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User manual

2.1.2























































Copyright : FORSK 1997-2003

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Table of contents
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

I GETTING STARTED.............................................................................21
I.1 GENERAL PRESENTATION.............................................................................................21
I.2 WHAT'S NEW IN ATOLL 2.1.........................................................................................21
I.3 INSTALLING AND REMOVING ATOLL .............................................................................27
I.3.1 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS.................................................................................................................27
I.3.2 WHAT'S INSTALLED WITH ATOLL.....................................................................................................27
I.3.3 INSTALLING ATOLL........................................................................................................................27
I.3.4 REMOVING ATOLL.........................................................................................................................28
I.3.5 INSTALLING DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SERVER.................................................................................29
I.3.6 REMOVING DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SERVER..................................................................................29
I.3.7 TROUBLESHOOTINGS AFTER INSTALLATION......................................................................................30
I.4 GETTING HELP ............................................................................................................31
I.4.1 WAYS TO GET ASSISTANCE .............................................................................................................31
I.4.2 TECHNICAL SUPPORT......................................................................................................................31
I.5 RUNNING PROJECT TEMPLATES ....................................................................................32
I.5.1 STARTING A NEW PROJECT..............................................................................................................32
I.5.2 TEMPLATES PROVIDED....................................................................................................................32
I.5.3 CREATING YOUR OWN TEMPLATE.....................................................................................................33
I.5.4 BUILDING A PROJECT ......................................................................................................................34
II THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT .........................................................37
II.1 USER INTERFACE BASICS : OVERVIEW ......................................................................37
II.2 WORKING WITH MENUS AND WINDOWS ......................................................................37
II.2.1 WORKING WITH DOCUMENT WINDOW...............................................................................................37
II.2.2 WORKING WITH DOCKING OR FLOATING WINDOW..............................................................................38
II.2.3 PRINTING THE ACTIVE WINDOW........................................................................................................38
II.3 WORKING WITH MAPS ..............................................................................................38
II.3.1 ZOOMING AND PANNING ..................................................................................................................38
II.3.2 USING THE PANORAMIC WINDOW.....................................................................................................39
II.3.3 CENTRING THE MAP........................................................................................................................40
II.3.4 CHOOSING A SCALE........................................................................................................................40
II.3.5 DEFINING VISIBILITY RANGES ON OBJECTS........................................................................................40
II.3.6 DISPLAYING RULERS AROUND THE MAP............................................................................................41
II.3.7 GETTING DISTANCES ON THE MAP....................................................................................................41
II.3.8 DISPLAYED CURSORS .....................................................................................................................41
II.3.9 PRINTING A MAP .............................................................................................................................42
II.3.10 EXPORTING MAPS TO EXTERNAL FILES.............................................................................................43
II.3.11 EXPORTING MAPS TO OTHER APPLICATIONS .....................................................................................43
II.4 WORKING WITH THE EXPLORER.................................................................................44
II.4.1 WORKING WITH EXPLORER : OVERVIEW ..........................................................................................44
II.4.2 RENAMING AN OBJECT ....................................................................................................................45
II.4.3 DISPLAYING THE OBJECT PROPERTIES .............................................................................................45
II.4.4 DELETING AN OBJECT .....................................................................................................................45
II.4.5 MANAGING OBJECT VISIBILITY..........................................................................................................45
II.5 WORKING WITH DATA TABLES...................................................................................46
II.5.1 ACCESSING DATA TABLE.................................................................................................................46
II.5.2 MANAGING CONTENTS IN TABLES.....................................................................................................47
II.5.3 EDITING CONTENTS IN TABLES.........................................................................................................47
II.5.4 OPENING DIALOGS FROM TABLES.....................................................................................................48
II.5.5 MANAGING TABLE DISPLAY..............................................................................................................48
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II.5.6 COPYING AND PASTING IN TABLES....................................................................................................50
II.5.7 PRINTING DATA TABLES ..................................................................................................................51
II.6 FILTERING/GROUPING/SORTING DATA........................................................................52
II.6.1 SORTING AND FILTERING IN TABLES .................................................................................................52
II.6.2 EXAMPLE OF FILTER IN TABLES........................................................................................................53
II.6.3 FILTERING RADIO DATA ...................................................................................................................53
II.6.4 ADVANCED FILTERING : EXAMPLE....................................................................................................54
II.6.5 ADVANCED FILTERING : COUNTER EXAMPLE 1..................................................................................55
II.6.6 ADVANCED FILTERING : COUNTER EXAMPLE 2..................................................................................56
II.6.7 EXAMPLES OF FILTERING.................................................................................................................56
II.6.8 SORTING A FOLDER ........................................................................................................................60
II.6.9 ARRANGING ITEMS IN GROUPS.........................................................................................................60
II.6.10 EXAMPLES OF GROUPING BY ...........................................................................................................61
II.6.11 USING A GROUP BY/SORT/FILTER CONFIGURATION............................................................................62
II.6.12 CREATING SUBFOLDERS..................................................................................................................62
II.6.13 REORGANIZING DATA AFTER MODIFICATIONS....................................................................................62
II.6.14 FILTERING DATA IN A POLYGON........................................................................................................63
II.6.15 REMOVING THE POLYGON FILTER.....................................................................................................63
II.7 MANAGING DISPLAY IN ATOLL ................................................................................63
II.7.1 DEFINING THE DISPLAY PROPERTIES OF ANY ITEM FOLDER................................................................63
II.7.2 MANAGING AND DISPLAYING LEGENDS .............................................................................................64
II.7.3 THRESHOLDS, COLOURS AND LEGENDS ...........................................................................................64
II.7.4 DISPLAYING OBJECT LABELS ON THE MAP.........................................................................................66
II.7.5 USING THE TIPS TOOL TO GET INFORMATION.....................................................................................66
II.8 USING HANDY TOOLS ...............................................................................................67
II.8.1 USING THE UNDO/REDO COMMAND .................................................................................................67
II.8.2 REFRESHING MAPS AND FOLDERS....................................................................................................67
II.8.3 SETTING DOCUMENT PRINTS ...........................................................................................................67
II.8.4 USING THE SITE SEARCH TOOL ........................................................................................................68
II.8.5 USING THE STATUS BAR TO GET INFORMATION .................................................................................68
II.8.6 USING ICONS AVAILABLE IN THE TOOL BAR........................................................................................68
II.8.7 USING SHORTCUTS IN ATOLL.........................................................................................................70
III MANAGING GEOGRAPHIC DATA ......................................................73
III.1 MANAGING GEOGRAPHIC DATA : OVERVIEW..............................................................73
III.2 LENGTH UNITS AND COORDINATE SYSTEMS................................................................73
III.2.1 SETTING A DEFAULT LENGTH UNIT....................................................................................................73
III.2.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS : BASIC CONCEPTS.......................................................................................73
III.2.3 DEFINING THE PROJECTION COORDINATE SYSTEM............................................................................75
III.2.4 DEFINING THE DISPLAY COORDINATE SYSTEM...................................................................................75
III.2.5 CREATING YOUR OWN COORDINATE SYSTEM....................................................................................75
III.3 GEO DATA FORMAT SUPPORTED ...............................................................................76
III.3.1 SUPPORTED GEO DATA FORMATS : OVERVIEW.................................................................................76
III.3.2 GEOGRAPHIC DATA TYPES USED......................................................................................................77
III.3.3 BIL DATA FORMAT ..........................................................................................................................78
III.3.4 TIFF DATA FORMAT........................................................................................................................79
III.3.5 PLANET DATA FORMAT................................................................................................................79
III.3.6 DXF DATA FORMAT ........................................................................................................................82
III.3.7 SHP DATA FORMAT ........................................................................................................................82
III.3.8 MIF DATA FORMAT .........................................................................................................................82
III.3.9 ERDAS IMAGINE DATA FORMAT ........................................................................................................83
III.3.10 OTHER SUPPORTED FORMATS.........................................................................................................83
III.4 MANAGING GEOGRAPHIC DATA IMPORT .....................................................................83
III.4.1 IMPORTING A GEOGRAPHIC DATA FILE ..............................................................................................83
III.4.2 IMPORTING A GROUP OF TIFF/BMP IMAGES........................................................................................84
III.4.3 OPTIMISING THE LOADING OF RASTER MAPS.....................................................................................84
III.4.4 DESCRIPTION OF MNU FILES ..........................................................................................................84
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III.4.5 EMBEDDING - LINKING COMPARISON................................................................................................85
III.4.6 EMBEDDING GEOGRAPHIC DATA ......................................................................................................85
III.4.7 REPAIRING A BROKEN LINK..............................................................................................................86
III.4.8 CHECKING THE MAP GEOCODING.....................................................................................................87
III.5 MANAGING GEOGRAPHIC DATA PROPERTIES..............................................................87
III.5.1 MANAGING THE DTM DISPLAY.........................................................................................................87
III.5.2 MANAGING VECTOR OBJECTS DISPLAY.............................................................................................88
III.5.3 DISPLAYING VECTOR LAYERS OVER PREDICTIONS.............................................................................88
III.5.4 MANAGING SCANNED MAPS DISPLAY................................................................................................88
III.5.5 SETTING GEO DATA PRIORITY ..........................................................................................................89
III.6 MANAGING THE CLUTTER DESCRIPTION .....................................................................90
III.6.1 MANAGING THE CLUTTER PROPERTIES.............................................................................................90
III.6.2 DESCRIBING THE CLUTTER CLASSES................................................................................................90
III.6.3 ADDING A CLUTTER CLASS ..............................................................................................................91
III.6.4 REFRESHING A CLUTTER MAP..........................................................................................................91
III.6.5 DISPLAYING STATISTICS ON CLUTTER...............................................................................................92
III.7 EDITING GEOGRAPHIC DATA .....................................................................................92
III.7.1 RASTER OBJECTS...........................................................................................................................92
III.7.1.a Creating a clutter or traffic raster polygon..........................................................................92
III.7.1.b Editing clutter or traffic raster polygons..............................................................................92
III.7.1.c Modifying clutter or traffic raster polygons .........................................................................93
III.7.1.d Deleting clutter or traffic raster polygons............................................................................93
III.7.1.e Displaying information about raster polygons ....................................................................94
III.7.2 VECTOR OBJECTS...........................................................................................................................94
III.7.2.a Creating a vector layer .......................................................................................................94
III.7.2.b Editing a vector object ........................................................................................................95
III.7.2.c Managing vector object shapes .........................................................................................95
III.7.2.d Managing vector object properties .....................................................................................97
III.8 MANAGING GEOGRAPHIC DATA EXPORT.....................................................................98
III.8.1 EXPORTING A DTM MAP .................................................................................................................98
III.8.2 EXPORTING A CLUTTER MAP............................................................................................................98
III.8.3 SAVING THE EDITED RASTER POLYGONS ..........................................................................................99
III.8.4 EXPORTING A VECTOR OBJECT......................................................................................................100
IV MANAGING RADIO NETWORK DATA..............................................105
IV.1 MANAGING RADIO NETWORK DATA : OVERVIEW.......................................................105
