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Observation of the behavior of real buildings in
real earthquakes have been the single largest
influence on the development of our building
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Wallace

Associate Professor

University of California, Los Angeles

CE243A 1

1971

San Fernando, California

Earthquake

CE243A 2

Fall 04 1

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

CE243A 3

Soft-story

CE243A 4

Fall 04 2

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

CE243A 5

CE243A 6

Fall 04 3

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

Confinement

CE243A 7

CE243A 8

Fall 04 4

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

CE243A 9

CE243A 10

Fall 04 5

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

Barrington Building

CE243A 11

Barrington Building

CE243A 12

Fall 04 6

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

z Major failures:

– Steel moment-resisting frames

– Precast concrete parking structures

– Tiltup & masonry buildings with wood

roofs

z Major successes

– retrofitted unreinforced masonry

structures

– retrofitted bridge structures

CE243A 13

changes: non-

non-participating

– removal of pre-

pre- elements

qualified steel – deformation

connection details compatibility

– addition of near-

near- requirements

fault factor to base – chords & collectors

shear equation designed for “real”

– prohibition on forces

highly irregular – redundancy factor

structures in near-

near- added to design

fault regions forces

CE243A 14

Fall 04 7

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

Summary

z Observation of the behavior of real buildings in

real earthquakes have been the single largest

influence on the development of our building

codes

z The lull in earthquakes in populated areas

between approximately 1940 and 1970 gave a

false since of security at a time when the

population of California was expanding rapidly

z Performance of newer buildings and bridges has

generally been good in recent earthquakes;

however, older buildings pose a substantial

hazard.

CE243A 15

NEHRP SEAOC

ASCE 7

BOCA National

Standard Building Code Uniform

Building Code Building Code

CE243A 16

Fall 04 8

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

z International Code

Council (ICC),

established in 1994

z Seismic provisions

– ASCE 7-7-02

z Modeling

z Forces

– Material codes

z ACI, ASCE

z IBC 2003 (ASCE 7-7-02,

ACI 318-

318-02)

CE243A 17

Material Codes

International Building Code

MANUAL

OF STEEL ACI 318-02

CONSTRUCTION ACI 318R-02

LOAD &

RESISTANCE

FACTOR Building Code Requirements for

Structural Concrete (ACI 318-02)

DESIGN and Commentary (ACI 318R-02)

An ACI Standard

Volume I

Reported by ACI Committee 318

Structural Members,

Specifications,

& Codes

P.O. BOX 9094

FARMINGTON HILLS, MI 48333

Second Edition

CE243A 18

Fall 04 9

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

CE243A 19

F4 = m4a4(t)

F3 = m3a3(t)

F2 = m2a2(t)

F1 = m1a1(t)

Note: Forces generally

Increase with height

V(t) = ∑miai(t) i=1,4

Shaking

Time

CE243A 20

Fall 04 10

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

z In general, three types of analyses are

done to design buildings subjected to

Shaking

earthquakes

– Response History Analysis

z Linear or nonlinear approach to

calculate time varying responses Time

(P, M, V, δ)

Sa

z Linear approach to calculate modal

responses (peak values) and

combine modal responses Sd

F4

– Equivalent Lateral Force

F3

z Nonlinear approach used for

rehabilitation (e.g., FEMA 356) F2

z Linear approach – assume F1

response is dominated by first

mode response (very common)

Vbase

CE243A 21

z Response History Analysis

– Analyze structure by applying

Shaking

structure

– Typically requires use of several

records Time

– Elastic or inelastic response

– Time consuming and results can vary

substantially between records

z Response Spectrum Analysis Sa

– Elastic response

– Determine peak responses for each

mode of response

– Combine modal responses (SRSS, T

CQC)

