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Code: 9A23303

B.Tech II Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14

Time: 3 hours

FLUID FLOW IN BIOPROCESSES

(Biotechnology)

Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks *****

Max Marks: 70

(a)

1 Define unit processes as applied to the field of biotechnology.

(b)

Discuss any two heat transfer operations in bioprocessing.

(a)

2 What are the various equations state available to evaluate P-V-T data.

(b)

Calculate the volume of 15 kg of chlorine at a pressure of 0.9 bar and 293 K.

3 Write the mechanical energy balance for fluid flow through pipes and derive the Bernoulli’s equation, stating assumptions used.

A solution having specific gravity 1.84 is drawn from a storage tank through a 75 mm schedule 40 steel pipe by a pump having 60% efficiency. The velocity in the section line is 0.9 M/S. The pump discharges through a 50 mm schedule 40 pipe to an overheat tank. The end of the discharge pipe is 15 m above the level of the solution in the feed tank. Friction losses in the entire piping are 30 J/kg. What pressure must the pump develop? What is the power developed to the fluid by the pump? The cross sectional areas of the 75 mm and 50 mm pipes are 4765 mm 2 respectively.

(a)

(b)

4 State Newton’s law of viscosity. Define coefficient of viscosity.

(a)

(b)

Describe the cone and plate viscometer and how is it used to determine rheological data of a fermentation broth.

(a)

5 For laminar flow through a pipe, show that the ratio of average velocity to the maximum velocity is 0.5.

(b)

What is compressible flow and what parameters characterize such flow.

6 Derive the Ergun equation for flow of fluids through packed beds.

(a)

7 Describe the construction and working of a venturimeter with the help of a schematic diagram.

(b)

Write short notes on: (i) Check valves. (ii) Butterfly valves. (iii) Safety valves.

(a)

8 Describe the working principle of a centrifugal pump.

(b)

A liquid is pumped from a reservoir to the top of a mountain through a pipe of inner diameter 0.1396 m at an average velocity of 2.09 m/s. The pipe discharge into atmosphere at a level of 1860 m above the level in the reservoir. The length of the pipe line is 1524 m. Effecting of the pump is 65%. Calculate the hourly energy costs for pumping is energy cost is rupees 5 per KWhr. State the assumptions made, if any. ***** 2

Code: 9A23303

B.Tech II Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14

Time: 3 hours

FLUID FLOW IN BIOPROCESSES

(Biotechnology)

Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks *****

Max Marks: 70

 1 Citing two examples for each, define unit operations and unit processes as applied to the field of biotechnology. (a) (b) What are the transport operations involved in low processing? (a) 2 What do you mean by equation of state? Write any two popular ones. (b) Convert pound force into SI units, atmospheric into PSi and 100 poise to Pa.S. (a) 3 Describe the Bernoulli’s equations, clearly stating the assumptions made. (b) Oil having specific gravity 0.8 is flowing in a tapered pipe line. The velocity at a section having 0.15 m 2 area is found to be 1.0 m/s. Calculate the diameter of the pipeline at which the velocity is 2.0 m/s. Find out the mass flow rate. (a) 4 Discuss about the rheology of non-Newtonian fluids. (b) Explain the construction and working of an extrusion rheometer. (a) 5 Explain the concept of boundary layer with a neat diagram. (b) Calculate the frictionless pressure drop in Pascal’s for an oil (density 920 kg/m 3 and viscosity 85 CP) at 293 K flowing through a commercial pipe having an inside diameter of 0.053 m and a length of 76 m. The velocity of the fluid is 1.2 m/s. the friction factor method. Is the flow laminar as turbulent? 6 Obtain the expression for the terminal setting velocity of a single particle assuming Stoke’s law to be valid. (a) (b) Spherical particles having diameter of 0.1 mm and specific gravity 4 are setting under gravity in a solvent (CCl 4 ) at 20º C having specific gravity 1.6. The volume fraction of the particles in CCl 4 is 0.2. If viscosity of CCl 4 at 20º C is 1.03 CP, what is the setting velocity of the particle? (a) 7 Describe the construction and working principle of an artifice meter with the help of a schematic diagram. (b) A rotameter has a 0.3 m long tube with inner diameter 2.5 cm at the top and 1.8 cm at the bottom. The float has 1.8 cm diameter with specific gravity 5.8 and a volume of 60 cm 3 . If the coefficient of the meter is 0.72 at what height will the float be when metering water at 0.1 lps. (a) 8 Explain characteristics curves with diagram and give their applications. (b) Explain about peristaltic pumps, their operation and use in bio processing. ***** 3

