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Music and Arts in Action | Volume 3 | Issue 3

Music and Migration: A Transnational Approach


NADIA KIWAN AND ULRIKE HANNA MEINHOF
University of Aberdeen | University of Southampton | United Kingdom *

ABSTRACT This sp cial issu on th th ! o" Music and Migration addr ss s th highl# topical th ! o" !igration and th $italit# o" %cultural diasporas& through th pris! o" !igrating !usicians and !igrating !usical "or!s' All nin original articl s( including our o)n( ngag )ith *road r +u stions o" ho) n ) !od s o" !o*ilit# and socialit# ar *orn out o" th social( cultural( historical and political int r"ac s * t) n !igration and !usic' Through a transnational( co!parati$ and !ulti, l $ l approach to th r lationship * t) n !igration( !o$ ! nt and !usic( this sp cial issu "ocus s on th a sth tic int rs ctions * t) n th local and th glo*al( and * t) n ag nc# and id ntit#' -# ta.ing !usic as its sp ci"ic "ocus( th issu s .s to contri*ut to ongoing th or tical and ! thodological d *at s )ithin !igration and diaspora studi s( including thos r lat d to transnational n t)or.s( glo*ali/ation and cultural "lo)s'

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and Lit ratur ( Uni$ rsit# o" A* rd n( Ta#lor -uilding( A* rd n A-23 4U-( UK 0 5 ntr "or Transnational 1tudi s( Mod rn Languag s( Uni$ rsit# o" 1outha!pton( 1outha!pton( 1O67 6-8( UK

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Music and Arts in Action | Volume 3 | Issue 3

I#TR$%&CTI$#
This special issue on the theme of Music and Migration addresses the highly topical theme of migration and the vitality of cultural diasporas through the prism of migrating musicians and migrating musical forms All nine original articles! including our o"n engage "ith broader #uestions of ne" modes of mobility and sociality "hich are borne out of the social! cultural! historical and political interfaces bet"een migration and music Through a transnational! comparative and multi$scalar approach to the relationship bet"een migration! movement and music! this special issue "ill focus on the aesthetic intersections bet"een the local and the global and bet"een agency and identity %y ta&ing music as its specific focus! the volume see&s to contribute to ongoing theoretical and methodological debates "ithin migration and diaspora studies! including transnational net"or&s! globali'ation and cultural flo"s
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%efore "e consider the main theoretical and conceptual issues at sta&e in this special issue! it is important to outline briefly "hy "e have chosen to focus on migration through the prism of musicians( and artists( net"or&s There are several conceptual and methodological reasons for this )irst of all! it allo"s us to tell a different story about south$ to$north*east$to$"est migration The vast ma+ority of academic research on migration is socio$economic in character Most of the time migrants are seen as a source of social! cultural and economic problems for the host society and the migrants themselves are often portrayed as victims ,"hether they be political e-iles! economic migrants! students or postcolonial guest"or&ers. )ocusing on artists in general! and musicians in particular! allo"s us to render more visible other types of migrant stories! "hich are generally more positive! or at least more multi$faceted Migrant musicians are by definition sub+ective agents "hose mobility! "hilst often determined by difficult socio$economic or political problems at place or country of origin! is nevertheless one of agency and self$determination Many migrant musicians are also highly educated or highly s&illed! "ithout necessarily being part of a transnational elite class! and are able to adopt various strategies "hich allo" many of them to turn their music into a full$time profession /lse"here "e have sho"n in more detail the interrelation bet"een musicians( cultural! social and economic capital 0 "hat "e theori'e as their transcultural capital ,Ki"an and Meinhof! 12334 Meinhof! 12254 Meinhof and Triandafyllidou! 1226. 0 to ma&e a living from their music in multiple locations! at home! in diasporic or in other more diversified settings Another "ay in "hich music can help us to conceive of migration in "ays "hich depart from dominant narratives is methodological7 by follo"ing the life stories and career tra+ectories of migrant musicians as individuals! "e are able to move a"ay from discourses that essentiali'e ethnicity! "hich tend to emerge from research "hich ta&es as its entry point densely populated areas inhabited by migrant 8communities( 9nstead! "e are able to trace the e-periences of migrants as individuals "ho are not solely identified in terms of their ethnic or national affiliations ,real or supposed.
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:lic& Schiller and Meinhof in this volume argue in more detail for the need to move to"ards a transnational social fields and net"or& approach to migration studies! "hereby all types of people are seen to interact "ith one another! irrespective of origin and #uestions of "ho belongs "here 9n that sense! artists only offer one particularly potent focus for a much more generali'able perspective on such a comple- area of study )inally! the articulation bet"een music and migration in this special issue e-plores the comple- relationship bet"een the arts and the everyday All articles in this volume thereby consider the "ays in "hich #uestions such as immigration and integration policies! the interface bet"een cultural and social policy conte-ts! globali'ation! and capitalist neo$imperialism all impact on migrant musicians and music in a ,post.$migration conte-t

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All articles in this volume "ere refereed and developed from papers delivered at a conference on Music and Migration at the University of Southampton in ;ctober 1225! "hich brought to a close an A<=>$funded pro+ect entitled Diaspora as social and cultural practice: A study of transnational networks across Europe and Africa ,or T?Mundi for short.! co$directed by Meinhof and Ki"an! "ith Marie$@ierre :ibert ,also in this volume. as a post$doctoral researcher %efore introducing the "ays in "hich the different authors in this special issue engage "ith the very rich field of music and migration studies "e "ould li&e to briefly address the "ays in "hich our o"n "or& engages "ith the theoretical and conceptual conte-ts of migration studies! and introduce &ey aspects from our case studies to focus it empirically The aim of our T?Mundi pro+ect "as to loo& at South$?orth! ?orth$South relations bet"een Africa and /urope! seen through the prism of musicians from ?orth Africa and Madagascar and their comple- net"or&s "ithin /urope! Africa and beyond The pro+ect adopted an approach "hich foregrounded the life stories of individual musicians through "hich "e encountered the multiple artistic! cultural and civil society conte-ts relevant to their lives and careers The emphasis of the pro+ect "as to focus on these musicians( net"or&s across a variety of /uropean and African spaces adopting a sub+ect$centred! multi$sited ethnographic approach ,Marcus! 355A4 =ice! 122B. The significance in studying musicians as individual actors rather than as representatives of a particular ethnic or spatial community "ithin the host and home countries and in follo"ing their personal and professional net"or&s! lay in the revelation of much more multi$layered types of translocal and transnational lin&s than are usually associated "ith migration and diaspora research This does not underestimate or negate the often deep$rooted ethnic and national ties of many of the musicians "e studied! but it creates a very different conte-t for appreciating the comple-ities of their multiple identities and allegiances )urthermore! "hilst in recent years scholarship in the arts and humanities has increasingly focused on transnational net"or&s and flo"s! there has been surprisingly little research "hich demonstrates empirically their everyday life realities and privileges the bottom$up perspectives of those involved There has been even less "or& that loo&s at transnational net"or&s and flo"s from a cultural or arts$based perspective 9ndeed! the ma+ority of research on transnational net"or&s is part and parcel of a broader literature on the economic