IV.2 SETTING DEFAULT RADIO UNITS ..............................................................................105
IV.3 SITES ...................................................................................................................105
IV.3.1 CREATING A SITE..........................................................................................................................105
IV.3.2 NAMING AUTOMATICALLY SITES .....................................................................................................106
IV.3.3 MANAGING SITE PROPERTIES ........................................................................................................106
IV.3.4 CHANGING A SITE POSITION...........................................................................................................107
IV.3.5 MANAGING SITE ALTITUDES...........................................................................................................107
IV.3.6 GETTING DISTANCES AROUND SITES..............................................................................................108
IV.3.7 DISPLAYING THE LINE OF SIGHT AREA.............................................................................................109
IV.3.8 SETTING THE DISPLAY PROPERTIES OF A SITE ................................................................................109
IV.3.9 DELETING BUILT SITES ..................................................................................................................110
IV.4 ANTENNAS............................................................................................................110
IV.4.1 CREATING AN ANTENNA ................................................................................................................110
IV.4.2 MANAGING THE ANTENNA PROPERTIES ..........................................................................................111
IV.4.3 MODIFYING ANTENNA PARAMETERS IN TABLES ...............................................................................112
IV.4.4 COPYING ANTENNA PATTERNS TO THE CLIPBOARD..........................................................................113
IV.4.5 IMPORTING ANTENNA PATTERNS....................................................................................................113
IV.4.6 PRINTING ANTENNA PATTERNS ......................................................................................................114
IV.5 TRANSMITTERS .....................................................................................................114
IV.5.1 TRANSMITTERS : OVERVIEW .........................................................................................................114
IV.5.2 TRANSMITTERS CHARACTERISTICS ................................................................................................114
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IV.5.2.a Creating a transmitter.......................................................................................................114
IV.5.2.b Naming automatically transmitters...................................................................................115
IV.5.2.c Managing transmitter properties ......................................................................................115
IV.5.2.d Moving a transmitter on the map......................................................................................116
IV.5.2.e Adjusting transmitter azimuths .........................................................................................117
IV.5.2.f Installing several antennas on a transmitter ....................................................................117
IV.5.2.g Setting transmitter activity ................................................................................................118
IV.5.2.h Deleting a transmitter .......................................................................................................118
IV.5.3 STATION TEMPLATES ....................................................................................................................118
IV.5.3.a Creating a station template ..............................................................................................118
IV.5.3.b Defining station template properties.................................................................................119
IV.5.3.c Deleting a station template...............................................................................................119
IV.5.3.d Dropping a station from a template..................................................................................120
IV.5.3.e Dropping a station on an existing site ..............................................................................120
IV.5.3.f Managing a multi-sectored station ...................................................................................120
IV.5.3.g Merging hexagonal groups of base stations ....................................................................121
IV.6 RADIO EQUIPMENT.................................................................................................121
IV.6.1 RADIO EQUIPMENT : OVERVIEW.....................................................................................................121
IV.6.2 MANAGING TMA EQUIPMENT ........................................................................................................121
IV.6.3 MANAGING FEEDER EQUIPMENT ....................................................................................................122
IV.6.4 MANAGING BTS EQUIPMENT.........................................................................................................122
IV.6.5 ASSIGNING RADIO EQUIPMENT TO TRANSMITTER.............................................................................123
IV.6.6 USING EQUIPMENT TO COMPUTE TRANSMITTER LOSSES..................................................................123
IV.6.7 MANAGING RADIO EQUIPMENT IN A DATABASE STRUCTURE..............................................................124
V MANAGING COMPUTATIONS IN ATOLL .........................................129
V.1 COMPUTATIONS IN ATOLL : OVERVIEW.................................................................129
V.2 CALCULATION TOOLS IN ATOLL ............................................................................129
V.2.1 ATOLL FEATURES FOR COMPUTING..............................................................................................129
V.2.2 DISTRIBUTING PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS ON SEVERAL PCS............................................................129
V.2.3 DISPLAYING CALCULATION EVENTS IN A LOG WINDOW.....................................................................130
V.2.4 EXPORTING CALCULATION EVENTS IN A LOG FILE............................................................................131
V.3 COMPUTING IN POLYGONAL AREAS .........................................................................131
V.3.1 COMPUTATION AND FOCUS ZONES : OVERVIEW..............................................................................131
V.3.2 COMPUTATION AND FOCUS ZONES : EFFECTS.................................................................................132
V.3.3 DRAWING A COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE........................................................................................133
V.3.4 CREATING A COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE FROM POLYGONS.............................................................134
V.3.5 IMPORTING THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE FROM A FILE...............................................................134
V.3.6 EXPORTING THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE TO A FILE...................................................................134
V.3.7 DELETING THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE....................................................................................135
V.3.8 RESIZING THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE ....................................................................................135
V.3.9 ADDING A POINT IN THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE.......................................................................135
V.3.10 REMOVING A POINT IN THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE ..................................................................135
V.3.11 READING THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE AREA ............................................................................136
V.3.12 DISPLAYING THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE COORDINATES...........................................................136
V.4 PROPAGATION MODELS..........................................................................................136
V.4.1 PROPAGATION MODELS : OVERVIEW..............................................................................................136
V.4.2 PROPAGATION MODEL GENERAL INFORMATION...............................................................................137
V.4.2.a Selecting propagation models..........................................................................................137
V.4.2.b Setting propagation model priority ...................................................................................138
V.4.2.c Displaying general information on propagation model .........................................................138
V.4.2.d Choosing the appropriate propagation model ..................................................................138
V.4.2.e Managing propagation model folders...............................................................................139
V.4.3 PROPAGATION MODELS AVAILABLE IN ATOLL ................................................................................139
V.4.3.a Working with Longley-Rice model ....................................................................................139
V.4.3.b Working with ITU 526-5 model .........................................................................................140
V.4.3.c Working with ITU 370-7 model (Vienna 93) .........................................................................140
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V.4.3.d Working with WLL (Wireless Local Loop) model .............................................................141
V.4.3.e Working with Okumura-Hata model .................................................................................142
V.4.3.e.i Working with Okumura-Hata model : Overview................................................................................................ 142
V.4.3.e.ii Considering losses due to diffraction (Okumura-Hata)................................................................................ 142
V.4.3.e.iii Defining an environment default formula (Okumura-Hata) .......................................................................... 142
V.4.3.e.iv Assigning environment formulas to clutter types (Okumura-Hata)............................................................... 143
V.4.3.e.v Creating/Modifying environment formulas (Okumura-Hata) ........................................................................ 143
V.4.3.f Working with Cost-Hata model .............................................................................................143
V.4.3.f.i Working with Cost-Hata model : Overview....................................................................................................... 143
V.4.3.f.ii Considering losses due to diffraction (Cost-Hata) ............................................................................................ 144
V.4.3.f.iii Defining an environment default formula (Cost-Hata) ................................................................................. 144
V.4.3.f.iv Assigning environment formulas to clutter types (Cost-Hata)...................................................................... 144
V.4.3.f.v Creating/Modifying environment formulas (Cost-Hata)..................................................................................... 145
V.4.3.g Working with Standard Propagation model......................................................................145
V.4.3.g.i Working with Standard Propagation model : Overview..................................................................................... 145
V.4.3.g.ii Accessing Standard Propagation Model properties .................................................................................... 146
V.4.3.g.iii Adjusting Standard Propagation Model parameters.................................................................................... 146
V.4.3.g.iv SPM General tab window........................................................................................................................... 146
V.4.3.g.iv.i SPM General tab window....................................................................................................................... 146
V.4.3.g.v SPM Parameters tab window ..................................................................................................................... 147
V.4.3.g.v.i SPM Parameters tab window.................................................................................................................. 147
V.4.3.g.v.ii Standard Propagation Models parameters............................................................................................. 148
V.4.3.g.v.iii Effective Antenna Height SPM.............................................................................................................. 149
V.4.3.g.v.iv Correction for hilly regions .................................................................................................................... 153
V.4.3.g.v.v Diffraction computation in SPM.............................................................................................................. 153
V.4.3.g.v.vi Deygout ................................................................................................................................................ 153
V.4.3.g.v.vii Epstein-Peterson.................................................................................................................................. 155
V.4.3.g.v.viii Millington............................................................................................................................................. 155
V.4.3.g.v.ix Sample values for SPM formula parameters ......................................................................................... 156
V.4.3.g.vi SPM Clutter tab window............................................................................................................................. 157
V.4.3.g.vi.i SPM Clutter tab window......................................................................................................................... 157
V.4.3.g.vi.ii Typical values or losses per clutter class (SPM).................................................................................... 158
V.4.3.g.vii SPM Calibration tab window....................................................................................................................... 159
V.4.3.g.vii.i SPM Calibration tab window ................................................................................................................. 159
V.4.3.g.vii.ii Displaying statistics before calibration (SPM) ....................................................................................... 159
V.4.3.g.vii.iii SPM Statistics dialog window.............................................................................................................. 160
V.4.3.g.vii.iv Calibrating the Standard Propagation Model ....................................................................................... 160
V.4.3.g.vii.v SPM Calibration dialog window............................................................................................................ 161
V.4.3.g.vii.vi To calibrate one variable ..................................................................................................................... 162
V.4.3.g.vii.vii To calibrate several variables ............................................................................................................. 163
V.5 TUNING RECEPTION PARAMETERS...........................................................................164
V.5.1 SETTING THE RECEIVER PROPERTIES.............................................................................................164
V.5.2 COMPUTING SHADOWING MARGINS PER CLUTTER CLASS.................................................................164
V.5.3 USING RELIABILITY LEVEL ON PREDICTIONS....................................................................................165
V.6 POINT ANALYSIS PREDICTIONS................................................................................166
V.6.1 POINT ANALYSIS PREDICTIONS : OVERVIEW....................................................................................166
V.6.2 DISPLAYING POINT ANALYSIS RESULTS...........................................................................................167
V.6.2.a Using the receiver ............................................................................................................167
V.6.2.b Studying the profile from a transmitter .............................................................................167
V.6.2.c Displaying predicted signal levels at a point.........................................................................168
V.6.2.d Listing all signal and C/I levels at a point .........................................................................168
V.6.3 MANAGING POINT ANALYSIS ..........................................................................................................169
V.6.3.a Selecting a transmitter in point analysis...........................................................................169
V.6.3.b Selecting the power definition item in point analysis........................................................169
V.6.3.c Adjusting reliability level in a point analysis..........................................................................169
V.6.3.d Displaying signal levels or losses in point analysis..........................................................169
V.6.3.e Displaying link budget at a receiver .................................................................................170
V.6.3.f Using a site as a target for point analysis.............................................................................170
V.6.3.g Displaying SPM parameters over a profile analysis.........................................................170
V.6.3.h Exporting a point analysis study.......................................................................................171
