Dynamic Pressure
Dynamic pressure is the component of fluid pressure that represents fluid
kinetic energy

The dynamic pressure of a fluid with density and speed u is given by

1
P = 2 PPP = +
u
d ynam i c
2 Total static dynamic

67
P Mi
Pressure Measuring Systems
&
Transducers
u

143

Pressure Measuring Devices


1. Gravitational type
a. Piston or loose diaphragm and weights
(E.g. Dead weight pressure gauge tester)

b. Liquid column (E.g. U-tube manometer)

2. Elastic element type


a. Diaphragm

b. Bellows

c. Bourdon tube

3. Others
a. Variable capacitance transducer

b. Strain gauge transducer


144

68
Dead Weight Pressure Gauge Tester

Used to calibrate other pressure gauges

Gauge
under Test

Secondary
Piston
Piston

Weight of piston and platform + weights


Oil pressure = Effective area of piston
145

Dead Weight Pressure Gauge Tester

146

69
Manometer
Can be used to measure the pressure of both liquids and gases .

Limited to low pressure measurement (Near atmospheric pressure)

mass density of the manometric fluid should be more than that


The
The density of the manometric fluid should be more
mass thanfluid
of the that whose pressure is being andthetwofluids
measured
should not be able to mix readily - that is, they must be immiscible .

Tubes must be vertical

+ ve pressure Vacuum

147

Sensitivity of a Manometer
P P
1 2

PP h =
12
P - P gh

O/P 1 h
Sensitivity = I/P ==
P Pg
-
12

Sensitivity may be improved


Se s t ty ay be po ed
1. by using manometric fluids having
smaller and smaller mass density,

2. by reducing g value
148

70
U-Tube Manometer
Pressure in a continuous static fluid is the same
at any horizontal level. Therefore,

Fluid density
Pressure at B = Pressure at C

P =
C
B
P
B
C
A
For the left leg

Pressure at B = Pressure at A + Pressure due to


height h of fluid being measured
1

Manometric fluid density


P =P + gh m
B A 1

righttheleg
For
For theleg
right
Pressure at C = Pressure at D + Pressure due to height h of manometric fluid
2

P =P + gh
C A t mo s phe ri c ma n o 2

As we are measuring gauge pressure, PA t m os phe ri c can be dropped

P = gh - gh 149
A m a no 2 1

Well or Cistern Type Manometer

Volume moved
h =
Area of left side 1

h2
Area of left side p 2
hd(/4)
= 2

p D 2 /4
h
1 d
= hD
() 2
2

d
PP-=
ghhD
+ () 2
1222

d
=+ gh D 1( ) 2
2

Only one reading (h 2


) is enough to Clearly if D is very much larger than d
measure the pressure difference. d
then ( ) is 2very small so
D
Relatively large pressure differences
may be measured PP-=
gh
122

150

71
Inclined Tube Manometer

The sensitivity to pressure change is increased by tilting the manometer arm

h
2

h
1

PP -=gh
12 2

= gl sin
151

Pros and Cons of Manometers


Pros

They are very simple .

is required
No calibration
the pressure can be calculated from the
Norequired
is calibration
- the pressure can be calculated from the first principles.

Cons
Slow response – only useful for very slowly varying pressures
- no use at all for fluctuating pressures

For ver y accurate measurement the relationship between


For ver y accurate measurement, the relationship between
temperature and must be known

152

72
Diaphragm-Type
Transducer
Pressure signal is converted to a displacement

The diaphragm (thin metal disc) acts as a spring element that undergoes a
displacement under the action of the pressure.

One side of the disc is exposed to the pressure to be measured, other side is
exposed to atmospheric or areference pressure.
f

Distortion of the diaphragm is transmitted to a gauge dial

Deflection curve is linear only for a small range of low pressures and low
vacuum applications

Bellows-Type
Transducer
Pressure signal is converted to a displacement

The bellows acts as a spring element that u nderg oes a


displacement under the action of the pressure.

