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Government of India Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources 7 Small Hydro Power
Government of India Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources 7 Small Hydro Power

Government of India

Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources

7

Government of India Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources 7 Small Hydro Power
Government of India Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources 7 Small Hydro Power
Government of India Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources 7 Small Hydro Power

Small Hydro Power

Government of India Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources 7 Small Hydro Power
Government of India Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources 7 Small Hydro Power
Dr Manmohan Singh Smt. Sonia Gandhi Prime Minister of India ‘ Energy is an important

Dr Manmohan Singh

Smt. Sonia Gandhi

Prime Minister of India

Dr Manmohan Singh Smt. Sonia Gandhi Prime Minister of India ‘ Energy is an important input

Energy is an important input for economic development. Since exhaustible energy sources in the country are limited, there is an urgent need to focus attention on development of renewable energy sources and use of energy efficient technologies. The exploitation and development of various forms of energy and making energy available at affordable rates is one of our major thrust areas.

at affordable rates is one of our major thrust areas. ’ Chairperson, National Advisory Council ‘

Chairperson, National Advisory Council

thrust areas. ’ Chairperson, National Advisory Council ‘ Today India is one of the few leading

Today India is one of the few leading countries in the development and utilization of renewable energy. The country is blessed with various sources of non-conventional energy and I hope the efforts of Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources will promote viable technologies that can reach the benefits of such sources to the poorest people in the far-flung regions of the country.

that can reach the benefits of such sources to the poorest people in the far-flung regions

Renewable Energy in India

E nergy is a basic requirement for economic development. Every

sector of Indian economy – agriculture, industry, transport,

commercial, and domestic – needs inputs of energy. The

economic development plans implemented since independence have necessarily required increasing amounts of energy. As a result, consumption of energy in all forms has been steadily rising all over the country. This growing consumption of energy has also resulted in the country becoming increasingly dependent on fossil fuels such as coal and oil and gas. Rising prices of oil and gas and potential shortages in future lead to concerns about the security of energy supply needed to sustain our economic growth. Increased use of fossil fuels also causes environmental problems both locally and globally. Against this background, the country urgently needs to develop a sustainable path of energy development. Promotion of energy conservation and increased use of renewable energy sources are the twin planks of a sustainable energy supply. Fortunately, India is blessed with a variety of renewable energy sources, the main ones being biomass, biogas, the sun, wind, and small hydro power. (Large hydro power is also renewable in nature, but has been utilized all over the world for many decades, and is generally not included in the term ‘new and renewable sources of energy’.) Municipal and industrial wastes can also be useful sources of energy, but are basically different forms of biomass.

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RENEWABLE E NERGY IN INDIA

Advantages of renewable energy are that it is perennial available locally and does not need elaborate arrangements for transport usually modular in nature, i.e. small-scale units and systems can be almost as economical as large-scale ones environment-friendly well suited for decentralized applications and use in remote areas.

The Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources has been implementing comprehensive programmes for the development and utilization of various renewable energy sources in the country. As a result of efforts made during the past quarter century, a number of technologies and devices have been developed and have become commercially available. These include biogas plants, improved wood stoves, solar water heaters, solar cookers, solar lanterns, street lights, pumps, wind electric generators, water-pumping wind mills, biomass gasifiers, and small hydro-electric generators. Energy technologies for the future such as hydrogen, fuel cells, and bio-fuels are being actively developed. India is implementing one of the world’s largest programmes in renewable energy. The country ranks second in the world in biogas utilization and fifth in wind power and photovoltaic production. Renewable sources already contribute to about 5% of the total power generating capacity in the country. The major renewable energy sources and devices in use in India are listed in Table 1 along with their potential and present status in terms of the number of installations or total capacity.

Table 1
Table 1

RENEWABLE E NERGY IN INDIA

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Renewable energy in India at a glance

 

Estimated

Cumulative installed capacity /

Source/System

potential

number*

Wind power

45 000 MW

3595 MW

Biomass power

16 000 MW

302.53 MW

Bagasse cogeneration

3500 MW

447.00 MW

Small hydro (up to 25 MW)

15 000 MW

1705.63 MW

Waste to energy

P

Municipal solid waste

1700 MW

17 MW

P

Industrial waste

1000 MW

29.50 MW

Family-size biogas plants

12 million

3.71 million

Improved chulhas

120 million

35.20 million

Solar street lighting systems

54 795

Home lighting systems

342 607

Solar lanterns

560 295

Solar photovoltaic power plants

1566 kWp

Solar water heating systems

140 million m 2 of collector area

1 million m 2 of collector area

Box-type solar cookers

575 000

Solar photovoltaic pumps

6818

Wind pumps

1087

Biomass gasifiers

66.35 MW

* as on 31 March 2005

NATIONAL ELECTRICITY POLICY 2005

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National Electricity Policy 2005

The National Electricity Policy aims at achieving the following objectives.

