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International Symposium

on Forest Carbon Sequestration and Monitoring

Measuring and Monitoring Carbon Stocks at the Guaraqueaba Climate Action Project, Paran, Brazil
Gilberto Tiepolo 1), Miguel Calmon2), Andr Rocha Feretti1)

Any climate action project that seeks to obtain recognition, and potentially carbon benefits, for the GHG emissions reductions it achieves must accurately calculate those reductions over time using scientifically rigorous methods that will stand up to external review. Carbon inventory and monitoring plans are designed to quantify the changes in key carbon (C) pools in and around the project area and to project local land-use changes by monitoring patterns of land-use in proxy regions, trend modeling, and analyzing socio-economic and other data. Data from the inventory and monitoring activities are used to calculate the difference between the with- and without-project scenarios. The Guaraqueaba Climate Action Project is being implemented by SPVS (Sociedade de Pesquisa em Vida Selvagem e Educao Ambiental), in partnership with TNC (The Nature Conservancy) and AEP (American Electric Power). It has an area of approximately 7,000 hectares and is located in Paran State, Brazil, within the Environmental Protection Area of Guaraqueaba in the Atlantic Rain Forest. This ecosystem is recognized by the United Nations Economic and Social Organization (UNESCO) as one of the planets highest priorities for conservation and has designated it World Biosphere Reserve. The main goals of the project are biodiversity conservation, restoration of degraded pasture, sustainable development of local communities, and generation of carbon offsets that are real, measurable, and verifiable. The requirements for a good monitoring program should include the following: (i) use the most appropriate and cost-effective methodology for the region; (ii) follow quality assurance/control plan (QA/QC) and standard operating procedures (SOPs); (iii) train local NGOs and field personnel on SOPs; (iv) elaboration of a vegetation map and stratification of the project area; (v) post-monitoring independent verification; (vi) record-keeping and data entry, analysis, interpretation, maintenance, and archiving. The Winrock international methodology (MacDicken, 1997), adapted to the local conditions, was selected to measure and monitor carbon at the project. A QA/QC and SOP documents were developed for the

Sociedade de Pesquisa em Vida Selvagem e Educao Ambiental SPVS Rua Gutemberg, 296, Batel. 80420-030 Curitiba - PR, Brazil., E-Mail: 2) The Nature Conservancy TNC Alameda Jlia da Costa, 1240, Bigorrilho. 80730-070 Curitiba PR, Brazil., E-Mail:


project to guarantee that carbon measurements done during the lifetime of the project are consistent and accurate. Researchers and technicians from SPVS were trained on the SOP before the beginning of the carbon inventory and monitoring field work. A total of 12 strata were identified, but only 6 forest strata were under threat of deforestation and therefore used to estimate carbon stocks and offsets. A total of 188 permanent plots were established with 68 in the submontane forest (1162.5 ha), 11 in the lowland forest (427 ha), 10 in the floodplain forest (173 ha), 63 in advanced/medium forest (1,783 ha), 24 in medium secondary forest (545 ha), and 12 in young secondary forest (279 ha). Twenty-eight clip plots were established on the pasture (409 ha) and shrublands (279 ha). The preliminary average carbon stock (aboveground woody biomass) estimated for the 6 forest strata were the following: submontane forest: 135.9 t C ha-1; lowland forest: 106.8 t C ha-1; floodplain forest: 64.12 t C ha-1; advanced/medium forest: 106.1 t C ha-1; medium secondary forest: 101.96 t C ha-1; young secondary forest: 42.89 t C ha-1. The above ground carbon for the pasture strata was 2.4 t C ha-1 and for the shrublands 7.4 C ha-1. The general wet biomass equation that is currently being used to estimate the carbon stock is being verified and adjusted from the destructive sampling effort that is being conducted by SPVS. A new biomass equation for tree fern was also developed, which showed a strong correlation between biomass and height. The results of this effort will help to improve and develop models to measure and monitor carbon stock in very complex and heterogeneous landscapes, such as the ones found in the Atlantic Forest Biome, and to promote projects that are designed to generate multiple benefits such as biodiversity, soil and water conservation, restoration of degraded lands, and sustainable development of local communities.

