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48 Aufrufe

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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Drilling, Completion and Stimulation Reservoir and Well Testing Production and Artificial Lift Facilities and Fluids Processing

Production Engineering is that part of petroleum engineering which attempts to maximize production in a cost-effective manner. In general Production Engineers are involved with the design, analysis, optimization and troubleshooting of production systems. Production system consists of:

The reservoir The near wellbore zone The well production and artificial lift completion The production gathering system

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

The basic tools used to model the flow of fluids in the production system are:

Conservation Equations

Mass Momentum Energy Species

Usually the system is modeled from the reservoir up to a certain known boundary condition such as the separator pressure and temperature. Usually the separator performance, the flow of the fluids streams downstream of the separator gas and liquid measurements is under responsibility of fluid processing and surface facilities engineers.

The conservation equations (mass, momentum and energy) describe the flow of fluids across all components of the production system such as the porous media, perforations, gravel pack, casing and tubing, artificial lift equipment, chokes, flowlines, control valves, manifolds, etc The specific form of the conservation equations varies according to the component being modeled. The flow of fluids across the production system is divided in 5 groups.

Flow of fluids in the porous media Flow of fluids in the near wellbore region Flow of fluids in horizontal, inclined and vertical pipes Flow of fluids through restrictions Interaction of fluids with artificial lift equipment

As fluids move through the production system, the pressure, temperature, gas-liquid-solid equilibrium and phase properties will be changing. Those changes are all inter-related but the pressure changes are very important since they determine the production flowrates for the well.

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Equilibrium Flowrate

The equilibrium flowrate q is the solution to the following equation

Pr Ps = Pc (q)

Potential Pressure Drops in System Components

4000 3500 3000 Pressure (psi)

Separator

Reservoir

Tubing

Flowline

Flowrate q

Preservoir (q )

Ptubing (q )

Pflowline (q )

10000 Distance (ft) 15000

Equilibrium Flowrate

The system components are: reservoir, tubing, flowline, etc...

Pr Ps = Preservoir (q) + Pnear wellbore (q ) + Ptubing (q ) + Pflowline (q ) + Pchoke (q ) + Partificial lift (q )

Equilibrium Flowrate

Regrouping the terms:

Pr Preservoir (q) Pnear wellbore (q) = Ps + Ptubing (q) + Pflowline (q) + Pchoke (q) + Partificial lift (q)

Flowrates

The source of the produced fluids is the reservoir. During production, the fluids will flow inside the porous media losing pressure as they flow towards the perforations. The driving force for the fluids to move inside the porous media is the pressure drop in the reservoir. The fluids will arrive at the mid point of the perforations with a pressure Pwf also called Inflow Bottomhole Pressure.

Equilibrium Flowrate

Then:

Pr Preservoir (q) Pnear wellbore (q) = Ps + Ptubing (q) + Pflowline (q) + Pchoke (q) + Partificial lift (q)

Therefore the rate q of the inflow of fluids from the reservoir into the well is a function of the bottonhole flowing pressure Pwf at the midpoint of the perforations This function is called:

Inflow Performance Relationship - IPR

inflow wf

(q)

or

q( P

inflow wf

Flowrates

After the fluids get into the production system throught the perforations, they will flow through the remaining components of the production system (tubing, flowline, etc) losing pressure as they flow towards the separator. The driving force for the fluids to move through those element is the pressure at the bottom of the well. The fluids will require a certain pressure at the mid point of the perforations to flow. This pressure, Pwf is called outflow bottomhole pressure.

Equilibrium Flowrate

Then:

Pr Preservoir (q) Pnear wellbore (q) = Ps + Ptubing (q) + Pflowline (q) + Pchoke (q) + Partificial lift (q)

Therefore the rate q of the outflow of fluids from the bottom of the well into the separator is a function of the bottonhole flowing pressure Pwf at the midpoint of the perforations This function is called:

Outflow Performance Relationship OPR It is also called System Performance Relationship or Tubing Performance Relationship or Total System Performance Relationship or Tubing Intake Performance.

outflow wf

(q)

or

q( P

outflow wf

Equilibrium Flowrate

Then:

Pr Preservoir (q) Pnear wellbore (q) = Ps + Ptubing (q) + Pflowline (q) + Pchoke (q) + Partificial lift (q)

inflow wf

(q)

outflow wf

(q)

Equilibrium Flowrate

Usually an increase in flowrate causes an increase in the pressure drops inside the tubing and flowline and chokes or restrictions

outflow Pwf (q ) = Ps + Ptubing (q) + Pflowline (q) + Pchoke (q ) + Partificial lift (q)

An increase in flowrate cause an increse in the pressure drop in the reservoir and near wellbore region

Equilibrium Flowrate

5000 4500 4000 3500

OPR

o Pwf

Pwf

IPR

qe

Pwf

1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

F lo w rate (b p d )

Performance Relationships

A wells Inflow Performance Relationship is a measure of the reservoir ability to produce fluids under an imposed reservoir pressure drop or bottom hole flowing pressure Pwf. The IPR represents the pressure available at the bottom of the well for a certain flowrate. It represents the pressure available in front of the perforations for the fluids to flow inside the porous media at a certain flowrate A wells Outflow Performance Relationship is a measure of the production system requirements to produce fluids under an imposed system pressure drop or bottom hole flowing pressure Pwf The OPR represents the pressure required at the bottom of the well to flow fluids at a certain flowrate from that location to the surface separator.

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Performance Relationships

The natural equilibrium flowrate is the flowrate at which the Inflow and Outflow Performance Relationships are the same. The IPR and OPR represent a relationship between the bottonhole flowing pressure and the flowrate. For a certain condition there is only one equilibrium flowrate and only one bottomhole flowing pressure. The equilibrium flowrate is the one that causes the IPR and OPR pressures to be the same. Proper System design requires Knowledge of the IPR and OPR at current as well as future reservoir pressure levels and operational conditions.

Performance Relationships

The bottomhole flowing pressure is defined as the pressure occurring inside the well at mid perforation depth

outflow Pwf (q ) = Ps + Ptubing (q ) + Pflowline (q ) + Pchoke (q ) + Partificial lift (q )

Performance Relationships

The flowrate is usually the flowrate at standard conditions of the fluid of interest For oil wells Oil flowrate in stock tank conditions For gas wells Gas flowrate in some standardized condition Sometimes the flowrate can also be the total liquid flowrate (oil and water) but it must be clearly stated which fluid/fluids is being used for the flowrate

Flowrate in Standard Conditions for the Fluid of Interest

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Performance Relationships

The models for solving the balance equations usually require some parameters such as pipe roughness, thermal conductivities, choke discharge coefficient, permeability, etc For the production equipment:

Accurate models exist for single phase flow and the characteristic parameters are known or can be easily determined for each component. For two phase flow, models do exist but experimental closure equations are required (the problem is too complex) and some degree of uncertainty exist in the predictions.

Accurate models exist for single phase flow but the characteristic parameters such as permeability and porosity distribution are not known and an averaged effect must be determined by a well test. For two phase flow no simple model exist and the predictions rely on correlations or empirical methods

Darcys Law

We focus now on the prediction of single phase pressure losses inside the reservoir. In1856 Darcy (1803-1858) performed experiments for the design of sand filters for water purification in France

EXPERIENCE AND APPLICATION PRINCIPLES TO FOLLOW AND FORMULAS TO BE USED IN THE QUESTION OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF WATER

by HENRY DARCY INSPECTOR GENERAL OF BRIDGES AND ROADS 1856

Darcys Law

Henry Darcy's law of fluid flow through porous media forms the basis of hydrogeology. Experiments on water flow through sand led Darcy to formulate the empirical law that he published in1856 as an appendix to his book Les Fontaines publiques de la ville de Dijon. Darcy wrote the book to describe the construction of Dijon's water supply system in 183940 and to provide practical guidance to engineers involved in similar projects. Darcy's water supply system transformed Dijon from a pestilential provincial capital to the second-best city in Europe (after Rome) in terms of water supply and quality. As a young Engineer of the Corps of Bridges and Roads assigned to his native city, Darcy gauged nearby springs and selected an abundant spring to divert to Dijon via a 12-km underground aqueduct. In 18391840, he built two reservoirs, 13 kilometers of pipes and 115 street fountains in Dijon. These fountains supplied free water for all inhabitants, water for flushing the streets, and water for fire pumps. The book contains 4 parts and an appendix.

Part 1 describes the historical water situation of Dijon and proposals to provide water for its residents. Part 2 discusses the construction of the aqueduct and the internal distribution system. Part 3 presents experiments that Darcy conducted on the aqueduct and distribution system. Part 4 discusses the expropriation of the springs, which belonged to a nearby village. The appendix contains eight sections on such topics as the water supply systems of London and major French cities, artificial and natural filtration of river water, and pipe making. Appendix D contains the experiments that Darcy conducted in developing his law of fluid flow through porous media. A separate 28-plate atlas includes Darcy's drawings of the components of the Dijon water supply system, the Pitot tube, and the apparatus Darcy used for the experiments that led to the formulation of Darcy's Law.

Darcy Experiment

Viscous Fluid

Sand

P + dP

dx

Darcys Law

After several concluded that: experiments Darcy

A dP q is proportional to dx k A dP q= dx

Where k is defined as the permeability of the porous media. In 1933 Muskat et al, proposed to measured permeability in a unit called Darcy

Darcys Law

The units of k can be obtained by:

q dx k= dP A

L M Lt t L 1 2 k= L =L 2 2 2 t t L MLL

The permeability k has the units of area

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Darcys Law

The definition of 1 Darcy is the permeability of a porous media that will allow the flow of 1 cm3/s of a fluid with 1 cp viscosity when the pressure gradient is 1 atm/cm and the flow area is 1 cm2

q dx k= dP A

cm3 cp cm 13 2 1 Darcy = 1 = 9 . 869 10 m s atm cm 2

Darcys Law

The value of 1 Darcy by definition is then:

1 D = 9.869 10 13 m 2

Curiosity: Human hair thickness ~ 60 microns = 6 x 10-5 m Human hair cross section area

d

4

(6 10

4

5 2

= 28.27 10 10 m 2

Darcys Law

k A dP q= dx

q A - Liquid flow rate - Cross Section Area - Liquid Viscosity

dP - Pressure Gradient dx

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Darcys Law

Darcys law is in reality an expression for the steady state momentum conservation equations (or pressure losses) through the porous media channels. This can be verified by comparing Darcys equation with a simplified model for laminar flow in the porous media based on momentum balance equations for pipes.

Darcys Law:

Viscous Fluid Sand

P + dP

dx

mD bpd ft 2 psi/ft

k A dP q= dx

0.001127 k A dP q= dx

cp

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Laminar Flow in Pipes:

P + dP q

bbl/d

dl

in psi/ft

1 d 4 dP q= 7.9628 10 6 dl

cp bbl/d ft psi/ft

12 4 d 4 dP q= 7.9628 10 6 dl

cp

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Darcys Law and the Laminar flow in pipes are described by similar equations

mD bpd ft 2 psi/ft

0.001127 k A dP q= dx

cp

Darcys Law

ft psi/ft

12 4 d 4 dP q= 7.9628 10 6 dx

cp

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Darcys Law

Lets obtain a version of Darcys in cylindrical coordinates system.

rw

dr

q A

h

Darcys Law

k A dP q= dr q= 2 k h

A = 2 r h

dP r dr

Darcys Law

q=

2 k h

dP r dr

This ordinary differential equation (ODE) represents the steady stage momentum balance equation for the pressure losses in the porous media and must be solved in conjunction with a mass balance equation

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Darcys Law

In field units

mD ft

bpd psi/ft

dP q = 0.00708 r dr

cp

kh

Darcys Law

In Darcys equation, the flowrate is the flowrate at in-situ conditions. Even for low compressibility fluids, the difference between the fluid volumes at reservoir condition and the fluid volumes at the surface separator conditions (where fluids are measured and sold) needs to be considered. This is done taking into account the fluid compressibility or the fluid formation volume factor B to convert from in-situ conditions to surface or standard conditions This may be important for two reasons:

The standard conditions or surface conditions flowrate is a measure of mass rate and may help in solving the mass balance equation We are interested in obtaining the IPR which will relate the bottomhole pressure available for producing a certain amount of fluids on the surface that can be sold.