V.6.3.i Printing a point analysis study..............................................................................................171
V.7 COVERAGE STUDIES ..............................................................................................172
V.7.1 COVERAGE STUDIES : OVERVIEW..................................................................................................172
V.7.2 SETTING PREDICTION PARAMETERS...............................................................................................172
V.7.2.a Setting calculation areas ..................................................................................................172
V.7.2.b Externalising path loss results..........................................................................................173
V.7.2.c Creating coverage calculations ............................................................................................173
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V.7.2.d Making coverage studies per group of transmitter...........................................................174
V.7.2.e Defining prediction properties ..........................................................................................174
V.7.2.f Filtering transmitters in a coverage study.............................................................................175
V.7.2.g Defining the coverage conditions.....................................................................................175
V.7.2.h Managing prediction display.............................................................................................176
V.7.2.i Creating a coverage study template.....................................................................................177
V.7.2.j Deleting a coverage study template.....................................................................................178
V.7.2.k Running coverage calculations.............................................................................................178
V.7.2.l Locking coverage studies .....................................................................................................178
V.7.3 COMMON PREDICTION STUDIES .....................................................................................................179
V.7.3.a Calculating a coverage by transmitter..............................................................................179
V.7.3.b Calculating a coverage by signal level .............................................................................179
V.7.3.c Determining overlapping zones............................................................................................180
V.7.4 MANAGING PREDICTIONS RESULTS ................................................................................................181
V.7.4.a Managing prediction results : Overview...........................................................................181
V.7.4.b Displaying prediction reports............................................................................................181
V.7.4.c Exporting prediction reports..................................................................................................182
V.7.4.d Printing prediction reports ................................................................................................182
V.7.4.e Exporting prediction coverages........................................................................................182
V.7.4.f Coverage prediction available exports .................................................................................183
V.7.4.g Managing existing matrices..............................................................................................183
V.7.4.h Locking path loss results..................................................................................................183
V.7.4.i Checking path loss results consistency................................................................................184
V.7.4.j Exporting path loss matrices ................................................................................................185
VI GSM/TDMA PROJECT MANAGEMENT ............................................189
VI.1 GSM/TDMA PROJECTS : OVERVIEW......................................................................189
VI.2 MANAGING GSM/TDMA RADIO DATA.....................................................................190
VI.2.1 MANAGING GSM/TDMA RADIO DATA : OVERVIEW.........................................................................190
VI.2.2 FREQUENCIES..............................................................................................................................190
VI.2.2.a Frequencies : Overview....................................................................................................190
VI.2.2.b Managing frequency bands..............................................................................................190
VI.2.2.c Managing frequency domains and groups.......................................................................191
VI.2.3 HSNS..........................................................................................................................................192
VI.2.3.a HSNs : Overview..............................................................................................................192
VI.2.3.b Managing HSN domains and groups ...............................................................................192
VI.2.4 BSICS.........................................................................................................................................193
VI.2.4.a BSICs : Overview.............................................................................................................193
VI.2.4.b Managing BSIC domains and groups ..............................................................................194
VI.2.5 CELL TYPES .................................................................................................................................194
VI.2.5.a Cell types : Overview........................................................................................................194
VI.2.5.b TRX types : definition .......................................................................................................195
VI.2.5.c Managing cell types..........................................................................................................195
VI.2.5.d Cell type parameters ........................................................................................................196
VI.2.5.e Examples of cell types......................................................................................................198
VI.2.6 HCS LAYERS ...............................................................................................................................199
VI.2.6.a Hierarchical cells : Overview............................................................................................199
VI.2.6.b Managing HCS layers ......................................................................................................199
VI.2.7 TRANSMITTERS ............................................................................................................................199
VI.2.7.a Assigning HCS layers to transmitters...............................................................................199
VI.2.7.b Assigning cell types to transmitters..................................................................................200
VI.2.7.c Assigning BSIC domains to transmitters..........................................................................200
VI.2.7.d Assigning manually BSICs to transmitters .......................................................................201
VI.2.7.e Allocating manually a BCCH to transmitters ....................................................................201
VI.2.8 SUBCELLS AND TRXS...................................................................................................................202
VI.2.8.a Managing subcells in transmitters....................................................................................202
VI.2.8.b Displaying the subcell list .................................................................................................202
VI.2.8.c Subcell property details....................................................................................................203
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VI.2.8.d Allocating frequencies manually in GSM/TDMA ..............................................................204
VI.2.8.e Managing TRXs in transmitters........................................................................................204
VI.2.8.f Displaying the TRX list .....................................................................................................205
VI.2.8.g TRX property details.........................................................................................................205
VI.3 WORKING ON GSM/TDMA TRAFFIC DATA ..............................................................205
VI.3.1 CREATING A GSM/TDMA TRAFFIC MAP : OVERVIEW......................................................................205
VI.3.2 CREATING A GSM/TDMA TRAFFIC RASTER MAP............................................................................206
VI.3.3 DESCRIBING THE GSM/TDMA TRAFFIC RASTER CLASSES..............................................................206
VI.3.4 ADDING A GSM/TDMA TRAFFIC RASTER CLASS.............................................................................207
VI.3.5 REFRESHING A GSM/TDMA TRAFFIC RASTER MAP........................................................................207
VI.3.6 EXPORTING A GSM/TDMA TRAFFIC RASTER MAP..........................................................................207
VI.3.7 MANAGING GSM/TDMA TRAFFIC MAP DISPLAY .............................................................................208
VI.3.8 DISPLAYING STATISTICS ON GSM/TDMA TRAFFIC .........................................................................208
VI.4 GSM/TDMA NETWORK DIMENSIONNING.................................................................209
VI.4.1 COMPUTING THE NUMBER OF REQUESTED TRXS............................................................................209
VI.5 SPECIFIC GSM/TDMA PREDICTION STUDIES...........................................................210
VI.5.1 SETTING SPECIFIC COVERAGE CONDITIONS IN GSM/TDMA STUDIES ..............................................210
VI.5.2 STUDYING INTERFERED AREA PREDICTIONS ...................................................................................211
VI.5.3 COMPUTING A COVERAGE STUDY BY C/I LEVEL ..............................................................................212
VI.5.4 STUDYING INTERFERENCES WITH THE POINT ANALYSIS ...................................................................213
VI.6 GSM/TDMA NETWORK OPTIMISATION ...................................................................214
VI.6.1 NETWORK OPTIMISATION : OVERVIEW............................................................................................214
VI.6.2 GSM/TDMA NEIGHBOURS ...........................................................................................................215
VI.6.2.a Allocating GSM/TDMA transmitter neighbours manually.................................................215
VI.6.2.b Allocating GSM/TDMA transmitter neighbours automatically ..........................................216
VI.6.2.c Displaying current GSM/TDMA neighbour list .................................................................216
VI.6.2.d Deleting allocated GSM/TDMA neighbours .....................................................................217
VI.6.2.e Displaying GSM/TDMA neighbours on the map ..............................................................217
VI.6.3 GSM/TDMA FREQUENCY PLAN ....................................................................................................218
VI.6.3.a Adjusting AFP parameters per transmitter .......................................................................218
VI.6.3.b Defining exceptional pairs for frequency allocation..........................................................218
VI.6.3.c Using the automatic frequency planning tool ...................................................................219
VI.6.3.d Checking the frequency plan consistency........................................................................220
VI.7 E/GPRS PROJECTS MANAGEMENT HELP................................................................221
VI.7.1 E/GPRS PROJECTS : OVERVIEW ..................................................................................................221
VI.7.2 SETTING E/GPRS PARAMETERS...................................................................................................222
VI.7.2.a Creating an E/GPRS equipment ......................................................................................222
VI.7.2.b Managing E/GPRS equipment properties........................................................................222
VI.7.2.c Setting coding schemes parameters................................................................................223
VI.7.2.d Displaying rate graphs......................................................................................................223
VI.7.2.e Defining a transmitter as an E/GPRS station...................................................................224
VI.7.3 SPECIFIC E/GPRS PREDICTION STUDIES.......................................................................................224
VI.7.3.a Creating a coverage by E/GPRS coding schemes ..........................................................224
VI.7.3.b Computing a coverage by E/GPRS rate per timeslot.......................................................225
VI.7.3.c Calculating the average capacity per timeslot per transmitter .........................................225
VII W-CDMA/UMTS PROJECT MANAGEMENT......................................229
VII.1 UMTS PROJECTS : OVERVIEW...............................................................................229
VII.2 UMTS SPECIFIC CONCEPTS ...................................................................................229
VII.3 UMTS PROJECTS PROTOCOL.................................................................................230
VII.4 MANAGING UMTS RADIO DATA..............................................................................230
VII.4.1 MANAGING UMTS RADIO DATA : OVERVIEW..................................................................................230
VII.4.2 UMTS SITE EQUIPMENT ...............................................................................................................231
VII.4.2.a Creating UMTS site equipment ........................................................................................231
VII.4.2.b Managing UMTS site equipment......................................................................................232
VII.4.2.c Managing channel element consumption per UMTS site equipment ..............................232
VII.4.2.d Assigning UMTS site equipment to sites..........................................................................232
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VII.4.3 TRANSMITTER UMTS SPECIFIC PARAMETERS ................................................................................233
VII.4.3.a Defining the transmitter UMTS global parameters...........................................................233
VII.4.4 UMTS CELLS ..............................................................................................................................233
VII.4.4.a UMTS Cells : definition.....................................................................................................233
VII.4.4.b Creating a UMTS Cell ......................................................................................................233
VII.4.4.c Managing UMTS Cell properties ......................................................................................234
VII.4.4.d Power parameters in UMTS.............................................................................................235
VII.4.4.e Active set parameters in UMTS .......................................................................................235
VII.5 MANAGING UMTS TRAFFIC DATA...........................................................................235
VII.5.1 UMTS TRAFFIC DATA : OVERVIEW ................................................................................................235
VII.5.2 WORKING ON UMTS SERVICES.....................................................................................................236
VII.5.2.a Creating UMTS services ..................................................................................................236
VII.5.2.b Setting UMTS service parameters ...................................................................................236
VII.5.2.c Managing globally UMTS services...................................................................................237
VII.5.3 CONFIGURING UMTS MOBILITY TYPES ..........................................................................................237
VII.5.3.a Creating a UMTS mobility type ........................................................................................237
VII.5.3.b UMTS active set conditions..............................................................................................238
VII.5.3.c Setting a UMTS mobility type...........................................................................................238
VII.5.3.d Managing globally UMTS mobility types ..........................................................................238
VII.5.4 SETTING UMTS TERMINAL EQUIPMENT..........................................................................................239
VII.5.4.a Creating a UMTS terminal................................................................................................239
VII.5.4.b Setting UMTS terminal parameters..................................................................................239
VII.5.4.c Managing UMTS network terminals.................................................................................240
VII.5.5 MODELLING UMTS USER PROFILES...............................................................................................240
VII.5.5.a Creating a UMTS user profile...........................................................................................240
VII.5.5.b Adjusting UMTS user profile properties ...........................................................................241
VII.5.5.c Managing globally UMTS user profiles ............................................................................242
VII.5.6 SETTING UMTS ENVIRONMENT CLASSES.......................................................................................242
VII.5.6.a Creating a type of UMTS environment.............................................................................242