Code: 9A23303

B.Tech II Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14

Time: 3 hours

FLUID FLOW IN BIOPROCESSES

(Biotechnology)

Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks *****

Max Marks: 70

 (a) 1 What are the different types of unit operations and unit processes? (b) Give applications of momentum transfer and heat transfer in bioprocessing. 2 What are standard conditions? How many g moles of nitrogen will occupy 100 cm 3 at (a) 112 and 400 K. (b) The heat transfer coefficient of oil flowing through a pipe is 300 W/m 2 K. Express this in K cal /hm 2 0 C Btu/h ft 2 0 F. (a) 3 What is hydrostatic equilibrium? Derive a mathematical expression for it. (b) Oil having specific gravity 0.88 is flowing in a tapered pipeline. The velocity at a section having 0.15 m 2 area is found to be 1.432 m/s. Calculate the diameter of the pipeline at which the velocity is 2.7 m/s. Find out the volumetric flow rate. (a) 4 Explain the concept of viscosity with a neat diagram. (b) Describe the working of a coaxial cylindrical viscometer. (a) 5 Explain flow characterization by Reynolds number. (b) Write short notes on Mach number and stagnation temperature. (a) 6 Discuss the different equations for determining pressure drop for flow through beds. (b) Air at 37.8 ºC and 101.3 kPa absolute pressure flows past a sphere having a diameter of 36 mm at a velocity of 24 m/s. What are the drag coefficient and force on the sphere. The viscosity of air at 37.8ºC is 1.9 Pa.S and density = 1.137 kg/m 3 . (a) 7 Describe the construction and working of a rotameter with the help of a schematic diagram. (b) What size of orifice would give a pressure difference of 31 cm of water column for the flow of liquid styrene of density 923 kg/m 3 at a flow rate of 0.06 m 3 /s in a 25 cm diameter pipe? Take the orifice coefficient value to be 0.65. (a) 8 Discuss about the classification of fluid transportation machinery with examples. (b) Explain about the selection of pump for different applications in process industries.

***** 4

Code: 9A23303

B.Tech II Year I Semester (R09) Regular & Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14

Time: 3 hours

FLUID FLOW IN BIOPROCESSES

(Biotechnology)

Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks *****

Max Marks: 70

1 Citing examples from the field of biotechnology, state what you understand by unit operations and unit processes.

(a)

(b)

Discuss any one major man transfer application in bioprocessing.

2 What is an ideal gas equation? State its range of applicability.

(a)

(b)

The heat transfer coefficient for a stream to another is given by

transfer coefficient in Btu/h ft 20 F, D is the flow diameter in inches, G is the mass velocity lb/s ft 2 and is the specific heat Btu/lb 0 F. Express h in kcal/hm 2 0 C.

where h is the heat  3 Show that at any particular point in a static fluid the applied pressure force is same in all the directions.

Water at 20 is pumped at a constant rate of 9 m 3 /h from a large reservoir resting on the floor to the open top of an experimental absorption tower. The point of discharge is 5 m above the floor, and friction losses in the 50 mm pipe from the reservoir to the tower amount to 2.5 J/kg. At what height in the reservoir must the water level be kept if the pump ran deliver only 0.1 KW.

(a)

(b) (a)

4 What are time dependent non-Newtonian fluids explain with a diagram and examples?

(b)

Discuss about the different hardware configurations available for continuous measurement of viscosity.

5 Distinguish between skin friction and form friction and discuss how pressure drop due to these can be calculated.

A fluid with specific gravity 0.9 flows through a horizontal pipe of 3 cm diameter. The mass flow rate is 1.04 kg/s. If the pressure drop per meter length of the pipe is 0.12 kg/cm 2 , determine the viscosity of the fluid.

(a)

(b)

(a)

6 Define fanning friction factor. Derive the equation to calculate skin friction loss in straight pipes.

(b)

Estimate the terminal velocity for 80 to 100 mash particles (density 2800 kg/m 3 ) falling in oil at

for 100 mesh 0.147 mm

30

and for 80 mesh = 0.175 mm. (Viscosity of oil = 0.025 Pa.S and density = 990 kg/m 3 ). Given (a)

7 Discuss about the common devices for minimizing leakage while permitting relative motion.

(b)

Write short notes on: (i) Needle valves. (ii) Gate and (iii) Globe valves.

8 What is NPSH? How is it calculated?

(a)

(b)

Give a detailed account of positive displacement pumps along with their applications in bioprocessing.

*****