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Darcys Law

The fluid compressibility is defined as:

1 V c= V P

c=

1 P

Vin situ B= Vstd

As a consequence:

c= 1 B B P

Darcys Law

Two important cases exist: Liquids Constant compressibility

1 B c= B P

B=e

c ( P Pstd )

c=

1 P

= std e c ( P P

std

Ideal gases

1 dB c= B dP

Pstd = PB

P B = std P

c=

1 P

Pstd std = P

Pstd std P

Darcys Law

Then Darcys law can be modified to:

mD ft

qstd

k h dP = 0.00708 r B dr

cp

Darcys Law

The single phase reservoir model consists of a transient mass balance equation and the steady state momentum balance equation represented by Darcys Law:

q 1 t = 2 r h r q = 2 k h r P r

This system must be solved with the proper initial condition as well as boundary conditions.

Darcys Law

Reservoir Engineers are familiar with the Diffusivity equation which can be obtained by substituting Darcy law in the mass balance equation:

1 q = t 2 r h r

2 k h r P q= r

2 k h r P 1 = t 2 r h r r 1 k r P = t r r r

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Darcys Law

But from the compressibility we have:

1 c= P 1 t c= t P P = c t t

1 k r P = t r r r

P 1 k r P c = t r r r

Darcys Law

The diffusivity equation becomes then:

P 1 k r P c = t r r r

psi-1

mD

psi

P 1 k r P = 162.6 c t r r r

lb/ft3 day cp ft

Darcys Law

Once the diffusivity equation is solved yielding a solution for the pressure as a function of time and radial position, Darcys law can be used to find a solution for the flowrate as a function of time and radial position. Finally the solution at the wellbore yields the bottomhole pressure and sandface production as a function of time

P 1 k r P = t r r r

P(r , t )

2 k h r P r

q=

qsf (t )

Pwf (t )

q(r , t )

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

For liquid the compressibility can be considered constant and for homogeneous reservoir we have:

162.6 c

P 1 k r P = t r r r

= 1 P r r r r

1 P

162.6

c P

k t

162.6

c P

k

1 P P = r r + + t r r r r r 1 P P P = r rc + + t r r r r r

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

c=

162.6

c P

k

For liquid the compressibility can be considered constant and for homogeneous reservoir we have:

162.6

c P

k

1 P P P = r rc + + t r r r r r 1 P P P = r rc 1 + + t r r r r r

2

162.6

c P

k

162.6

c P

k

1 P P P + rc = r + r r r t r r

1 P P = r + t r r r r

162.6

c P

k

Finally the diffusivity equation becomes:

162.6

c P

k

1 P P = r + t r r r r

psi-1

cp psi

162.6

c P

k

1 P = r t r r r

day ft

mD

In this case the mass balance equation can also be modified:

q 1 = t 2 r h r

1 q = + q t 2 r h r r 1 P q P = q + P t 2 r h P r r c 1 P P q = c q + t 2 r h r r 1 P P q = + c q t 2 r h r r

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

c=

1 P

In this case the mass balance equation can also be modified:

1 P P q = + c q r r t 2 r h

psi-1

psi

bpd

P 0.8935 P q = + c q rh t r r

ft

day

Darcys Law

In principle, an infinite number of solutions to the diffusivity equations can be obtained depending on initial and boundary conditions imposed.

Initial conditions refer to the pressure and flowrate distribution inside the porous media at a certain moment. Boundary conditions refer to the conditions both at the wellbore as well as at the edge of the reservoir.

The BC at the reservoir edger could be:

Infinite reservoir Sealed reservoir (no flow at the edge) Constant pressure (pressure maintenance at the edge)

Constant bottomhole pressure Constant flowrate Relationship between the flowrate and bottomhole pressure (OPR)

Darcys Law

Lets imagine a reservoir at a certain initial state where a disturbance is created. Examples of this case could be:

Opening a well to produce at a constant flowrate or constant bottomhole pressure. Changing the well production conditions (modifying the flowrate or modifying the bottomhole flowing pressure) Shutting in a well.

In all those cases there is a period of time, called transient, where the pressure response in the reservoir is not affected by the presence of the outer boundaries, since the perturbation created at the wellbore is still traveling across the well. In this condition, the well appears to be infinite in extent. This condition applies for a small period of time and mainly occur when wellbore conditions are deliberately changed.

Opening a well Changing operational conditions (chokes, artificial lift) Well testing disturbances

Pr

Pwf

rw

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

rr

Darcys Law

At a certain point in time after the disturbance is generated, the pressure response will start to feel the effects of the outer boundary. The outer boundary can be:

Closed boundary representing a sealed reservoir Constant pressure representing a water influx or water injection.

In reality the conditions at the wellbore (flowrate or pressure) may be constantly slowly changing with time even for a stable well. But those changes do not compare with disturbances created by well testing operations or changes in choke opening or artificial lift parameters to produce more or less fluids. For practical purposes we can assume that during normal stable operation the conditions at the wellbore are reasonably constant. When operational conditions (choke or artificial lift) are changed we need to estimate the time it will take for the transitent period to die out and for the well to stabilize again. For those conditions two other solutions for the diffusivity equation are possible

Semi Steady State condition for a sealed reservoir Steady State condition for a constant pressure at the edge.

Transient condition Stabilized Flow conditions

Semi Steady State Steady State

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Transient Condition

This conditions is applicable to a relatively short period after some disturbance has been created. The condition is mainly applied to the analysis of well test in which the wellbore condition is changed and the pressure and flworate response is measured and analyzed. Comparison of the measured values with a model can help in determining key reservoir parameters. This condition can also be used to determine the transient IPR The mathematical solution to the diffusivity equation is very complex.

Recall that this is an approximation for the stabilized flow condition and we can assume that the well flowrate is reasonably constant. Also we have no flow at the edge of the reservoir. Then

c P 1 P = 162.6 r r r k t r q (rw , t ) = cte P =0 r rr

Pr

Pwf

rw

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

rr

Since the well is producing at a constant flowrate, the following mass balance can be written for changes in the reservoir average pressure

c=

1 V V P

1 V dP = dt V t

bpd

psi

dP q = = cte 2 dt c re2 rw h

dP q = 1.787 2 dt c re h

day ft

Pr P

Pwf

rw

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

rr

It can be shown that for this condition:

P P = cte = t t

Pr

Pwf

rw

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

rr

Then the diffusivity equation becomes:

c P 1 P = r k t r r r q (rw , t ) = cte P =0 r rr

dP q = dt c rr2 h

1 P q r = 2 r r r r hk r q (rw , t ) = cte P =0 r rr

The solution then becomes

q 1 P = r r rr2 h k r r

q P = 2 r r rr h k r r

r

q P 2 = r +A 2 2 rr h k r

0=

q 2 r r + A 2 rr2 h k

A=

q 2 h k

The solution then becomes

P q r2 = r 1 2 r 2 h k rr P q 1 r = 2 r 2 h k r rr q r2 P= ln(r ) 2 +B 2 h k 2rr

Using the inner boundary condition

2 rw q + B ( ) Pwf = ln r w 2 2 h k 2rr 2 rw q B = Pwf ln ( r ) w 2 2 h k 2rr

Then finally:

P=

r q + B ( ) ln r 2 2 h k 2rr

2

2 rw q B = Pwf ln ( r ) w 2 2 h k 2rr

2 rr 1 rw q Pr = Pwf + ln + 2 2 h k rw 2 2rr

rr 1 q Pr = Pwf + ln 2 h k rw 2

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

The reservoir average pressure is given by:

rr

P=

rw

P(r ) 2 h rdr

2 )h (rr2 rw

r 2 P 2 2 P (r ) rdr rr rw rw

Then:

2 P 2 2 rr rw

2 P 2 2 rr rw

The reservoir average pressure is given by:

2 P 2 2 rr rw

2 2 2 rr rw rr + 2rr ln 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 2 rr rw q rw rr rw + rr rw rw + P 2 2 Pwf 2 2 2 h k 2 4 8 r 4 r rr rw r r

2 rr 2rr ln 2 2 2 rw rr + rw rw q 1 P Pwf + 4 + 4 r 2 r 2 8r 2 + 4 r 2 h k r w r r

And Finally:

2 rr 2rr ln 2 2 2 q 1 rw rr + rw + rw P Pwf + + 2 2 2 2 hk 4 4 r r 8 r 4 r r w r r

P = Pwf +

q ln rr 3 r 4 2 h k w

In summary for the semi steady state condition we have:

rr 1 q ln Pr = Pwf + r 2 2 h k w

rr 3 q P = Pwf + ln 2 h k rw 4

rr 1 q ln Pwf = Pr 0.00708 h k rw 2

Pwf = P

rr 3 q ln r 4 0.00708 h k w

For the steady state solution which is the solution for a bounded reservoir with constant pressure at the edge.

Pr Pwf

rw

Pr

rr

Then we have the diffusivity equation as:

2 k h r P q= r P = P @ r r r

P q 1 = r 2 k h r

q P= ln(r ) + A 2 k h

Using the boundary condition

q ln(rr ) + A 2 k h q ln (rr ) 2 k h

Pr =

A = Pr

q P= ln(r ) + A 2 k h

P= r q ln + Pr 2 k h rr

P = Pr

q r ln r 2 k h r

The IPR can be written as:

Pwf = Pr rr q ln 2 k h rw

And the pressure inside the reservoir can also be written as:

P = Pr q r ln r 2 k h r q r ln w 2 k h r

P = Pwf

The reservoir average pressure is given by:

rr

P=

rw

P(r ) 2 h rdr

2 )h (rr2 rw

r 2 P 2 2 P (r ) rdr rr rw rw

Then:

2 P 2 2 rr rw

Pwf + q ln r rdr 2 h k rw rw

rr

The reservoir average pressure is given by:

2 P 2 2 rr rw

Pwf + q ln r rdr 2 h k rw rw

rr

And Finally:

2 rr 2rr ln q 1 rw P Pwf + + 2 2 hk 4 4 r r r w

P = Pwf +

q ln rr 1 r 2 2 h k w

In summary for the steady state condition we have:

rr q ln Pr = Pwf + 2 k h rw

rr 1 q P = Pwf + ln 2 h k rw 2

Pwf = Pr

rr q ln 0.00708 h k rw

Pwf = P

rr 1 q ln r 2 0.00708 h k w

Finally in field units:

bpd

psi

cp

rr P (r ) = Pr ln 0.00708 k h r

ft mD

Finally in field units:

bpd psi/ft

cp

dP q 1 = dr 0.00708 k h r

mD ft

Darcys Law

6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 200 400 600 Radial Position (ft) 800 1000 1200

rr P (r ) = Pr ln 0.00708 k h r

Pressure (psi)

Reservoir Pressure Viscosity Flowrate Permeability Thickness Well Diameter Reservoir Radius

psi cp bpd mD ft in ft

Darcys Law

Reservoir Pressure Viscosity 5000 8 2000 500 10 9 1000 psi cp bpd mD ft in ft

rr ln P(r ) = Pr 0.00708 k h r

20 40 60 80 100

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Darcys Law

1400 Radial Pressure Gradient (psi/ft) 1200

Reservoir Pressure 5000 8 2000 500 10 9 1000 psi cp bpd mD ft in ft

dP q 1 = dr 0.00708 k h r

100

1000

Darcys Law

Pr

6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 200 400 600 Radial Position (ft) 800 1000 1200

rr P (r ) = Pr ln 0.00708 k h r

Pressure (psi)

psi cp bpd mD ft in ft

i wf

Darcys Law

Well Centerline Sand Face

3000

rr P (r ) = Pr ln 0.00708 k h r

Reservoir Pressure 5000 8 2000 500 10 9 1000 psi cp bpd mD ft in ft

2200

Viscosity Flowrate

1800

Permeability

i Pwf

1400

rw

1000 0 2 4 6 8 10 Radial Position (ft)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Darcys Law

6000 5000 4000

2000 Reservoir Pressure Viscosity 2500 Permeability Thickness Well Diameter 5000 8 500 10 9 1000 psi cp mD ft in ft Flowrate (bpd) 1000 1500

rr ln P(r ) = Pr 0.00708 k h r

Pressure (psi)

Reservoir Radius

800

1000

1200

Darcys Law

7000 6000

4500 Reservoir Pressure (psi) 6000 5000 5500

rr ln P(r ) = Pr 0.00708 k h r

5000 Pressure (psi) 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 200 400 600 Radial Position (ft) 800 1000 1200

bpd cp mD ft in ft

Darcys Law

Fluid Viscosity (cp)

6000

8 6 4

rr ln P(r ) = Pr 0.00708 k h r

5000 4000

10

Pressure (psi)

Reservoir Pressure

psi bpd mD ft in ft

800

1000

1200

Darcys Law

Permeability (mD)

6000

500

600

800

rr ln P(r ) = Pr 0.00708 k h r

5000 4000

400

Pressure (psi)

Reservoir Pressure

psi bpd cp ft in ft

800

1000

1200

Darcys Law

Thickness (ft)

6000

20 10

30

50

rr ln P(r ) = Pr 0.00708 k h r

5000 4000

Reservoir Pressure 5000 2000 8 500 9 1000 psi bpd cp mD in ft

Pressure (psi)

800

1000

1200

Darcys Law

Reservoir Radius (ft)

500

1000

2000

3000

rr ln P(r ) = Pr 0.00708 k h r

Pressure (psi)

Reservoir Pressure

psi bpd cp mD in ft

2000

2500

3000

3500

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

And the IPR can be written as:

psi

cp

bpd

rr 1 Pwf = P ln 0.00708 k h rw 2

qsc B

mD

ft

Circular Steady State Flow

rr 1 Pwf = P ln 0.00708 k h rw 2

qsc B

rr 3 ln Pwf = P r 4 0.00708 k h w

qsc B

Rarely wells will drain from a regularly shaped area. The drainage area is usually distorted by the presence of natural boundaries or because of lopsided production rates in adjoining wells. The drainage area is then shaped by the production duty of a particular well in a field.