VII.5.6.b Setting UMTS environment parameters...........................................................................243
VII.5.6.c Managing globally UMTS environment types ..................................................................243
VII.5.6.d Displaying statistics per UMTS environment type............................................................244
VII.5.6.e Weighting UMTS users per clutter class..........................................................................244
VII.5.7 SETTING UMTS TRAFFIC MAP PARAMETERS ..................................................................................245
VII.5.7.a Setting UMTS traffic map parameters : Overview............................................................245
VII.5.7.b Creating a UMTS environment traffic map.......................................................................245
VII.5.7.c Assigning clutter classes to UMTS environment classes.................................................246
VII.5.7.d Refreshing a UMTS environment traffic map...................................................................246
VII.5.7.e Exporting a UMTS environment traffic map.....................................................................247
VII.5.7.f Managing UMTS environment traffic map display ...........................................................247
VII.5.7.g Displaying statistics on UMTS environment traffic maps.................................................248
VII.5.7.h Importing a UMTS vector traffic map ...............................................................................248
VII.5.7.i Examples of UMTS vector traffic data..............................................................................249
VII.5.7.j Exporting a UMTS vector traffic map...............................................................................250
VII.5.7.k Creating a UMTS traffic map per transmitter ...................................................................250
VII.5.7.l Importing a UMTS traffic map per transmitter ..................................................................251
VII.5.7.m Exporting a UMTS traffic map per transmitter..................................................................251
VII.6 UMTS SIMULATIONS .............................................................................................252
VII.6.1 UMTS SIMULATIONS : OVERVIEW..................................................................................................252
VII.6.2 MANAGING UMTS SIMULATIONS...................................................................................................253
VII.6.2.a Creating UMTS power control simulations.......................................................................253
VII.6.2.b Managing UMTS simulation properties............................................................................253
VII.6.2.c UMTS power control simulation inputs.............................................................................254
VII.6.2.d Replaying a UMTS simulation..........................................................................................255
VII.6.2.e Generator initialisation - Replay differences (UMTS).......................................................256
VII.6.2.f Averaging UMTS simulations...........................................................................................256
VII.6.2.g Adding a simulation to an existing group of UMTS simulations.......................................256
VII.6.3 UMTS SIMULATION PROCESS.......................................................................................................257
VII.6.3.a Power control UMTS simulation concepts .......................................................................257
VII.6.3.b UMTS simulation convergence method ...........................................................................258
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VII.6.3.c Admission control in UMTS simulations...........................................................................259
VII.6.3.d Channel element management in UMTS simulations......................................................260
VII.6.3.e OVSF codes management ...............................................................................................260
VII.6.3.f OVSF codes availability ...................................................................................................261
VII.6.3.g Modelling shadowing in UMTS simulations .....................................................................261
VII.6.4 UMTS SIMULATION RESULTS SUMMARY.........................................................................................263
VII.6.4.a Displaying UMTS simulation requirements and results ...................................................263
VII.6.4.b Displaying input parameters of an existing UMTS simulation..........................................264
VII.6.4.c Summarising results per site (UMTS projects) ................................................................264
VII.6.4.d Summarising results per cell (UMTS projects).................................................................265
VII.6.4.e Committing simulated loads to cells (UMTS projects) .....................................................266
VII.6.4.f Summarising results per mobile (UMTS projects) ...........................................................266
VII.6.4.g Displaying shadowing values of a UMTS simulation .......................................................267
VII.6.4.h Managing UMTS simulation results on the map ..............................................................268
VII.6.5 UMTS SIMULATION OUTPUTS........................................................................................................269
VII.6.5.a UMTS Simulation outputs on sites ...................................................................................269
VII.6.5.b UMTS Simulation outputs on cells ...................................................................................269
VII.6.5.c UMTS Average simulation outputs on cells .....................................................................270
VII.6.5.d UMTS Standard deviation of simulation outputs on cells.................................................270
VII.6.5.e UMTS Simulation outputs on cell components ................................................................270
VII.6.5.f UMTS Simulation outputs on mobiles..............................................................................270
VII.6.5.g UMTS Simulation outputs on mobile components ...........................................................271
VII.7 SPECIFIC UMTS/W-CDMA PREDICTION STUDIES....................................................272
VII.7.1 UMTS PREDICTION STUDIES : OVERVIEW......................................................................................272
VII.7.2 UMTS PREDICTION PROCESS .......................................................................................................273
VII.7.2.a Predicting on given UMTS carriers ..................................................................................273
VII.7.2.b Modelling shadowing in UMTS predictions ......................................................................274
VII.7.3 MANAGING UMTS PREDICTIONS ...................................................................................................274
VII.7.3.a Creating predictions from modified UMTS simulations....................................................274
VII.7.3.b Managing UMTS prediction display .................................................................................274
VII.7.4 UMTS PREDICTION STUDIES.........................................................................................................276
VII.7.4.a Analysing pilot reception (UMTS).....................................................................................276
VII.7.4.b Studying service area (Eb/Nt) downlink (UMTS) .............................................................277
VII.7.4.c Studying service area (Eb/Nt) uplink (UMTS) ..................................................................278
VII.7.4.d Studying effective service area (UMTS)...........................................................................279
VII.7.4.e Defining handoff status (UMTS).......................................................................................280
VII.7.4.f Studying downlink total noise (UMTS) .............................................................................282
VII.7.4.g Calculating pilot pollution (UMTS)....................................................................................283
VII.7.4.h Analysing a scenario at a point in UMTS projects ...........................................................284
VII.8 UMTS/W-CDMA NETWORK OPTIMIZATION.............................................................285
VII.8.1 UMTS NETWORK OPTIMISATION : OVERVIEW.................................................................................285
VII.8.2 UMTS NEIGHBOURS.....................................................................................................................286
VII.8.2.a Allocating UMTS cell neighbours manually......................................................................286
VII.8.2.b Allocating UMTS cell neighbours automatically...............................................................286
VII.8.2.c Displaying current UMTS neighbour list...........................................................................287
VII.8.2.d Deleting allocated UMTS neighbours...............................................................................287
VII.8.2.e Displaying UMTS neighbours on the map .......................................................................288
VII.8.3 SCRAMBLING CODES (UMTS PROJECTS ONLY) ..............................................................................289
VII.8.3.a Scrambling codes : Overview...........................................................................................289
VII.8.3.b Allocating scrambling codes to UMTS cells manually......................................................289
VII.8.3.c Creating scrambling code domains and groups...............................................................289
VII.8.3.d Assigning a scrambling code domain to a cell .................................................................290
VII.8.3.e Defining exceptional pairs for scrambling code allocation...............................................290
VII.8.3.f Allocating scrambling codes to UMTS cells automatically...............................................291
VII.8.3.g Scrambling code allocation process.................................................................................291
VII.8.3.h Checking scrambling code consistency ...........................................................................292
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VIII CDMA/CDMA 2000 PROJECT MANAGEMENT.................................297
VIII.1 CDMA/CDMA 2000 PROJECTS : OVERVIEW..........................................................297
VIII.2 CDMA/CDMA 2000 SPECIFIC CONCEPTS ..............................................................297
VIII.3 CDMA/CDMA 2000 PROJECTS PROTOCOL............................................................298
VIII.4 MANAGING CDMA/CDMA 2000 RADIO DATA.........................................................298
VIII.4.1 MANAGING CDMA/CDMA 2000 RADIO DATA : OVERVIEW.............................................................298
VIII.4.2 CDMA/CDMA 2000 SITE EQUIPMENT..........................................................................................299
VIII.4.2.a Creating CDMA/CDMA 2000 site equipment ...................................................................299
VIII.4.2.b Managing CDMA/CDMA 2000 site equipment.................................................................300
VIII.4.2.c Managing channel element consumption per CDMA/CDMA 2000 site equipment .........300
VIII.4.2.d Assigning CDMA/CDMA 2000 site equipment to sites ....................................................300
VIII.4.3 TRANSMITTER CDMA/CDMA 2000 SPECIFIC PARAMETERS...........................................................301
VIII.4.3.a Setting the transmitter CDMA/CDMA 2000 global parameters........................................301
VIII.4.4 CDMA/CDMA 2000 CELLS .........................................................................................................301
VIII.4.4.a CDMA/CDMA 2000 Cells : definition................................................................................301
VIII.4.4.b Creating a CDMA/CDMA 2000 Cell .................................................................................301
VIII.4.4.c Managing CDMA/CDMA 2000 Cell properties.................................................................302
VIII.4.4.d Power parameters in CDMA/CDMA 2000........................................................................303
VIII.4.4.e Active set parameters in CDMA/CDMA 2000 ..................................................................303
VIII.5 MANAGING CDMA/CDMA 2000 TRAFFIC DATA......................................................303
VIII.5.1 CDMA/CDMA 2000 TRAFFIC DATA : OVERVIEW...........................................................................303
VIII.5.2 WORKING ON CDMA/CDMA 2000 SERVICES...............................................................................304
VIII.5.2.a Creating CDMA/CDMA 2000 Services.............................................................................304
VIII.5.2.b Data service creation CDMA/CDMA 2000.......................................................................305
VIII.5.2.c Setting CDMA/CDMA 2000 services parameters ............................................................305
VIII.5.2.d Managing globally CDMA/CDMA 2000 services..............................................................306
VIII.5.3 CONFIGURING CDMA/CDMA 2000 RADIO CONFIGURATIONS........................................................306
VIII.5.3.a Creating a CDMA/CDMA 2000 Radio Configuration .......................................................306
VIII.5.3.b CDMA/CDMA 2000 active set conditions.........................................................................307
VIII.5.3.c Setting a CDMA/CDMA 2000 Radio Configuration..........................................................307
VIII.5.3.d Managing globally CDMA/CDMA 2000 Radio Configurations .........................................308
VIII.5.4 MODELLING CDMA/CDMA 2000 USER PROFILES .........................................................................308
VIII.5.4.a Creating a CDMA/CDMA 2000 user profile......................................................................308
VIII.5.4.b Adjusting CDMA/CDMA 2000 user profile properties ......................................................309
VIII.5.4.c Managing globally CDMA/CDMA 2000 user profiles .......................................................309
VIII.5.5 SETTING CDMA/CDMA 2000 ENVIRONMENT CLASSES..................................................................310
VIII.5.5.a Creating a type of CDMA/CDMA 2000 environment........................................................310
VIII.5.5.b Setting CDMA/CDMA 2000 environment parameters......................................................311
VIII.5.5.c Managing globally CDMA/CDMA 2000 environment types .............................................311
VIII.5.5.d Displaying statistics per CDMA/CDMA 2000 environment type.......................................312
VIII.5.5.e Weighting CDMA/CDMA 2000 users per clutter class.....................................................312
VIII.5.6 SETTING CDMA/CDMA 2000 TRAFFIC MAP PARAMETERS.............................................................312
VIII.5.6.a Setting CDMA/CDMA 2000 traffic map parameters: Overview .......................................312
VIII.5.6.b Creating a CDMA/CDMA 2000 environment traffic map..................................................313
VIII.5.6.c Assigning clutter classes to CDMA/CDMA 2000 environment classes ...........................313
VIII.5.6.d Refreshing a CDMA/CDMA 2000 environment traffic map..............................................314
VIII.5.6.e Exporting a CDMA/CDMA 2000 environment traffic map................................................314
VIII.5.6.f Managing CDMA/CDMA 2000 environment traffic map display ......................................315
VIII.5.6.g Displaying statistics on CDMA/CDMA 2000 environment traffic maps............................315
VIII.5.6.h Importing a CDMA/CDMA 2000 vector traffic map ..........................................................316
VIII.5.6.i Examples of CDMA/CDMA 2000 vector traffic data ........................................................317
VIII.5.6.j Exporting a CDMA/CDMA 2000 vector traffic map..........................................................317
VIII.5.6.k Creating a CDMA/CDMA 2000 traffic map per transmitter ..............................................318
VIII.5.6.l Importing a CDMA/CDMA 2000 traffic map per transmitter.............................................319
VIII.5.6.m Exporting a CDMA/CDMA 2000 traffic map per transmitter.............................................319
VIII.6 CDMA/CDMA 2000 SIMULATIONS ........................................................................319
VIII.6.1 CDMA/CDMA 2000 SIMULATIONS : OVERVIEW ............................................................................319
VIII.6.2 MANAGING CDMA/CDMA 2000 SIMULATIONS..............................................................................320
VIII.6.2.a Creating CDMA/CDMA 2000 power control simulations..................................................320
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VIII.6.2.b Managing CDMA/CDMA 2000 simulation properties.......................................................321
VIII.6.2.c CDMA/CDMA 2000 power control simulation inputs .......................................................322
VIII.6.2.d Replaying a CDMA/CDMA 2000 simulation.....................................................................323
VIII.6.2.e Generator initialisation - Replay differences (CDMA/CDMA 2000) .................................323
VIII.6.2.f Averaging CDMA/CDMA 2000 simulations......................................................................324
VIII.6.2.g Adding a simulation to an existing group of CDMA/CDMA 2000 simulations..................324
VIII.6.3 CDMA/CDMA 2000 SIMULATION PROCESS ..................................................................................324
VIII.6.3.a Power control CDMA/CDMA 2000 simulation concepts ..................................................324
VIII.6.3.b CDMA/CDMA 2000 simulation convergence method......................................................327
VIII.6.3.c Admission control in CDMA/CDMA 2000 simulations......................................................328