1 Access to Electricity – available for all households in the next five years.

2 Availability of Power – demand to be fully met by 2012. Energy and peaking shortages to be overcome and spinning reserve to be available.

3 Supply of reliable and quality power of specified standards in an efficient manner and at reasonable rates.

4 Per capita availability of electricity to be increased to over 1000 units by 2012.

5 Minimum lifeline consumption of 1 unit/household/day as a merit good by 2012.

6 Financial turnaround and commercial viability of electricity sector.

7 Protection of consumers’ interests.

The Electricity Act 2003

The Electricity Act contains the following provisions pertaining to non- conventional energy sources.

Sections 3(1) and 3(2)

Under Sections 3(1) and 3(2), it has been stated that the Central Government shall, from time to time, prepare and publish the National Electricity Policy and Tariff Policy, in consultation with the state governments and authority for development of the power system based on optimal utilization of resources such as coal, natural gas, nuclear substances or material, hydro and renewable sources of energy.

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THE ELECTRICITY ACT 2003

Section 4

Section 4 states that the Central Government shall, after consultation with the state governments, prepare and notify a national policy, permitting stand-alone systems (including those based on renewable sources of energy and other non-conventional sources of energy) for rural areas.

Section 61

Section 61, 61(h) and 61(i) state that the appropriate commission shall, subject to the provision of this Act, specify the terms and conditions for the determination of tariff, and in doing so, shall be guided by the following, namely, the promotion of cogeneration and generation of electricity from renewable sources of energy; and the National Electricity Policy and Tariff Policy.

Section 86(1)

Section 86(1) and 86(1)(e) state that the state commissions shall discharge the following functions, namely, promote cogeneration and generation of electricity from renewable sources of energy by providing, suitable measures for connectivity with the grid and sale of electricity to any person, and also specify, for purchase of electricity from such sources, a percentage of the total consumption of electricity in the area of a distribution license.

IntroductionH ydro power is the largest renewable energy Small Hydro Power resource being used for

H ydro power is the largest renewable energy

Small Hydro Power

resource being used for the generation of electricity. In India, hydro power projects with a station capacity of up to 25 megawatt (MW) each fall under the category of small hydro power (SHP). India has an estimated SHP potential of about 15 000 MW, of which about 11% has been tapped so far. The aim is to install 2% additional power generation capacity from SHP during the Tenth and Eleventh Plan periods. This capacity addition is expected to come mainly from private investment.

Technology and Definitionsaddition is expected to come mainly from private investment. Hydro power is obtained from the potential

Hydro power is obtained from the potential and kinetic energy of water flowing from a height. The energy contained in the water is converted into electricity by using a turbine coupled to a generator. The hydro power potential of a site is dependent on the discharge and head of water. It is estimated by the following equation.

P (power in kW) = Q × H × 9.81 × η, where

Q

= discharge (rate of flow) in m 3 /s;

H

= head (height) in metres; and

η = overall power generating system efficiency.

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SMALL HYDRO POWER

SHP projects can be set up on rivers, canals or at dams. Essentially, an SHP project has the components listed below.

Diversion weir/barrage

Power channel

Desalting devices

Fore bay tank/balancing reservoir

Penstock

By-pass arrangements/spillways

Powerhouse building

Equipment

Power evacuation arrangements

building Equipment Power evacuation arrangements Typical arrangement of an SHP station on a river

Typical arrangement of an SHP station on a river

Classification of SHP projects

SHP projects are classified based on head as follows.

Ultra low head Low head Medium/high head

: below 3 metres : above 3 and up to 40 metres : above 40 metres

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S MALL H YDRO P OWER Typical arrangement of an SHP station on a canal 234567890123

Typical arrangement of an SHP station on a canal

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SHP projects are classified based on capacity as follows.