The Guaraqueaba Climate Action Project is an innovative effort to combine reforestation and forest stewardship strategies to help manage levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Over a period of forty years (the project term), the project will restore and protect approximately 7,000 hectares (17,000 acres) of partially degraded and/or deforested tropical forest within the Guaraqueaba Environmental Protection Area (EPA) of Paran State, in southern Brazil. The land is titled to SPVS, which assumed responsibility for its long-term protection and stewardship, and will be registered as a private reserve (Serra do Itaqui Natural Reserve). By protecting and restoring threatened tracts of Atlantic Forest, the project will conserve biodiversity while contributing to the mitigation of global climate change. The project a collaborative effort between Central and South West Corporation, a Texas-based electric utility (now American Electric Power), The Nature Conservancy (TNC), a US-based conservation organization, and Sociedade de Pesquisa em Vida Selvagem e Educao Ambiental (SPVS), a Brazilian conservation organization. The project is promoting assisted natural forest regeneration and regrowth on pastures and


degraded forests on the acquired lands. It is also protecting standing forest that still exists within the project area, but It is under threat of deforestation. The main goals of the project are to protect and restore the ecological health and biodiversity of the area in the project site and establish models for the adequate use of resources in the Guaraqueaba EPA, and generate carbon offsets that are real, measurable, and verifiable. Through a rigorous monitoring and verification program, the carbon benefits generated by the project will be quantified and validated in such a way as to maximize the possibility that they will be accepted under any future international carbon trading regime(s) and to serve as a scientifically-based pilot project in ecosystem restoration. In addition to these primary objectives, the project also seeks to improve local environmental quality, support sustainable economic development by creating opportunities for local people, and promote environmental awareness of the Guaraqueaba region. While the project is designed as a stand-alone effort, it will benefit from a variety of existing programs and activities currently being undertaken by the project partners, including other two climate action projects (The Antonina Pilot Reforestation Project, a collaborative effort between Chevron-Texaco, TNC and SPVS; and The Atlantic Rainforest Restoration Project, a joint effort between General Motors, TNC and SPVS). This project leveraging will enable it to have a broad impact and to contribute to a regional strategy for protecting the Guaraqueaba EPA.

Materials and methods

Project Location
The present study is based on the carbon inventory and monitoring activities of the Guaraqueaba Climate Action Project, located in the Atlantic Forest biome in Paran State between latitudes 25o 26 and 25o 21 South, on the coastal plain. Lying about 45 kilometers from the seat of the municipality and 140 Kilometers from Curitiba, the capital of the state. Its geographic location is strategic for conservation purposes, as it connects 500 meters mountains and 1,200 hectares of mangroves, borders Guaraqueaba Bay to the South, PR-405 highway to the North, Itaqui hills to the West and Tagaaba River to the East. It is a region of great environmental fragility composed of freshwater and marine environments, in close proximity to Guaraqueaba Bay (Figure 1). The Guaraqueaba EPA is in the middle of the largest continuous piece of Atlantic forest remaining today. Brazils Atlantic Forest is an internationally recognized world biosphere reserve and home to one of the planets most diverse and endangered ecosystems. Today, only seven percent of the original vegetation cover remains, making the Atlantic Forest one of the most threatened tropical forest in the world. In the project site (Serra do Itaqui Natural Reserve), as well as in most of the region, the original vegetation has been submitted to intense exploitation that has stripped it of its


original characteristics, particularly in the plains. Easy access encouraged timber exploitation of mature forests, which implied either complete removal or drastic changes to their structure and composition. Such conditions resulted in a mosaic of secondary forests with varied floristic, structural and physiognomic characteristics, where initial formations are more prevalent in flat areas and intermediate stages on the hillsides. The changes imposed on the vegetation, particularly in areas that underwent total removal of the original cover, have altered original drainage processes and caused severe soil degradation. Such conditions will require considerable efforts to fully restore the biogeochemical processes needed to support the original ecological systems.

Vegetation Map
The vegetation map of the project area was based on color aerial photography (scale 1:30,000) and Ikonos satellite imagery. An orthophoto was also used as the base map. After photointerpretation and field checking several type of forests and other land uses were identified and classified. The level of human intervention and successional stages for the different forest types were also classified during this effort. A total of 12 strata, based on the classification scheme developed by IBGE (1992), were identified within the project area (Figure 2).