VIII.6.3.d Channel element management in CDMA/CDMA 2000 simulations.................................328
VIII.6.3.e Walsh codes management...............................................................................................328
VIII.6.3.f Walsh codes availability ...................................................................................................330
VIII.6.3.g Modelling shadowing in CDMA/CDMA 2000 simulations ................................................330
VIII.6.4 CDMA/CDMA 2000 SIMULATION RESULTS SUMMARY....................................................................331
VIII.6.4.a Displaying CDMA/CDMA 2000 simulation requirements and results ..............................331
VIII.6.4.b Displaying input parameters of an existing CDMA/CDMA 2000 simulation.....................332
VIII.6.4.c Summarising results per site (CDMA/CDMA 2000 projects) ...........................................333
VIII.6.4.d Summarising results per cell (CDMA/CDMA 2000 projects)............................................334
VIII.6.4.e Committing simulated loads to cells (CDMA/CDMA 2000 projects) ................................334
VIII.6.4.f Summarising results per mobile (CDMA/CDMA 2000 projects) ......................................335
VIII.6.4.g Displaying shadowing values of a CDMA/CDMA 2000 simulation ..................................336
VIII.6.4.h Managing CDMA/CDMA 2000 simulation results on the map.........................................337
VIII.6.5 CDMA/CDMA 2000 SIMULATION OUTPUTS...................................................................................338
VIII.6.5.a CDMA/CDMA 2000 Simulation outputs on sites..............................................................338
VIII.6.5.b CDMA/CDMA 2000 Simulation outputs on cells ..............................................................338
VIII.6.5.c CDMA/CDMA 2000 Average simulation outputs on cells ................................................338
VIII.6.5.d CDMA/CDMA 2000 Standard deviation of simulation outputs on cells ...........................339
VIII.6.5.e CDMA/CDMA 2000 Simulation outputs on cell components ...........................................339
VIII.6.5.f CDMA/CDMA 2000 Simulation outputs on mobiles.........................................................340
VIII.6.5.g CDMA/CDMA 2000 Simulation outputs on mobile components......................................340
VIII.7 SPECIFIC CDMA/CDMA 2000 PREDICTION STUDIES...............................................341
VIII.7.1 CDMA/CDMA 2000 PREDICTION STUDIES : OVERVIEW.................................................................341
VIII.7.2 CDMA/CDMA 2000 PREDICTION PROCESS ..................................................................................342
VIII.7.2.a Predicting on given CDMA/CDMA 2000 carriers .............................................................342
VIII.7.2.b Modelling shadowing in CDMA/CDMA 2000 predictions.................................................343
VIII.7.3 MANAGING CDMA/CDMA 2000 PREDICTIONS..............................................................................343
VIII.7.3.a Creating predictions from modified CDMA/CDMA 2000 simulations...............................343
VIII.7.3.b Managing CDMA/CDMA 2000 prediction display ............................................................343
VIII.7.4 CDMA/CDMA 2000 PREDICTION STUDIES....................................................................................345
VIII.7.4.a Analysing pilot reception (CDMA/CDMA 2000) ...............................................................345
VIII.7.4.b Studying service area (Eb/Nt) downlink (CDMA/CDMA 2000) ........................................346
VIII.7.4.c Studying service area (Eb/Nt) uplink (CDMA/CDMA 2000) .............................................347
VIII.7.4.d Studying effective service area (CDMA/CDMA 2000) .....................................................348
VIII.7.4.e Defining handoff status (CDMA/CDMA 2000)..................................................................349
VIII.7.4.f Studying downlink total noise (CDMA/CDMA 2000) ........................................................351
VIII.7.4.g Calculating pilot pollution (CDMA/CDMA 2000)...............................................................352
VIII.7.4.h Analysing a scenario at a point in CDMA/CDMA 2000 projects ......................................353
VIII.8 SPECIFIC 1XEV-DO FEATURES ..............................................................................355
VIII.8.1 DEFINING A (EB/NT <-> MAX RATE) LOOK-UP TABLE ......................................................................355
VIII.8.2 CREATING 1XEV-DO SPECIFIC PREDICTIONS.................................................................................356
VIII.9 CDMA/CDMA 2000 NETWORK OPTIMISATION........................................................357
VIII.9.1 CDMA/CDMA 2000 NETWORK OPTIMISATION : OVERVIEW............................................................357
VIII.9.2 ALLOCATING CDMA/CDMA 2000 CELL NEIGHBOURS MANUALLY ...................................................357
VIII.9.3 ALLOCATING CDMA/CDMA 2000 CELL NEIGHBOURS AUTOMATICALLY...........................................358
VIII.9.4 DISPLAYING CURRENT CDMA/CDMA 2000 NEIGHBOUR LIST.........................................................359
VIII.9.5 DELETING ALLOCATED CDMA/CDMA 2000 NEIGHBOURS..............................................................359
VIII.9.6 DISPLAYING CDMA/CDMA 2000 NEIGHBOURS ON THE MAP..........................................................360
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IX MANAGING MEASUREMENTS .........................................................363
IX.1 MANAGING MEASUREMENTS : OVERVIEW................................................................363
IX.2 BEFORE CREATING A MEASUREMENT SESSION : CAUTIONS .......................................363
IX.3 CREATION OF A MEASUREMENT PATH......................................................................363
IX.3.1 CREATING A MEASUREMENT SESSION............................................................................................363
IX.3.2 PASTING A MEASUREMENT PATH....................................................................................................364
IX.3.3 DRAWING A MEASUREMENT PATH ..................................................................................................364
IX.3.4 IMPORTING A MEASUREMENT PATH................................................................................................365
IX.3.5 IMPORTING SEVERAL MEASUREMENT PATHS...................................................................................366
IX.3.6 ADDING PREDICTIONS IN EXISTING MEASUREMENT PATHS ...............................................................366
IX.3.7 CREATING AN IMPORT MEASUREMENTS CONFIGURATION.................................................................367
IX.3.8 DELETING AN IMPORT MEASUREMENTS CONFIGURATION.................................................................367
IX.4 MANAGEMENT OF A MEASUREMENT PATH................................................................368
IX.4.1 DEFINING MEASUREMENT PATH PROPERTIES..................................................................................368
IX.4.2 OPENING A MEASUREMENT DATA TABLE ........................................................................................368
IX.4.3 PREDICTING SIGNAL LEVELS ON A MEASUREMENT PATH..................................................................369
IX.4.4 FILTERING PREDICTIONS ALONG MEASUREMENT PATHS...................................................................369
IX.4.5 DISPLAYING STATISTICS BETWEEN MEASUREMENT AND PREDICTIONS..............................................370
IX.4.6 MANAGING DISPLAY ON A MEASUREMENT PATH ..............................................................................370
IX.4.7 EXPORTING MEASUREMENTS.........................................................................................................370
IX.5 USING THE MEASUREMENT WINDOW........................................................................371
IX.5.1 MEASUREMENT WINDOW : ACTIVATION...........................................................................................371
IX.5.2 DEFINING THE DISPLAY PROPERTIES OF THE MEASUREMENT WINDOW..............................................371
IX.5.3 ANALYSING FIELDS USING A SECOND ORDINARY AXIS IN MEASUREMENTS.........................................372
IX.5.4 ZOOMING IN THE MEASUREMENT WINDOW......................................................................................372
IX.5.5 EXPORTING THE MEASUREMENT WINDOW ......................................................................................373
IX.5.6 PRINTING THE MEASUREMENT WINDOW..........................................................................................373
IX.5.7 COMBINING MEASUREMENTS AND POINT ANALYSIS WINDOWS..........................................................373
X CO-PLANNING FEATURES...............................................................377
X.1 CO-PLANNING FEATURES : OVERVIEW....................................................................377
X.2 CO-PLANNING USING ATOLL ................................................................................377
X.2.1 DISPLAYING EXTERNAL OBJECTS IN A CURRENT ATOLL PROJECT...................................................377
X.2.2 ALLOCATING EXTERNAL NEIGHBOURS MANUALLY (CO-PLANNING) ...................................................377
X.2.3 ALLOCATING EXTERNAL NEIGHBOURS AUTOMATICALLY (CO-PLANNING)...........................................378
X.3 CO-PLANNING USING DATABASES...........................................................................379
X.3.1 WORKING IN CO-PLANNING WITH A MS ACCESS DATABASE.............................................................379
X.3.2 WORKING IN CO-PLANNING WITH A SQL SERVER DATABASE............................................................379
X.3.3 WORKING IN CO-PLANNING WITH AN ORACLE DATABASE .................................................................380
X.3.4 WORKING IN CO-PLANNING WITH A SYBASE DATABASE....................................................................380
XI IMPORT MSI PLANET DATA...........................................................385
XI.1 IMPORT MSI PLANET DATA : OVERVIEW.............................................................385
XI.2 IMPORTING MSI PLANET GEOGRAPHIC DATA.......................................................385
XI.3 IMPORTING A MSI PLANET DATABASE ................................................................386
XI.3.1 IMPORTING A MSI PLANET ANTENNA DATABASE.........................................................................386
XI.3.2 IMPORTING A MSI PLANET NETWORK ........................................................................................386
XI.3.3 IMPORTING A MSI PLANET CARRIER DATABASE..........................................................................387
XI.3.4 IMPORTING A MSI PLANET NEIGHBOUR DATABASE .....................................................................388
XI.3.5 IMPORTING MSI PLANET PROPAGATION MODELS .......................................................................388
XI.3.6 IMPORTING MSI PLANET PATH LOSS MATRICES..........................................................................389
XI.4 IMPORTING MSI PLANET MEASUREMENT DATA....................................................389
XI.4.1 IMPORTING MSI PLANET SURVEY DATA .....................................................................................389
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XII MULTI-USER FEATURES ..................................................................393
XII.1 MULTI-USER FEATURES : OVERVIEW.......................................................................393
XII.2 CREATING/STARTING DATABASE PROJECTS ............................................................393
XII.2.1 OPERATING PRINCIPLES................................................................................................................393
XII.2.2 CREATING A NEW DATABASE FROM A DOCUMENT............................................................................394
XII.2.3 CREATING A NEW DOCUMENT FROM A DATABASE............................................................................394
XII.2.4 STARTING ATOLL FROM THE COMMAND LINE.................................................................................395
XII.2.5 EXPORTING USER CONFIGURATION TO AN EXTERNAL FILE ...............................................................396
XII.2.6 IMPORTING USER CONFIGURATION FROM AN EXTERNAL FILE............................................................396
XII.3 SUPPORTED DATABASES........................................................................................397
XII.3.1 SUPPORTED DATABASES : OVERVIEW............................................................................................397
XII.3.2 EXPORTING A PROJECT IN A MS ACCESS DATABASE ......................................................................397
XII.3.3 EXPORTING A PROJECT IN A MS SQL SERVER DATABASE...............................................................397
XII.3.4 EXPORTING A PROJECT IN AN ORACLE DATABASE...........................................................................398
XII.3.5 EXPORTING A PROJECT IN A SYBASE DATABASE .............................................................................399
XII.4 DATA EXCHANGE...................................................................................................400
XII.4.1 CHECKING DATABASE CONNECTION PROPERTIES............................................................................400
XII.4.2 LOADING DATA FROM A DATABASE.................................................................................................400
XII.4.3 ARCHIVING DATA IN A DATABASE....................................................................................................401
XII.5 DATA CONFLICTS MANAGEMENT .............................................................................401
XII.5.1 RESOLVING A CONFLICT ON A MODIFIED RECORD............................................................................401
XII.5.2 RESOLVING A CONFLICT ON A DELETED RECORD.............................................................................403
XII.6 SHARING CALCULATIONS BETWEEN USERS..............................................................404
XII.6.1 SHARING PATH LOSS MATRICES BETWEEN USERS...........................................................................404
XIII MICROWAVE LINKS..........................................................................409
XIII.1 MICROWAVE LINKS : OVERVIEW .............................................................................409
XIII.2 CREATING AND MANAGING A MICROWAVE LINK ........................................................409
XIII.2.1 CREATING A MICROWAVE LINK : OVERVIEW....................................................................................409
XIII.2.2 CREATING A LINK USING THE MOUSE..............................................................................................409
XIII.2.3 CREATING A LINK USING THE WIZARD.............................................................................................409
XIII.2.4 LISTING ALL MICROWAVE LINKS OF A NETWORK ..............................................................................410
XIII.2.5 SETTING MICROWAVE LINK PROPERTIES.........................................................................................410
XIII.2.6 MANAGING RADIO EQUIPMENT IN MICROWAVE LINKS .......................................................................411
XIII.3 ANALYSIS OF A MICROWAVE LINK............................................................................412
XIII.3.1 PATH PROFILE AND LINK RELIABILITY ANALYSIS...............................................................................412
XIII.3.1.a Adjusting computation parameters in link analysis ..........................................................412
XIII.3.1.b Displaying profile along a microwave link ........................................................................413
XIII.3.1.c Displaying analysis results on a microwave link ..............................................................414
XIII.3.1.d Managing the display of a microwave link profile.............................................................414
XIII.3.1.e Editing profile values (microwave links) ...........................................................................414
XIII.3.2 INTERFERENCE ANALYSIS..............................................................................................................415
XIII.3.2.a Interference analysis in microwave links : definitions ......................................................415
XIII.3.2.b Finding interferers of a given receiver (microwave links).................................................415
XIII.3.2.c Finding receivers interfered by a transmitter (microwave links).......................................415
XIII.3.2.d Calculating interferences in a global microwave network ................................................416
XIII.3.2.e Interference analysis on microwave links.........................................................................416
XIII.3.2.f Using IRF in microwave links ...........................................................................................417
XIII.3.2.g Displaying microwave link budgets ..................................................................................418
XIII.4 ITU MAPS .............................................................................................................418
XIII.4.1 ITU VAPOUR DENSITY ON EARTH...................................................................................................418
XIII.4.2 ITU ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION : FEBRUARY ................................................................................419
XIII.4.3 ITU ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION : MAY..........................................................................................419
XIII.4.4 ITU ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION : AUGUST....................................................................................420
XIII.4.5 ITU ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION : NOVEMBER ...............................................................................420
XIII.4.6 ITU RAIN ZONES : AMERICA..........................................................................................................421
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18 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
XIII.4.7 ITU RAIN ZONES : EUROPE AND AFRICA........................................................................................422
XIII.4.8 ITU RAIN ZONES : ASIA ................................................................................................................423