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and financial dimensions of globali'ation and the "ays in "hich the latter is mediated and facilitated by large$scale corporate and institutional net"or&s of transnational companies and organi'ations ,cf7 Appadurai! 35564 Mc?eill! 35554 Sassen! 35534 Smith! 3555. A particularly significant feature of our net"or& design brings "ith it a ne" perspective on migration "hich does not only focus on music and migration in the ne" country of residence4 rather! "e contend that in order to more fully understand the dynamics of north$south migration! "e need to loo& at migration "hich precedes transnational out$migration , i.e.! internal migration "ithin sending countries. 3 ;ften these cycles of movement "hich are internal to the sending country constitute the first steps to"ards transnational migration and! later! transnational return or circular ,to$ing and fro$ing. migration ;ur net"or& model of migration allo"s us to demonstrate a "ide variety of transnational connections bet"een migrant musicians! their home countries! countries of settlement and other spaces and constituencies! and the "ays in "hich the musicians themselves perceive and motivate these movements ;ur main departure from e-isting net"or& models ,e.g.! %ec&er! 35C14 %urnell! 122D4 >astells! 35564 >ollins! 355C4 <olton! 122C4 Eandolt! 12234 Eatour! 3555! 122A4 Ei! 355C4 @i''orno! 35534 =ussell and Tuite! 12214 Smith and :uarni'o! 355C4 van de Feer! 12214 Ghou and Tseng! 1223. lies in our mapping of multi$dimensional and multi$directional cultural flo"s 9n using the concept of flo"s $ and ta&ing on board @ratt(s insightful criti#ue of the metaphor of flo" as one of uninhibited movement ,@ratt! 122A. $ "e do not "ish to suggest that these tra+ectories run across easily accessible spaces =ather! and as the life tra+ectories of musicians amply demonstrate! these flo"s need to overcome many obstacles and frictions 9n order to describe these movements and the "ays in "hich they are mediated! "e have chosen to adopt the metaphor of the hub! "hich gives us both a hori'ontal perspective of channels of movements and their clustering at particularly salient points! as "ell as a vertical perspective of these clusters! "here people! places! and institutions relate top$do"n as "ell as bottom$up in particularly potent "ays He argue that the transnational net"or&s "ithin "hich migrant musicians operate are facilitated through and by human hubs! spatial hubs! institutional hubs and! lastly! some"hat ironically by "hat "e have called accidental hubs <uman hubs refer to e-tremely significant individuals ,musicians or cultural organi'ers "ho "or& "ith musicians! e.g.! festival organi'ers. "ho are the main focus of the net"or&4 they are &no"n by everyone in that net"or& although not all the members of the net"or& &no" each other These human hubs not only connect hori'ontally a "ide variety of spaces across countries of origin! settlement and beyond! they also lin& individuals vertically across a range of artistic! institutional and professional conte-ts %y focusing on the professional activities and life narratives of &ey individual musicians*cultural organi'ers! i.e.! by focusing on individuals! our "or& on music and migration allo"s us to avoid the dangers of methodological nationalism 0 a term coined by Himmer and :lic& Schiller to refer to a tendency "ithin the social and human sciences to adopt a container model of society defined primarily as a national society ,Himmer and :lic& Schiller! 122B4 :lic& Schiller and Meinhof! in this volume. )rom that
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Ki)an and M inho" ?2;66@'

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perspective migrants appear as both outsiders to the nation and as internally homogenous ethnic groups Much research on migration throughout the 12 th and 13st century has indeed tended to focus on spatially$ and ethnically$defined migrant groups! and has thus not ac&no"ledged the enormous cultural! linguistic! social and political heterogeneity "ithin any given migrant group ;ur focus on human hubs avoids this ris& Spatial hubs refer to &ey spaces of cultural activity among migrant musicians! and! "hilst there already e-ists an e-tensive literature on the importance of &ey cultural capitals ,or commercial hubs. in the ?orth such as @aris! Eondon! %erlin! Fienna or ?e" Ior& ,see Meinhof and Triandafyllidou! 1226.! much less is &no"n about spatial hubs located "ithin the South 0 such as Ja&ar! Antananarivo or >asablanca 9nstitutional hubs refer to the &ey role played by certain organi'ations located both in the ?orth and South "hich "or& to support the "or& of migrant! post$migrant and returnee migrant musicians /-amples include organi'ations such as the 9nstitut )ranKais! the :oethe 9nstitut* :oethe >ultural >entres or the %ritish >ouncil ;ur net"or& field design also allo"ed us to uncover lin&s bet"een musicians and civil society organi'ations such as ?:;s Some of these ?:;s are based in the global ?orth! some are diasporic in character! others are led and represented by non$ migrant /uropeans! and others again are based in the South <o"ever! despite the varied nature of such civil society organi'ations! our research sho"ed that one can regard these sorts of associations as representing alternative models of South$?orth$ ?orth$South mutual support and! thus! countering the notion that civil society ?:;s based in the richer ?orth are simply vehicles for giving to the poor South :ibert and Meinhof ,1225. have sho"n in detail ho" ne" and much more e#ual e-changes are made possible through the mutual respect and e-change of e-pertise bet"een artists and civil society organi'ations )inally! accidental hubs are those "here "e! as researchers! became involved in the net"or&s that "e study Artists tend to see& out multiple opportunities to practise their art and "e as researchers also have multiple lin&s "ith other academics! media and cultural organi'ations <ence! it is almost inevitable that "e as researchers became involved in the musicians( net"or&s that "e "ere researching There is ample literature in social anthropology on the so$called observer parado- ,)isher and Marcus! 35C64 >lifford and Marcus! 35C64 Marcus! 355C4 Armbruster 122C.! and "e decided to positively embrace our privileged lin&s "ith the musicians "hose lives "e "ere researching! "hile all the time adopting a self$refle-ive approach to the collection of data and data analysis The three cultural events of T?Mundi! in Antananarivo 122D! =abat 122C! and Southampton 1225 ,"hich included specially rehearsed concerts under the curatorship of T?Mundi consultant and reno"ned musician Jama from the Malagasy group Mahaleo.! not only demonstrated the potential of the artistic collaboration and cross$fertili'ation of musicians from different cultural and artistic bac&grounds! and thus themati'ed and made visible some of our research findings! they also inspired a "hole range of ne" and on$going collaborations bet"een the artists! lasting "ell$beyond the reach of our o"n involvement through T?Mundi