Extremely sensitive to low pressures (0.034 to 5.17 bar gauge)

The flexibility of a metallic bellows is similar in character to that of a


helical coiled compression spring

73
Bourdon Tube
Pressure applied causes the flat sections
to deform into elliptical shape. This
change in cross-section causes the tube
to straighten
g gy slightly.

Since the tube is permanently fastened at


one end, the tip of the tube traces a curve
that is the result of the change in angular
position with respect to the center.

The tube is bent lengthwise into an arc of


a circle of 270 to 300 o .

Within limits, the movement of the tip of


the tube can then be used to position a
pointer to indicate the value of the applied
internal pressure.

155

Variable Capacitance Transducer


Consists of two flexible conductive plates and a dielectric fluid.

As pressure increases, the flexible conductive pla tes will move farther
apart, changing the capacitance of the transducer.

This change in capacitance is measurable and is proportional to the


change in pressure.

156

74
Strain Gauge Pressure Transducer
An increase in pressure at the inlet of the bellows causes the bellows to
expand. The expansion of the bellows moves a flexible beam to which a
strain gauge has been attached.

Th f h b h i f h i
The movement of the beam causes theresistance ofchange
thestrain gauge to

Change in resistance is proportional to the applied pressure

Strain gauge used in a bridge circuit

Measuremen
t o
f
High Pressure and Low
Pressure

158

75
Measurement of High Pressure
Ranges from 1 000 to 20 000 bar

Conventional devices are limited to 10 000 bar only

159

Bridgman
Principle
Gauge Kerosene filled
Cell body Bellows
Resistance of an Terminal
electrical conductor
undergoes a change
when subjected to a Pressure
connection
bulk compression
(volume compression) Sensing element

Sensing element is a loosely wound coil

Sensing element when subjected to a bulk compression, undergoes a


change in resistance

Change in resistance is measured by a Wheatstone bridge


Change in resistance is measured by a Wheatstone bridge
Applied pressure is estimated from the measured resistance change
through suitable calibration

Sensing element materials:


Manganin (Cu 84%, Mn 12 %, Ni 4%)
Goldchrome (Cr 2.1 %, rest gold) 160

76
Measurement of Low Pressure

Any pressure < atmospheric pressure = Low pressure or vacuum


Atm. Atm. Atm. Vacuum
pressure Pressure pressure source

Units commonly used: torr

Zero
1torr=1mmHg ref.
Hg

Bourdon pressure gauge up to 10 torr

Manometers or bellows typeyp


gauges
gg p up to1torr

Diaphragm gauges up to 10 -3 torr

For pressures less than above, special type of gauges aretobeused

161

McLeod Vacuum Gauge


Modified mercury manometer PV PV=
cc B

V
PP= B (1)
c
V
c

PPhor
-=
c

PPh=+ (2)
c

P Substituting for in Peq.1


c
PPP V
c V
PhPV
+= B

V VV -
hP=-=
P B 1 Bc
T ub e C- VV
aS re a a cc

hV
B ul b a then, P VV
= c

VV -
cnd ap il l Bc

aryl um e VB
vo If c-s area of capillary is a, then Vah=
c

Fl u ah 2
id si t y
Den =
P Vah
-
B

By design, Vah>>
B

ah a 2

== =
PKhK 2

V V
B B
162

77
McLeod Vacuum Gauge
Covers the vacuum ranging between 1 and 10 -6 torr.

0.1 µ

0.2 µ

100 µ

200 µ

Commercial McLeod gauge calibrated in terms of microns

163

McLeod Vacuum Gauge

164

78
Sensors - Classification
By their measurement objective

Position: Linear/Rotational sensors


Proximity sensors
Acceleration sensors
Force, torque and pressure sensors
Flow sensors
Temperature sensors
Light sensors
Light sensors Smart material sensors
Micro and nano-sensors

Flow Sensors

166

79
Terminology
1. Point velocity measurement—the fluid’s velocity at a fixed point across
the pipe’s cross section (m/s)

2 Mean flow velocity measurement—average fluid velocity across the


2. Mean flow velocity measurement average fluid
crossvelocity
section across the (m/s)
of the pipe

3. Volumetric flow rate measurement—the rate of change in the volume of


fluid passing through the pipe with time (m 3 /s)