C H A P T E R 1

























Getting started
1
Getting Started


20 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003

C H A P T E R 1


Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 21
I GETTING STARTED
I.1 GENERAL PRESENTATION
ATOLL is a comprehensive Window-based multi-technology and user-friendly radio-planning environment
that supports wireless telecom operators during the whole network lifetime, from initial design to densification
and optimisation.

More than an engineering tool, ATOLL is an open, scalable and flexible technical information system that
integrates easily with other IT systems, increases productivity and shortens lead times.

ATOLL supports a full range of implementation scenarios, from standalone to enterprise-wide server-based
configurations using distributed and parallel computing.

The highlights of ATOLL are definitely:

Advanced network design features: high-performance propagation calculation engine, multi-layered
and hierarchical networks supported, traffic modelling, automatic frequency/code planning and network
optimisation. Full support of GSM/TDMA, GPRS-EDGE, CDMA IS-95, W-CDMA / UMTS, CDMA 2000.
Planning of integrated multi-technology network (GSM/UMTS, GSM/GPRS, CDMA/CDMA 2000...).

Open and flexible architecture: support of multi-user environments through an innovative database
architecture that provides data sharing, data integrity management and easy integration with other IT
systems. Integration of 3
rd
party or proprietary modules through a set of programming interfaces (API).

Distributed and parallel computing: ATOLL allows for the distribution of calculations over multiple
workstations and supports parallel computing on multi-processor servers, thus dramatically reducing
prediction times and getting the most out of your hardware.

State-of-the-art GIS features: ATOLL supports both multi-format and multi-resolution geographic
data and integration with GIS tools. Large, dense urban and countrywide databases are supported and
displayed interactively with multiple layers including engineering and prediction studies. It features an
integrated raster and vector editor.

ATOLL is made of a main module to which you can add optional modules such as the UMTS module
(allowing CDMA/CDMA 2000 projects) dedicated to W-CDMA/UMTS network analysis and planning, the
Measurements module which allows the importation and management of concrete measurements, the
Automatic Frequency Planning module for the optimisation of GSM/TDMA frequency plans using a state-
of-the-art optimisation engine from prestige telecom, Canada and the Microwave planning module.

I.2 WHAT'S NEW IN ATOLL 2.1
Several improvements and changes have been made since the previous ATOLL version. These new
features are divided into n parts: some general features which are available on the ATOLL platform for any
project, those dedicated to GSM/TDMA, UMTS/W-CDMA, CDMA/CDMA 2000 (IS95, 1xRTT) studies.
Improvements have also been performed on microwave links and measurements.


General features

Starting ATOLL from a command line
It is possible to start ATOLL from a command line and specify the user/password/server information as
a parameter. Syntax options are available in order to generate a log file referencing all events of an
ATOLL session.

User configuration
It is now possible to create user configurations. You can define some settings in an .atl project and
Getting Started


22 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
store them in an external file. This file has a XML international format and .cfg or .geo extension; it can
be shared between several users. A user configuration file may contain following information
(Geographic data set and description - including raster and traffic, computation zone, folder
configurations, definition of prediction studies).

ATOLL Interface
ATOLL now provides an event viewer indicating the calculation progress (start and end) and status
(running, successful or failed). Information can be also stored in a log file.
A refresh button is now available. This allows the user to refresh maps and folder as currently
configured.

Site search tool
ATOLL offers now a Search tool to easily find site location (search bar available in View menu).
Practically, when typing the beginning of the site name, the name is auto-completed providing a list of
possible sites, the map is automatically centred on the selected site location.

Geographic data
It is possible to define a display range for each object depending on the zoom level. Outside of this
range, objects are not displayed.
It is now possible to import/export shape files with a name file longer than 8 characters.
Information on the pointed clutter type on the map is now given in the status bar, in addition to its
coordinates and altitude.

Vector edition
It is now possible to create vector layers from scratch, to draw vectors and perform operations
(combination, split, intersection) on polygons.
It is also possible to assign attributes to vectors (e.g. traffic polygons) and to manage a table with all
the vectors and their attributes (easy modification, deletions,...)
The vectors can be exported in MapInfo or Arcview format. This new feature allows to exchange traffic
maps between two projects.

Management of vector display upon predictions
Vectors can now be displayed upon coverage. New entries 'transfer to data' and 'transfer to Geo' are
available to move vector object from data to geo tab and vice versa. It is also possible to choose 'data'
when importing vector object files.

MIF Vector export
When exporting a vector object in MapInfo format, it is now possible to select a coordinate system,
whereas WGS84 was automatically taken in previous versions.

TIF compressed files import
ATOLL is now able to import TIF files using the compression LZW.

Coordinate system dialog changes
A new coordinate system dialog is available and allows the user to easily define his own coordinate
system (geographic or cartographic).

Polygonal zones
Instead of defining a unique working zone to manage both calculations and display as before, the user
can now define two polygonal areas, one for computation ("computation zone") defining involved
transmitters, traffic clipping ,... the other for analysis ("focus zone").
Reports and statistics are related to the focus zone. Any polygon can be used as computation or focus
zone. If no focus zone is explicitly defined, the computation zone is considered as the focus zone.

Site altitudes
It is now possible to choose a real altitude for sites and keep displayed the DTM associated altitude in
the dialog window of each site.

Management of site and transmitter names
Prefixes for site and transmitter names can be defined. Transmitter names can be linked to site
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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 23
names.

Station templates
It is now possible to create a new station template from an existing one.
Station template dialogs have been modified.

Multiple antennas per sector
It is possible to install an unlimited number of antennas on the same transmitter. A combination of
horizontal and vertical patterns composing each antenna is created and used in calculations.

3D interpolation of antenna patterns
The management of antenna patterns has been improved. ATOLL is now able to perform a 3D
interpolation of antenna horizontal and vertical patterns. However it is possible to deactivate the new
feature and you can still go on with the previous simplified pattern management.

New filtering data on antennas
The field electrical tilt has been added in the antenna properties as an indicative parameters (not taken
into account in calculations)

Management of radio data
You can now delete sites and associated transmitter(s) in one shot. Warning messages are displayed.
You can now access to the properties dialog box of any radio data (Sites, Antennas, Transmitters) by
simply clicking on it in the corresponding table.
Site and antenna properties can be accessed from the Transmitter dialog which refers to them.
Context menus have been reorganized and homogenised.

ATOLL Calculations
It is now possible to work with ATOLL while calculations (of path loss, simulations, studies,...) are
running in background.
Distributed path loss calculations using several PCs is now available.
You can also run calculations (of path loss, simulation, studies,...)in multi-threading using the available
processors of a PC.

Point analysis
It is possible to obtain point to point analysis from either any site to point or any site to site.
Additional information on cursor position is available in a Results tab in the point analysis window.

Path loss computation
The real name of the propagation model used to calculate the matrix is now stored in the associated
.par file.
In addition to signal level and path loss, total losses (including transmission loss, antenna gain and
attenuation along propagation path) can now be displayed with the point analysis window and in the
prediction studies.

Coverage studies
Transmitter and study graphic display can be now managed independently. For instance, transmitter
colours and associated coverage area colours are not necessarily the same.
It is possible to define study templates (customised studies). Once the parameters of a coverage study
are set, these can be saved in a template that will then be available for coming studies.
The display tab of the any study dialog window has been homogenised on the same model as the
other objects in ATOLL.
Coverage predictions can now be exported in raster format in addition to the existing vector export.

Automatic neighbour allocation
It is possible to run an automatic neighbour allocation either using already defined neighbours or
starting from scratch (GSM, UMTS and CDMA/CDMA 2000).

Automatic external neighbour allocation
An automatic neighbouring in co-planning based on a simple geographic criterion is available.

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24 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
PlaNET imports
PlaNET import has been improved. Consistent data is now imported without stopping if errors, which
are listed in the event viewer.

Beta-version of developer's toolkit
A set of libraries, interfaces, wizards, documentation allowing to develop additional modules which
extend ATOLL features is provided in beta-version. It will be released in version 2.2 but is already
available for test and feedback from users.


Features for measurements

Addition of transmitters in a measurement path
It is now possible to compare a measurement path with predictions from different transmitters.

Measurement dialog improvement
New powerful filtering features are now available.
It is now possible to refresh geographic data modification in predictions along measurement paths.

Measurement window improvement
It is possible to define a zoom range in the Measurement window.
A second ordinate axis can be defined in order to display other information in the same window
(heights, clutter,...).
Measurement paths are now grouped by reference transmitter.


Features for microwave links

Environment improvement
Display dialog has been homogenised on the same model as the other objects in ATOLL
A new dialog containing hydro-climatic parameters to be taken into account in calculations is available.
More interactivity between pointer and displayed profile is available, as well as additional information
along the profile

Calculation models
Propagation modelling can be based on the ITU recommendation 530-3, but also on the 530-8.
Correction on diffraction can be taken into account or not in computations.

Link analysis
Additional outputs are provided in link analysis

Interference computations
You can access the IRF dialog from the Links folder or from any interfered equipment.
It is possible to introduce user defined fields in equipment and in IRF tables.


Features for GSM/TDMA projects

General templates
GSM/DCS and GPRS are now gathered in an unique project template.