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%y adopting a net"or& field research design in order to study the multiple hubs and nodes of musical creativity in a migration conte-t! our research has sought to demonstrate the "ays in "hich many migrant musicians use transcultural capital to ma&e a living from their art Transcultural capital theory "as first developed by Meinhof and Triandafyllidou ,1226. in order to describe the multi$layered nature of migrant artists( s&ills ,types of capital. %uilding on %ourdieu(s notion of cultural or symbolic capital ,%ourdieu and Hac#uant! 1221. as "ell as <alpern(s and @utnam(s "or& on social capital ,<alpern! 122A4 @utnam! 1222.! transcultural capital is a heuristic concept "hich allo"s us to describe and interpret the varied resources "hich migrant musicians mobili'e so as to be able to ma&e a living from their music in a migration conte-t 9n contrast to %ourdieu(s notions of different types of capital! "hich capture the symbolic and social net"or&ing po"er of hegemonic groups in ma+ority society ,see for e-ample %ourdieu and Hac#uant! 3551.! transcultural capital foregrounds the capacity for strategic interventions of migrant and minority groups Transcultural capital captures the "ays in "hich many ,post$.migrant musicians maintain highly meaningful lin&s "ith their countries of origin and the "ays in "hich these lin&s inform their creativity %y using the concept of transcultural capital "e argue that rather than essentiali'ing those artists "ho structure their creativity around their lin&s "ith their countries of origin by describing them in ethnici'ed terms! "e do not ta&e such lin&s at face value That is not to say that these ethnic lin&s are not sincere or genuine! but rather that they are often one of many "ays in "hich migrant musicians identify themselves4 at times they may play the ethnic card! at other times they may position themselves in highly cosmopolitan and diverse creative conte-ts ;ur observations thus resonate "ith other "or& "hich has been conducted on the commodification of difference "ithin "orld music! "hereby it is argued that ethnici'ed difference is both a matter of symbolic creativity and political economy ,J"yer and >rang! 1221! p L31! cited in >onnell and :ibson! 122L! p BLA. Significant e-amples of musicians "ho have indeed felt constrained to play the ethnic card include %Mninese artist Angeli#ue Kid+o or Senegalese musician Ioussou ?(Jour "ho! despite their eclecticism and hybridity ,>onnell and :ibson! 122L! p BA3.! "ere re#uired to be musically and other"ise premodern N O 0 because of racism and "estern demands for authenticity ,Taylor! 355D! p 316! cited in >onnell and :ibson! 122L! p BA3. 9n the case of Kid+o and ?(Jour! Taylor argues that this engendered a &ind of strategic inauthenticity on their part! since as >onnell and :ibson point out both musicians $ in a similar sense to Australian >hristine Anu or >ap Ferdean >esaria /vora $ had been engaged in fundamentally modern and transnational music$ma&ing long before the "orld music industry pic&ed up on their "or& 9n other "ords! transcultural capital describes the multiple strategies adopted by musicians "ho live and "or& in a migration conte-t so as to reach as "ide$ranging an audience as possible Migrant musicians bring "ith them to the country of settlement substantial cultural capital )or e-ample! the ?orth African and Malagasy musicians "e intervie"ed for our research pro+ect all dre" on the musical and linguistic resources of their countries of origin and "ere inspired by the social! cultural and environmental conte-ts of their respective regions of origin This imported cultural capital allo"s such artists to maintain lin&s "ith their respective diasporas in the
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country of settlement and in turn creates significant forms of social capital The interface bet"een imported cultural capital and settlement social capital also serves to create numerous creative opportunities for sho"s! festivals! recording! i.e.! it translates into economic capital The musicians( continued lin&s "ith home also create other creative and economic opportunities for artists in the originating country "ho may never have actually emigrated but "ho are nevertheless afforded performance opportunities "ithin and through the diaspora This gives transcultural capital a cyclical dimension as it lin&s originating and settlement countries! but the fact that it affords multiple opportunities for migrant musicians both "ithin and beyond the diaspora means that it is far from being an essentiali'ing concept "hich loc&s migrant musicians into a bi$focal relationship bet"een home and host society )inally! a &ey theoretical and conceptual concern underpinning our "or& and this special issue in general relates to the politics of globali'ation <ere! "e understand the politics of globali'ation as the means by "hich ordinary individuals are able to critically engage "ith forces of globali'ation "hich are normally regarded as being out of their control Much of the globali'ation literature privileges a top$do"n vie" of globali'ation 9t is for this reason that Michael @eter Smith ,3555. is critical of the type of research done by Sas&ia Sassen ,3553. on global cities! since! according to Smith! the global cities literature of this type tends to focus too much on processes of globali'ation "hich emanate from above Sassen(s ,122D. later "or& on global cities does in fact ta&e into account the agency of migrants "ithin the urban dynamics of globali'ation ?evertheless! Smith(s criti#ue is valid to the e-tent that there is a ris& that scholars of globali'ation ignore the crucial role played by individuals "ithin processes of globali'ation from belo" ,Smith and :uarni'o! 355C. ;ur "or& "ith migrant musicians! "hich involved the mapping of their transnational net"or&s and of their impact on the cultural landscape of a number of localities sho"s ho" "e should not lose sight of the human dimension of globali'ation 9n this sense! our approach to music! migration and transnationalism resonates "ith :lic& Schiller(s concern for greater consideration "ithin migration research agendas of global po"er perspectives and disparities
/R$M T(,$R) T$ -RACTIC,