Stratification For the carbon inventory it was used a stratified sampling, which helped to make the
estimates more precise and cost-effective. From the 12 vegetation classes, 6 forest classes (Submontane forest, Lowland forest, Floodplain forest, advanced / medium forest, medium secondary forest, and Young secondary forest) were assumed to be under threat and therefore were used during the carbon inventory work to estimate the carbon stock and benefits to be generated at the project area. In addition to those forest strata, other non-forest classes such as pasture, herbaceous vegetation and shrus were also included as part of the carbon inventory effort, but temporary plots were used on those strata.

Carbon Inventory
The methodology used for the carbon inventory was the one developed by Winrock International (MacDicken, 1997) and adapted to the project conditions. A Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) was developed for the project and SPVS personnel was trained on every step (Brown and Delaney, 2000 A). Some of the main activities described on the SOP are listed below. Before de installation of the permanent plots, 6 preliminary plots were installed on each strata to determine the number of plots necessary to represent the carbon stock within each stratum. The number of plots was calculated by using a software (plot calculator) developed by Winrock International, which takes into account the maximum allowable error, desired level of precision, total area of the project and strata, variance, and approximate cost per plot. After that a Carbon Inventory and Monitoring Plan was developed for the project (Brown et al., 1999) in order to start the plot installation in 2000.


Establishment of Transects
Transects are lines cut through the forest or pastures to allow access to permanent or clip plot locations. The selection of the places where the transects were opened was based on the vegetation map in areas that most represented each stratum composition and on the availability of existing trails to facilitate the access and reduce suppression of vegetation within the project area. In general the length of the 35 transects vary from 200 to 700 meters.

Establishment of Plots
A total of 188 nested circular plots were installed on the different forest strata (Table 1). Four nested plots were used to measure aboveground biomass. The 1-m radius plot was used to measure saplings with dbh <5 cm; the 4-m radius (0.005 ha) was used for trees between 5-19.9 cm dbh; the 14-m radius (0.06 ha) was used for trees between 20-69.9 cm dbh; and the 20-m radius was used for trees with 70 cm dbh (Figure 3). The actual size of each plots was adjusted depending on the percentage slope of the plot. At the center of the plot a PVC pipe was installed and painted with bright color and plastic tapes. A GPS was used to collect the coordinates of the center. All trees were measured at dbh (1.3 m above ground) unless buttressed or with defects at that height. Aluminum numbered tags were placed and nailed on each tree measured within the four plots. More details can be found on Brown and Delaney (2000 A).

Measurement of Biomass
Two main carbon pools were measured during the carbon inventory: a) live biomass which included live trees, understory, and roots and b) aboveground dead wood which included litter and standing and lying dead trees;

Live trees
The criteria for including trees within each plot was based on the diametric density of the different forest strata. A diameter class range was used for each different plot size (see above), with the exception of trees with less than 5 cm at dbh, lianas, heart-of-palm, and tree fern. In the last two cases the height and dbh were measured. For trees > 1.3 m high and less than 5 cm dbh, the number of trees within the 1-m plot was counted and then multiplied by the average biomass that was estimated by destructive sampling (10 plots per strata) on the opposite side of the permanent plot. The average of sampling biomass for each strata are: submontane forest 0.2 kg lowland forest 0.2 kg floodplain forest 0.2 kg advanced/medium forest 0.3 kg medium secondary forest 0.6 kg young secondary forest 1.6 kg


The young secondary forest got the highest coefficient because in this formation the understory is less shaded than formations more developed, allowing good condition to the establishment of natural regeneration. The general wet biomass equation was used to estimate aboveground biomass carbon for trees because it matches most closely to the climatic conditions (rainfall amount and distribution; and near the southern extreme of the tropical belt) in the project area (Brown, 1997, 2001). However, the suitability of this equation is being verified and adjusted by the destructive sampling program that was initiated in 2001. The goal is to cut 15-20 large trees (dbh > 50 cm) and adjust the equation according to the results. At the same time other smaller trees will be cut and included in the adjustment. Other equations were also used to estimate the biomass of mature Cecropia, palms, and lianas (Table 2), which were developed from work in Noel Kempff Climate Action Project in Bolivia (Brown et al., 2000). A new biomass equation for tree fern (Cyathea spp.) was also developed for the project by destructively sampling 22 trees and developing a regression equation between tree biomass and height and tree biomass and dbh. To characterize the understory, within each plot were established 4 Clip plots (aluminum sample frames 60 cm in diameter). Species with dbh < 5 cm and less than 1.3 height , were cut, weighed and collected sub-sample for determination of humidity percentage.