Micro hydro

:

up to 100 kW

Mini hydro

: 101–1000 kW (i.e. 1 MW)

Small hydro

: above 1 MW up to 25 MW

kW (i.e. 1 MW) Small hydro : above 1 MW up to 25 MW Advantages of

Advantages of SHP Projects

SHP projects can provide electricity to meet distributed energy requirements; currently, such requirements are met from single sources of power. SHP is increasingly becoming economical; besides, it is relatively benign in environmental effects. A few major advantages of SHP projects are listed below.

Standard indigenous technologies and manufacturing base available, which require only minor adaptation to specific site conditions

Flexibility of installation and operation in a distributed mode

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SMALL HYDRO POWER

Compatible with use of water for other purposes such as irrigation and drinking water Environment-friendly because it causes negligible or no submergence; minimal deforestation; and minimal impact on flora, fauna, and biodiversity

Costsand minimal impact on flora, fauna, and biodiversity While SHP projects on rivers involve higher costs

While SHP projects on rivers involve higher costs of civil works than those on canals, the cost of equipment for canal-based projects is

relatively higher. SHP projects generally cost between Rs 5 crores and

Rs 7 crores per MW, depending upon the location and site topography.

SHP projects generally have a pay-back period of 5–7 years depending upon the capacity utilization factor, which, in turn, depends on the factors mentioned earlier and on grid availability.

Small Hydro Power Programmeon the factors mentioned earlier and on grid availability. The Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES)

The Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) supports SHP project development throughout the country. So far, 523 SHP

projects with an aggregate installed capacity of 1705 MW have been installed. Besides these, 205 SHP projects with an aggregate capacity of 479 MW are under implementation. With a capacity addition, on

an average, of 100 MW per year and gradual decrease in gestation

periods and capital costs, the SHP sector is becoming increasingly competitive with other alternatives.

SHP Resource Assessmentbecoming increasingly competitive with other alternatives. 10 A database has been created for potential SHP sites

10

A database has been

created for potential SHP sites through information gathering from various

sources, including state governments. Zonal plans for 13 states of the Himalayan and sub-

gathering from various sources, including state governments. Zonal plans for 13 states of the Himalayan and
gathering from various sources, including state governments. Zonal plans for 13 states of the Himalayan and

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Himalayan region have already been prepared. Simulation models have been developed that take into account regional flow duration curves, geological and seismological data, vegetation cover, etc., and use GIS (geographic information system) technology. The database of SHP projects includes 4233 potential sites with an aggregate capacity of 10 324 MW. It is proposed to further strengthen the database by including new sites. A scheme is under implementation to provide a subsidy of up to Rs 30 lakhs to states for identification of new potential sites, and preparation of a perspective plan for SHP development. Potential SHP sites by state/union territory are shown in Table 1.

Table 1
Table 1

Identified small hydel sites up to 25 MW capacity

 

State/Union Territory

Number of identified sites

Total capacity (MW)

Andaman and Nicobar Islands Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland

6

6.40

286

254.63

492

1059.03

46

118.00

92

194.02

47

57.90

3

2.60

290

156.83

22

30.05

323

1624.78

201

1207.27

89

170.05

230

652.61

198

466.85

85

336.33

234

599.47

96

105.63

98

181.50

88

190.32

86

181.39

 

Continued

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SMALL HYDRO POWER

Table 1
Table 1

Identified small hydel sites up to 25 MW capacity (Continued

)

State/Union Territory

Number of identified sites

Total capacity (MW)

Orissa

161

156.76

Punjab

78

65.26

Rajasthan

49

27.26

Sikkim

68

202.75

Tamil Nadu

147

338.92

Tripura

8

9.85

Uttaranchal

354

1478.24

Uttar Pradesh

211

267.06

West Bengal

145

182.62

Total

4233

10324.37

West Bengal 145 182.62 Total 4233 10324.37 SHP Promotional Schemes The MNES supports SHP development,

SHP Promotional Schemes

The MNES supports SHP development, both in the government and private sectors. Apart from financial support to new SHP projects, subsidy is provided for the renovation and modernization (R&M) of existing SHP stations and government projects that have been languishing for want of funds. A special incentive package has been developed for the promotion of the SHP programme in the North- Eastern states, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttaranchal. Key performance parameters such as cost of the project, capacity utilization factor, and cost of electricity generation are the guiding factors for grant of subsidy. Emphasis is also laid on quality of the equipment through insistence upon standards and specifications that match international levels. To improve the economic viability of SHP projects and to give impetus to the programme, the MNES provides a one-time subsidy for commercial SHP projects. The subsidy is utilized by the promoter towards repayment of the term loan availed from a financial institution. The subsidy is released after the project performance parameters are attained as laid down in the MNES scheme. The subsidy scheme covers

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projects of capacity up to 25 MW each. The eligibility conditions and subsidy levels are given in Table 2.