The main thrust of our transnational perspective on music and migration is centred on the presence of African migrant musicians "ho are located in cities and to"ns in /urope ?evertheless! "e argue that in order to more fully understand the spatialities of transnational net"or&s ,)eatherstone! et. al! 122D! p BCB. and the creative practices of these artists in /urope! "e need to be a"are of the cycles of movement "ithin their originating countries7 cycles of movement "hich are often more significant for individuals than actual international out$migration! especially if these processes of internal migration involve a move from a remote village to the capital city "ith enormous socio$cultural and economic differences Hhat are the main motivations for people to uproot and leave their homes to migrate to the larger to"ns and cities of their country of birthP Hhat &inds of net"or&s facilitate such internal migrationP And at "hat point does translocal ,here! "e mean country$ internal. mobility become a stepping stone for transnational migration and ho" does
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it spread out from there and in many cases bac& againP 9n order to ans"er these #uestions! the T?Mundi pro+ect focused on the tra+ectories of musicians based in Madagascar and Morocco before e-panding their net"or&s into and across /uropean spaces ;ur boo& Cultural Globalization and Music ,Ki"an and Meinhof! 1233. gives a full account of the comple- movements and interconnections of these contemporary artists <ere "e can only point to a fe" of the underlying concepts that informed our o"n "or& 9n our e-ploration of music and internal migration patterns in Madagascar and Morocco! irrespective of or prior to any transnational migration! "e have chosen to underline the translocal characteristics of the interaction bet"een cultural! social and economic capital 0 "hat "e introduced earlier as transcultural capital %y translocal ,net"or&s.! "e are referring to interconnections "ithin specific national boundaries as opposed to transnational movements*net"or&s "hich go beyond national boundaries He are a"are that in transnational studies and globali'ation research! such a bounded distinction bet"een the translocal and the transnational is not the norm <o"ever! the advantage of such a distinction becomes evident "hen "e discuss translocal and transcultural capital Translocal capital also has cultural! social! and economic dimensions! but it "or&s on a more local and regional level than its transnational counter$part Translocal capital accrues by virtue of the musicians( ability to be part of and be able to e-press local styles and rhythms and thus appeal to regional rather than national identifications 9n Madagascar the distinction bet"een the regions of the <ighlands "ith the capital city of Antananarivo in its centre! and the coastal provinces on its roughly B222 thousand miles of coast! has a long history! "ith the music emanating from these regions being highly distinctive Musicians in the provinces not only accompany the distinctive ceremonies of everyday life! such as birth! circumcision! marriage and burial rituals! they are also part and parcel of much more mundane events such as simple entertainment Adherence to the cultural capital of the region may or may not overlap "ith an ethnic identification! and it often has a highly strategic dimension since musicians can access social net"or&s connecting their regions "ith those "ho have migrated and settled in the capital city 9n Antananarivo a particular district named 6Dha after its si'e is the main port of call for incoming artists from the provinces and a vital source of support for them /thnic and*or regional bac&grounds can thus provide artists "ith significant resources "hich may even translate into the highly e-otici'ing discourses of the so$called "orld music mar&et 9n Morocco! "hilst there does e-ist an urban$rural divide! in terms of standards of living! levels of education and cultural practices! the broader picture of internal migration of artists and musicians that "e studied is significantly different Hhilst rurality "as one predominant feature of Meinhof(s research on Malagasy social life and the "ays in "hich it intersects "ith music! Ki"an(s research on ne" urban musical forms inevitably led to a focus on translocal net"or&s and movements bet"een provincial to"n and metropolitan city rather than bet"een remote village and metropolitan city Jespite this difference! our Moroccan field"or& did demonstrate multiple "ays in "hich musicians from the provinces illuminate the

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social and cultural dimensions of translocal capital 9t became clear from the Moroccan field research "hich "e undertoo& as part of the T?Mundi pro+ect that being a musician in a provincial Moroccan to"n! i.e.! not in >asablanca or =abat! poses &ey challenges in terms of access to crucial rehearsal and performance space as "ell as to recording studios! media and music professional net"or&s more broadly These obstacles "ere consistently mentioned "hen "e intervie"ed musicians from to"ns such as )e' and Me&nes! despite the fact that these t"o to"ns are t"o of the Morocco(s imperial cities "ith a long history of nationally and internationally significant cultural production <o"ever! the musicians "e intervie"ed in these t"o locations "ere part of the hip$hop movement and their observations may also have something to do "ith the genre of music they represent 1 /-amples of musicians in Morocco "ho sense that they are someho" on the margins include groups such as )e' >ity >lan ,from )e'.! <$Kayne ,from Me&nes. or Amarg )usion ,from Agadir in the south.! "ho although successful groups in their o"n right! nevertheless highlight ho" some of the centre$periphery dynamics can impinge on the careers of other groups "ho are not based in either >asablanca or =abat Iet it "ould be misleading to overstate any marginali'ing dynamics since most of the provincial groups "e intervie"ed "ere also highly a"are of the potentialities of their regional identities "ithin the broader Moroccan cultural conte-t 9n other "ords! these musicians often played up their regional origins! by either underlining that they sung or rapped "ith a particular regional accent! by using their regional locations and affiliations in their group(s names and identities! or by presenting their "or& as being part of a regional or locali'ed cultural revival! for e-ample through an adaptation and re$"or&ing of the Souss region rwais repertoire in the case of Amarg )usion from Agadir B ;ne can argue that this tendency of certain musicians to play up their regional origins and to use them to promote themselves and their "or& is an e-ample of one of the "ays in "hich trans local capital has both a cultural and social dimension "ithin national boundaries and in a sense reflects at an infra$national level! the employment of transcultural capital by musicians in a transnational migration conte-t ,that is! once they have left their countries of origin and moved to /urope. The centrality of metropolitan cities as cultural hubs "ithin Morocco and Madagascar suggests that for musicians "ho aspire to migrate to /urope or beyond! they must first transit via >asablanca or Antananarivo! "hich are &ey cultural hubs bearing several similarities to the great cultural capitals and commercial hubs of the ?orth such as @aris! %erlin or Eondon >ities such as Antananarivo or >asablanca play dual roles in the cultural field7 they are at once &ey creative hubs "ithin Madagascar and Morocco and important nodes in "ider transnational net"or&s "hich lin& musicians to /urope 9n both Madagascar and Morocco! Antananarivo and >asablanca house the vast ma+ority of cultural resources such as recording studios! performance venues! rehearsal space and professional promoters 9n addition! these cities are also home to the important net"or& of /uropean cultural institutions such as the 9nstitut )ranKais! the Alliance )ranKaise! :oethe 9nstitut* >ultural >entre and the cultural departments of national
2 Ki)an is grat "ul to Mari ,>i rr Di* rt "or h r r 4 R)ais r " rs to th sung po tr# o" itin rant pro"

s arch assistanc during "i ld)or. in Morocco' ssional !usicians "ro! th south,) st rn 1ouss r gion o" Morocco'