Roots A recent review of the literature on root biomass for the worlds forests including 39
studies for the tropics suggests that root:shoot ratios vary from 0.1 to 0.38 with root biomass ranging from 1 to over 130 t ha -1 (Cairns et al. 1997). We assumed a root:shoot ratio of 0.20 that represents the lower 95% CI for tropical forests and it is more conservative (Brown and Delaney, 2000 B)

For sampling pasture biomass, it was used clip plots that are placed on the ground at regular intervals along transects. The procedures for this were the same way used for understory estimation.

Dead aboveground biomass

For litter it was used the same methodology that understory. Standing dead trees were measured according to the same criteria as live trees; i.e. classified either in the small, medium, or large nested plot. If the standing dead tree contained branches and twigs and resembles a live tree (except for leaves) the dbh was measured and its biomass was estimated using the appropriate biomass regression equation as for live trees. If there were branches, but no twigs remaining on the standing dead tree, the proportion of the biomass was subtracted from the total for the tree. If the top of the standing dead tree was missing, the height of the remaining stem was measured with a clinometer and the top diameter was estimated this can be done by estimating the ratio of the top diameter to the


basal diameter. Lying dead wood were measured using the line intersect method outlined in Harmon and Sexton (1986). Fallen coarse dead wood were defined as all woody material on the ground with a diameter >10 cm. Several discs of dead wood in each of the three density classes were collected and their volume and dry mass were determined. The estimated densities are given in Table 3.

Results and discussion

Biomass Regressions Tree Ferns
For the Cyathea spp., height is more strongly correlated to biomass (R2 = 0.88) than is DBH (R2 = 0.1). The equation for height provides an acceptably robust model for estimating carbon storage without destructively harvesting more individuals (Figure 4, 5, 6). The biomass result can be converted to carbon by multiplying the biomass by the carbon concentration found in the species (about 0.5).

Carbon in Forest
The total carbon in the forest strata (excluding soil) was 471547.89 t C with a 95% confidence interval of 6.7% of the mean (Table 4). As expected, the highest amount of carbon was in the submontane forest stratum (135.89 t C/ha) that represents the oldest forest in the project site. It is an altered primary forest that is located in the slopes of hills in continental soils, usually more deep. The lowest amount occurs in the very young secondary forest stratum (42.89 t C/ha), that is characterized by small trees (5 m height) with sparse crown. Coefficients of variation for total carbon content by strata were relatively low (29 -51 %), particularly for the advanced /medium stratum. Although the total carbon had relatively low variation, individual components were more variable (Table 5). The most variable component was standing dead biomass, with coefficients of variation of 128-287% (Appendix 1). Lying dead wood was also variable. On a plot by plot basis, there is generally some relationship between live and dead biomass, so that when combined the overall variation decreases. The overall weighted mean of the total carbon content of forests is 108 t C/ha, 74% of which is in the live aboveground woody biomass (Table 5). Dead wood carbon represented about 5% and litter and understory combined represented about 3.6% of the total carbon stock. For the very young forests, the litter and understory represented 19% of the aboveground biomass, and thus is a more significant component.

Carbon in pastures
The mean aboveground carbon content of pastures ranged from 0.7 to 3.5 t C/ha, with the highest carbon content found in pastures dominated by shrub vegetation and the lowest in pure pastures (Table 6). The results were variable with 95% confidence interval of


25.6% of the mean. Pasture grasses generally have as much biomass below ground as above, thus the total range of biomass carbon for pure pastures (7P) and pastures with shrubs (7PS) ranges from 1.4 to 2.4 t C/ha. For the shrub formation (7S), belowground biomass is about 30% of aboveground. Thus the shrub formation has a range of total biomass carbon of 3.0 to 7.4 t C/ha. The maximum values were used in the carbon benefit calculations as described above.

With the Carbon inventory conducted in the Guaraqueaba Climate Action Project it was possible to quantify the amount of carbon stored with a reasonable level of precision. This inventory was used to estimate the differences between the with- and without-project carbon pools and is the primary basis for determination of project GHG benefits. Through ongoing carbon inventory work, several aspects of the carbon inventories that could be improved or significantly strengthened were identified. In the Allometric regression equations for fern trees it was observed that the relationship between height and biomass showed a strong correlation, where the dbh x biomass showed a poor correlation. Therefore, we recommend the use of the relationship height x biomass when estimating aboveground biomass of ferns trees in the Atlantic Forest Biome. The results of this effort will help to improve and develop models to measure and monitor carbon stock in very complex and heterogeneous landscapes, such as the ones found in the Atlantic Forest Biome, and to promote projects that are designed to generate multiple benefits such as biodiversity, soil and water conservation, restoration of degraded lands, and sustainable development of local communities. Also brought a lot of challenges during the implementation of the carbon inventory. Many lessons were learned during this phase, but much more are still to be learned in order to improve and adjust the methodology for future measurements.