Circular Pseudo Steady State Flow

rr 3 ln Pwf = P 0.00708 k h rw 4

qsc B

But

Introducing a Dietz shape factor and the Euler constant

e 4 = 56.32 = C A

3 2

= 1.78

Then we have:

1 4 Adrainage Pwf = P ln 2 0.00708 k h 2 C A rw

qsc B

Circle = CA

56.32

Circular Pseudo Steady State Flow

rr 1 ln Pwf = P 0.00708 k h rw 2

qsc B

But

rr 1 1 rr2 1 1 rr2 1 1 rr2 1 4 rr2 ln r 2 = 2 ln r2 2 = 2 ln r2 2 ln(e ) = 2 ln e r2 = 2 ln e 4 r 2 w w w w w

rr 1 1 4 Adrainage ln r 2 = 2 ln e 4 r 2 w w

Introducing a Dietz shape factor and the Euler constant

e 4 = 34.159 = C A

= 1.78

Then we have:

1 4 Adrainage Pwf = P ln 2 0.00708 k h 2 C A rw

qsc B

And the shape factor for a circular area under steady state is:

Steady State CA =

34.159

For Stabilized Flow we have:

Pwf = P 1 4 Adrainage ln 2 0.00708 k h 2 C A rw

qsc B

mD bpd ft psi

qsc =

0.00708 k h B

cp

ft

For Stabilized Flow we have in terms of the drainage area:

mD bpd ft psi

qsc =

0.00708 k h B

cp

acres ft

mD bpd

ft psi

qsc =

0.00708 k h B

cp

acres in

Or in terms of the drainage radius:

Adrainage = re2

qsc =

0.00708 k h B

2 4 r ln C r

2 e 2 A w

(P P )

wf

qsc =

0.00708 k h B

P Pwf 2.657 re ln r + ln C w A

Or in terms of the drainage radius:

mD bpd ft psi

qsc =

0.00708 k h B

cp

P Pwf 2.657 re ln r + ln C w A

acres

ft2

acres

in2

Another important question to be answered is how long the well should be producing under reasonably stable flow conditions so that Pseudo Steady State conditions are valid. Earlougher has shown that the time when pseudo steady state conditions are valid can be expressed in terms of a dimensionless time

t pss =

psi-1 cp hours ft

2

cA

k

t da

psi-1 cp hours acres

t pss =

cA

0.000264 k

hours

t da

mD cp psi-1

t pss =

ft2

cA

6.054 10 k

9

t da

mD

t pss = 11900

c re2

k

t da

mD

The following table is a summary of Dietz shape factors and the dimensionless time to pseudo steady state

Darcys Law can also be written as:

Flowrate in standard conditions (stb) Pressure drawdown represents the pressure drop in the porous rock

i q = J P Pwf

J=

0.00708 k h B

1 2.657 re ln r + ln C w A

Darcys Law can also be written as:

Bottom hole flowing pressure

q qmax

Maximum flowrate that would occur if the bottom hole flowing pressure could be zero. It is also known as Absolute Open Flow or AOF

= 1

i Pwf

P

Reservoir Average Pressure

qmax = J P

0.00708 k h B 1 2.657 re ln r + ln C w A

J=

Pwf

q = J (P Pwf )

Pe

dq J = dPwf

qmax = J P

q

qmax

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

The incompressible single phase or straight line IPR is valid when the fluids flowing inside the reservoir are in single phase incompressible conditions. Whenever Pwf is above the bubble point Pressure Very High Water Cuts Very low GOR Dead Oil Reservoirs

The single phase productivity index J can be calculated from:

Example 1:

k - 20 mD h - 60 ft

- 10 cP

rr - 600 ft rw - 3.5 Pr - 1250 psi

Example 1:

k - 20 mD h - 60 ft

- 10 cP

rr - 600 ft rw - 3.5 Pr - 1250 psi

J = 0.1114 stb/d/psi

Example 1:

k - 20 mD h - 60 ft

q = 0.1114 P P

qmax = 0.1114 1250 qmax = 139.25 stb/d

i wf

- 10 cP

rr - 600 ft rw - 3.5 Pr - 1250 psi

Example 1: Pr = 1250 psig

Pwf

1250

q = 0.1114 P P

i wf

q

139.25

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Example 2:

Example 2:

q= J P P

600 = J (1250 900 )

i wf

J = 1.71 stb/d/psi

Example 2:

q= J P P

qmax = 1.71 (1250 - 0)

i wf

Example 2: Pr = 1250 psig

Pwf

1250

q = 1.71 P P

i wf

q

2137.5

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Homework 1

Well Tests 30 stb/d @ Pwf = 1000 psi 60 stb/d @ Pwf = 800 psi

Homework 1

Well Tests 30 stb/d @ Pwf = 1000 psi 60 stb/d @ Pwf = 800 psi Well Tests 30 = J ( Pr 1000) 60 = J ( Pr 800)

q= J P P

i wf

( P 800) 2= (P 1000)

Pr = 1200 psi

J = 3/20 stb/d/psi

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Pwf

Pr = 1200 psi

Homework 1

Q

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

As we produce fluids from the reservoir, a depletion in reservoir pressure will take place. What is the effect of depletion on the Inflow Performance Relationship ? Can we estimate Future IPR ?

Pwf

Pr

q= J P P

i wf

)

q

qmax

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Other topics

Transient single phase IPR Include B and viscosity integration with pressure for single phase Gas IPR Other models partial penetration Skin Etc.

IPR

The IPR equation is valid for a well without damage or stimulation effects In actual wells, sometimes a damage area around the wellbore exists. This area usually is of very small radius and the permeability is also reduced. This causes an different pressured drop behavior that must be taken into account. In some wells, stimulation practices can create a small radius area around the wellbore where the permeability is higher than the original reservoir permeability and this effect must also be considered.

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Skin Effect

The pressure profile changes in this region. The region has a very small radius, and because of this, the reduction or increase in pressure is called skin effect. We can use Steady State Darcys Law for single phase flow to illustrate the problem

qsc B rr ln P(r ) = Pr 2 k h r

Skin Effect

rw ri

rr

k skin

Pwf

Pi

Pr

P(r ) = Pi

qsc B ri ln 2 k skin h r

P(r ) = Pr

qsc B rr ln 2 k h r

Skin Effect

The pressure at the edge of the affected zone can be obtained by:

P(r ) = Pr

qsc B rr ln 2 k h r

qsc B rr Pi = Pr ln 2 k h ri

P(r ) = Pi

qsc B r ln i 2 k skin h r

ri qsc B ln 2 k skin h rw

Pwf = Pi

Skin Effect

Then, the bottonhole flowing pressure can be written as:

qsc B rr Pi = Pr ln 2 k h ri

Pwf = Pi ri qsc B ln 2 k skin h rw

Pwf = Pr

Skin Effect

The bottonhole flowing pressure that would exist if the well had no skin would be:

P

no skin wf

qsc B rr = Pr ln 2 k h rw

Defining the Skin pressure drop as the difference between the real bottonhole flowing pressure and the bottonhole flowing pressure without skin:

no skin wf

qsc B rr = Pr ln 2 k h rw

Pskin = P

no skin wf

Pwf

Pskin

Skin Effect

The skin pressure drop becomes:

Pskin ri qsc B rr qsc B 1 rr 1 = Pr Pr + + ln ln ln 2 k h rw 2 h k ri k skin rw Pskin ri 1 rr qsc B 1 rr 1 = + ln ln ln 2 h k ri k skin rw k rw

Pskin

Pskin =

qsc B ri 1 1 ln 2 h rw k skin k

Skin Effect

The skin pressure drop becomes:

Pskin

Pskin =

Pskin

The skin effect is usually determined with a pressure build up test. Usually it is related to a skin factor S which is a parameter determined by the build up test analysis:

Pskin

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

ri k k skin S = ln r w k skin

Skin Effect

Summary S

Positive S indicates a damage Zero indicates no skin Negative indicates stimulation

ri k k skin S = ln r w k skin

psi cp bpd

Pskin = S

qsc B 2 k h

Pskin = S

qsc B

0.00708 k h

ft mD

Skin Effect

The pressure in the unnafected region is given by:

psi cp bpd

P (r ) = Pr

r ln r 0.00708 k h r

mD ft

qsc B

P (r ) = Pi

r ln i 0.00708 k h r

qsc B

Skin Effect

The bottonhole flowing pressure is given by

no skin Pwf = Pwf + Pskin

qsc B

psi

cp

bpd

rr ln + Pwf = Pr S 0.00708 k h rw

qsc B

mD

ft

Skin Effect

P(r ) = Pr

3000 2500 Pressure (psi) 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Radial Position (ft)

r ln r 0.00708 k h r

qsc B

P(r ) = Pi

r ln i 0.00708 k h r

qsc B

Pskin = S

qsc B

0.00708 k h

ri

ri k k skin S = ln r w k skin

Pwf = Pr

rr ln + S 0.00708 k h rw

qsc B

Skin Effect

The Steady State Linear IPR for a reservoir that presents some Skin effect is then:

bpd mD ft psi

qsc =

0.00708 k h i Pr Pwf rr ln + S B r w

cp

psi

cp

bpd

Pskin = S

qsc B

0.00708 k h

ft mD

Skin Effect

qsc =

6000

0.00708 k h i Pr Pwf rr B ln r w

)

Reservoir Pressure Viscosity Permeability Thickness Reservoir Radius 5000 10 500 10 1000 6 psi cp mD ft ft in

5000

4000

Well Radius

3000

2000

1000

Flowrate (bpd)

Skin Effect

qsc =

6000 5000

0.00708 k h i Reservoir Pressure Pr Pwf rr Viscosity B ln r Permeability w 0.00708 k h Thickness i ( ) Pr Pwf qsc = rr Reservoir Radius B ln S + r Well Radius w

psi cp mD ft ft in

4000

3000

Pskin = S

2000

qsc B

0.00708 k h

0

Skin Factor

1000

Flowrate (bpd)

Skin Effect

A similar analysis yield similar results for the semi-steady state IPR as well in terms of average pressure

In summary we have:

psi cp bpd

Pskin = S

qsc B

0.00708 k h

ft mD

mD ft psi

mD bpd

ft

psi

bpd

cp

qsc =

0.00708 k h i P Pwf rr 3 + S B ln r 4 w

cp

Skin Effect

In general we have:

psi cp bpd

Pskin = S

qsc B

0.00708 k h

ft mD

mD bpd

ft psi

qsc =

0.00708 k h B

cp

ln

1 2.657 re + ln C rw A

+S

(P P )

i wf

Skin Effect

Or in terms of the productivity index and AOF:

mD bpd/psi ft

q= J P P

i wf

J=

0.00708 k h B

cp

ln

1 2.657 re + ln C rw A

+S

mD bpd

i Pwf

ft psi

q qmax

= 1

qmax =

0.00708 k h B

cp

ln

1 2.657 re + ln C rw A

+S

Skin Effect

A comparison with the skinless variables yields:

q= J P P

i wf

q=J

no skin

(P P

no skin wf

J J no skin

q qmax

= 1

i Pwf

q

no skin qmax

= 1

no skin Pwf

FE =

no Skin P Pwf i P Pwf

J = FE J

no skin

Skin Effect

How to relate the Flow Efficiency with the Skin S:

no Skin P Pwf i P Pwf

FE =

J = FE J no skin

J=

0.00708 k h B

ln

1 2.657 re + ln C rw A

+S

J no skin =

0.00708 k h B

1 2.657 re + ln ln r C w A

2.657 re ln + ln r CA w FE = 2.657 re +S ln + ln r w CA

Skin Effect

How to calculate the skin pressure drop from the flow efficiency:

FE =

no Skin P Pwf i P Pwf

i no Skin FE P Pwf = P Pwf i no Skin FE P FE Pwf = P Pwf i i i no Skin FE P P FE Pwf + Pwf = Pwf Pwf

i (FE 1)P (FE 1) Pwf i i (FE 1)(P Pwf ) = Pwf no Skin Pwf

i Pskin = (1 FE ) P Pwf

Skin Effect

Finally how to relate FE with well test data

i Pskin = (1 FE ) P Pwf

)

qsc B

0.00708 k h

Pskin FE = 1 i P Pwf

bpd

Pskin = S

cp

FE = 1

psi mD ft

Skin Effect

Example The following data is available for a well without damage

Reservoir Pressure Viscosity Permeability Thickness Reservoir Radius Well Radius 5000 10 500 10 1000 6 psi cp mD ft ft in

Flowing Pressure Flowrate 3000 750 psi bpd

Estimate the skin factor for this well and the production for the same bottonhole flowing pressure if the skin is removed

Skin Effect

We first calculate the IPR for the well with damage

q= 0.00708 k h i Pr Pwf re ln r +S w

rr 0.00708 k h i S= Pr Pwf ln q rw

S=

S = 1.84

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Skin Effect

The production without skin for the same bottonhole flowing pressure is

q= 0.00708 k h i Pr Pwf re ln r w

q=

q = 931 bpd

Another common way of refering to the skin is through the apparent well radius:

qsc = 0.00708 k h B ln 1 2.657 re + ln C rw A

1

+S

(P P )

i wf

qsc =

0.00708 k h B

2.657 e S rwa re + ln ln ln + r r w wa CA

(P P )

i wf

If:

rwa =

Then

mD bpd ft

rw eS

psi

qsc =

0.00708 k h B

2.657 re + ln ln r wa CA

(P P )

i wf

cp

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Not all of the producing wells are in conditions where the linear IPR is valid. Usually inside the reservoir we have a mixture of fluids flowing that will go to multiphase conditions when the pressure is lower than the bubble point. The fluids are not incompressible, their properties change with pressure. The relative permeability of the reservoir to a specific fluid is function of the fluid saturation. The saturation of fluids changes with position and time If n-phases are present, the problem can theoretically be solved using n mass balance equations and n momentum balance equations. For single phase flow, Darcys law is a representation of the steady state momentum balance equation. Can Darcys law be written for two-phase flow conditions ?

Darcys Law

Viscous Fluid

P + dP

dx

k A dP q= dx

Darcys Law

Viscous Fluid Sand Partially Saturated with Fluid

P + dP

dx

k f A dP q= dx

k f = k f (Rock , Fluids, Saturation )

Darcys Law

0.6 0.5 Permeability (mD) 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Fluid Saturation (Fraction)

Absolute Permeability - k

Critical Saturation

Darcys Law

The relative permeability is defined as the ratio between the permeability to a fluid and the rock absolute permeability:

k rf =

kf k

k f A dP k rf dP =kA q= dx dx

Darcys Law

1.0

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Fluid Saturation (Fraction)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

As said before, the problem of flow of n phases inside the porous media is described by a system of n mass balance equations and n momenutm balance equations (Darcys Law). The variables are the pressure, the saturation for n-1 phases and n phase velocities. The permeability can be a function of position. With the proper boundary and initial conditions this system can be solved for the pressure, phase fractions and phase velocities fields

k = k (r , , z )

P = P(r , , z , t )

S f = S f (r , , z , t ) k rf = k rf (r , , z , t )

k f = k f (S f , k )

k f = k f (r , , z , t )

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Also for a real fluid, the fluid properties are function of pressure. Specifically, the fluid compressibility and viscosity are function of the pressure. Darcy law is valid for the actual fluid flowrate or velocity occuring at the pressure and temperature conditions inside the porous media. Since the fluid is compressible, this flowrate is not the same that is measured at surface conditions. For that reason it would be interesting to relate the IPR with the liquid flowrate at specific surface or standard conditions. This is done with the use of the fluid formation volume factor

q = B f qsc

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Darcys Law

k rf dP q=kA f dx

q = B f qsc

kf

dP qsc = A B f f dx

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Darcys Law

For radial flow we have :

qsc = A dP B f f dr kf

A = 2 r h

qsc =

2 r k f h dP f B f dr

Fluid properties are function of pressure and saturation or relative permeability is function of position, then :

dr kf r =

2 h q sc f

B

1

f

1

f

dP

q = 2 h

sc f

dP

dr kf r

As the pressure inside the reservoir goes below the bubble point value, gas goes out of solution reducing the oil saturation and relative permeability, and increasing oil viscosity. The oil productivity is reduced, since now the driving force for fluid movement is spent moving the liquid and the gas phases. The constant PI concept is no longer valid.

Pwf

Pr

2 k h dP q= re Pwf ln r w

Pr

q = 2 h

sc f

1

f

dP

dr kf r

q

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

IPR under multiphase flow conditions can not be easily calculated. The most accurate method is by solving the equations governing the flow in the porous media through a reservoir simulator. The IPR is so important to Production Engineers that simplified or empirical methods to estimate it are necessary. The most common correlations are Vogel and Fetkovich

Vogel IPR

Vogel used a numerical reservoir simulator to generate the IPR. He studied several cases for a specific condition:

Mechanism of production Solution Gas Drive No water production Reservoir pressure below bubble point Saturated conditions

He changed several other conditions such as fluid and rock properties He then plotted the results of the simulation for the several cases

Vogel IPR

3500 3000 2500 Pressure (psi) 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 500 1000 Flowrate (sbpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

1500

2000

Vogel IPR

Like expected, all IPRs showed a curved shape. He then tried to find a common shape to describe all the IPRs. He tried to normalize the curves. For each case, he divided the pressure by the reservoir pressure and the flowrate by the maximum flowrate. The result was not a perfect correlation, but the points were clustered along a curved line.

Vogel IPR

Pwf P

0.8 1

Pressure (dimensionless)

0.6

0.4

0.2

Flowrate (dimensionless)

q qmax

Vogel IPR

A linear relationship is clearly applicable. Vogel tried then a quadratic form not

q qmax

Pwf = a +b P

+c

Pwf P

Vogel IPR

Pwf P

0.8 Pressure (dimensionless) 1

q qmax

Pwf = a +b P

+c

Pwf P

0.6

0.4

0.2

Flowrate (dimensionless)

q qmax

Vogel IPR

q qmax Pwf = a +b P

+c

Pwf P

The following conditions must be met by this expression q = qmax for and q=0 for Pwf = P Pwf = 0

Vogel IPR

The results of those conditions are: a=1 and c=-(1+b) So the proposed expression becomes:

Pwf = 1+ b P

q qmax

(1 + b)

Pwf P

q qmax

Pwf = 1+ b P

0.2

(1 + b)

0.4 0.6

Pwf P

-1 - 0.8

0.6

- 0.6 - 0.4

0.4

b

0.2

- 0.2 0

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Vogel IPR

Pwf = 1+ b P

q qmax

(1 + b)

Pwf P

-1 < b < 0

Vogel IPR

Vogel then used his numerical results from the simulations to get the best value of b that would fit his data.

Vogel IPR

1 0.8 Pressure (dimensionless)

b = - 0.2

0.6

0.4

0.2

Flowrate (dimensionless)

q qmax

Pwf = 1 0.2 P

0.8

Pwf P

0.6

0.4

0.2

Flowrate (dimensionless)

Vogel IPR

Vogel IPR can be obtained only from well tests as opposed to the linear IPR that can be determined from well tests of rock and fluid properties. Although the method was develloped for solution gas drive reservois, the equation is generally accepted and used for other drive mechanisms as well. It is found to give excellent results for any well with a reservoir pressure below the oil bubble point, i.e., saturated reservoirs. WHY ?

The best value for b according to Vogels numerical results is -0.2 Fetkovich following a more analytical approach also proposed an IPR with a b value of 0 Several other investigators obtained different values for b as well.

IPR Linear Wiggins (Water - Multiphase) Wiggins (Oil) Vogel Klins (Quadratic) Fetkovich b -1 -0.72 -0.52 -0.2 -0.1225 0

Caution: When using a quadratic type IPR the equation must follows:

q qmax Pwf = 1+ b P

(1 + b)

Pwf P

1 0.9 Dimensionless Pressure 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.2 0.4

Wiggins - Water Wiggins - Oil Linear

q qmax

Pwf = 1+ b P

(1 + b)

Pwf P

0.6

0.8

Dimensionless Flowrate

Vogel IPR

Example: Saturated Reservoir

Pr = 1500 psi

Test

qo = 200 bpd @ Pwf = 1400 psi

Determine Vogel IPR (b = - 0.2)

Vogel IPR

Example:

q qmax Pwf = 1 0.2 P

0.8

2

Pwf P

qmax = 1717.56 stb/d

1600 1400 1200 Pressure (psi) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 Flowrate (bpd) 1500 2000

Homework 1

Well Test

100 bpd @ Pwf = 1400 psi Pr = 2000 psi

We know the reservoir is saturated Calculate and Plot the Vogel IPR Calculate and Plot a linear IPR What can you say of the use of linear IPR for saturated reservoirs ?

Homework 1 - Vogel

q qmax Pwf = 1 0.2 P

0.8

Pwf P

qmax = 213.7 stb/d

Homework 1 - Vogel

q = J ( P Pwf )

100 = J (2000 1400)

J = 1/6 stb/d/psi Qmax = J Pr = 1/6 2000 = 333.33 stb/d

Homework 1

2000 B ottomhole flow ing pressure (psi) 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330

unde r pre dicting re gion for line a r IP R ove r pre dicting re gion for line a r IP R

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Homework 1a

Well Test

100 bpd @ Pwf = 1400 psi Pr = 2000 psi

We know the reservoir is saturated Calculate and Plot the Vogel, Fetkovich, Klins, Wiggins and the linear IPR Compare the results

Homework 1a - Vogel

q qmax Pwf = 1+ b P

(1 + b)

Pwf P

IPR Linear Wiggins Vogel Klins Fetkovich b -1 -0.52 -0.2 -0.1225 0

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Homework 1a

2000 1800 1600 Pressure (psi) 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Productivity Index

The value of the productivity index J needs to be redefined for the case of the saturated IPR. The value of J is given by:

dq J = dP wf

Pwf q = 1 + b P qmax Pwf (1 + b) P

2

q J = max P

Pwf 2 ( 1 ) + b b P

Productivity Index

In particular, the values of J* and J0 are defined as:

dq J = dP wf

*

Pwf = Pr

dq J = dP wf

0

Pwf =0

( 2 + b ) qmax =

P

b qmax J = P

0

2000

J* =

1500

(2 + b ) qmax

P

Pressure (psi)

1000

500

b qmax J = P

0

Assume we have a very reliable value of 1500 psi for Pr for a saturated reservoir The well test gives us the following data

q = 300 bpd @ Pwf = 800 psi

Assume the test flowrate error can be off by 5% Assume the test pressure error can be off by 1% So the test pressure and flowrate ranges are:

285 bpd < q < 315 bpd 792 psi < Pwf < 808 psi

1600 1400 1200 Pressure (psi) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

(q

(q, P )

wf

+ , Pwf

Test Data

(q

, Pwf

)

q

max

qmax

+ qmax

Lets calculate the value of qmax for the test data:

qt

0.8

Pwf P

Lets calculate the value of qmax for the two extreme cases:

+ = qmax

qt+ P 1 0.2 P

+ wf

+ Pwf 0.8 P qt

= qmax

P 1 0.2 P

wf

P 0.8 wf P

The values for qmax are:

qmax = 450 q q

+ max max

= 477 = 424

qmax 450 6%

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

1600 1400 1200 Pressure (psi) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 100 200 300 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

max

qmax

+ qmax

400

500

600

Assume we have a very reliable value of 1500 psi for Pr The well test gives us the following data q = 300 bpd @ Pwf = 1450 psi Assume the test flowrate can be off by 5% Assume the test pressure can be off by 1% So the test pressure and flowrate ranges are: 285 bpd < q < 315 bpd 1435 psi < Pwf < 1465 psi Estimate the IPR from this test Estimate the errors in qmax. Compare the errors in qmax with the errors from the previous example. Why do the errors increase so much ? What are the consequences ?