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embassies )inally! these cities are home to highly influential artists and cultural promoters! festival organi'ers! etc ! "ho serve as human hubs in the sense that they are at the centre of significant translocal and transnational creative net"or&s <ence it is the interface bet"een spatial! institutional and human hubs "hich gives these cities their specific role as &ey centres of cultural globali'ation and transnational net"or&ing All of these developments suggest that metropolitan cities in the South have become a sort of passage oblig for aspiring musicians "ithin Madagascar and Morocco! and not simply as a preliminary step to"ards transnational out$migration 9n Madagascar! one of the most celebrated and long$standing musical groups! Mahaleo! consistently refuses to fully professionali'e and settle abroad! instead using their considerable fame and social and artistic connections to support a translocal and transnational net"or& of other artists 9n Morocco in recent years! and in large part than&s to the dynamism of the !oule"ard des #eunes musiciens movement! >asablanca is no longer necessarily seen as an inevitable stepping stone to greater things in /urope L ;ften the end point is >asablanca itself! "hich invites us to call into #uestion some &ey elements of our understanding of transnationalism! cultural globali'ation and migration ;f course! one should not e-aggerate this calling into #uestion of transnational out$ migration trends but such a perspective has an impact on the "ays in "hich researchers should vie" the historically$established creative and commercial migration hubs of the ?orth! such as @aris! since it may be that for some musicians based in cultural hubs in Africa! @aris or other /uropean capital cities may no longer be such an irresistible cultural magnet as in the past This is not to deny the very po"erful pull that @aris e-erts Throughout the 12 th century! @aris has occupied a central role as a &ey site for artistic and cultural creativity across a "ide spectrum of genres and artistic endeavours 9t has played a specific role as a cultural hub for musicians of francophone migrant bac&ground ,see Hinders! 1226 on sub$Saharan African musicians.! and the presence of Malagasy and the much stronger presence of ?orth African musicians "ithin the city today is testament to a long and rich history of artistic migration The influence of ?orth African musicians in @aris dates bac& to the early 12th century As Jaoudi and Miliani ,1221. have sho"n! the first recordings of Algerian ,&abyle. music in @aris too& place in 3532! and! by the 35B2s! there "as already a plethora of performance venues in form of the Eatin Quarter(s caf s maghr bins Hith the advent of independence in Morocco and Tunisia in 35A6 and Algeria in 3561! many @aris$based musicians returned to the Maghreb but this sense of optimism did not flourish in these ne"ly independent states and many ended up returning to @aris! "hich continued to serve as a main site for ?orth African migrant musicians %y contrast Malagasy migration dates mainly to the post$ independence period! and is thus mainly restricted to first and early second generation flo"s Throughout the 35C2s! @aris under"ent something of a cultural renaissance as far as migrant musicians "ere concerned since it mar&ed a brief spell "hen the Mitterrand government e-perimented "ith a )rench$style multiculturalism "hich sa" the liberali'ation of the air"aves and the subse#uent creation of numerous
3 Th

-oul $ard d E un s !o$ ! nt )ith its -oul $ard F sti$al in 5asa*lanca )as sta*lish d in 6CCC as a spac to pro!ot alt rnati$ ur*an !usic' For !or d tail s sp ciall# Ki)an and M inho" ?2;66( pp' A4,77@'

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immigrant radio stations "illing to broadcast migrant artists A A 35C3 la" allo"ing foreign nationals to establish their o"n cultural associations also added to the gro"ing dynamism of the migrant cultural scene in @aris 9n the 3552s to the present day! @aris continues to flourish as a focal point for )rancophone artists in general and Malagasy and ?orth African ones in particular @aris thus remains a &ey hub for migrant musicians since it allo"s them to perform! record! professionali'e and develop net"or&s "ith co$nationals from the diaspora as "ell as "ith musicians from all over the "orld @aris is also a ma+or site of importance for migrant musicians "ho live in )rance(s provincial to"ns and cities and "ho visit @aris regularly <o"ever! @aris is sometimes bypassed altogether both by those migrant musicians living in )rance(s provinces! as "ell as by those living in and aspiring to leave their originating countries )or e-ample! our research has sho"n that there is an increasingly significant ?orth African music scene in Eondon! despite the UK not having any postcolonial or linguistic ties "ith the Maghreb The same can be said of Amsterdam in the ?etherlands! although there is a history of labour migration from Morocco in that particular case ?evertheless! "hat our research demonstrates is that if one adopts a net"or& model of migration and traces the net"or&s of musicians "ithin originating countries themselves first! rather than using the metropolitan migration cities of /urope as one(s e-clusive entry point! it is possible to discover more about lesser$&no"n types and locales of migrant cultural creativity! thus better illustrating the comple-ities of contemporary transnational migration ;ur research has sho"n that migrant and post$migrant musicians are not solely located "ithin the dense ethnic clusters of ma+or /uropean cities such as @aris! Eondon! %erlin! etc ! but that migrant musicians often move bet"een multiple locations beyond these highly visible urban milieus 9ndeed! our "or& on migrant musicians( net"or&s demonstrates that these individuals often straddle capital and provincial to"ns and cities across /urope or countries of origin! and sometimes also resettle in their countries of origin "hilst still maintaining meaningful net"or&s "ithin their former countries of settlement Such multi$sitedness illustrates "ell the spatial comple-ity of transnational net"or&s and resonates "ith "hat <olton ,122C. has called multi$scalar comple-ity This special issue as a "hole thus illustrates ho" the study of music in a migration conte-t invites us to re$thin& crucial issues such as the relationship bet"een place and culture! local and global! the arts and the everyday as "ell as bet"een globali'ation and human agency

S&MMAR) $/ ARTIC0,S
He have divided this special issue into three sections 9n @art 3 above! "e have set the theoretical! conceptual and empirical conte-ts for the volume! first through this article "hich focuses on our o"n "or& arising from the T?Mundi pro+ect! and secondly through the follo"ing article by :lic& Schiller and Meinhof %uilding on Himmer and :lic& Schiller(s ,122B. "or& on methodological nationalism! :lic& Schiller and Meinhof criti#ue the units of analysis of contemporary migration theory
= EFa!pl

s includ Radio - ur( Radio 1ol il( Radio No$a *ut alsoas ) ll as "ro! 6CC2( s $ ral s!all countr#,sp ci"ic progra!! s such as th Malagas# *roadcast Echos du 5apricorn )hich is part o" th u!*r lla organi/ation o" FrG+u nc >aris >luri ll '

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$ the nation$state! the ethnic group! the transnational community $ that structure discussions of migration! as&ing the #uestion7 ho" do "e go about singing a ne" song about migrationP 9n ans"ering this #uestion! their article gives a historical account of the "ays in "hich migration discourses have developed! "ith a criti#ue of their underlying tendency to pose migrants as a source of otherness and conflict 9t argues that rather than approaching migration as the phenomenon of particular groups of people crossing borders from one territory to another "here they subse#uently face others "ho are indigenous or natives! thus reinforcing the us and them divide! an approach is needed that ta&es transnational social fields and transnational net"or&ing as its focus This alternative optic allo"s any number of types or 8categories( of people $ migrant or non$migrants in the past and the present $ to be seen as occupying interconnecting spaces and net"or&s 9n its approach the article complements the theoretical and methodological premise developed by Ki"an and Meinhof ,1233! and in this volume.! "here they sho" ho" the study of human! spatial! institutional and accidental hubs by definition creates a multiple and completransnational field 9n this "ay! the interconnecting and mutually enforcing $ or the oppositional and contradictory $ cultural influences can be studied at any level! vertically and hori'ontally! from the most specific to the most general! across and "ithin social fields of shared or une#ual po"er <ence cultural production is based on the multiple forms of transcultural capital that can be activated by the different actors "ithin the net"or&s! including the strategic use of cultural e-pression arising from artists( engagement "ith their originating regions or countries ! but it can also be studied as a form of e-clusion through gate$&eeping processes of differential po"er relations The article concludes "ith a brief case$study of musicians of Malagasy origin at the very opposite ends of transnational mobility and personal agency spectrum! "ho "hilst all originating from Madagascar e-emplify the enormous diversity of cultural production and the different po"er structures of globali'ation at local! national and transnational levels After the largely theoretical and methodological reflections in @art 3! the remaining sections of this special issue engage "ith different case studies ta&en from the respective authors( empirical "or& in different transnational conte-ts @art 1! "ith articles by Kabir and )uhr! has a special focus on transnational rhythms and cultures! "ith the additional innovative perspective of both authors not only discussing their sub+ect from an academic perspective but also as practicing participants in their research fields $ as dancer ,Kabir. and musician ,)uhr.! respectively The article by Kabir offers an intriguing and surprisingly under$documented comparison bet"een t"o dance music comple-es 0 Salsa and %hangra $ "hich "hilst originating from different geographical settings sho" distinct parallels in their colonial and post$ colonial histories Hhilst Salsa sprang from the rhythmic cultures of Africa and developed through the movement of people along transnational routes embracing the >aribbean and the United States! %hangra connects the partitioned space of the @un+ab! the UK and post$partition 9ndia and @a&istan 9n their transformation to transnational dance practices! they have transcended their original locali'ed identity as Afro$>aribbean or hailing from the 9ndian sub$continent*South Asian! to become much "ider Eatino*a and pan$South Asian identifiers Kabir argues that in the global