CE243A 22

Fall 04 11

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

Maximum

Acceleration

Aground

Structural Period, T M

T = 2π M K

K

Shaking

CE243A Time 23

Maximum

Displacement

Structural Period, T M

T = 2π M K

K

Shaking

CE243A Time 24

Fall 04 12

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

Modal Analysis

Sd,1

Sd,2

Sd,3

T3 T2 T1

φ nT Mφ n

Tn = 2π

φ nT Kφ n δ max,n = φ n S d ,n

CE243A 25

MDOF System SDOF Model

δx=4 δx=4

Forces

δx=2 δx=2

δx=1 δx=1

Base Shear

CE243A 26

Fall 04 13

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

ADRS Spectrum

response spectrum Acceleration

T = constant

z “Capacity Spectrum”

approach – ATC 40

earthquake versus

smooth spectrum

Spectral Displacement

CE243A 27

z UBC-

UBC-97 and IBC-

IBC-2000

– Equivalent static analysis approach

– Response spectrum approach

– Response (Time) history approach

– Other (Peer review)

z FEMA 273/356 & ATC 40

– Linear Static & Dynamic Procedures (LSP, LDP)

– Nonlinear Static Analysis (NSP) “pushover”

– Nonlinear Dynamic Procedure (NDP)

CE243A 28

Fall 04 14

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

2.5CA Control Periods

TS = CV/2.5CA

T0 = 0.2TS

V/W (Acceleration)

CV/T

Long-Period Limits

CA

T0 TS

Period (Seconds)

CE243A 29

Cv I

Vbase = W Eq. (30 - 4)

RT

2.5Ca I

Vbase ≤ W Eq. (30 - 5)

R

Vbase ≥ 0.11Ca IW Eq. (30 - 6)

Ca = Seismic Coefficient (Acceleration)

Cv = Seismic Coefficient (Velocity)

CE243A 30

Fall 04 15

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

Modal Analysis

z Eigen Analysis

– Requires mass (M) and stiffness (K) matrices

z M is often assumed to be diagonal

(ω, T=2π (Φ)

z Mode shapes φ are columns of Φ matrix

(orthogonal property)

z Modal Analysis – solve uncoupled equations

[ M ]{v} + [C ]{v} + [ K ]{v} = { p}(t ); {v} = [Φ ]{ y}

M n = [Φ ] [ M ][Φ ] = {φm } [ M ]{φn }

T T

m=n

M n yn + Cn y n + K n yn = φ p (t )

T

n solve for yn

Combine modal responses (e.g., SRSS, CQC)

CE243A 31

MDOF System Model Equivalent SDOF

δx=4 δx=4

Forces

δx=2 δx=2

δx=1 δx=1

Base Shear

CE243A 32

Fall 04 16

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

Peak modal responses – 1st Mode

{δ x=1, 4 }1 = {φ11,φ21,φ31 ,φ41} S d ,1 F1 = M 1Sa ,1

T

T1 = 2π M1

δx=4 K1 Vbase,1 = M 1Sa ,1

F1=M1Sa,1 δx=3 T1 = Ct (hn )3 / 4

2

Sd ,1 = ω1 Sa ,1

Sd,1

δx=2

Acceleration,

V/W (Acce leration)

g

K1 δx=1

T0 T1 TSPeriodPeriod

(Seconds)(sec)

Vbase,1

CE243A 33

Peak modal responses – 2nd to nth Mode

{δ x =1, 4 }2 = {φ12 ,φ22 ,φ32 ,φ42 } Sd , 2 F2 = M 2 S a , 2

T

T = {T1 , T2 , T3 , T4 }

δx=4 Vbase, 2 = M 2 S a , 2

Mi

Ti = 2π S d , 2 = S a , 2 (T22 / 4π 2 )

Ki

F2=M2Sa,2 δx=3

Sd,2

δx=2

Acceleration,

V/W (Acce leration)

g

K2 δx=1

T2 T0 TSPeriodPeriod

(Seconds)(sec)

Vbase,2

CE243A 34

Fall 04 17

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

Modal Combinations

time, that is, the peak roof displacement for mode

one occurs at t1 , whereas the peak displacement

for mode two occurs at t2, and so on. Therefore,

peak modal responses must be combined based

on the correlation between modes.

z Modal Combination Approaches

– SRSS: Square-

Square-root-

root-sum-

sum-squares, works well

for systems with well-

well-separated modes (2D

models)

– CQC: Complete-

Complete-Quadratic-

Quadratic-Combination (3D)

CE243A 35

Mass Participation

gauged by the mass participation factor.