Table 2
Table 2

Eligibility criteria and levels of subsidy for SHP projects

 

Eligibility

Special category states (north-eastern region, Sikkim, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttaranchal)

Other states

Maximum permissible

Rs 7 crores/MW

Rs 5 crores/MW

installed cost

Cost of electricity generation

Rs 2.50–3.30/unit

 

Minimum permissible capacity utilization factor

Canal based: 30% Others: 45%

 

Standards

All projects to conform to relevant international/national codes of practices and standards

Subsidy

Rs 2.25 crores ×

Rs 1.5 crores ×

(C

MW) 0.646

(C MW) 0.646

Note ‘C’ stands for capacity of the project

 
Quality of Project
Quality of Project

Quality of Project

Quality of Project

The quality of equipment utilized is considered important for the reliability and attainment of project performance parameters. SHP project promoters are required to follow stipulated standards for receiving subsidy for a project. SHP equipment must conform to the standards laid down by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) (Table 3).

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SMALL HYDRO POWER

Table 3
Table 3

Equipment standards laid down by the IEC and BIS

Equipment

Standard

Turbines and generator (rotating electrical machines)

IEC 60034-1: 1983 IEC 61366-1: 1998 IEC 61116-1992 IS: 4722-2001 IS 12800 (part 3) 1991

Field acceptance test for hydraulic performance of turbine

IEC 60041: 1991

Governing system for hydraulic turbines Transformers

IEC 60308 IS 3156 – 1992 IS 2705 – 1992 IS 2026 – 1983

Inlet valves for hydro power stations and systems

IS 7326 – 1902

SHP projects are also required to be tested by the Alternate Hydro Energy Center, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, to check whether the projects have attained performance parameters during performance trials; whether the equipment used meets the stipulated standards; and to verify project cost, capacity utilization, and cost of electricity generation.

capacity utilization, and cost of electricity generation. Sale of Electricity and Financing Fifteen states have

Sale of Electricity and Financing

Fifteen states have announced policies to attract private sector entrepreneurs to set up SHP projects. These policies are summarized in Table 4. The state electricity regulatory commissions are now determining tariffs by taking into account the submissions of all stakeholders including the developers and the MNES. For commercial projects, these states have offered sites with a total potential of over 2300 MW. A number of leading financial institutions and banks – including Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA), Power Finance Corporation, Rural Electrification Corporation, IDBI, IL&FC, and commercial banks – have started financing SHP projects.

Table 4
Table 4

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Policies in states for commercial SHP projects

 

Third party

Buy-back

Annual

State

Wheeling

Banking

sale

by SEB

escalation

Andhra Pradesh

2% of energy

2%; 8–12

Allowed but

Rs 2.69/unit

generated months

Not < HTT

(2004/05)

Haryana

2% of energy generated

Allowed

Allowed

Rs 2.25/unit

5%

 

(1994/95)

Himachal Pradesh 2% of energy generated

Allowed with

Not allowed

Rs 2.50/unit

additional

 

charges

Jammu and

10% now, to be decided by SERC. No charges for sale to PDD or local grid

Allowed for

Allowed

Negotiable

Kashmir

2 months

HT consumers

Karnataka

20%–25%,

Allowed

Rs 2.90/unit

2%

wheeling for

 

one year

Kerala

15% of energy generated

Not allowed

Not allowed

On case basis

Madhya Pradesh

2% of energy generated

Not allowed

Allowed

Rs 2.25/Unit

Maharashtra

Allowed with

Allowed

Allowed

Rs 2.25/unit

5%

no charges

 

(1999–2000)

for first

 

3

years and

1% after that

 

Orissa

Up to 100 kW:

1 year

Allowed

At mutually

2% of energy charge

agreed rate

100–200 kW:

3% of energy charge

2 MW to 15 MW:

2% of energy

charge

Continued

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Table 4
Table 4

Policies in states for commercial SHP projects (Continued

)

 
 

Third party

Buy-back

Annual

State

Wheeling

Banking

sale

by SEB

escalation

Punjab

2% of energy generated

1 year

Allowed

Rs 2.73/unit

5%

 

(1998/99)

Rajasthan

2% of energy generated

Allowed

Allowed

Rs 2.75/unit

5%

 

(1998/99)

Tamil Nadu

5% of energy generated

Not allowed

Not allowed

At mutually

 

agreed rate

Uttaranchal

To be

2 months

Allowed to HT consumer, rural areas,

Mutually

determined by

monetized at

negotiated

ERCU; 10%

average

free if sold to pooled price outside state

UPCL or rural distribution

Uttar Pradesh

2% of energy generated

1 year

Allowed

Rs 2.25/unit

West Bengal

2% of energy generated

6 months

Not allowed

On case basis

Case basis

SERC – state electricity regulatory commission; PDD – Power Development Department; SEB – state electricity board; MW – megawatt; HT – high tension; kW – kilowatt

board; MW – megawatt; HT – high tension; kW – kilowatt Water Mills Water mills, also

Water Mills

Water mills, also known as gharats in the northern part of the country, have traditionally been used to convert the energy of water to useful mechanical energy. In the Himalayan region, about 150 000 water mills are being used for mechanical applications such as grain grinding and oil extraction. In general, water mills have low conversion efficiency. Improved water mills have been developed for mechanical applications as well as electricity generation. The MNES scheme for the development of water mills is being operated through local organizations such as Water Mills Associations, cooperative societies, registered NGOs, local bodies, and state nodal agencies. Under the scheme, subsidy up to 75%

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of the actual cost is being provided, limited to a ceiling of Rs 30 000 in mechanical mode and Rs 1 lakh in electrical/electrical plus mechanical mode. Uttaranchal has set up over 150 such water mills in its remote and isolated areas. Nagaland too has started laying emphasis on the deployment of water mills for village-level electricity generation.

Manufacturing Base for SHP

India has a manufacturing base for all types and sizes of SHP equipment. The technology being employed is at par with international levels. There are currently 11 SHP equipment manufacturers in the country, as listed below.

Alstom Power India Ltd Chandiwala Estate Maa Anandamayee Ashram Marg

Kalkaji, New Delhi – 110 019 Tel. 011-2682 6100/150/152 (GM-MET)

Fax

E-mail gurvinder.singh@power.

011-2682 6180/166/161

alstom.com

Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd Piplani, Bhopal – 462 022

Central Marketing Group (NCE&DPG) Industrial Sector Integrated Office Complex Lodi Road New Delhi – 110 003

011-243 6779, 5179 3247

Tel.

Boving Fouress Pvt. Ltd Plot No. 7, KIADB, Industrial Area Bangalore – 562 114

Tel.

080-2797 1641

Fax

080-2797 1455

Gram FOURESSCOP E-mail foursbov@vsnl.com

VA Tech. Escher Wyss Flovel Ltd 13/1 Mathura Road Faridabad – 121 003

Tel

0129-227 4319

Fax

0129-227 4320

Gram FLOVIN E-mail sulzer@del3.vsnl.net.in

Jyoti Ltd Nanubhai Amin Marg Industrial Area PO Chemical Industries Vadodara – 390 003

Tel.

0265-238 0633, 238 0627,

238 1402

At Delhi

Fax

Gram JYOTIPUMPS E-mail jyotidelhi@vsnl.net

011-2684 3213, 2643 4249

0265-235 0538, 238 1871

Steel Industries Kerala Ltd

Silk Nagar, Athani PO Thrissur (Kerala) - 680 771

Tel.

0487-220 1421–23

Fax

0487-220 1331

E-mail silk@md3.vsnl.net.in

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The Triveni Engg. Works Ltd

Technic Ganz Machinery India Pvt. Ltd D-10/3, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase I New Delhi – 110 020

Tel.

8th Floor, Express Trade Tower Sector – 16A NOIDA – 201 301

Tel.

0120-530 8000

Fax

011-2681 6049, 2681 8543 011-2681 6324, 2371 2032

Fax

0120-530 8100

E-mail technipgroup@vsnl.com

Gram TEWPEDCO E-mail rebg.mkt@projects.