4. Total volume measurement—the total volume of fluid which has passed


through the pipe (m 3 )

5. Mass flow rate measurement—the rate of change in the mass of the fluid
passing through the pipe with time (kg/s)

6. Total mass measurement—the total mass of fluid passing through the


pipe (kg)
167

Flow Characteristics
Velocity is maximum at the center and zero at the wall

As the flow rate is increased, particle motion becomes random

Critical velocity - Velocity at which disturbance occurs

vD
Reynolds number, R= D = Pipe diameter, m
e µ = Mass density of the fluid, kg/m 3
v = Mean fluid velocity, m/s
µ = Absolute viscosity of the fluid, kg-
s/m2

Laminar flow Turbulent flow

Velocity distribution
168

80
Classification of Flow Measuring Devices
I. Primary or quantity methods
Positive displacement flow meters
II. Secondary rate and inferential methods
a) Obstruction meters
i Flow nozzle
i. Flow nozzle ii. Venturi
iii. Orifice
iv. Variable area flow meter (Rotameter)
b) Velocity probes
i. Total pressure probes
ii. Static pressure probes
iii Direction sensing probes (Yaw meters)
iii. Direction sensing probes (Yaw meters) c) Others
i. Turbine meter
ii. Electromagnetic meter
iii. Hot-wire anemometer
iv. Sonic flow meters
v. Mass flow meter 169

Positive Displacement Flow


Meter
The oval-gear positive displacement flowmeter

Fluid is “ displaced ” from the inlet side of


the flowmeter to the outlet side using a series
of compartments of known volume.

The number of compartments of fluid that


have been transferred are counted to
determine the total volume that has
passed through the flowmeter, and if time
is also measured then volumetric flowrate
can be measured.

For liquids - piston, sliding vane, oval-gear, bi-rotor, tri-rotor, and disc types of
flowmeter and for gases roots, bellows (or diaphragm), or CVM flowmeters are
popular.l

High accuracy measurement (typically ±0.5% of F.S.R for liquids and ±1% of reading
for gases)

Complex mechanical devices, with moving parts which of course wear with
time.

Fluids should be free of solid particles so as to reduce wear of the seals and
reduce the need for excessive maintenance. 170

81
Measurement of Flow Rate
- Obstruction Meters
Bernoulli’s Equation
Assumptions
Assumptions
Inviscid fluid
Incompressible fluid
No heat addition
Along a streamline

11
22 P vghP
++=++ vgh
11
22
22
1112 22

p = pressure along the streamline , N/m 2

= density of the fluid, kg/m 3

v = fluid velocity along the streamline, m/s


g = acceleration due to gravity, m/s 2

h = height of the fluid, m

Measurement of Flow Rate


- Obstruction Meters
They measure flow based on the relation between pressure and velocity

Type s

Venturi

Flow-nozzle
Flow nozzle

Orifice

172

82
Measurement of Flow Rate
Venturi and Flow Nozzle

173

Measurement of Flow Rate


Orifice

Since the actual flow profile at


location 2 downstream of the
orifice is quite complex, thereby
making the effective value of A2
uncertain, the following
substitution introducing a flow
coefficient K is made,

where A is the area of the orifice. As a result, the volumetric flowrate Q for
o
real flows is given by the equation,

174

83
Obstruction Meters
for Compressible Fluids

1 2

175

The Variable Area Flow Meter


(Rotameter)
The rotameter is a tapered tube
and a float.

Principle: Flow of the media will


alter the position of a float in the
tapered tube. The position of the
float in the tapered tube is
proportional to the volumetric fl ow
rate

The float reaches a stable position


p in
the tube when the upward force
equals the downward gra vitational
force exerted by weight of the float.