{φn }T [ M ]{r = 1}

PFm,n =

{φn }T [ M ]{φn }

z Typical mass participation factors: PFm

– Frame buildings: 1st Mode – 80 to 85%

– Shear wall buildings: 1st Mode – 60 to 70%

– To achieve 100% mass participation, all modes

must be included in the modal analysis

CE243A 36

Fall 04 18

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

Specific Requirements

modes to capture 90% of participating mass. In

general, this is relatively few modes

z 1631.5.3 - Modal combinations – Use appropriate

methods (SRSS, CQC). For 3D models with

closely spaced modes – need CQC.

z 1630.5.4 – R factors and limits on reducing base

shear where response spectrum analysis is used

z 1630.5.5 – Directional effects: consider seismic

forces in any horizontal direction (1630.1)

z 1630.5.6 – Account for torsion

CE243A 37

z Combine response

Dead & Live Loads

spectrum analysis results

with analysis results for

gravity forces

z Load combinations (1612)

– Same as new ACI load

combinations

z Drift limits (1630.10)

– hs = Story height

– ∆s = Displ.

Displ. for code

level forces

∆ m = 0.7 R∆ s

T < 0.7 sec : ∆ m < 0.025hs

T ≥ 0.7 sec : ∆ m < 0.025hs

CE243A 38

Fall 04 19

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

2.5CA Control Periods

TS = CV/2.5CA

T0 = 0.2TS

V/W (Acceleration)

CV/T

Long-Period Limits

CA

T0 T1 TS

Period (Seconds)

CE243A 39

Equivalent Static Analysis

Cv I

Vbase = W Eq. (30 - 4)

RT

2.5Ca I

Vbase ≤ W Eq. (30 - 5)

R

Vbase ≥ 0.11Ca IW Eq. (30 - 6)

Ca = Seismic Coefficient (Acceleration)

Cv = Seismic Coefficient (Velocity)

CE243A 40

Fall 04 20

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

Cv = 0.40 N v For Z = 0.4, SB (Table 16 - R)

Ca = 0.40 N a For Z = 0.4, SB (Table 16 - Q)

Z = Seismic Zone Factor (0.075 to 0.4)

S = Soil Profile Type

Nv = Near Source Coefficient (velocity)

Seismic Source A (M > 7.0, SR > 5 mm/yr)

Distance = 5 km Î Nv = 1.6 (Table 16-T)

Na = Near Source Coefficient (acceleration)

Seismic Source A (M > 7.0, SR > 5 mm/yr)

Distance = 5 km Î Na = 1.2 (Table 16-S)

CE243A 41

Cv I

Vbase = W Eq. (30 - 4)

RT

I = Importance Factor (1.0 to 1.25; Table 16-K)

W= Building Seismic Dead Load

R = Force Reduction Coefficient (Table 16-N)

T = Fundamental Structural Period

T = Ct (hn ) 3 / 4 = 0.02(48 ft )3 / 4 = 0.37 sec

Ct = Coefficient (e.g., 0.02 for rc walls)

hn = Building height (feet)

CE243A 42

Fall 04 21

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

Dead & Live Loads

Ft F4

(Vbase − Ft ) wx hx

F3 Fx = n

∑ wi hi

i =1

F2

Ft = 0.07TV T > 0.7 sec

F1 Ft = 0.0 T < 0.7 sec

Vbase

CE243A 43

LFRS “Gravity” System

CE243A 44

Fall 04 22

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

Details of a

building in

Emeryville

CE243A 45

“Non-Participating” System

z Also referred to as: “Gravity” System

z Flat plate floor systems (Gravity loads)