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sphere of "hat she calls the ephemeral and promiscuous space of the dance floor! the t"o different yet comparable cultures that have arisen from a <ispanophone and an Anglophone post$colonial imaginary collide and transform She argues that this process could easily elude academic analysis! but to the practising dancer it becomes obvious in moments of collective pleasure e-perienced by the dancing moving body These e-periences of desire and pleasure can unite migrants "ith very different histories and everyday life e-periences! unleashing energies "hich may still echo beyond the momentary e-perience of abandonment in dance and thus challenge! ho"ever briefly! the mar&et$driven hegemonies of the transnational "orlds The article by )uhr also involves the bodily and sensuous e-perience of creating music <er paper challenges the prevailing vie" that treats musical e-periences and discourses about music and musical e-periences as untranslatable into the vocabulary of musical theory and description %ased on her field research and musical collaborations "ith musicians in and from Madagascar! an island "here the different "aves of migration over the centuries have formed "hat is often referred to by the musicians as a cultural melting pot! )uhr ambitiously integrates both analysis and performance into one frame"or&! thus arguing the case for uniting ethnomusicological research "ith musical practices <er specific case study centres on the "ay in "hich Malagasy musicians "ho are both located at 8home( and in diasporic settings constantly refer to the notion of a 6*C rhythm! yet simultaneously contest it )uhr sho"s the parado- of using the concept of a particular metre and rhythm depending on musical notation in describing a musical culture based almost entirely on the oral tradition of lova$tsofina ,lova R heritage! sofina R ear. Jra"ing on her o"n practices of e-periencing rhythm "hilst music&ing! )uhr sho"s the "ay in "hich the analysis of discourses about music and the e-perience of music in performance can create a ne" basis for a performance$based ethnomusicology @art B of the special issue offers three case studies! ta&en from African! Middle /astern and /astern /uropean migration conte-ts! "hich all interrogate local and global intersections in the transnational field of music and migration Knudsen(s article ma&es the case for a postnational perspective in music scholarship in order to account more fully for the presence of glocal cultural formations "here global and local motivations coe-ist and are developed in relation to notions of class! style! gender and ethnicity Knudsen sho"s ho" minorities engage in transnational cultural e-pressions! or develop innovative practices that challenge national and ethnic boundaries and! in some cases! form completely ne" cultural and social configurations To illustrate such articulations of minority e-periences! Knudsen(s article focuses on a case study of an ethnically diverse hip$hop cre" in the centre of ;slo! ?or"ay! "hich lends itself effectively to discussions related to the postnational turn in music scholarship ,>orona and Madrid! 122C. :ibert(s and >arstensen$/g"uom(s articles problemati'e the "ays in "hich migrants( e-periences and the "ay they are perceived in their localities can run counter to musical innovation! creativity and pleasure! but also ho" they can be strategically used and adapted :ibert! dra"ing on her o"n research "ithin the T?Mundi pro+ect! studied ?orth African musicians resident in the UK and in )rance "ho are
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caught in a local policy conte-t that treats their art as a means for multiculturalism and community cohesion $ "hat Ki"an and Kosnic& ,1226! chap 6. have defined as socio$culture <o"ever! rather than seeing this in a purely negative light! :ibert sho"s the "ays in "hich artists and musical promoters can ma&e strategic use of these limitations and turn them into cultural capital <er specific case$study based on the activities of a Eondon$based association! the ?orth African Arts H32 in Eadbro&e :rove! sho"s these transformative processes in action 9n a related fashion! the article by >arstensen$/g"uom analy'es the strategic use of a stereotypical 8authentic( African identity by ?igerian migrants residing in the eastern :erman city of >hemnit' <er field "or& too& place in the comparative conte-t of the Sefone pro+ect! "hich focused on several to"ns and regions in /urope 6 >hemnit'! in contrast to other to"ns studied in the pro+ect! has only a small migrant population The specific case$study presented here focuses on the performance and representation strategies of a ?igerian cultural association based in >hemnit' during the local intercultural festival! "here different migrant groups present themselves in various artistic displays >arstensen$/g"uom discusses the "ays in "hich members of that association present themselves in musical performances in their styles of dance and costumes! and act out "hat should suggest an authentic Sub$Saharan identity for the ma+ority society The article analy'es these self$presentations and the motivations of the ?igerian performers "ithin the conte-t of local po"er structures and prevalent discourses of inclusion and integration @arado-ically! by pandering to the ma+ority society(s e-pectations of a 8true African8 and in foregrounding their otherness and strangeness! the ?igerian performers attempt to integrate themselves in the local intercultural scene of Sa-ony and >hemnit' The final section of this special issue raises significant #uestions about agency! inherent in forms of music and people "ho inhabit them Mueller(s "or& arises from his field"or& "ith a specific music$based sub$culture of hardcore pun&! "hich radiates out"ards from To&yo <e argues for an interrogation of seemingly uncontroversial classification modes such as local and global! and culture and subculture! "ith corresponding identities 9nstead he proposes that these identities are being constantly reconfigured by those involved at different sites %y adopting a multi$sited ethnographic approach Mueller is able to analy'e the mechanisms of global circulation of that musical scene 9n so doing! he challenges a simplistic binary optic "hereby hardcore pun& in Sapan might appear as a delocali'ed * relocali'ed phenomenon 9nstead of such a delocali'ation! hardcore pun& emerges as a net"or& of different interdependent global social scenes An understanding of the interrelation bet"een music and migration cannot be isolated from the ongoing global debate about cultural diversity and multiculturalism At the point of our "riting this article in early 1233! multiculturalism has once again been put out$front on the national and international agenda %ohlman(s article #uotes the heated debate in :ermany after the publication in August 1232 of :erman economist Thilo Sarra'in(s boo& that attac&ed migrants!
"on is an EU "und d Ath "ra! )or. proE ct( dir ct d at 1outha!pton Uni$ rsit# *# M inho" and Ar!*rust r "ro! 2;;7,2;6;( )ith a consortiu! o" A partn rs( including th Uni$ rsit# o" 5h !nit/' Ar!*rust r and M inho" ?2;66@'
A1