With liquids, the float is raised by a combination of the buoyancy of the


liquid and the velocity head of the fluid. With gases, buoyancy is
negligible, and the float responds to the velocity head alone.
176

84
Rotameter

A change in flo wrate upsets this


balance of forces. The float then
moves up orpdown,
, gg changing the
annular area until it again reaches a
position where the forces are in
equilibrium

A variable area flow meter norma ll y


requires vertical installation and a
straight pipe run (minimum length of
five times the diameter of the pipe)
five times the diameter of the pipe) before the flow meter’s inlet

It is the most widely used variable area


flow meter because of its low cost,
simplicity, low pressure drop,
relatively wide range, and linear output 177

Rotameter - Pros & Cons


Advantages

Low cost
Simple to install
Easy to use and virtually maintenance free
Easy to use and virtually maintenance free
Disadvantages

Lower accuracy compared to many other flow meter technologies


Affected by pulsation
Sensitive to fluid changes such as viscosity , density and
temperature

Typical Applications

Liquid or gas flow meter where high accuracy is not required


Measuring water and gas flow in plants or labs
Monitoring chemical lines
Monitor makeup water for food & beverage plants
178

85
Typical Rotameters

179

Typical Rotameters

180

86
Pitot Tube

Manometer reads Pd = ( Ps + Pd ) – Ps

P
s

(P + P )
s d

Pitot tube arranged to measure fluid velocity

181

Pitot Static Tube


To tal p re ssu
re h ol e N os e pi ec e Stati c p res su re h ol
es

Du ct sta tic p re ssu re (Ps )


Acc ess h o le i n d u
Vel oc ity p re ssu re (Pd ) ct
To tal p re ssu ret )
(P

Man om eter r ead s


() –P P+P= P + P P
d s s
d)( PP

I n cl in ed man o mete
r
182

87
Pitot Static Tube
Pros

Simple construction.
Relatively inexpensive.
Almost no calibration required.
Induces minimal pressure drops in the flow.

Cons

A d ti l l ti t b hi h h f
Accuracy and spatial resolution may not be high enough for some
applications.
Tube must be aligned with the flow velocity to obtain good results.
Any misalignment in yaw should not exceed ±5°

183

Turbine Flow Meter

A multi-bladed rotor is placed in the flow and rotates as fluid


passes through it.
Rotor’s speed is proportional to the velocity of the fluid flowing
through the meter.
The rotor’s speed of rotation is detected using a proximity sensor
Average velocity of fluid in the pipeline is measured
Since the pipe diameter is known, volumetric flowrate can be
determined
184

88
Turbine Flow Meter
Pros

Medium initial set up cost


Medium initial set up cost
Reliable, time tested proven technology

Cons

For clean fluid only

Low to medium pressure drop


Low to medium pressure drop

185

Electromagnetic Flow Meter


(Magmeter)
Faraday's Law
When a conductor moves perpendicular to a magnetic fiel d, the voltage induced
across theconductor
th dt i ti l it lit
is proportional itsvelocity.

The conductor is the fluid being metered, while the induced voltage is measured
using electrodes in the pipe wall.

Faraday's Formula

E a vML

E = Voltage generated in the conductor


v = Velocity of the conductor
M = Magnetic field strength
L = Length of the conductor

89
Electromagnetic Flow Meter
cont’d (Magmeter)

A measurement accuracy of
typically ±0.5% of reading
over a range of at least
f t lt10
10:1
1

The flowmeter’s accuracy


is also unaffected by
changes in fluid viscosity and
density , and may be used to
meter difficult mixtures such
as slurries and paper
pp pp
pulp.

Not suitable for use with gases , steam ,or non-conducting


liquids such as oil.

The flowmeter’s calibration is also sensitive to changes in flow


velocity profile although requiring a shorter straight length of pipe
upstream of the meter than the orifice plate or turbine meter.

Hot-Wire Anemometer
Basically involves the power that is dissipated by a hot
wire (few µmdiameterandacoupleofmmlong
tungsten wire) to an ambient fluid that is moving past it.
away takes
Passage
fluid from
of the
heat
wire at a
Passage
fluid
away takes
from
of the
heat
wire at a rate proportional to its velocit y .
The larger the velocity of the fluid, larger the heat
dissipation from the wire for a fixed wire temperature.
Alternately, larger the velocity of the fluid, smaller the
wire temperature for a fixed heat dissipation rate from
the wire.
Velocityy information is converted to thermal either
temperature change or change in the heat dissipation
rate information.
By measuring the change in wire temperature under
constant curre nt or the current required to maintain a
constant wire temperature, the heat lost can be
obtained. The heat lost can then be converted into a
fluid velocity in accordance with convective theory .