The values for qm are:

qmax = 5075

q

q

+ max

max

= 7473

= 3754

1600 1400 1200 Pressure (psi) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 2000 4000 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

max

qmax

+ qmax

6000

8000

Future IPR

The prediction of the future IPR is very important to forecast future well production. It is necessary to have simplified methods for estimating future IPR. One of those methods (Eickemeier) states that the productivity index J* is proportional to square of reservoir pressure. In this way, if we know the evolution of the reservoir pressure with depletion, we can also estimate the evolution of the IPR.

Future IPR

q =

sc f

2 k h B

sc

1

f

rf

dP

dr krf r

Future IPR

Vogels Type Productivity Index is defined as

(2 + b) qmax J = P

*

P J 1 = J P 2

* 1 * 2

Then

qmax1 P 1 = qmax2 P2

Data for a Saturated Reservoir: Conditions Today Pr = 1500 psi

Estimate the Vogel IPRs for: Pr = 1500, 1350, 1200, 1050, 900 and 750 psig

Future IPR

Pr 1500 1350 1200 1050 900 750

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

qmax 1200

J*

Future IPR

Pr 1500 1350 1200 1050 900 750 qmax 1200 874.8 614.4 411.6 259.2 150

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Future IPR

1600 1400 1200

Pressure (psi)

1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400

Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Future IPR

This is not the only available method to estimate future Vogel type IPR for saturated reservoirs. Usually all those methods try to use a Vogel type IPR (quadratic equation) and use some form of relationship between the value of the productivity index J* or the maximum flowrate qmax and the reservoir pressure Pr.

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Future IPR

Vogels type Productivity Index is defined as

(2 + b) qmax J = P

*

* P J2 1 = F * J1 P 2

P qmax 2 P 1 1 = F qmax1 P2 P2

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Future IPR

Method

* P J2 1 = F * J1 P 2

Eickmeier

P 1 P 2

P 1 P 2

Fetkovich

Wiggins Oil

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Wiggins - Water

Future IPR

1

Wiggins - Water

0.8

0.6

Wiggins - Oil

0.4

Fetkovich Eickmeier

0.2

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Data for a Saturated Reservoir: Conditions Today Pr = 1500 psi

qmax = 1200 bpd Using Fetkovich, Eickemeier and Wiggins methods for evolution of the value of J*, estimate the Vogel IPRs (with b = -0.2) for the following reservoir pressures Pr = 1500, 1350, 1200, 1050, 900 and 750 psig

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Future IPR

Future Vogel IPR (b = - 0.2) Fetkovich Pr qmax 1500 1350 1200 1050 900 750 1200 J* qmax 1200 J* qmax 1200 J* Eickmeier Wiggins

Future IPR

Future Vogel IPR (b = - 0.2) Fetkovich Pr qmax 1500 1350 1200 1050 900 750 1200 972 768 588 432 300 J* 1.44 1.30 1.15 1.01 0.86 0.72 qmax 1200 875 614 412 259 150 J* 1.44 1.17 0.92 0.71 0.52 0.36 qmax 1200 989 799 628 478 348 J* 1.44 1.32 1.20 1.08 0.96 0.84 Eickmeier Wiggins

Future IPR

1600 1400 1200 Pressure (psi) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

IPR

The linear IPR is valid for single phase flow of fluids in the reservoir. It is not valid for compressible flow. For saturated reservoirs, the linear IPR is no longer valid and correlations should be used. Vogel type correlations although develloped for solution gas drive reservoirs have been applied successfully in fields producing with other mechanisms. They are only valid for saturated reservoirs.

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

The linear IPR concept is valid when the flow of fluids in the reservoir is single phase Single Phase Reservoir The Vogel IPR concept is valid when the flow of fluids in the reservoir is always in two phase flow Saturated Reservoir

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Pr

Pwf q

rw

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

rr

P Pb Pr

Pwf q

rw

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

rr

P

Pr Pb

Pwf q

rw

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

rr

Undersaturated Reservoir

P

Pr Pwf Pb

For undersaturated reservoirs, if the bottomhole flowing pressure is above the bubble point, the linear IPR approach can be used

rw

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

rr

Undersaturated Reservoir

P q Pr Pwf = Pb

For undersaturated reservoirs, the linear IPR approach can be used for low flowrates. There is a upper limit that the linear IPR can be used in this case. The limit is given by the flowrate that causes the bottomhole flowing pressure to be equal to the bubble point.

rw

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

rr

Undersaturated Reservoir

P q Pr Pb

Beyond this limit, we will have two regions in the reservoir. One close to the wellbore where free gas is present and the pressure is below the bubble point. The other region far away from the wellbore the fluid is single phase since the pressure is above the bubble point.

Pwf

rw

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

rr

Undersaturated Reservoir

P Pr Pr P

Pb

Pb

In an undersaturated reservoir, for low flowrates, the IPR is linear and for higher flowrates, the IPR will not follow the linear behavior any longer, since there is a region close to the wellbore that contains free gas.

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Undersaturated Reservoir

q = J (P Pwf )

For the linear part, we can use the linear IPR equation, but for higher flowrates we can not use Vogel approach directly since in his work it was assumed that the whole reservoir was below the bubble point. The important question then is how to adapt Vogel approach for this case.

P

Pb

?

q qb qmax

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Pr

q = 2 h

sc f

Pwf

1 Bf f

rr

dP =

rw

dr kf r

2 hk Bf f

dP dr r

Pr

P

Pb

Pwf qf q rw re

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Saturated Reservoir

Pr

P Pb Pr

q = 2 h

sc f

Pwf

1 Bf f

rr

dP

rw

dr kf r

P

P

Pb

Pwf qf q rw re

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Undersaturated Reservoir

Pr

q = 2 h

sc f

Pwf

1 Bf f dr k r rw f

rr

Pb

dP = 2 h

Pwf

1 Bf f

dP + dr k r rw f

rr

Pr

1 Bf f

dP

Pb

P Pr

Pb

Pb Pwf qf

q sc 2 h f =

Pwf

1 Bf f dr k r rwf f

rb

Pr

dP = 2 h

Pb

B

rr

1

f

dP

dr kf r rb

rw

re

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Undersaturated Reservoir

Pr

2 h q sc f =

Pwf

1 Bf f dr k r rw f

rr

dP

P Pr Pb Pwf

qb q

q sc f = 2 h

Pb

Pwf

1 Bf f

dP + dr k r rw f

rr

Pr

Bf f Pb

dP

rw

re

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Undersaturated Reservoir

Pr

Pwf > Pb

q = 2 h

sc f

Pwf

1 Bf f dr k r rw f

Pr

rr

dP

Pwf = Pb

q = qb = 2 h

sc f

Pb

1

f

dP

dr k r rw f

rr

Undersaturated Reservoir

Pb

Pwf < Pb

2 h q sc f =

Pwf

1 Bf f

dP + dr k r rw f

rr

Pr

1 Bf f

dP

Pb

Pb

Pwf < Pb

q sc 2 h f =

Pwf

1 Bf f dr k r rw f

rr

dP + qb

Undersaturated Reservoir

q = J (P Pwf )

Pb

Pb

2 h q sc f qb =

Pwf

1 Bf f dr k r rw f

rr

dP

q qb qmax

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Undersaturated Reservoir

Pb

P

Pb

P ' = Pb

q qb = 2 h

sc f

Pwf

1 Bf f dr k r rw f

rr

dP

q = q - qb q qb qmax

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Undersaturated Reservoir

Pr'

P Pr

P ' = Pb

qsc = 2 h

'

Pwf

1 Bf f dr k r rw f

rr

dP

q = q - qb

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

qmax - qb

Undersaturated Reservoir

P Pr

P ' = Pb

(1 + b)

Pwf ' P

q = q - qb qmax = qmax - qb

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Undersaturated Reservoir

q = J (P Pwf )

Pwf q qb = 1+ b P qmax qb b

Pb

(1 + b)

Pwf Pb

q qb qmax

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Undersaturated Reservoir

J* = J

b

J

Pb

( 2 + b )(qmax qb ) =

Pb

qmax

J b Pb = + qb (2 + b )

q qb qmax

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Undersaturated Reservoir

Parameters : J and P '

P

Pb Parameters : Pb , qb and Jb

q qb qmax

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Undersaturated Reservoir

Parameters : J and P

q

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Undersaturated Reservoir

Parameters : J , P and Pb

P

Pb

q

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Undersaturated Reservoir

Parameters : J , P and Pb

Pb Parameters : qb and Jb

q

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Undersaturated Reservoir

Parameters : J , P and Pb

qb = J (Pr Pb )

Pb Parameters : Jb

q

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Undersaturated Reservoir

Parameters : J , P and Pb

P

Pb

qb = J (P Pb )

Jb = J

q

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Undersaturated Reservoir

q = J (P Pwf )

Pwf q qb = 1+ b P qmax qb b

P

Pb

(1 + b)

Pwf Pb

qb = J (P Pb )

qmax J Pb = + qb (2 + b )

q qb qmax

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Pr = 2000 psi J = 2 bpd/psi Pb = 1500 psi qb =

q 0

qmax =

Pr = 2000 psi J = 2 bpd/psi Pb = 1500 psi qb = 2 (2000 1500) = 1000 qmax = 2 1500 / 1.8 + 1000 = 2666

q 0 500

2500

2000

Pressure (psi)

1500

1000

500

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

2000

2500

3000

Evolution of IPR

2000 1800 1600 1400 Pressure (psi) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

J = Constant

* J = Jb

Pb

P J* = F * Jb P b

2000

2500

3000

Initial Reservoir Pressure Pr = 2000 psi Bubble Point Pressure Pb = 1400 psi Initial Productivity Index J* = 2 stb/d/psi Assume Eickmeier model for future IPR

Pr Pb J* qb qm 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800

Pr Pb J* qb qm 2000 1400 2 1200 2755 1800 1400 2 800 2355 1600 1400 2 400 1955 1400 1400 2 0 1555 1200 1400 1.469 0 979 1000 1400 1.020 0 566 800 1400 0.653 0 290

Evolution of IPR

2000 1800 1600 1400 Pressure (psi) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

J = Constant

Pb

P J = * Jb P b

*

2000

2500

3000

Skin Effect

The problem now is how to obtain expressions for the IPR for saturated and undersaturated reservoirs that present skin. The linear portion is a trivial exercise, but for the saturated region, you must remember that the methods of Vogel, Fetkovich, etc... Are valid only for reservoirs without damage. The problem is that the real data obtained from production tests for reservoir that have a damage reflects a bottomhole flowing pressure with the skin effect. For those cases to be properly analysed, we must have information on the skin effect (skin factor and reservoir properties or flow efficiency) so that we can recover the tests bottonhole flowing pressures without skin. Once the test data is corrected by the skin, we can estimate the IPR parameters After the parameters for the IPR without skin have been obtained, we can estimate the real IPR by re-incorporating the skin effect on the bottomhole flowing pressures

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Skin Effect

The first method was proposed by Standing as an extension to Vogel method. The follwoing procedure illustrates Standing Method

Skin Effect

Example The following data is available for a well test

Reservoir Pressure Bubble Point Pressure Bottomhole Test Pressure Test Flowrate Flow Efficiency 2400 3000 1800 70 0.7 psi psi psi bpd

Skin Effect

3000

Bottomhole Flowing Pressure (psi)

Flowrate (bpd)

200

250

300

Skin Effect

The data seems to be from a saturated reservoir. The well presents a damage, so we can not use Vogel equation direclty.

The first step is to correct the test data for the skin

test Pwf = 1800

Pskin = (1 FE ) Pr Pwf

test test Pwf = P no skin wf + P skin test Pwf no skin = 1800 + 180 = 1980

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Skin Effect

3000

Bottomhole Flowing Pressure (psi)

Flowrate (bpd)

200

250

300

Skin Effect

There is no need to calculate the reservoir pressure, since it is known.