We thank Dr. Sandra Brown and Matt Delaney for making Winrock Internationals methodology available to the Guaraqueaba Climate Action Project and making it a very important component of the project. Their participation during the planning and implementation phases of the carbon inventory and their willingness to train and transfer the methodology to SPVSs team were very important for the success of the carbon inventory program. We also would like to thank Bill Stanley for their valuable work and input as a Forester during all phases of the carbon inventory work. This work could not be done without the help and assistance of Flavio , Guilherme, Elielson, Arildo, Luis, Nelson, Jair, Walkiria, that spent several weeks in the field, and also to Alia Ghandour Warwick


Manfrinato, Patricia Garffer, Joe Keenan , Alexandra Andrade, Clvis Borges, Franco Amato, Ricardo, Larcio, and many others that could share with us the beauties of Atlantic forest.

Harmon, M. E. and J. Sexton. 1996. Guidelines for Measurements of Woody Detritus in Forest Ecosystems. US LTER Publication No. 20. US LTER Network Office, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. MacDicken, K. 1997. A Guide to Monitoring Carbon Storage in Forestry and Agroforestry Projects. Winrock International, 1611 N. Kent St., Suite 600, Arlington, VA 22209, USA. Brown, S., M. Calmon, and M. Delaney. 1999. Carbon Inventory and Monitoring Plan for the Guaraqueaba Climate Action Project, Brazil. Winrock International, Arlington, VA. Brown, S. and M. Delaney. 2000 A. Standard Operating Procedures for the Guaraqueaba Climate Action Project, GCAP-SOP, Version: 2.00. Winrock International, Arlington, VA. Brown, S. and M. Delaney. 2000 B. Preliminary Carbon-Offset Report for the Guaraqueaba Climate Action Project. Winrock International, Arlington, VA. Brown, S., Burnham, M., Delaney, M., Vaca, R., Powell, M. and Moreno, A. 2000. Issues and challenges for forest-based carbon-offset projects: a case study of the Noel Kempff Climate Action Project in Bolivia. Mitigat. Adapt. Strategies Global Change 5, 99-121. Brown, S. and M. Delaney. 2001. Preliminary carbon-offset report for the Guaraqueaba Climate Action Project. Brown, P. 1998, Climate, Biodiversity, and Forests: Issues and Opportunities Emerging from the Kyoto Protocol, Washington, D. C., World Resources Institute, 35p. Brown, S. 1997. Estimating Biomass and Biomass Change of Tropical Forests: a Primer. FAO Forestry Paper 134, Rome, Italy. Cairns, M. A., S. Brown, E. H. Helmer, and G. A. Baumgardner. biomass allocation in the worlds upland forests. Oecologia 111:1-11. 1997. Root


T able 1

Description of the each stratum, area, and number of plots established.


Vegetation type submontane forest lowland forest floodplain forest advanced/medium forest medium secondary forest Young secondary forest Pure pasture Pasture/shrub Shrubs

Area (ha) 1162.55 427.3 172.9 1782.9 544.92 278.58 386 30 297 4,694

Number of sample plots established 68 11 10 63 24 12 12 10 6 168

Table 2

Regression equations used for estimating biomass carbon (Y) in the 2000 analysis of plots in the GCAP area.

Equation Y=21.297-6.953(dbh)+0.74(dbh^2) Y=0.3999+7.907*height Y =(-.48367+1.13488*(Sqr(dbh))*Log(dbh))^2 Y=563.56*(dbh)^2.6277 Y=-4266348/1-2792284e-0.313677

Species General Palms Cecropia Lianas Fern tree

R2 0.91 0.75 0.62 0.89 0.88

dbh and height range 4-116 cm 1-33 m 1-11 m 0.3-2.5 cm 18m


Table 3

Density of wood disc samples used in dead wood calculations.