– Efficient and economical

– Easy to form, low story heights

– Strong column – weak beam concept

CE243A 46

Fall 04 23

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

CE243A 47

Equivalent Static or Response Spectrum

12 ft

LFRS

Model 12 ft

100 ft

12 ft

12 ft

50 ft

Floor Plan Elevation View LFRS

Note: Neglecting torsion

CE243A 48

Fall 04 24

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

Cv I 0.4(1.6)(1.0)

Vbase = W= W

RT 3/ 4

R (T = Ct hn )

W4 = (100' x 50' )(100 psf) = 500 kips

CE243A 49

Cv I 0.4(1.6)(1.0)

Vbase = W= (W = 2000 kips)

RT 3/ 4

R (T = Ct hn )

R = Force Reduction Coefficient (Table 16-N)

Accounts for nonlinear response of building

(Building strength, ductility, damping)

R = 1 is associated with elastic response

Typical Values:

R = 8.5 for a rc special moment frame

R = 5.5 for a rc wall building

CE243A 50

Fall 04 25

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

Cv I 0.4(1.6)(1.0)

Vbase = W= W

RT R (0.63)

0.64 1.73 1.73 g

Vbase = W= W= M

R (0.37) R R

2.5Ca I 2.5(0.4)(1.2) 1. 2 g

Vbase ≤ W= W= M

R R R

Vbase = 1.2(2000) / R = 1 = 2400 kips (elastic)

Vbase = 2400 /( R = 5.5) = 435 kips (design)

R > 1.0 requires inelastic response

Structure must be specially detailed to

control inelastic behavior

CE243A 51

(Seismic Zone 4, Soil Type SB, Na =Nv =1)

1.5

Response Spectrum

1.25 Design Spectrum (CN)

Design Force - R/I = 4.5

V/W (Acceleration)

1

Design Force - R/I = 8.5

0.75

0.5

0.25

0

0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2

Period (Seconds)

CE243A 52

Fall 04 26

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

Confinement

CE243A 53

F4

(Vbase − Ft ) wx hx

F3

Fx = n

∑ wi hi

i =1

F2

Ft = 0.07TV T > 0.7 sec

F1 Ft = 0.0 T < 0.7 sec

CE243A 54

Fall 04 27

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

n

F4 ∑ wi hi = (500 kips)(12'+24'+36'+48' )

i =1

= 60,000 kip - ft

F3

(435 − 0)(500 k )(48' )

Fx = 4 = = 0.4V = 174 k

60,000 ft − k

F2 (435 − 0)(500 k )(36' )

Fx =3 = = 0.3V = 131k

60,000 ft − k

F1 (435 − 0)(500 k )(24' )

Fx = 2 = = 0.2V = 87 k

60,000 ft − k

(435 − 0)(500 k )(12' )

Fx =1 = = 0.1V = 43k

60,000 ft − k

4

∑ Fx = 174 + 131 + 87 + 43 = 435 kips

Base Shear x =1

CE243A 55

Dead & Live Loads z Load Combinations

F4 UBC-

UBC-97 - S16.12.2.1

– U = 1.2D + 0.5L + 1.0E

F3 – U = 0.9D +/-

+/- 1.0E

– Where: E = ρEh+ Ev

F2 Ev=0.5CaID = 0.24D

z U = 0.9D +/- 1.0(ρEh+ Ev)

+/- 1.0(ρ

F1

U = (0.9+/- +/- ρEh

(0.9+/-0.24)D +/-

ρ = redundancy factor ≥1.0

z Conduct static analysis

e.g., use SAP2000

Base Shear = ρEh

CE243A 56

Fall 04 28

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

Dead & Live Loads z Load Combinations

F4

UBC-

UBC-97 - S16.12.2.1

– U = 1.2D + 0.5L + 1.0E

F3

– U = 0.9D +/-

+/- 1.0E

F2 – Where: E = ρEh+ Ev

Ev=0.5CaID = 0.24D

F1 z U = 0.9D +/- 1.0(ρEh+ Ev)