90
Hot-Wire Anemometer
Consider a wire that is immersed in a flui d flow. Assume that the wire, heated
by an electrical current input, is in thermal equilibrium with its environment.
The electrical power input is equal to the power lost to convective
tf heat,
transfer

I = Input current
Rw = Resistance of the wire
Tw and Tf = Temperatures of the wire and fluid respectively
Aw = Projected wire surface area and
h = Heat
Httf ffi
transfer
i t f thcoefficient
i of thewire
h
The wire resistance R is also a function of according
w
to, temperature

a = Thermal coefficient of resistance


R = Resistance at the reference temperature T
Re f Re f

Hot-Wire Anemometer
The heat transfer coefficient h is a function of fluid velocity vf according to
King's law,

Where a, b and c are coefficients obtained from calibration.

Combining the above three equations allows us to el iminate the heat


transfer coefficient h,

Continuing, we can solve for the fluid velocity,

91
Hot-Wire Anemometer

Hot-Wire Anemometer
Pros :

- Excellent
Excellentspatial
spatialresolution
resolution.
- High frequency response > 10 kHz (up to 400 kHz)

Cons:

- Fragile, can be used only in clean gas flow s .


due to dustrecalibration
frequent accumulation (unless the flow - Needs
Needs
frequent
due to dustrecalibration
accumulation (unless the flow is very clean).
- High cost.

92
Ultrasonic Flowmeter
Requires particulates or bubbles in the flow.

Ideal for wastewater applications or any dirty liquid which is


conductive
dti t bd or water based.

Generally does not work with distilled water or drinking water.

Ideal for applications where low pressure drop , chemical


compatibility, and low maintenance are required.

194

Ultrasonic Flowmeter

PRINCIPLE OF
OPERATION
Employs the frequency (Doppler effect) of an ultrasonic signal .
shift
Ultrasonic sound (typically 1 MHz) is transmitted into a pipe with
flo wing liquids, and the discontinuities (suspended particles or gas
bbbl ) fl h li ih li h l diff f
bubbles) reflect theultrasonicwavewith aslightly different frequency.
The difference in between the transmitted a nd received
signalsfrequency
(the Doppler frequency shift) is directly proportional to the
velocity of the flow.

Liquid sho uld contain at least 100 parts per million (PPM) of 100
micron or larger suspended particles or bubbles 195

93
Ultrasonic Flowmeter

196

Ultrasonic Flowmeter
Pros

- No obstruction in the flow path,p,nop pressure


p drop

- No moving parts, low maintenance cost

- Can be used to measure corrosive or slurry fluid flow

Cons

- Higher initial set up cost

197

94
Sensors - Classification
By their measurement objective

Position: Linear/Rotational sensors


Proximity sensors
Acceleration sensors
Force, torque and pressure sensors
Flow sensors
Temperature sensors
Light sensors
Light sensors Smart material sensors
Micro and nano-sensors

Temperature Measurement

95
Contents
1. Introduction

2. Classification of devices

3. Bimetallic Thermometers

4. Liquid-in-Glass Thermometer

5. Thermocouple Thermometer

6 Resistance Thermometers
6. Resistance Thermometers
7. Thermistors

8. Total Radiation Pyrometer

9. Optical Pyrometer
200

Introduction
What is Temperature?

The sensation of warmth or coldness felt by touching it


The sensation of warmth or coldness felt by touching it.
Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the
particles in a sample of matter, expressed in units of
degrees on a standard scale.

Fundamental property like length, mass and time but


fundamentally ydifferent in nature from them

Measured with help of some physical property of a substance


that changes with temperature in a reliable, reproducible and
quantifiable way.