Changes in data structure
Some radio data have been introduced, other have been modified for a better modelling of HCS and
concentric cells :
A priority field has been added to HCS layers
TRX, elementary component of transmitters, have been created.
The subcell level, set of TRX types for each transmitter has been introduced.
Station templates have been improved including Cell type and BSIC domain assigned by default to
each of them.
Transmitter properties include newly introduced parameters dealing with TRXs and AFP.
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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 25
Frequencies and BSIC can be managed thanks domains and groups.
Hopping Sequence Number is now supported. Domains and groups of HSNs have also been
introduced.

Enhanced support of hierarchical cells (HCS)
The dimensioning of service zones takes into account layer priorities.
Dual band networks are fully supported.

Support of concentric cells (CC)
The dimensioning of subcell service zones can take into account subcell coverage parameters.
The dimensioning of subcell traffic is supported.
All TRX types can be managed all together in dimensioning.
A modelling of downlink power control at the subcell level has been introduced.

Support of synthesised Frequency Hopping (SFH)
The modelling of interference gain and fractional load in SFH interference studies has been improved.

Changes in AFP module
Support of fine quality requirements at subcell level (e.g. higher quality on BCCH)
Flexible domain management.
Improved control over the AFP process (freezing at TRX level, defining priority at transmitter level).
Import/Export of interference histograms.
Support of multi-layered networks (HCS) and concentric cells
DTX and power-control.
Support of SFH in the AFP
HSN allocation.
MAL allocation: AFP determines the length of the MAL and chooses the frequencies to be in it.
MAIO allocation.
AFP cost target takes SFH into account

API AFP
A Programming interface in order to import your own AFP tool into ATOLL is now available with the
base tool.


Features for CDMA/W-CDMA technologies

Channel Element management
Channel element attribution depends on equipment manufacturers (UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000).
Channel elements are now defined separately in downlink and uplink (UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000).

Cell definition
A new level has been introduced in CDMA radio data : cells. Each carrier on a transmitter defines a
cell (UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000).
Powers (UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000), scrambling codes (UMTS only), and neighbours are now
defined at the Cell level (UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000).
Active Set Threshold is not any more a global parameter. AS_Threshold is now defined at the Cell
level (UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000).

Rake efficiency definition
On UL, the rake efficiency factor is defined in the Site equipment (UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000),
On DL, the rake efficiency factor is defined in Terminals (UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000).

Traffic maps
A new kind of traffic map per sector and per service is available. Here, you may enter directly a
number of UL and DL active users per service for each transmitter (UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000).
It is possible to import/export traffic maps per transmitter and per service in .agd (ATOLL internal
format) format.
It is possible to export vector traffic maps in mif, shp or .agd format.

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26 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
Shadowing modelling
The way of modelling shadowing margin in simulations has changed (UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000). A
random shadowing value is drawn to each terminal in the network and added to the average predicted
path loss. The level of reliability and therefore, the shadowing margin, are only introduced in prediction
studies and point analysis (UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000).

CDMA/W-CDMA Simulations
The algorithm convergence criteria has been modified (UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000).
OVSF/Walsh codes are now considered as an additional limitation in simulations.
Users rejected because of load saturation can be rejected either at admission control or at congestion
control (UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000).

Simulations outputs
New simulation outputs are available, on transmitters (UMTS, CDMA/CDMA 2000), and on mobiles
(UMTS, CDMA/CDMA 2000).

Prediction studies
It is now possible to possible to study a coverage prediction or a point analysis (including AS analysis)
on a specific carrier (or all).


Features for UMTS/W-CDMA projects

Scrambling code calculation improvement
The 512 primary scrambling codes are now distributed within 64 groups of 8 codes.
Two allocation strategies are available, either clustered (allocation inside the same groups), or
distributed (allocation through several groups).
Constraints between pairs can be imposed.
List of codes can be associated to certain transmitters in priority.
It is now possible to make a scrambling code allocation on a given carrier.
Inconsistencies can be checked by ATOLL.

Features for CDMA/CDMA 2000 projects


Enhancement of data structures to support 1xEV-DO concepts
Management of a carrier type.
Management of quality tables (C/I, Max available downlink rate) and uplink minimum Ec/Nt per
mobility.

Service description
You may specify UL and DL Eb/Nt targets, maximum and minimum traffic channel power for the FCH
nominal rate and different SCH rates.
New 1xEV-DO service type.

Terminal definition
The nominal rate is now a terminal property.
You have the possibility to enter a percentage of the mobile total power dedicated to the UL pilot
channel.
Management of power gains (related to pilot power) for the different 1xEV-DO physical channels
(DRC, Data, ACK) in terminals.

Enhancement of CDMA2000 simulations
Management of 1xEV-DO users in CDMA2000 traffic maps.
New uplink power control simulation for 1xEV-DO users (based on specific 1xEV-DO targets and
resource limits).
Based on 1xEV-DO uplink simulation, calculation of cell 1xEV-DO downlink average capacity
(simulation of downlink rate control).

Coverage predictions based on simulations
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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 27
You may define a certain instantaneous data service rate (SCH rate) in any CDMA/CDMA 2000 -like
prediction study (point analysis or coverage prediction).
Point to point analysis and studies based on selected carrier type (implementation of specific coverage
calculations for uplink and downlink 1xEV-DO services).

I.3 INSTALLING AND REMOVING ATOLL
I.3.1 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
ATOLL application runs on PC work stations under Windows NT 4.0, 2000 or XP. The recommended
configuration for the workstation is as following:

CPU Pentium III at least

Memory 64 Mb at least, 128 Mb recommended

Disk 2 Gb free on disk recommended (or more according to the used geographic
database)

Operating system Windows NT 4.0, 2000 or XP

Graphics card 1280*1024 64000 colours

Peripheral devices Mouse, from 17" colour screen

Application
environment
Microsoft Office >95 advised (Excel, Word, Access)

I.3.2 WHAT'S INSTALLED WITH ATOLL
During ATOLL installation, other components may also have been added from the executable files
com32upd and dcom95 (both designed for windows 95 - not recommended), some Microsoft Data Access
Components (MDAC - in order to work with databases).

If you choose to install the distributed computing server, this is installed as a service on your local machine.
To make it unavailable, you will need to stop it in the Services (Administrative tools) dialog of your operating
system.

Moreover, from the installation CD, you may find several versions of Adobe Acrobat Reader (German,
English, French, Italian and Spanish versions) as well as the updated (from the last ATOLL version) and
usermanual pdf files.

I.3.3 INSTALLING ATOLL
To install ATOLL, proceed as follows :
Quit all programs.
Insert the CD-ROM in the appropriate drive.
Follow the instructions on the screen.

By default, the ATOLL installation directory path is C:\Program Files\Forsk\ATOLL. To define another
directory path, click on the Browse... button during the installation.

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28 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003



Note : During the installation, it is possible to tick/unticking options in order to make them installed or not :
Help files,
ATOLL development kit,
User manual (in pdf format),
the distributed computation tool.

I.3.4 REMOVING ATOLL
To remove ATOLL, proceed as follows :
Quit all programs,
Click the Windows Start button, point to Settings, and then click Control Panel,
Double-click the Add/Remove Programs icon,
In the Install/Uninstall tab, select ATOLL in the list, and then click Add/Remove,
Follow the instructions on the screen,
or
Quit all programs,
Click the Windows Start button, point to Find, and then click File or Folders,
In the Name & Location tab of the Find: All Files dialog box, select the (C:) driver in the Look
in box and type unwise.exe (name of uninstall program) in the Named box. Click on the Find
Now button.

Under Windows NT4 :




C H A P T E R 1


Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 29
Under Windows 2000 or XP :




When the file search is finished, all the unwise.exe files are displayed.

Double-click on the unwise.exe file (C:\Program Files\Forsk\ATOLL directory).
Follow the instructions on the screen.

I.3.5 INSTALLING DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SERVER
Since version 2.1, ATOLL provides a feature on distributed computations of propagation calculations. The
ATOLL package provides a computing server application which can be installed either on workstations or
servers and which can be used by ATOLL sessions installed on other stations.

This computing server applications (working on propagation computations) supports bi-processors
configuration (2 processors are used on multi-processors stations).

To install the distributed computing server, tick the distributed computing server option in the Select
components box during the setup process. The application will then be installed as a service on the local
machine, i.e. will run as far as the local pc is on, even with no user connected.

Service management like the distributed computing server application can be accessed from the
Administrative tools icon in the Control Panel. Then choose the Services application.

Notes
Like for ATOLL installation, you must be connected with administrative rights when installing the
application.
In order to be able to access some potential centralized geo data for computation, check that the
account on which is "installed" the service has enough rights (which is not always the case by default).
If not, access the properties of the Service and assign it to an appropriate account (e.g. in the Log on
window for windows 2000 OS).

I.3.6 REMOVING DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING SERVER
The distributed computing server application is installed as a service on stations, i.e. runs as far as the local
pc is on, even with no user connected.

The first step of uninstalling is to stop the corresponding service. To do that, proceed as follows :

Under Windows NT4 :

Access the Control Panel connected on an account with rights allowing you to stop Services,
Click on the Services Icon,
Select the ATOLL server item,
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30 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
Click the STOP button.


Under Windows 2000 or XP :

Access the Control Panel connected on an account with rights allowing you to stop Services,
Open the Administrative Tools,
Click on the Services Icon,
Select the ATOLL server item,
Either,
Right click on the item to open the context menu,
Click the STOP command,
Or,
Open its property dialog box,
Click the STOP button in the Service status part.

Once the service is stopped, to uninstall, proceed as follows :

Left click the button of your operating system,
Choose the command in the opened menu,
Enter the following syntax :"C:\Program Files\Forsk\ATOLL\ATOLLSvr.exe" /UnregServer in the
opened box,
The computing server application is then removed from the station.

I.3.7 TROUBLESHOOTINGS AFTER INSTALLATION
After having installed ATOLL, you may encounter some running problems that are easy to fix.

Firstly, please be sure to have installed ATOLL on an administrator account, to have rebooted your
computer and logged in again on an account with administrator rights in order to complete installation with
libraries that were in use during the first installation step (including mdac and the sentinel driver).

Please also check the validity of the folder in which you installed ATOLL. Because ATOLL is installed by
default in an ATOLL folder, be sure that you didn't put yours in that way, for example : C:\Program
Files\Forsk\XXX\ATOLL\..., where XXX was the name of the main folder in which you wanted to install
ATOLL.

If the MDAC version of your PC is too old, you might install a newer version of mdac (available in the
ATOLL installation cd) in order to allow communications with databases.

In case of the message "Protection key error", please check your connection and the key validity. If you
use a hardware Superpro dongle, try first to reboot your computer after installation on an administrator
account. Then, install again the sentinel driver (by using the setupx86.exe file in the setup folder from your
current ATOLL main folder).

Note : Even if it is possible to plug a Nethasp dongle on a pc equipped with Windows 2000 server, ATOLL
does not support single user hardware key for this operating system.

If any problem persists, please contact our technical support at support@forsk.com.

Caution:
It is advised to switch off your computer before unplugging or plugging hardware key into it.
Do not change the PC date.
When the Superpro dongle is temporary:
- Do not reprogram it even if you plug it into another computer.
- Do not put the time bomb off without the FORSK support help.
Nethasp key (Multi-user licence) is supported under Windows 2000 Server only using from Licence
manager 8.09.
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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 31

I.4 GETTING HELP
I.4.1 WAYS TO GET ASSISTANCE
To get help from the Help menu
Just select the Help Topic command in the ? menu. The Help window is then displayed on the
screen.