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especially those of Tur&ish origin! for undermining the culture of :ermany D :erman >hancellor Angela Mer&el follo"ed suit in ;ctober 1232 "ith a speech declaring that multiculturalism had failed! and in a highly controversial speech delivered at an international security conference in Munich on A )ebruary 1233! %ritish @rime Minister Javid >ameron issued a sharp criti#ue of state multiculturalism >ameron(s ,in our vie". ill$+udged identification of multiculturalism "ith terrorism and his call for a stronger %ritish national identity once again raised the political temperature in a debate of many different agendas! "hich invariably strengthens the -enophobic and islamophobic fear about 8non$assimilating migrants( in Hestern societies %ohlman(s article also reminds us of the politici'ation of migration in t"o other conte-ts in 12327 one in Ari'ona relating to ne" anti$Me-ican legislation and another in )rance "hich led to the e-pulsion of =oma to =omania 9n all these conte-ts migrants are placed in the position of those "ho do not belong %ohlman raises significant political and ethical #uestions in this ongoing discussion about cultural diversity and multiculturalism! and in "hat he sees as a public agenda "hich is moving to"ards acculturation and assimilation of otherness $ a succession of A$ "ords that aim to end migration 9n contrast to this negative agenda! %ohlman celebrates the rich musical contribution that migration has made in a long history of global movements! "here both musical forms and migrant musicians have shaped the identities of our culturally diverse societies Hith this special issue "e have addressed the highly topical theme of migration and the vitality of cultural diasporas through the prism of migrating musicians and migrating musical forms! He have engaged "ith broader #uestions of ho" ne" modes of mobility and sociality are borne out of the social! cultural! historical and political interfaces bet"een migration and music Through a transnational! comparative and multi$level approach to the relationship bet"een migration! movement and music! the aesthetic intersections bet"een the local and the global! and bet"een agency and identity "ere theoretically presented and e-emplified in specific case studies %y ta&ing music as our specific focus "e hope that this issue "ill contribute to ongoing theoretical and methodological debates "ithin migration and diaspora studies! including those related to transnational net"or&s! globali'ation and cultural flo"s

7 1arra/in( T' ?2;;C@ Deutschland schafft sich ab. Wie wir unser Land aufs Spiel setzen ' 1tuttgart: D

utsch H rlags,Anstalt'

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R,/,R,#C,S Appadurai( A' ?6CCA@ Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization' Minn apolis( Uni$ rsit# o" Minn sota >r ss' Ar!*rust r( H' ?2;;B@ %Introduction: th thics o" ta.ing sid s&' In H' Ar!*rust r and A' La r. ? ds@( a!ing Sides. N ) Ior. and OF"ord: - rghahn' Ar!*rust r( H' and U'H' M inho" ? ds@' ?2;66@ "egotiating Multicultural #urope' $orders% "etwor!s% "eighbourhoods. -asingsto. : >algra$ - c. r( H' ?6CB3@ &rt Worlds' - r. l # and Los Ang l s: Uni$ rsit# o" 5ali"ornia >r ss' -unn ll( T' ?2;;7@ %>ost,!ariti! transnationali/ation: Mala# s a"ar rs in Li$ rpool&' Global "etwor!s 7?3@: 362J32C' -ourdi u( >' and Wac+uant( L' D' ?6CC2@ &n 'n(itation to )efle*i(e Sociology. 5hicago: 5hicago Uni$ rsit# >r ss' 5ast lls( M' ?6CCA@ he )ise of the "etwor! Society' OF"ord: -lac.) ll' 5li""ord( 8' and D' E' Marcus ? ds@' ?6CBA@ Writing Culture: he +oetics and +olitics of #thnography' - r. l #: Uni$ rsit# o" 5ali"ornia >r ss' 5ollins( R' ?6CCB@ he Sociology of +hilosophies. & Global heory of 'ntellectual Change' 5a!*ridg ( MA: Har$ard Uni$ rsit# >r ss' 5onn ll( 8' and 5' Di*son' ?2;;3@ %World !usic: D t rritoriali/ing plac and id ntit#&' +rogress in ,uman Geography( 2B?4@: 432,4A6' Daoudi( H' and H' Miliani' ?2;;2@ $eurs- M.lodies: Cent &ns de Chansons 'mmigr.es du $lues $erb/re au )ap $eur' >aris: Kditions 1Ggui r' D rd rian( R' ?2;;3@ "orth &fricans in Contemporary 0rance: $ecoming 1isible. N ) Ior.( -asingsto. : >algra$ Mac!illan' D)# r( 5' and >' 5rang' ?2;;2@ %Fashioning thniciti s: Th co!! rcial spac s o" !ulticultur &' #thnicities% 2?4@: 36;,4;' F ath rston ( D'( R' >hillips and 8' Wat rs' ?2;;7@ %Introduction: 1patialiti s o" transnational n t)or.s&' Global "etwor!s( 7?3@: 4B4J4C6' Fish r( Micha l M' 8'( and D' E' Marcus ? ds@' ?6CBA@ &nthropology as Cultural Criti2ue' 5hicago: Uni$ rsit# o" 5hicago >r ss' Di* rt( M',>' and U'H' M inho"' ?2;;C@ %Inspiration triangulair : Musi+u ( touris! t dG$ lopp ! nt L Madagascar%' Nu!Gro spGcial d s Cahiers d3#tudes &fricaines: Mise en ourisme de la Culture: ).seau*% )epr.sentations et +rati2ues% 227,2=A' Halp rn( D' ?2;;=@ Social Capital. Mald n( MA: >olit#' Holton( R'8' ?2;;B@ Global "etwor!s. -asingsto. : >algra$ Mac!illan' Ki)an( N' and Kosnic.( K' ?2;;A@ %Th )hit n ss o" cultural polic# in >aris and - rlin&' In Ulri. H' M inho" and Anna Trianda"#llidou ? ds@( ranscultural #urope: Cultural +olicy in a Changing #urope. -asingsto. : >algra$ Mac!illan( 6;=,64;' Ki)an( N' and M inho"( U'H' ?2;66@ Cultural Globalization and Music: &frican Musicians in ransnational "etwor!s' -asingsto. : >algra$ Mac!illan' Landolt( >' ?2;;6@ %1al$adoran cono!ic transnationalis!: E!* dd d strat gi s "or hous hold !aint nanc ( i!!igrant incorporation( and ntr pr n urial Fpansion&' Global "etwor!s( 6: 267J32' Latour( -' ?6CCC@ %On r calling ANT&' In 8' La) and 8' Hassard ? ds@( &ctor "etwor! heory and &fter' OF"ord: -asil -lac.) ll( 6=,2='