201

96
Classification of Devices
Based on the effect they use

1. Mechanical effects

a. Expansion of metals - Bimetallic thermometers

b. Expansion of fluids - Liquid-in-glass thermometers


- Pressure thermometers

2. Electrical effects

a. Thermo-electric effects - Thermocouple thermometer

b. Electrical resistance changes - Electrical resistance thermometer


- Thermistors
3. Radiation effects

a. Total radiation pyrometers

b. Optical pyrometers
202

Bimetallic Thermometers

Two dissimilar metals

A temperature change causes


A temperature change causes differential expansion

TT-
()L 2

y 12

t
Temperature change is estimated from measured
deflections

Invar (Nickel steel) - Low thermal expansion L


t

Brass or stainless steel - High thermal expansion

y
Strips are bonded by brazing or welding

Combined thickness of strips: 0.01 mm to 0.3 mm

Temperature range: -75 o c to 550 o c

203

97
BMT Configurations

204

Liquid-in-Glass Thermometer
Principle : Fluid expands on heating

Safety bulb
Used in science, medicine, metrology and industry for almost
300 years.

The fluid is contained in a sealed glass bulb, and its expansion


is measured using a scale etched in the stem of the
thermometer. Stem

The most widely used fluid is mercury ( -38 °C to 356 °C )


Capillary
Introduction of a gas into the instrument can increase the range
to 600 °C or beyond.

Other working fluids include ethyl alcohol, toluene and technical


pentane, which can be used down to -200 °C.
Temp. sensitive
Delicate. One has to read them without dropping them! bulb

Liquid-in-glass thermometers have largely been replaced by


more robust electrical devices which can be digitized and
automated. 205

98
Thermocouple Thermometer

Seebeck Effect (1821)

T T >T T
1 1 2 2

Thermocouple original discovery

When a conductor is placed in a temperature gradient, electrons diffuse along


the gradient

Result is generation of emf

206

Thermocouple

Bi-metallic junction

207

99
Thermocouple
A

T
1 2
T

BB V

The difference in the emfs generated by the two conductors is then given by:

() ES=-
AB12
()B 1 2
A TT
E = Net emf generated

S Seebeck coefficient
AB

T1 , T2 Junction temperatures in K

209

Materials

The simplicity, ruggedness, low cost, small size and wide temperature range of
thermocouples make them the most common type of temperature sensor in
industrial use.

210

100
Thermocouple temperature Vs Voltage curves

211

Special Materials

Sensitivity
Material Temperature
(o C) (µV/o C)
Rhodium-Iridium / Rhodium 2200 6
Boron / Graphite 2500 40
Tungsten / Rhenium 2760 6

212

101
Laws of Thermocouple
Law -I

A A
T3 T T7 T8
4

T1 T2 = T
1 T2

T T6 T
5 T 10
9
B B

Thermal emf of a thermocouple with its junctions at T1 and T2


is unaffected by the temperature of the wires away from the
junctions as long as each of the wires is homogeneous.

213

Laws of Thermocouple contd…


Law -II
C

T4 T
5
A A
A
T1
T
2
= T1 T
3
T
3
AT
T
2
= 1 T
6
T
6
T2
BB
B B
T7 T8

With the insertion of a third homogeneous metal C either into A or


B, as long as the two new junctions formed are at the same
temperature, the net emf of the circuit is unaffected irrespective of
the temperature of C away from the junctions.

214

102
Laws of Thermocouple contd…
Law - III

T
A 4
T
= 1 A A T T
T
1 T2 C
T2 =T 1
2 5

C
B T B
T 1
B T
3 2 T6

If a metal C is inserted between A and B at one of the junctions


If a metal C is inserted between A and B at one
theoftemperature
the junctions,
of C at any point away from AC and BC junctions
is immaterial. As long as the junctions AC and BC are both at the
temperature T1, the net emf is the same as if C were not there.