Type/Decomposition class of wood sample General/Sound General/Intermediate General/Rotten Palm/Intermediate Palm/Rotten

Density (t/m3) 0.47 0.34 0.17 0.14 0.09

(Source: Brown and Delaney, 2000 B)

Table 4

Total, mean, and statistical measures for the carbon content (excluding soil) of the four forest strata of the GCAP. See Table 6 for carbon content in different components of the forests.

Strata n= Area (ha) Mean (t C/ha) Min Max Variance Standard Deviation Standard Error C.V. (%) Mean (t C/ha) Total (tons C) CI % (+/-) (tons C)

submontane lowland floodplain forest forest forest 68 1162.55 135.89 61.1 373.1 2314.1 48.1 5.8 35.4 11 427.3 106.81 27.5 211.5 2940.6 54.2 16.4 50.8 114.36 471547.89 6.7 10 172.9 64.12 18.5 95.8 702.9 26.5 8.4 41.3

advanced/ medium young medium secondary secondary forest forest forest 63 1782.9 106.19 44.8 189 951 30.8 3.9 29 7.7 31593.64 24 544.92 101.96 38.3 189.4 1565.7 39.6 8.1 38.8 12 278.58 42.89 9.8 57 267.6 16.4 4.7 38.1

CV= coefficient of variation; CI = 95% confidence interval



Table 5

Mean carbon content by forest component and by forest strata for the 2000 inventory in the GCAP (details of the carbon content of each component are given in Appendix 1 to 7.
Area Above-g Below- Standin Lying round ground dead dead biomass biomass biomass biomass T C ha-1 T C ha-1 T C ha-1 T C ha-1 21.86 16.74 8.79 15.28 14.17 4.25 2.86 1.84 5.48 4.76 4.41 1.25 1.43 0.92 2.74 2.38 2.20 0.62 83.69 43.96 76.42 70.83 21.24 Trees biomass < 5 cm dbh T C ha-1 0.44 0.09 0.32 2.43 3.62 5.94 Understory vegetation T C ha-1 nm 1.83 0.52 0.52 1.19 0.91 Litter Total

Strata submontane lowland floodplain Advanced medium medium secondary young secondary Total DESPAD Weighted mean CI %

(ha) 427.30 172.94 1782.90 544.92 278.58 4369.20

T C ha-1 T C ha-1 nm 1.70 2.32 4.40 5.54 8.67 135.89 106.81 64.12 106.19 101.96 42.89

1162.55 109.30

40.1 80.4 5.7 74.5

8.0 16.1 1.1 14.9

5.0 3.7 0.7 3.5

2.5 1.9 0.4 1.7

3.4 2 0.5 1.8

8.0 0.6 1.4 0.6

2.7 3.3 0.5 3.1

46.9 107.9 8.4

*CI is the 95% confidence interval expressed as a percent of the mean nm= not measured

Table 6

Statistics for aboveground carbon in the pasture strata of the GCAP.

Strata n= Area (ha) Mean (t C/ha) Min Max Variance Standard Deviation Standard Error C.V. (%) Mean (t C/ha) Total (tons C) CI % (+/-) (tons C)

Pasture (7P) 12 386 0.7 0.2 1.1 0.1 0.3 0.1 50.8

Pasture/Shrubs (7PS) 10 30.4 0.8 0.4 1.2 0.1 0.3 0.1 37.5 1.8 1305.7 25.6

Shrubs (7S) 6 296.7 3.5 2.3 5.7 1.9 1.4 0.6 39.9 0.5 334.8

CV= coefficient of variation; CI = 95% confidence interval

Source preliminary carbo-offset report 2000 109

Appendix 01: Stats for aboveground biomass

Strata N Mean Variance Standard Desviation Standard Error CV % Mean Total CI % Y 12 21.24167 92.47667 9.616479 2.776038 45.27177 85.85332 351193.4 5.7 M 24 70.83333 995.0112 31.5438 6.438851 44.53242 M/A 63 76.42111 638.4199 25.26697 3.183339 33.06282 4.893639 20018.02 SM 68 109.2975 1512.872 38.89566 4.716791 35.58696 LL 11 83.68818 1905.853 43.65608 13.1628 52.16516 FP 10 43.95556 357.3587 18.90393 5.977948 43.00692