+/- 1.0(ρ

U = (0.9+/- +/- ρEh

(0.9+/-0.24)D +/-

ρ = redundancy factor ≥1.0

z Conduct static analysis

Vbase e.g., use SAP2000

CE243A 57

is defined Design forces:

(e.g., R=8.5) Story Displ.: ∆s

– Defines drift for

Maximum Inelastic ∆ s,x=4

Response Displacement

(∆M ) and for Design ∆ s,x=3

Seismic Forces (∆S ): ∆M

= 0.7R∆S ∆ s,x=2

z 1630.10 – Drift limits defined ∆ s,x=1

– Drift < 0.025 times story

height if T < 0.7 sec

– Drift < 0.02 times story

height if T ≥ 0.7 sec Elevation View

CE243A 58

Fall 04 29

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

UBC-97 Requirements

z 1633.1 General:

– Only the elements of the designated LFRS

shall be used to resist design forces

– Consider both seismic and gravity (D, L, S)

– For some structures (irregular), must consider

orthogonal effects: 100% of seismic forces in

one direction, 30% in the perpendicular

direction

CE243A 59

UBC-97 Requirements

z 1633.2.1 General:

– Defined by the types of vertical elements used

z 1633.2.2 For structures with multiple systems,

must use requirements for more restrictive

system

z 1633.2.3 Connections – if resisting seismic

forces, then must be on drawings

z 1633.2.4 Deformation compatibility

CE243A 60

Fall 04 30

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

LFRS “Gravity” System

CE243A 61

Code level ∆s,x=4

Design forces:

(e.g., R=8.5) Story Displ.: ∆s

∆ s,x=4

∆ s,x=3

∆ s,x=2

∆ s,x=1

diaphragm

Rigid diaphragm

Flexible diaphragm

CE243A 62

Fall 04 31

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

UBC-97 Requirements

– Requires that non-

non-participating structural

elements be designed to ensure compatibility

of deformations with lateral force resisting

system

– Non-

Non-participating elements must be capable of

maintaining support for gravity loads at

deformations expected due to seismic forces

– Design of LFRS:

z Model LFRS and apply design seismic forces

z Neglect lateral stiffness and strength of non-

non-

participating elements

CE243A 63

UBC-97 Requirements

Code level

z 1633.2.4 – Deformation Design forces:

compatibility (e.g., R=8.5) Story Displ.: ∆s

– For LFRS ∆ s,x=4

z ∆M = 0.7R∆S for

lateral frame at each ∆ s,x=3

story

z That is, compute ∆ s,x=2

story displacements

for design seismic ∆ s,x=1

forces applied to the

LFRS, then multiple

by them by 0.7R

Elevation View

CE243A 64

Fall 04 32

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

UBC-97 Requirements

z 1633.2.4 – Deformation compatibility

– Non-participating frame

z Model the system (linear - element stiffness)

section values

– Must consider flexibility of diaphragm and

foundation

z Impose story displacements on the model of non-

participating frame

– The imposed displacements produce element

forces, consider these to be ultimate

– check stability (support for gravity loads)

– Detailing requirements: 21.11 in ACI 318-02

CE243A 65

UBC-97 Requirements

– Collectors (1633.2.6)

z Must provide collectors to transfer seismic

forces originating in other portions of the

structure to the element providing the

resistance to these forces

– Diaphragms (1633.2.9)

z Deflection of diaphragm limited by the

permissible deflection of the attached elements

z Design forces specified in (33-1)

CE243A 66

Fall 04 33

CE 243A Behavior & design of RC Elements Prof. J. W. Wallace

Chapter 21 – Seismic Provisions

z Provide transverse steel

- Confinement, buckling

- Maintain gravity loads

z Strong-

Strong-column, weak-weak-beam

- Beam flexural yielding

z Capacity design

- Beam & column shear

- Joint regions

z Prescriptive requirements

- Little flexibility

- Quick, easy, and usually

conservative

CE243A 67

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