215

Laws of Thermocouple contd…


Law –IV: Law of Intermediate Metals

A B A
T1
T
2
+ T1
T
=T 1 T2
B E E 2 C E +E C
AB B C BC C
AB BC

If the thermal emf of metals A and B is E and that of metals B and that of metals B
AB
If the thermal emf of metals A and B is E and C is E , then the thermal emf of metals A and C is E +E
BC AB BC

216

103
Laws of Thermocouple contd…
Law –IV: Law of Intermediate Metals

A B C D E have desirable properties to construct thermocouples


A, B, C, D, E have desirable properties to construct thermocouples
Possible Combinations: AB, AC, AD, AE, BC, BD, BE, CD, CE, DE
Take A as a standard and calibrate for AB, AC, AD and AE
AB AC
Ref. temp. is constant (T )
2

T1 Voltage T Voltage
1
0. 0.
5. 5.
.. ..
.. ..
217

Laws of Thermocouple contd…


Law –IV: Law of Intermediate Metals

A A B
T1
T
2
+ T
1 T
=T 1 T
B EA B EAC 2
C E AB +E A C C
2
B C C

From this E can be calculated.


BC

218

104
Laws of Thermocouple contd…
Law –V: Law of Intermediate Temperatures

A A A
T
1 T2 + T
2 T
=T 1 T
E E2 3 3 B E +E 3
B 12 B B 12 23 B
B

If a thermocouple produces emf of E when its junctions are at T 12


when its junctions are at T 1
If a thermocouple produces emf of E and T 2 , and E 2 3 when at T and T , then it will produce E 1 2 +E
2 3 23
when the junctions are at T 1
and T 3

219

Laws of Thermocouple contd…


Law –V: Law of Intermediate Temperatures
A AA
T
T
30 + 30
0
= 0
B E E B E +E B
12 B 12 23
B 23 B

Couple AB
Ref. Junction temp: 0 0 c
E +E =E
T,30 3 0, 0 T, 0 T Voltage
1
E is measured, E is obtained
from the thermocouple tables
T,30 30,0 0.
from the thermocouple tables 5.
..
30 E 30, 0
TE 220
T, 0

105
Laws in a Nutshell

221

Special Configuration

H ot- ga s f low

222

106
Pitfalls
wires should not be twisted together to form a junction

Can be soldered to use up to temperatures not exceeding 200°C


Can be soldered to use up to temperatures not exceeding 200°C.
Welding the junction is preferred, but it must be done without
changing the wires’ characteristics.

223

Resistance Thermometers

Electrical resistance changes in a reproducible manner with temperature

)
Popularly
RTDs called Resistance Temperature Detectors (
Popularly called Resistance Temperature Detectors (
)RTDs
Resistance Vs temperature characteristics are stable , reproducible , and
have a near linear positive temperature coefficient from -200 to 800 °C.

Typical materials used: Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu), and Platinum (Pt).

The most common: 100-ohm or 1000-ohm Platinum RTDs ,(PRTs,


Platinum Resistance Thermometers)
Platinum Resistance Thermometers)
A positive temperature coefficient

RR -
a = ×1 0 0 0
100 R
0

225

107
RTDs Contd…
= Resistivity (ohms)
L
=
Resistance, R A L = Wire length
A = Wire area

Temperature Vs Resistance

A = 3.9083 E-3
B = -5.775 E-7
C = -4.183 E -12 (below 0 °C), or
C = 0 (above 0 °C)

For a PT100 sensor, a 1 °C temperature change will cause a 0.384 ohm


change in resistance.

How do RTDs Work?

RTDs use electrical resistance and require a small power source


to operate
to operate.

Wheatstone bridge

108
2-Wire Configuration

3-Wire Configuration

109
4-Wire Configuration

A Typical PT100 RTD

231

11 0
Advantages and Limitations
Advantages
High accuracy
High accuracy
Wide operating range

Suitability for precision applications

Drawbacks/Limitations

RTDs in industrial applications are rarely used above 660 °C.

At very low temperatures, the sensitivity of the RTD is zero and thus not useful.

Less sensitive to small temperature changes and have a slower response time.

More expensive than thermocouples and thermistors

Require a current source


232

Thermistors

Work on the same principle as RTDs

Oxides of cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, nickel etc.