Pr = 2400

The maximum flowrate parameter for Vogel Equation (b=-0.2) for the undamaged reservoir:

qmax =

q P P ( ) + b 1+ b 1 P P r r

70

2

qmax =

qmax = 241bpd

Skin Effect

The IPR for the undamaged reservoir is then:

2

Skin Effect

3000

Bottomhole Flowing Pressure (psi)

q qmax

100

150

Flowrate (bpd)

200

250

300

Skin Effect

We can now use the undamage IPR to calculate the damaged IPR:

Pskin = (1 FE ) Pr Pwf

Skin Effect

The IPR for the damage well becomes:

Pwf no skin Pwf no skin q = 1 0.2 0 . 8 241 2400 2400

2

(1 FE )Pr + FE Pwf q = 1 0.2 241 2400 (1 FE )Pr + FE Pwf 0.8 2400

2

0.3Pr + 0.7 Pwf q = 1 0.2 241 2400 720 + 0.7 Pwf q = 1 0.2 241 2400 0.3Pr + 0.7 Pwf 0.8 2400 720 + 0.7 Pwf 0.8 2400

2 2

Skin Effect

3000

Bottomhole Flowing Pressure (psi)

q

IPR

qmax

Pwf Pwf ( ) ( ) = 1+ b + + + FE FE b FE FE 1 ( 1 ) 1 Pr Pr

Sandface IPR

150

Flowrate (bpd)

200

250

300

Skin Effect

The maximum flowrate for the IPR with skin is:

720 + 0.7 Pwf q = 1 0.2 241 2400 720 + 0.7 Pwf 0.8 2400

2

q = 209 bpd

Skin Effect

3000

Bottomhole Flowing Pressure (psi)

q qmax Pwf no skin Pwf no skin = 1+ b ( 1 + ) b P P r r

2

IPR

q qmax

Pwf Pwf ( ) ( ) = 1+ b 1 + ( 1 + ) 1 + b FE FE FE FE P P r r

The IPR with skin is less curved than the skinless IPR. Why ??? Sandface IPR

100

150

Flowrate (bpd)

200

250

300

Skin Effect

3000

Bottomhole Flowing Pressure (psi)

Similar

Flowrate (bpd)

q re P r P ( ) ln = r Saturation 0.00708 k h r

Profiles

200

250

300

Skin Effect

For a saturated IPR we have:

Or:

q qmax

Pwf Pwf = 1 + b (1 FE ) + FE (1 + b) (1 FE ) + FE Pr Pr

Skin Effect

For a saturated IPR using Vogel we obtain:

Bottomhole Flowing Pressure / Reservoir Pressure 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

q qmax

Pwf Pwf ( ) ( ) = 1+ b 1 + ( 1 + ) 1 + b FE FE FE FE P P r r

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Skin Effect

The value of J is

The saturated IPR is

2

Then:

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Skin Effect

The value of J is

d Pwf noskin dq dq J = = d Pwf d Pwf noskin d Pwf b 2 (1 + b) J = qmax Pwf no skin FE 2 Pr Pr Pwf no skin = (1 FE )Pr + FE Pwf

Then:

FE

Skin Effect

The value of J is

The value of Jo is

FE

b ( 1 FE )Pr J = qmax 2 (1 + b) FE 2 Pr Pr

o

J o = FE

qmax [ b 2 (1 + b) (1 FE )]FE Pr

0 = b 2 (1 + b) (1 FE )

FE = 1

b 2 (1 + b)

FE =

2+b 2 + 2b

Skin Effect

The maximum value of FE is:

FE =

2+b 2 + 2b

b

0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.8 -0.9 -1

FEmax

1 1.125 1.333 3 5.5 Infinite

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Linear

Skin Effect

For Vogel the maximum value of FE is 1.125:

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 Bottomhole Flowing Pressure / Reservoir Pressure

Flow Efficiency

0.3 0.2

1.0

0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

The value of J is

The value of J is negative when:

FE

(1 FE )Pr + FE Pwf b 2 (1 + b) 0 2 Pr Pr

b Pr 2 (1 + b) (1 FE )Pr 2 (1 + b) FE Pwf 0

Pwf Pr

b 2 (1 + b) (1 FE ) 2 (1 + b) FE

Skin Effect

Vogel IPR for J Positive:

1 Bottomhole Flowing Pressure / Reservoir Pressure

Flow Efficiency

0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Flowrate / Skinless Maximum Flowrate

3.00 2.50 2.25 2.00 1.75 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.25

1.50

Pwf

b 2 (1 + b) (1 FE ) Pr 2 (1 + b) FE

1.0 1.125

Harrison proposed a second way of avoiding negative values for J. The method is based on a modification of the IPR equation for saturated reservoirs. The equation proposed by Harrison is as follows:

q qmax = 1.2 0.2 e

1.792 Pwf

noskin

Pr

q qmax

Pwf

noskin

= 1.2 0.2 6

Pr

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Flowrate / Skinless Maximum Flowrate

q qmax

Pwf

noskin

= 1.2 0.2 6

Pr

q qmax

The IPR with skin then becomes:

q qmax

Pwf

noskin

= 1.2 0.2 6

Pr

Pwf Pr

q qmax

= 1.2 0.2 6

(1 FE )+ FE

J = dPwf noskin dq dq = dPwf dPwf noskin dPwf

Pwf

noskin

dq dPwf noskin

Pr

Pwf

noskin

Pr

Skin Effect

But ..... This second Harrison method is not good since it limits the maximum flowrate even for very high flow efficiencies:

Bottomhole Flowing Pressure / Reservoir Pressure 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 Flowrate / Skinless Maximum Flowrate

q qmax

= 1.2 0.2 6

(1 FE )+ FE

Pwf Pr

Skin Effect

Harrison observed that:

1 Bottomhole Flowing Pressure / Reservoir Pressure

Flow Efficiency

0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Flowrate / Skinless Maximum Flowrate

3.00 2.50 2.25 2.00 1.75 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.25

1.50

Pwf

b 2 (1 + b) (1 FE ) Pr 2 (1 + b) FE

1.0 1.125

Skin Effect

Harrison observed that:

10

Pwf 1 P r

0.1

Skin Effect

Harrison proposed to approximate the IPRs when the FE is greater than the critical value by:

10

Pwf 1 P r

P q wf = C 1 P qmax r

1

0.1

The equation proposed by Harrison still needs two conditions so that the expoent n and the coefficient C can be determined. The method proposed by Harrison is the following: Determine the qmax for the skinless IPR as before Determine the FE critical value:

FEcrit = 2+b 2 + 2b

IF FE is greater thant the critical value, calculate the critical value for the bottomhole flowing pressure :

crit = Pr Pwf

b 2 (1 + b) (1 FE ) 2 (1 + b) FE

Determine two extra points on the IPR where the regular behavior is observed:

crit PA = Pwf +

4 crit Pr Pwf 6

crit PB = Pwf +

5 crit Pr Pwf 6

Calculate the flowrates at those two points by using the regular equation for the quadratic IPR with flow efficiency.

qA (1 FE ) + FE PA (1 FE ) + FE PA = 1+ b (1 + b) Pr Pr qmax

2

qB (1 FE ) + FE PB (1 FE ) + FE PB = 1+ b (1 + b) Pr Pr qmax

The equation proposed by Harrison still needs two conditions so that the expoent n and the coefficient C can be determined. The method proposed by Harrison is the following: Determine the values of C and n as:

qA ln qB n= 2 Pr PA2 ln P2 P2 B r

C=

qA qmax P 1 A P r

2

If Flow Efficiency is smaller than the critical value, the IPR is:

q qmax Pwf Pwf ( ) ( ) = 1+ b 1 + ( 1 + ) 1 + b FE FE FE FE P P r r

2

If Flow Efficiency is greater than the critical value, the IPR is:

P q wf = C 1 P qmax r

2

Skin Effect

Bottomhole Flowing Pressure / Reservoir Pressure 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 Flowrate / Skinless Maximum Flowrate

q qmax

Pwf Pwf ( ) ( ) = 1+ b + + + 1 ( 1 ) 1 FE FE b FE FE P P r r

P q wf = C 1 P qmax r

FEcrit =

2+b 2 + 2b

Lets examine the case of an undersaturated reservoir First we calculate the new linear part.

q = J FE ( Pr Pwf )

Now we can calculate the new flowrate that would occur at the bubble point for this FE

q A = J FE ( Pr Pb )

The maximum flowrate for the saturated IPR with this FE is:

qC = J FE Pb + qA 2+b

Pwf q qA = 1+ b P qC q A b Pwf ( 1 ) b + P b

2

The undersaturated IPR is given by:

Pwf 1 + b P b

Pwf b ( 1 ) + P b

Skin Effect

4000 3500 Bottomhole Flowing Pressure (psi) 3000

1.0

Pwf 1 + b P b

Pwf b ( 1 ) + P b

2500

0.5

1.2 1.4

Flow Efficiency

0.6

0.8 0.9

1000

2000

4000

5000

6000

The saturated IPR is given by:

FE < Pr < Pb FE

crit = Pr Pwf

qA ln qB n= Pr2 PA2 ln P2 P2 B r

C=

qA qmax P 1 A P r

2

) )

2

qA PA PA = 1+ b (1 FE ) + FE P (1 + b) (1 FE ) + FE P qmax r r qB (1 FE ) + FE PB (1 FE ) + FE PB = 1+ b (1 + b) qmax Pr Pr

Pwf Pb q = J FE ( Pr Pwf ) Pr Pb J FE Pb ( ) < = + P P q J FE P P wf b r b 2+b Pwf 1 + b P b Pwf b ( 1 ) + P b

2

Get the test data (usually 2 points of bottomhole flowing pressure and flowrates). The data does not need to be collected at the same time. But you need to make sure that nothing major has happened between the tests (workover, high depletion, long time between tests, etc...). You need to be confident that the tests are for the same IPR !!! Check if there is any information on damage or stimulation valid for that IPR such as a build up test. If not, check if you have any information that may allow you to estimate the damage such as a previous production test. This could be a production test prior to a workover operation (to check if there was damage or stimulation in the well) or it could be a old production test. If it is an old production test (at a higher reservoir pressure) you may need to estimate the undamaged IPR for the current reservoir pressure level. If there is damage or stimulation, get the S value and the Flow Efficiency FE. You can now use the FE to calculate the values of the no-skin bottomhole flowing pressure for the tests you want to analyse With the no-skin test data, you can determine the skinless IPR parameters. With the skinless IPR parameters, you can use the equations to calculate the IPR with skin. If you need to estimate Future IPRs, remeber that this should be done based on the skinless IPR parameters and that the skin effect should be added later. You should get future skinless IPRs and then calculate the future IPRs with skin.

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

You will need then 3 programs (spreadsheets) to help you analysing the IPR.

First Program Skinless IPR

Based on two production tests (without skin or corrected to remove skin effect) this program calculates the skinless IPR parameters (Reservoir Pressure, Bubble Point Flowrate, Productivity Index, Productivity Index at Bubble Point and Maximum Flowrate). The program should graph the skinless IPR as well as the test data.

Based on the skinless IPR parameters (Reservoir Pressure, Bubble Point Flowrate, Productivity Index, Productivity Index at Bubble Point and Maximum Flowrate) and the Bubble Point Pressure, this program calculate the parameters of future skinless IPRs (Productivity Index,Productivity Index at Bubble Point and Maximum Flowrate as a function of Reservoir Pressure. The program should graph the future IPR for several user input reservoir pressure levels

Based on a test data (possibly with skin) and the skinless IPR parameters (Reservoir Pressure, Bubble Point Flowrate, Productivity Index, Productivity Index at Bubble Point and Maximum Flowrate), this program will determine the skin pressure loss, and the flow efficiency. The program should graph the skinless IPR, the test data and the IPR with skin.

Based on IPR parameters and flow efficiency, this program will calculate and graph the skinless IPR and the IPR with skin.

Skin Effect

This method has several disadvantages and given the nature of the approximation given by the IPR expressions another simpler method is proposed. In this method we just recover from the test data and skin data the undamaged bottom hole flowing pressure. Then the undamage bottom hole flowing pressure and the real bottom hole flowing pressure are used to calculate the IPR parameters for the undamaged and real IPRs

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Skin Effect

Example The following data is available for a well test

Reservoir Pressure Bubble Point Pressure Bottomhole Test Pressure Test Flowrate Flow Efficiency 2400 3000 1800 70 0.7 psi psi psi bpd

Skin Effect

3000

Bottomhole Flowing Pressure (psi)

Flowrate (bpd)

200

250

300

Skin Effect

The first step is to correct the test data for the skin

test Pwf = 1800

Pskin = (1 FE ) Pr Pwf

test test Pwf = P no skin wf + P skin test Pwf no skin = 1800 + 180 = 1980

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Skin Effect

3000

Bottomhole Flowing Pressure (psi)

Flowrate (bpd)

200

250

300

Skin Effect

There is no need to calculate the reservoir pressure, since it is known.