Appendix 02: Stats for belowground biomass

Strata N Mean Variance Standard Desviation Standard Error CV % Mean Total CI % Y 12 4.248333 3.699067 1.923296 0.555208 45.27177 17.17066 70238.68 1.147328 M 24 14.16667 39.80045 6.30876 1.28777 44.53242 M/A 63 15.28422 25.5368 5.053394 0.636668 33.06282 0.197004 805.8677 SM 68 21.8595 60.51489 7.779132 0.943358 35.58696 LL 11 16.73764 76.23412 8.731216 2.632561 52.16516 FP 10 8.791111 14.29435 3.780786 1.19559 43.00692

Appendix 03: Stats for Standing dead

Strata N Mean Variance Standard Desviation Standard Error CV % Mean Total CI % Y M M/A SM 12 24 63 68 1.249167 4.4075 4.76 2.859853 12.86866 31.7084 32.24936 13.67173 3.587292 5.631021 5.678852 3.69753 1.035562 1.149427 0.715468 0.448391 287.1748 127.76 119.3036 129.2909 3.983516 0.028352 16295.05 115.9778 0.711736 LL 11 1.841818 7.873636 2.806 0.846041 152.3495 FP 10 5.475556 59.649 7.723277 2.442315 141.0501


Appendix 04: Stats for Lying dead

Strata N Mean Variance Standard Desviation Standard Error CV % Mean Total CI % Y 12 0.624583 3.217166 1.793646 0.517781 287.1748 1.991758 8147.527 0.355868 M 24 2.20375 7.927101 2.815511 0.574714 127.76 M/A 63 2.38 8.062341 2.839426 0.357734 119.3036 0.007088 28.99445 SM 68 1.429926 3.417932 1.848765 0.224196 129.2909 LL 11 0.920909 1.968409 1.403 0.42302 152.3495 FP 10 2.737778 14.91225 3.861638 1.221157 141.0501

Appendix 05: Stats for one meter

Strata n Mean Variance Standard Desviation Standard Error CV % Mean Total CI % Y 12 5.94179 98.25101 9.912165 2.861396 166.8212 2.091599 8555.939 0.485918 M 24 3.620778 9.11727 3.019482 0.616349 83.39317 M/A 63 2.42522 5.083811 2.254731 0.284069 92.97014 0.010163 41.57481 SM 68 0.440017 0.81066 0.900366 0.109185 204.6208 LL 11 0.086812 0.042371 0.205842 0.062064 237.1123 FP 10 0.31831 0.177312 0.421085 0.133159 132.2876

Appendix 06: Stats for understory

Strata N Mean Variance Standard Desviation Standard Error CV % Mean Total CI % Y 12 0.910739 0.438179 0.661951 0.191089 72.68284 0.661624 2706.454 1.43607 M 24 1.189191 5.049935 2.247206 0.458709 188.9693 M/A 63 0.521873 0.103712 0.322043 0.040574 61.70911 0.009501 38.86659 SM 0 LL FP 11 10 1.834093 0.523628 7.172959 0.188951 2.678238 0.434686 0.807519 0.13746 146.0252 83.0141


Appendix 07: Stats for litter

Strata n Mean Variance Standard Desviation Standard Error CV % Mean Total CI % Y 12 8.674554 16.26518 4.033011 1.16423 46.49243 3.522895 14410.83 0.491995 M M/A 24 63 5.541915 4.40001 4.651904 3.263792 2.156827 1.806597 0.440261 0.22761 38.91845 41.05893 0.017332 70.90053 SM 0 LL 11 1.703824 1.612673 1.269911 0.382892 74.53296 FP 10 2.321543 3.274465 1.809548 0.572229 77.94594

Figure 1

Location of the Project (1- The Antonina Pilot Reforestation Project; 2 The Atlantic Rainforest Restoration Project; 3 Guaraqueaba Climate Action Project.


F igure 2

Vegetation Map of Guaraqueaba Climate Action Project with the localization of permanent plots.


20 m

14 m

Sm al l P lot-S Code al l tree s S, M, or L

Medium P lot-M Code all tree s M or L La rge P lot-L Code al l tree s L

Figure 3

Nested plot layout. Small plot radius is 4m; medium plot radius is 14 m and large plot radius is 20 m; the 1.0-m radius plot for saplings is not shown.

F igure 4

Relationship between height and biomass for fern trees.


F igure 5

Relationship between dbh and biomass for fern trees.

F igure 6

Allometric regression equations for fern trees.