Materials have high resistivity

A plot of the temperature Vs resistance characteristic curves is provided

Temperature Vs resistance is non-linear

1/T = A + B (loge R) + C (loge 3 T = temperature, K


R) A, B, and C = fitting constants
R = resistance, ohms

233

111
Types of Thermistors

1. PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) device

Rit i ith iitt


Resistance increases with increasing temperature.

2. NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient) device

Resistance decreases with increasing temperature.

NTC thermistors are more commonly used than PTC thermistors


NTC thermistors are more commonly used than PTC thermistors

234

Typical resistance–temperature characteristics

235

11 2
Thermistors cont…
Characteristics/Advantages
Low cost

High sensitivity

Rapid response due to small size of thermistor

Stable devices

Smaller and more fragile than thermocouples and RTDs, cannot


tolerate much mishandling.

Drawbacks
Highly nonlinear output - makes interfacing more difficult

Relatively limited operating range (-100 oC to 350°C)

High-quality constant current or voltage source is required 236

Pyrometry
Pyros means “ fire ” and metron means “ to measure ”

High temperature measurement (above 600 o c)

Pyrometer or Radiation thermometer

Non-contact measurement

Only surface temperature is measured

Can be measured up to 4000 oc

237

11 3
Theory
Idea: Every object whose temperature is above absolute zero (-273 o c)

emits radiation.

The total rate of radiation emission per second: E = KT4

Radiant energy is in the form of electromagnetic waves, considered to


be a stream of photons traveling at the speed of light.

Cause: Internal mechanical movement of molecules.

The spectrum of the radiation: 0.7 to 1000 µm wavelength.

Lies within the red area of visible light ("infra"-red after the Latin)

238

Electromagnetic Spectrum

239

11 4
Power Spectral Density

Power spectral density of radiated energy emission at various temperatures. 240

Absorption, Reflection and Transmission

a+ +t=1

241

11 5
Infrared Measuring System

242

Types of Pyrometers

1 Total radiation pyrometer


1. Tot al radiation pyrometer
2. Optical pyrometer

243

11 6
Total Radiation Pyrometer
Total radiation is proportional to fourth power of absolute temperature

qCTT
=-se () 44
A AB

q = radiant-heat transfer, Btu/hr-ft 2

s = Stefan-Boltzmann constant
e = emissivity
C = Configurationalfactor to allow for relative position
A

and geometry of bodies


TT and Absolute
= temperaturesof bodies A and B 244
AB

Optical Pyrometer
Designed for thermal radiation in the visible spectrum.

Principle
p

Match the brightness of the hot object to the brightness of a calibrated la mp


filament

Ab so r p t io n O bje c ti ve
E ye pie c e L am f ilt e r Le ns
p

Schematic diagram of an optical pyrometer

245

11 7
Optical Pyrometer

Image of
Hot Target
Image of
Filament
(Cooler)

Pointer indicating
the center of
the
filament.
246

Optical Pyrometer

Image of
Hot Target Image of
filament
(Hotter)

247

11 8
Optical Pyrometer

The filament’s image blends into the image of the target.

The filament “disappears”.


248

Advantages
1. Fast measurement

2. Facilitates measurement of moving targetsg (conveyor


g (yp) processes).

3. Measurements can be taken of hazardous or physically inaccessible


objects (high-voltage parts, great measurement distance).

4. Measurements of high temperatures (greater than 1300°C) present no


problems. In similar cases, contact thermometers cannot be used, or
have a limited life.

5. No interference, no energy is lost from the target.

6. No risk of contamination and no mechanical effect on the surface of the


object; thus wear-free. Lacquered surfaces, for example, are not
scratched and soft surfaces can also be measured.

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11 9
Precautions
1. The target must be optically (infrared-optically) visible to the IR
thermometer. High levels of dust or smoke make measurement less
accurate. Concrete obstacles, such as a closed metallic reaction
vessel,allow
l ll f l for
til tonly
th iidtopical
f th ti measurement. the insideof thecontainer
cannot be measured.

2. The optics of the sensor must be protected from dust and condensing
liquids. (Manufacturers supply the necessary equipment for this.)

3. Normally, only surface temperatures can be measured, with the


differing emissivities of different material surfaces taken into account.

250

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