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Latour( -' ?2;;=@ )eassembling the Social: &n 'ntroduction to &ctor4"etwor! heory' OF"ord: OF"ord Uni$ rsit# >r ss' Li( W' ?6CCB@ %Anato!# o" a n ) thnic s ttl ! nt: Th 5hin s 5rban Studies( 4=: 37CJ=;6' Marcus( D' E' ?6CC=@ %Ethnograph# in9o" th )orld s#st !: Th thnograph#&' &nnual )e(iew of &nthropology( 23: C=,667' thno*ur* in Los Ang l s&' ! rg nc o" !ulti,sit d

Marcus( D' E' ?6CCB@ #thnography through hic! and hin' >rinc ton( N8: >rinc ton Uni$ rsit# >r ss' Mass #( D' ?2;;=@ 0or Space' London: 1ag ' McN ill( D' ?6CCC@ %Dlo*ali/ation and th Europ an cit#&' Cities% 6A?4@: 634J637' M inho"( U'H' ?2;;C@ %Transnational "lo)s( n t)or.s and Mtranscultural capitalM: R "l ctions on r s arching !igrant n t)or.s through linguistic thnograph#&' In 1t " 1l !*rouc.( 8i! 5ollins and Mi. -a#nha! ? ds@( Globalization and Languages in Contact: Scale% Migration% and Communicati(e +ractices' 5ontinuu!( 63B,6AC M inho"( U'H' and A' Trianda"#llidou' ?2;;A@ %- #ond th diaspora: Transnational practic s as transcultural capital&' In U'H' M inho" and A' Trianda"#llidou ? ds@( ranscultural #urope: Cultural +olicy in a Changing #urope% 2;;,222' >i//orno( A' ?6CC6@ %On th indi$idualisatic th or# o" social ord r&' In >' -ourdi u and 8' 1' 5ol !an ? ds@( Social heory for a Changing Society' -ould r( 5O: W st$i ) >r ss( 2;C,46' >ratt( M'L' ?2;;=@ %Wh# th Hirgin o" Napopan ) nt to Los Ang l s: R "l ctions on !o*ilit# and glo*alit#&' In 8' And rs!ann and W' Ro) ? ds@( 'mages of +ower% 'conography% Culture and the State in Latin &merica' OF"ord( N ) Ior.: - rghahn( 276,2BC' >utna!( R' ?2;;;@ $owling &lone: he Collapse and )e(i(al of &merican Community' N ) Ior.: 1i!on : 1chust r' Russ ll( D' and Tuit ( 5' ?2;;2@ %Introducing Ro!antic socia*ilit#&' In D' Russ ll and 5' Tuit ? ds@( )omantic Sociability: Social "etwor!s and Literary Culture in $ritain 6778469:8 ' 5a!*ridg : 5a!*ridg Uni$ rsit# >r ss( 6,24' 1ass n( 1' ?6CC6@ he Global City: "ew ;or!% London% o!yo. >rinc ton( N8 : >rinc ton Uni$ rsit# >r ss' 1!ith( M'>' and L'E' Duarni/o ? ds@' ?6CCB@ ransnationalism from $elow' N ) -runs)ic.( N8: Transaction >u*lish rs' 1!ith( M'>' ?6CCC@ %Transnationalis! and th 5it#&' In 1' -od#,D ndrot and R' - aur gard ? ds@( he 5rban Moment: Cosmopolitan #ssays on the Late <8th Century City. London: 1ag ( 66C,64C' 1!ith( M'>' ?2;;6@ ransnational 5rbanism: Locating Globalization' OF"ord: -lac.) ll' Ta#lor( T'D' ?6CC7@ Global +op: World Music%World Mar!ets. N ) Ior.( London: Routl dg ' Han d H r( >' ?2;;2@ %5olonial cos!opolitanis!&' In 1' H rto$ c and R' 5oh n ? ds@( Concei(ing Cosmopolitanism' OF"ord: OF"ord Uni$ rsit# >r ss( 6A=,7C' Wi!! r( A' and N' Dlic.,1chill r' ?2;;4@ %M thodological nationalis!( th social sci nc s( and th stud# o" !igration: An ssa# in historical pist !olog#&' he 'nternational Migration )e(iew% 47?44@: =7AJA6;' Wind rs( 8' ?2;;A@ +aris &fricain: )hythms of the &frican Diaspora' -asingsto. : >algra$ Mac!illan' Nhou( I' and I' Ts ng' ?2;;6@ %R grounding th Munground d !pir sM: Locali/ation as th g ographical catal#st "or transnationalis!&' Global "etwor!s( 6: 646J=4'

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Music and Arts in Action | Volume 3 | Issue 3

AB$&T T(, A&T($RS #adia 1i!an is L ctur r in Fr nch and Francophon 1tudi s at th Uni$ rsit# o" A* rd n' >u*lications includ 'dentities% Discourses and #*periences: ;oung +eople of "orth &frican =rigin in 0rance ?Manch st r Uni$ rsit# >r ss( 2;;C@ and Cultural Globalization and Music: &frican &rtists in ransnational "etwor!s ?)ith U' H' M inho"( >algra$ Mac!illan( 2;66@' &lri2e (anna Meinho3 is >ro" ssor o" D r!an and 5ultural 1tudi s and Dir ctor o" th R s arch 5 ntr "or Transnational 1tudi s at th Uni$ rsit# o" 1outha!pton' >u*lications includ Li(ing >with? $orders: 'dentity Discourses on #ast4West $orders in #urope ?Editor( Ashgat ( 2;;2@( ranscultural #urope: Cultural +olicy in a Changing #urope ?)ith A' Trainda"#llidou( co, ditor( >algra$ Mac!illan( 2;;A@( Cultural Globalization and Music: &frican &rtists in ransnational "etwor!s ?)ith N' Ki)an( >algra$ Mac!illan( 2;66@ and "egotiating Multicultural #urope: $orders% "etwor!s% "eighbourhoods. ?)ith H' Ar!*rust r( co, ditor( >algra$ Mac!illan( 2;66@'

Music and Arts in Action9Ki)an : M inho" 2;66 < I11N: 67=3,76;= < >ag 2; http://musicandartsinaction.net/index.php/maia/article/ ie!/musicandmi"ration