Pr = 2400

The maximum flowrate parameter for Vogel Equation (b=-0.2) for the undamaged reservoir:

no skin = qmax

q P P ( ) + b 1+ b 1 P P r r

2

no skin = qmax

2

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Skin Effect

For the damaged reservoir we have:

qmax = q P P ( ) b 1+ b 1 + P P r r

2

qmax =

2

Skin Effect

3000

Bottomhole Flowing Pressure (psi)

Standing - Vogel IPR Undamaged IPR

1000

Vogel IPR

Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

200

250

300

P

q = J (P Pwf )

Pwf q qb = 1+ b P qmax qb b

Pb

(1 + b)

Pwf P b

q qb qmax

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

The main advantage of this simplified IPR procedure is to have a simple set of analytical expressions to represent the reservoir performance. The set of equations defining the IPR for the undersaturated case depend on 5 parameters:

qmax qb Pb J Pr

The bubble pressure can be obtained from a fluid sample. The remaining 4 parameters are not independent, since the IPR should be continuous and smooth at the bubble point.

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

P

q = J (P Pwf )

qb = J (P Pb )

P

Pb

Pwf q qb = 1+ b P qmax qb b

(1 + b)

Pwf P b

q qb qmax

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

P

P

dq J = Jb = dPwf

q = J (P Pwf )

Jb =

Pwf = Pb

Pb

dq dPwf

=

Pwf = Pb

(2 + b )(qmax qb )

Pb

Pwf q qb = 1+ b P qmax qb b

(1 + b)

Pwf P b

q qb qmax

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

P

q = J (P Pwf )

qmax J Pb = + qb 2+b

Pwf q qb = 1+ b P qmax qb b

Pb

(1 + b)

Pwf P b

q qb qmax

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

As a consequence, if the bubble point is known, the undersaturated IPR depends only on 2 of the 4 parameters below

qmax qb J Pr

The remaining 2 parameters can be calculated by the auxiliary equations for continuity and smoothness

P

q = J (P Pwf )

Pwf q qb = 1+ b P qmax qb b

Pb

(1 + b)

Pwf P b

qb = J (P Pb )

qmax J Pb = + qb 2+b

q qb qmax

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

We can then obtain the undersaturated IPR if 2 production tests are known. Several cases are possible depending on the location of the well test data on the Pwf x Q plot 4 Cases are possible

Both tests are above the bubble point One test above and one test below the bubble point Two tests below the bubble point and the reservoir is undersaturated. Two tests below the bubble point and the reservoir is saturated

2000 1800 1600 1400 Pressure (psi) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Pb

2000

2500

3000

2000 1800 1600 1400 Pressure (psi) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Pb

2000

2500

3000

2000 1800 1600 1400 Pressure (psi) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Pb

2000

2500

3000

The main objective is to use the test data in order to obtain the values of:

qmax qb J Pr

The mathematical procedure is very simple. The test data must satisfy the appropriate equation for the IPR The IPR must be continuous and smooth at the bubble point

Case A

Both tests are above the bubble point

wf

Pwf q qb = 1+ b P qmax qb b

(1 + b)

Pb

Pwf Pb

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

qb = J (P Pb )

qmax J Pb = + qb (2 + b )

3000

2000

2500

Since both tests are in the linear region, we have:

q2 = J (P P2 )

For the IPR to be continuous and smoth at the bubble point we have:

qb = J (P Pb )

qmax J Pb = + qb (2 + b )

q1 = J (P P 1)

Solving the first two equations for the reservoir pressure and the productivity index:

q1 = J (P P 1)

q2 = J (P P2 )

q2 P 1 q1 P 2 P= q2 q1

( q1 J (P P P P 1) 1) = = q2 J (P P2 ) (P P2 )

q1 q2 = J (P P 1 ) J (P P 2 ) = J (P 2 P 1)

q2 q1 J= P 1P 2

Finally:

q2 P 1 q1 P 2 P= q2 q1

q2 q1 J= P 1P 2

qb = J (P Pb )

qmax J Pb = + qb (2 + b )

2000 1800 1600 1400 Pressure (psi) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

q2 P 1 q1 P 2 P= q2 q1

Pb

q2 q1 J= P 1P 2

qb = J (P Pb )

qmax J Pb = + qb (2 + b )

2000

2500

3000

Determine the equations to calculate the IPR parameters (qmax, J, Pr, and qb) when we have the information on 2 production tests and the bubble point pressure. Use the equations to calculate the Vogel IPR for the following case: Pb= 1400 Tests - Pwf = 1500 q = 600 and Pwf = 1700 q = 200

2000 1800 1600 1400 Pressure (psi) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

q2 P 1 q1 P 2 P= q2 q1

Pb

q2 q1 J= P 1P 2

qb = J (P Pb )

qmax J Pb = + qb (2 + b )

2000

2500

3000

Case A Example

Test 1 Pwf = 1700 q = 200 Test 2 Pwf = 1500 q = 600 Bubble Point Pb= 1400

q2 P 1 q1 P 2 P= = q2 q1

q2 q1 J= = P 1P 2

J Pb = + qb = 1.8

qb = J (P Pb ) =

qmax

Case A Example

Test 1 Pwf = 1700 q = 200 Test 2 Pwf = 1500 q = 600 Bubble Point Pb= 1400

2 1400 = + 800 = 2355 1.8

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

qmax

2000 1800 1600 1400 Pressure (psi) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Pb

2000

2500

3000

Case B

One test above and one test below the bubble point

2000 1800 1600 1400 Pressure (psi) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0

wf

1 Pb 2

Pwf q qb = 1+ b P qmax qb b

(1 + b)

Pwf Pb

qb = J (P Pb )

qmax

J Pb = + qb (2 + b )

3000

500

1000

2000

2500

Since the tests are in different regions, we have:

q1 = J (P P 1)

P2 P2 q2 qb = 1+ b (1 + b) P qmax qb Pb b

qb = J (P Pb )

qmax J Pb = + qb (2 + b )

For the IPR to be continuous and smoth at the bubble point we have:

We can start calculating J. For example:

P2 P2 q2 qb = 1+ b (1 + b) P qmax qb Pb b

qmax

J Pb = + qb (2 + b )

P2 (q2 qb )(2 + b ) = 1 + b P2 (1 + b)

J Pb P b

P b

qb = J (P Pb )

(q

P2 P2 J (P Pb ))(2 + b ) = 1+ b (1 + b) P J Pb Pb b

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

We can start calculating J. For example:

(q

P2 P2 J (P Pb ))(2 + b ) = 1+ b (1 + b) P J Pb Pb b

q1 = J (P P 1)

q P q2 J 1 + P 1 b (2 + b ) P2 P2 J = 1+ b (1 + b) P J Pb Pb b

P2 P2 (1 + b) q2 (2 + b ) (2 + b )q1 J (2 + b )P 1 + J (2 + b )P b = J P b 1+ b P Pb b

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

We can start calculating J. For example:

2 P2 P2 (1 + b) q2 (2 + b ) (2 + b )q1 J (2 + b )P 1 + J (2 + b )P b = J P b 1+ b P Pb b 2 P2 P2 + J (2 + b )P J Pb 1 + b 1 J (2 + b )P b = (2 + b )(q2 q1 ) P (1 + b) P b b

2 P2 J Pb + b P2 (1 + b) + (2 + b )P 1 (2 + b )P b = (2 + b )(q2 q1 ) Pb

J=

(2 + b )(q2 q1 )

P22 (2 + b ) P1 + b P2 (1 + b ) Pb + P b

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Now that we have J, we can calculate Pr:

q1 = J (P P 1)

q1 Pr = + P 1 J

Once we know J and Pr, we have:

qb = J (P Pb )

qmax J Pb = + qb (2 + b )

2000 1800 1600 1400 Pressure (psi) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

J=

1 Pb

(2 + b )(q2 q1 )

P22 (2 + b ) P1 + b P2 (1 + b ) Pb + P b

P= q1 + J P 1 J

qmax

J Pb = + qb (2 + b )

2000

qb = J (P Pb )

2500

3000

Determine the equations to calculate the IPR parameters (qmax, J, Pr, and qb) when we have the information on 2 production tests and the bubble point pressure. Use the equations to calculate the Vogel IPR for the following case: Pb= 1400 Tests - Pwf = 1190 q = 1192 and Pwf = 1700 q = 200

2000 1800 1600 1400 Pressure (psi) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

J=

1 Pb

(2 + b )(q2 q1 )

P22 (2 + b ) P1 + b P2 (1 + b ) Pb + P b

P= q1 + J P 1 J

qmax

J Pb = + qb (2 + b )

2000

qb = J (P Pb )

2500

3000

Case B Example

Test 1 Pwf = 1700 q = 200 Test 2 Pwf = 1190 q = 1192 Bubble Point Pb= 1400

J=

q1 + J P 1 = J

2 2

P=

qb = J (P Pb ) =

qmax

J Pb = + qb = 1.8

Case B Example

Test 1 Pwf = 1700 q = 200 Test 2 Pwf = 1190 q = 1192 Bubble Point Pb= 1400

J=

1.8(1192 200 ) 1190 1.8 1700 0.2 1190 0.8 1400 0.8 1400

2

=2

P=

qmax

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

2000 1800 1600 1400 Pressure (psi) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

1 Pb 2

2000

2500

3000

Cases C1 and C2

Both tests are below the bubble point The reservoir pressure can be above or below the bubble point. We start first by assuming the reservoir pressure is above the bubble point. We must test this assumption The test involves the determination of qb.

2000 1800 1600 1400 Pressure (psi) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

q = J (P Pwf )

Pwf q qb = 1+ b P qmax qb b

(1 + b)

Pwf Pb

Pb 1 2

qb = J (P Pb )

qmax

J Pb = + qb (2 + b )

2000

2500

3000

Since both tests are in the saturated region, we have:

P P q1 qb 1 1 ( 1 ) = 1+ b + b P P qmax qb b b P2 P2 q2 qb = 1+ b (1 + b) P qmax qb Pb b

For the IPR to be continuous and smoth at the bubble point we have: qb = J (P Pb ) J Pb qmax = + qb (2 + b )

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

If the bubble point flowrate is greater than zero, then the reservoir is subsaturated. The bubble point flowrate is calculated by:

P P q1 qb 1 1 ( 1 ) + = 1+ b b P qmax qb Pb b

q1 qb

P2 P2 q2 qb = 1 + b (1 + b) P qmax qb Pb b

q2 qb

P P 1 1 1+ b ( 1 ) + b P P b b

= qmax qb

P2 P2 1+ b P (1 + b) P b b

= q1 qb

= qmax qb

q2 qb

P2 P2 1+ b (1 + b) P P b b

P P 1 1 1+ b ( 1 ) b + P P b b

If the bubble point flowrate is greater than zero, then the reservoir is subsaturated. The bubble point flowrate is calculated by:

q2 qb

P2 P2 1+ b (1 + b) P P b b

q1 qb

P P 1 1 1+ b ( 1 ) b + P P b b

2 2 P 1 1 1 + b P2 (1 + b ) P2 q 1 + b P q ( ) b + 1 1 P P 2 Pb P b b b qb = 2 2 P P P P 2 2 1 1 1 + b (1 + b ) 1 + b (1 + b ) P P Pb Pb b b

2000 1800 1600 1400 Pressure (psi) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

2 2 P 1 1 1 + b P2 (1 + b ) P2 q 1 + b P q ( ) b + 1 1 P P 2 Pb P b b b qb = 2 2 P P P P 2 2 1 1 1 + b (1 + b ) 1 + b (1 + b ) P P Pb Pb b b

Pb 1 2

qb 0

2000

2500

3000

Once we confirm that the reservoir is undersaturated and we have obtained the value of qb, we proceed to calculate the reservoir pressure:

P2 P2 q2 qb = 1+ b (1 + b) P qmax qb Pb b

qmax

J Pb = + qb (2 + b )

2

P2 (q2 qb )(2 + b ) = 1 + b P2 (1 + b)

J Pb P b

P b

J=

(2 + b ) (q2 qb )

2 P2 P2 Pb 1 + b (1 + b) P Pb b

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Now we calculate the remaining parameters:

qb = J (P Pb )

P = Pb + qb J

qmax

J Pb = + qb (2 + b )

2000 1800 1600 1400 Pressure (psi) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0

2 P P 2 Pb 1 + b 2 (1 + b) P Pb b

Pb 1 2

P = Pb +

qb J

qmax =

J Pb + qb (2 + b )