HPP Energy (India) Pvt. Ltd L-71 / A-B F.F., Malviya Nagar New Delhi – 110 017

trivenigroup.com

Kirloskar Bros Ltd Hydel Projects Group Chintan 408/15, Mukund Nagar Pune – 411 037 Tel. 020-2444 4444 Fax 020-2427 0879, 2444 0156 E-mail dineshkarna@pnr.kbl.co.in

Tel.

2667 5120

Fax

2667 5144

E-mail hpenergy@nde.vsnl.net.in

Ushamil Private Ltd A-292, Mahipalpur Extn N.H. – 8 New Delhi – 110 037

 

Tel.

011-2678 2183, 2678 3740 011-2678 1483, 2678 3278

Fax

E-mail flowmore@del2.vsnl.net.in

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Rajiv Gandhi Akshay Urja Diwas

On 20 August 2004 – the 60th Birth Anniversary of our Late Prime Minister Mr Rajiv Gandhi – the Ministry organized the Rajiv Gandhi Akshay Urja Diwas. Initiated by the Hon’ble Minister of State (Non- Conventional Energy Sources), Mr V Muttemwar, the occasion saw the release of a commemorative stamp by the Hon’ble Prime Minister, Dr Manmohan Singh, at a function attended by Smt. Sonia Gandhi, Chairperson, United Progressive Alliance (UPA), Members of the Union Cabinet, Members of Parliament, Chief Ministers, Foreign Dignitaries, Administrators, Scientists, and students among others. The day was also appropriate to advocate renewable energy, since Mr Rajiv Gandhi was a keen enthusiast of scientific advances that would enable India to leap into the 21st century. Thus, a human chain of nearly 12 000 school children was formed in the National Capital to promote a renewable future. In the rest of the country too, functions such as rallies and human chains were organized. In addition, competitions such as essay writing, painting, quizzes, and debates were held, all of which covered different aspects of renewable energy – from biogas to biomass to solar, hydro, and wind power. The essence of these public activities was to generate mass awareness and disseminate information about the advances made in renewable energy technologies, and with the ultimate objective of achieving ‘ A kshay urja se desh vikas – Gaon gaon bijlee, ghar ghar prakash’. The success of the Rajiv Gandhi Akshay Urja Diwas has encouraged the Ministry to make it an annual affair, to be celebrated on 20 August every year.

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For more information, please contact

Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources Block No. 14, CGO Complex Lodi Road, New Delhi – 110 003

Tel.

+91 11 2436 0707 +91 11 2436 0404 +91 11 2436 1298

Fax

Disclaimer Every effort has been made to provide correct information in this booklet. However, the Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) does not assume any responsibility for the accuracy of the facts and figures mentioned here, nor for any consequences arising out of use of any information contained in this publication.

Shri Vilas Muttemwar Minister of State (Independent Charge) Non-Conventional Energy Sources, Government of India New

Shri Vilas Muttemwar

Minister of State (Independent Charge) Non-Conventional Energy Sources, Government of India New Delhi – 110 003

Energy Sources, Government of India New Delhi – 110 003 ‘ The promotion of renewable energy

The promotion of renewable energy sources in the country requires widespread publicity and greater awareness of the potential of these energy sources and the products available. The Ministry of Non- Conventional Energy Sources is expanding several of its programmes so that these sources can contribute to sustainable development of the nation. The Ministry will work towards reducing the costs of renewable energy products and making them easily available to the people. The motto of the Ministry is “Akshay urja se desh vikas” and the ultimate goal is “Gaon gaon bijli, ghar ghar prakash”.

of the Ministry is “Akshay urja se desh vikas” and the ultimate goal is “Gaon gaon

7 Small Hydro Power

7 Small Hydro Power Booklets in this Series 1 Biogas 2 Biomass 3 Solar Heat 4

Booklets in this Series

1

Biogas

2

Biomass

3

Solar Heat

4

Solar Electricity

5

Energy Recovery from Wastes

6

Wind Energy

7

Small Hydro Power

8

Hydrogen Energy

9

Solar Energy Centre

10

Centre for Wind Energy Technology

11

Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Ltd

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Information and Public Awareness

Agency Ltd 12 Information and Public Awareness Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources, Government of

Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources, Government of India Block No. 14, CGO Complex, Lodi Road, New Delhi – 110 003 Web site: www.mnes.nic.in