500

1000

2000

2500

3000

Determine the equations to calculate the IPR parameters (qmax, J, Pr, and qb) when we have the information on 2 production tests and the bubble point pressure. Use the equations to calculate the Vogel IPR for the following case: Pb= 1400 Tests - Pwf = 770 q = 1808 and Pwf = 980 q = 1528

2000 1800 1600 1400 Pressure (psi) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

2 2 P 1 1 1 + b P2 (1 + b ) P2 q 1 + b P q ( ) b + 1 1 P P 2 Pb P b b b qb = 2 2 P P P P 2 2 1 1 1 + b (1 + b ) 1 + b (1 + b ) P P Pb Pb b b

Pb 1 2

qb 0

2000

2500

3000

Case C1 Example

Test 1 Pwf = 980 q = 1528 Test 2 Pwf = 770 q = 1808 Bubble Point Pb= 1400

Case C1 Example

Test 1 Pwf = 980 q = 1528

2

2

P2 770 P2 770 1 0.2 0.8 = 1 0.2 0.8 = 0.648 1400 Pb 1400 Pb P 980 P 980 1 1 1 0.2 0.8 = 1 0 . 2 0 . 8 = 0.468 1400 Pb 1400 Pb

2 2

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

2000 1800 1600 1400 Pressure (psi) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0

2 P P 2 Pb 1 + b 2 (1 + b) P Pb b

Pb 1 2

P = Pb +

qb J

qmax =

J Pb + qb (2 + b )

500

1000

2000

2500

3000

Case C1 Example

Test 1 Pwf = 980 q = 1528 Test 2 Pwf = 770 q = 1808 Bubble Point Pb= 1400

J=

2

qb P = Pb + = J

qmax

J Pb = + qb = 1.8

Case C1 Example

Test 1 Pwf = 980 q = 1528 Test 2 Pwf = 770 q = 1808 Bubble Point Pb= 1400

J=

1.8 (1808 800 ) 770 770 0.8 1400 1 0.2 1400 1400

2

=2

qmax 2 1400 = + 800 = 2355 1.8

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

2000 1800 1600 1400 Pressure (psi) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Pb 1 2

2000

2500

3000

Cases C1 and C2

When both tests are below the bubble point but qb is less than zero, the reservoir is saturated and we should re-calculate the parameters. The test for the bubble point flowrate is stilll the same as before.

2000 1800 1600 1400 Pressure (psi) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Pb

q qmax

Pwf = 1+ b P

(1 + b)

Pwf P

2000

2500

3000

2000 1800 1600 1400 Pressure (psi) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Pb

qb < 0

2000

2500

3000

Once we confirm that the reservoir is saturated, we proceed to calculate the reservoir pressure:

P q1 P 1 1 = 1 + b (1 + b) qmax P P

P2 q2 P2 = 1 + b (1 + b) qmax P P

q1

P P 1 1 1 + b (1 + b) P P

= qmax

q2

P2 P2 1 + b (1 + b) P P

= qmax

Once we confirm that the reservoir is saturated, we proceed to calculate the reservoir pressure:

q1 = qmax q2 = qmax

P P 1 1 1 + b (1 + b) P P

P2 P2 1 + b (1 + b) P P

2

P2 P2 q1 1 + b (1 + b) P P

2 P P 1 1 = q2 1 + b (1 + b) P P

P P2 P 2 1 (q1 q2 ) + b + q q ( 1 b ) q 1 2 1 P P P

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

q2

P 1 =0 P

2

Once we confirm that the reservoir is saturated, we proceed to calculate the reservoir pressure:

P P2 P 2 1 (q1 q2 ) + b + q q ( 1 b ) q 1 2 1 P P P

q2

P 1 =0 P

2

And the remaining parameters are:

qmax = q1 = q2

P P 1 1 1 + b (1 + b) P P

P2 P2 1 + b (1 + b) P P

( 2 + b ) qmax J=

P

2000 1800 1600 1400 Pressure (psi) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Pb

qmax = q P P 1 + b (1 + b ) P P

2

P >0

( 2 + b ) qmax J=

P

2000 2500 3000

Determine the equations to calculate the IPR parameters (qmax, J, Pr, and qb) when we have the information on 2 production tests and the bubble point pressure. Use the equations to calculate the Vogel IPR for the following case: Pb= 1400 Tests - Pwf = 560 q = 1232 and Pwf = 770 q = 1008

2000 1800 1600 1400 Pressure (psi) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Pb

qb < 0

2000

2500

3000

Case C2 Example

Test 1 Pwf = 770 q = 1008 Test 2 Pwf = 560 q = 1232 Bubble Point Pb= 1400

Case C2 Example

Test 1 Pwf = 770 q = 1008

2

2

P2 560 P2 560 1 0.2 0.8 = 1 0 . 2 0 . 8 = 0.792 1400 Pb 1400 Pb P 770 P 770 1 1 1 0.2 0.8 = 1 0.2 0.8 = 0.648 1400 Pb 1400 Pb

2 2

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

2000 1800 1600 1400 Pressure (psi) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Pb

qmax = q P P 1 + b (1 + b ) P P

2

P >0

1

( 2 + b ) qmax J=

P

2000 2500 3000

Case C2 Example

Test 1 Pwf = 770 q = 1008 Test 2 Pwf = 560 q = 1232 Bubble Point Pb= 1400

qmax =

q P P 1 0.2 0.8 P P

2

1.8 qmax J= P

Case C2 Example

Test 1 Pwf = 770 q = 1008 Test 2 Pwf = 560 q = 1232 Bubble Point Pb= 1400

(1008 560 1232 770) (1008 560 1232 770) 2 + 80 (1008 1232) (1008 560 2 1232 770 2 ) P= 10 (1008 1232)

P = 1400

qmax = 1008 770 770 1 0.2 0.8 1400 1400

2

= 1555

2000 1800 1600 1400 Pressure (psi) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Pb

1 2

1500

2000

With this procedure we are able to use only two tests to determine the four parameters:

Reservoir Pressure Productivity Index Bubble Point Flowrate Absolute Open Flow

With those parameters determined we can draw or calculate the IPR for each case. Usually we will either have:

Saturated Reservoir Under saturated Reservoir

Summary

2000 1800 1600 Bottom Hole Flowing Pressure (psi) 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 Flowrate (bpd) 1500 2000 2500

q = J (P Pwf )

Pwf q qb = 1+ b P qmax qb b

Pwf (1 + b) P b

Pwf q = 1+ b P qmax

Pwf P (1 + b)

Summary

2000 1800 1600 Bottom Hole Flowing Pressure (psi) 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 Flowrate (bpd) 1500 2000 2500

q = J (P Pwf )

Pb

Pwf ( 1 + b ) P'

qmax

J P' = + qb 2+b

qb = 0

qb = J (P Pb )

P' = P

P ' = Pb

Examples

3000

Pb = 2000 psi

2500 Test 1 Test 2 2000

1500

1000

b=0 qmax = 2750 bpd Pr = 2650 psi b = -0.2 qmax = 2935 bpd Pr = 2650 psi

500

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Examples

3000

b = 0 (Fetkovick)

2500 Test 1 Test 2 2000

1500

Pb = 1600 psi qmax = 3083 bpd Pr = 2650 psi Pb = 2000 psi qmax = 2750 bpd Pr = 2650 psi Pb = 1800 psi qmax = 2916 bpd Pr = 2650 psi

1000

500

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Examples

3500

Pb = 2000 psi

3000

2500

Test 1

1000

b=0 qmax = 1122 bpd Pr = 2930 psi b = -0.2 qmax = 1181 bpd Pr = 2932 psi

0 200 400 600 800 1000

500

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Examples

3500

b = 0 (Fetkovick)

3000

2500

Test 1

1000

Pb = 2000 psi qmax = 1122 bpd Pr = 2930 psi Pb = 1900 psi qmax = 1134 bpd Pr = 2938 psi

500

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Examples

2500

Pb = 2000 psi

2000 Bottom Hole Flowing Pressure (psi)

Test 1 1500

Test 2

1000

500

0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Examples

2500

b = 0 (Fetkovick)

2000 Bottom Hole Flowing Pressure (psi)

Test 1 1500

Test 2

1000

500

0 0 100 200 300 400 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

500

600

700

800

Examples

2500

Pb = 2350 psi

2000 Bottom Hole Flowing Pressure (psi)

1000

b = -0.4 qmax = 846 bpd Pr = 2116 psi b=0 qmax = 726 bpd Pr = 2088 psi

500

0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

q

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

q

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

1600 1400 1200 Pressure (psi) 1000 800 600 400 200

Zone 1 Zone 2

q1 q2 q

q1

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

1600 1400 1200 Pressure (psi) 1000 800 600 400 200

q1 q2 q

q1

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

1600 1400

Zones 1 + 2

1200 Pressure (psi) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

1600 1400 1200 Pressure (psi) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 -500 0 500 1000 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

q1

q2 q

1500

q1

2000

2500

1600 1400 1200 Pressure (psi) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Zones 1 + 2

Can we estimate the IPR when the well is producing oil and water from different zones ?

Composite IPR

q

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Composite IPR

1600 1400 1200 Pressure (psi) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Composite IPR

1600 1400 1200 Pressure (psi)

1000 800

600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

2000

2500

3000

Composite IPR

1 0.8 Water Cut (Fraction)

0.6

0.4

0.2

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Composite IPR

1600

Oil Zone

1400 1200 Pressure (psi)

Water Zone

1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Composite IPR

1600

Oil Zone

1400 1200 Pressure (psi) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

2000

2500

3000

Composite IPR

1 0.9 0.8 Water Cut (Fraction) 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Total Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Composite IPR

q

Composite IPR

1600 1400 1200 Pressure (psi) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Composite IPR

1600 1400 1200 Pressure (psi) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Composite IPR

qw WC = q w + qo

WC = WC P

*

wf

= Pr

J = * * Jw + Jo

* w

qw WOR = qo

WOR = WOR P

*

wf

= Pr

J = J

* w * o

Composite IPR

0.7 0.68 0.66 Water Cut (Fraction) 0.64 0.62 0.6 0.58 0.56 0.54 0.52 0.5 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 Total Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Reservoir Presure Pr = 1800 psi Bubble Point Pressure Pb = 1300 psi 1 Zone producing Oil and Water Well Test qt = 600 bpd @ 1400 psi WC = 30 %

qo = 600 * 0.7 = 420 bpd @ 1400 psi qw = 600 * 0.3 = 180 bpd @ 1400 psi OIL Combined IPR Undersaturated Reservoir

Jo = qo / ( Pr - Pt ) = 420 / ( 1800 1400 ) = 1.05 bpd/psi qb = Jo ( Pr Pb) = 1.05 ( 1800 1300 ) = 525 bpd qmax = Jo Pb /1.8 + qb = 1.05 1300 / 1.8 + 525 = 1283.33 bpd

qo = 600 * 0.7 = 420 bpd @ 1400 psi qw = 600 * 0.3 = 180 bpd @ 1400 psi Water Linear IPR

Water

Oil

qo 525 = 1 0.2 0.8 758.33 1300 1300 2 Pwf

2 Pwf

Pwf 1800 1550 1300 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Qo

Qw

Qt

WC

WOR

Pwf 1800 1550 1300 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Qo 0 262.5 525 626 807 960 1084 1179 1245 1283 Qw 0 112.5 225 270 360 450 540 630 720 810 Qt 0 375 750 896 1168 1410 1624 1809 1966 2093 WC 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.35 0.37 0.39 WOR 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.45 0.47 0.50 0.53 0.58 0.63

2000 1800 1600 1400 Pressure (psi) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Pb

qo+qw

0.39 0.37 Water Cut (Fraction) 0.35 0.33 0.31 0.29 0.27 0.25 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Total Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

0.65 0.6 Water Oil Ratio (Fraction) 0.55 0.5 0.45 0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Oil Flowrate (bpd)

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

Economics When producing oil and water not always it is desirable to maximize oil production

Assuming that the unitary costs of production for each phase are: Co = 7 US$/stb

Cw = 6 US$/stb

Calculate the profit for each total flowrate when the oil sale price is So = 11, 12 and 13 US$/stb

Oil Price US$/stb

11 P

12 P

13 P

Pwf 1800 1550 1300 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0

Co

Cw

Oil Price US$/stb

Pwf 1800 1550 1300 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0

3500 3000 2500 Profit (U S $/d)

S o (US$/stb)

13

2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400

12

11

Mauricio G. Prado The University of Tulsa

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