Several approaches are available to search information:

Click on the Content tab to scroll through a table of content. When you have found in the list the
topic you are interested in, simply double-click on it. A window containing the information about
the subject will then be displayed on your screen. You will notice in the text some words or
sentences in green, these are links to other topics relating to the word or sentence.
or
Click on the Index tab to refer to the index inputs. Choose in the list the input you are interested
in, double click on it. A window containing the information about the subject will be displayed.
or
Click on the Find tab to search for specific words or sentences that might be in a help topic.
Type the word or the sentence you search, choose in the list a subject and then press Display to
open the window containing information.


To get an explanation about dialog box options
Just click the What's this button located at the top right corner of teach dialog window and
then, click on the field you want to be informed. An help window will be displayed.


To see the name of a toolbar button
Rest the pointer on the button until the name appears.


To get a short explanation about a menu command or a toolbar button
Position the pointer on the command or the button; the explanation is displayed in the status bar
located at the bottom left of the ATOLL window.


To get information about the ATOLL application (version number, copyrights)
Click the about tool on the toolbar.
or
Select the ?: About ATOLL... command.

I.4.2 TECHNICAL SUPPORT
The technical support team is available monday through Friday, from 9 am to 6 pm; you may contact it by
sending an e-mail to support@forsk.com.

You can also consult the support section of the Forsk web site : www.forsk.com. In this, you will be able to
download :
latest version patches,
ATOLL documentation,
geo data sample,
problem report templates,

and read information about :
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32 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
corrected bugs,
known bugs,
holidays,
coming versions,
additional information.

I.5 RUNNING PROJECT TEMPLATES
I.5.1 STARTING A NEW PROJECT
Several project types based on different technologies are available in : Broadcast, DECT WLL, GSM 900,
GSM dual band 900-1800, GPRS, and, by use of an optional module UMTS, CDMA-IS95 and CDMA 2000
(1xRTT) . Each project has its own data and folder structure. For example, tabs in the transmitter properties
dialog box and radio parameters change according to the project. In the same way, some specific objects are
available such as, for example, installed antennas (Broadcast projects), UMTS cells (UMTS projects), or
TRX (GSM-TDMA projects) depending on the project type chosen. Moreover, ATOLL modular and scalable
architecture enables the user to match the configuration to customer needs.


To choose a project type
Either
Select in the File menu the New command.
or
Click on the new tool in the toolbar.
In the project type dialog box, choose a project and then, click on OK to validate.


Because ATOLL projects can be translated in a database structure, it is possible, from an existing project
template, to define a personal template.

I.5.2 TEMPLATES PROVIDED
ATOLL supports, in its standard version, the following project types :
Broadcast : taking in consideration the requirement of broadcasting professional,
Dect WLL (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications Wireless Local Loop) : flexible digital
radio access standard for communications in residential, corporate and public environments on a
wireless basis,
GSM900(850) (Global System for Mobile communications) : 2nd generation numeric telephony norm
working around the 900 (850) MHz band, using the TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) technology.
This technology is supported using the GSM_EGPRS project template.
DCS1800/1900 (Digital Communications System) : 2nd generation numeric telephony norm working
around the 1800/1900 MHz band, using the TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) technology. This
technology is supported using the GSM_EGPRS project template.
GSM dual-band 900-1800 (GSM900 and DCS1800) : 2nd generation numeric telephony norm
working both around the 900 MHz and 1800 MHz bands, using the TDMA technology. This technology
is supported using the GSM_EGPRS project template.
GPRS (Global Packet Radio Service) : 2.5th generation numeric telephony norm working around the
900-1800 MHz bands, using the TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) technology. This technology is
supported using the GSM_EGPRS project template.
EDGE (Enhanced Data-rates for GSM - or Global - Evolution) : 2.5th generation numeric telephony
norm working around the 900-1800 MHz bands, using the TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)
technology. This technology is supported using the GSM_EGPRS project template.


The optional UMTS module permits to build projects for :
UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) : 3rd generation numeric telephony norm
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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 33
working around the 2 GHz band, using the W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access)
technology. This technology is supported using the UMTS project template.
1xRTT (1st eXpansion Radio Telephone Technology) : 2.5th generation numeric telephony norm
working around the 900 MHz band, using the CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) technology. This
technology is supported using the CDMA2000 project template.
IS95-CDMA (Interim Standard 95) : 2th generation numeric telephony norm working around the 800
MHz band, using the CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) technology, also known as CDMAOne.
95 refers to an accepted industry protocol. This technology is supported using the IS95-CDMA project
template.


Moreover, microwave link technology is available in any project type.

I.5.3 CREATING YOUR OWN TEMPLATE
By using the database structure provided by ATOLL, it is possible to create your personal template with a
view to build a project with a technology different from the standard ones

There are 2 ways To do so, proceed as follows :
1.
In an opened ATOLL project, select Database: Export... command in the File menu,
Export the project as a template in the Templates directory where ATOLL is installed (by
default C:\Program Files\Forsk\ATOLL\Templates).


File/Database/Export - Export in a database

When this is done, the template is available when a new ATOLL project is started in the Project type dialog
box.



2.
Open an ATOLL project template (located in C:\Program Files\Forsk\ATOLL\Templates by
default) in MS Access as a model,
You can modify the databases as you want in order to obtain your customized template. For
example, you can import your own table of antennas,
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34 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
Use the Save as... command in the File menu, to save this template in the Templates
subfolder where ATOLL is installed.
When this is done, the template is available when a new ATOLL project is started in the Project
type dialog box.

I.5.4 BUILDING A PROJECT
To build an ATOLL basic project, follow the basic steps described below:

Step 1: Choose a project type.

Step 2: Define the projection and display coordinate systems, the length, reception and transmission
units.

Step 3: Import geographic data files (clutter, DTM, vector data...).

Step 4: Define a station template and locate stations or groups of hexagons on the map.

Step 5: Define zones of computation and zones of study.

Step 6: Choose and customize a propagation model.

Step 7: Adjust the radio parameters of created sites and transmitters.

Step 8: Make computations for measurements, coverage studies (+ Simulations in CDMA/W-CDMA
projects).

Step 9: Optimising the networks with neighbours (all projects 1 2 3), planning (GSM/TDMA),
scrambling codes (UMTS-W/CDMA)


C H A P T E R 2

























The Working environment
2
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36 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003

C H A P T E R 2


Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 37
II THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT
II.1 USER INTERFACE BASICS : OVERVIEW
The ATOLL user interface consists of an integrated set of cursors, windows, tools, menus, toolbars and
other elements that allow you to create, and refine your project in one place.

The user interface uses standard Windows interface functionality along with a few additional features to
make your environment easy to use. Moreover, the drag and drop feature can be commonly used between
any folder explorer and ATOLL in order to import or open any objects with a compatible format.

Two common window types are document windows and docking windows. The position and size of
document windows can be changed within the ATOLL window. They can be maximized and minimized.
Docking windows, however, attach to the borders of the application window, or float anywhere on your
screen.

You can have more than one document file open in ATOLL. Document windows are attached to a single
document. You can have many document windows attached to a single document. Examples of document
windows are maps, datasheets and studies reports. When you close the last document window attached to a
document, this document is closed.

Docking windows are shared among open documents. They reflect the content of the active document. The
active document is the one attached to the active window. Examples of docking windows are the Explorer
window, the Panoramic window and the Legend window.

ATOLL provides many features dealing with the use on the map. Hence, you can easily move , zoom in and
out, changing scales, and choosing visibility range for objects displayable on the map. Several ways of
exporting the current environment are also possible.

In ATOLL, most of the items are organized in folders in the Explorer window. This folders can be displayed
in tables in order to make easy the management of large data in the same time. Hence, filters, groups and
sorts are easily made either in folders, tables and on the map (filtering only), and can be saved in
configurations.

This generic organization method is also applied to the display of objects in ATOLL. A generic display dialog
is available when working on the properties of radio data (sites, transmitters, microwave links), prediction
studies, measurements, simulations and some geo data objects (DTM map or vector objects).

ATOLL provides several handy tools, like a Undo/Redo function, windows classical and specific shortcuts,
the possibility to use icons and several shapes of cursors related to working processes. Furthermore, ATOLL
provides a powerful search tool helping you to locate easily any site of a network.

II.2 WORKING WITH MENUS AND WINDOWS
II.2.1 WORKING WITH DOCUMENT WINDOW
To tile the document windows, proceed as follows :
Select in the Window menu the Tile command.


To cascade the document windows, proceed as follows :
Select in the Window menu the Cascade command.

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38 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
II.2.2 WORKING WITH DOCKING OR FLOATING WINDOW
To show or hide a docking window, proceed as follows :
To show a docking window, click the name of the window on the View menu.
To hide the window, click the Hide button in the corner of the window. This button may be
at the top-left or top-right corner, depending on the position of the window.


To expand or contract a docking window in its docking area, proceed as follows :
Click the Expand or Contract button near the corner of the window. This button may be
near the top-left or top-right corner, depending on the position of the window. This is a dual-
purpose button. When the window is fully expanded, the function of this button is Contract;
otherwise, the function is Expand


To change a docked window to a floating window, proceed as follows :
Double-click in the window border.


To dock a floating window, proceed as follows :
Double-click the window title bar to return the window to its previous docked location, or point
to the title bar and drag the window to a different dock area.


To position a floating window over a dock (without docking it), proceed as follows :
Point to the title bar of the window.
Hold down the CT key and drag the window over any dock area of the application window.


Note : The window positions for docking windows are not associated with the current project; they remain
the same no matter which project you open.

II.2.3 PRINTING THE ACTIVE WINDOW
ATOLL provides powerful features in order to import/export any data. On this consideration, ATOLL
provides also the possibility to print any type of active window (table, legend, map, antenna pattern, point
analysis window...).

In order to print the active window, one the print setup is made, select the Print command in the File menu
(or use the Ctrl+P shortcut) in the case of maps or tables.

For other objects like antenna patterns, legend or point analysis windows (for example), just select the
Print... command from the related context menu (right click in the window).

II.3 WORKING WITH MAPS
II.3.1 ZOOMING AND PANNING
ATOLL provides powerful tools in order to zoom and to move the currently displayed map.

To zoom in, proceed as follows :
Either
Click the zoom-in tool on the zoom toolbar
or
On the View menu select the Zoom in command
or
Press Ctrl+A
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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 39

The map is displayed with the previous scale in the scale listbox.


To zoom out, proceed as follows :
Either
Click the zoom-out tool on the zoom toolbar
or
On the View menu select the Zoom out command
or
Press Ctrl+R

The map is displayed with the next scale in the scale listbox.


To zoom on a specific area of the map, proceed as follows :
Either
Click the zoom area tool on the zoom toolbar
or
On the View menu select the Zoom Area command
On the map press and hold the left mouse button at the north-west corner of the area.
Drag the pointer to the south-east corner.
Release the mouse button


To move the map area, proceed as follows :
Click the Mover tool on the zoom toolbar.
Hold down the left mouse button on the map area and drag the pointer.
Release the mouse button


Note : in case of refresh problems on the map, use the icon from the zoom toolbar (or the F5 shortcut).

II.3.2 USING THE PANORAMIC WINDOW
The Panoramic window offers a whole view of the imported geographic data and allows to define precisely
the map area you want to display in the Work space. A darker rectangle characterizes the map area selected
in the Panoramic window and displayed in the Work space.

Several operations may be performed from the Panoramic window; they are detailed below.


To zoom on a specific area of the map, proceed as follows :
Position the pointer on the map. The pointer becomes a dotted rectangle.
Press and hold the left mouse button at the north-west corner of the area.
Drag the pointer to the south-east corner.
Release the mouse button.


To move the map area, proceed as follows :
Position the pointer on the zoom area (darker rectangle). The pointer becomes a cross.
Press the left mouse button.
Slide the pointer.
Release the mouse button.


To resize the map area, proceed as follows :
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40 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
Position the pointer at the corner (or any border) of the zoom area (darker rectangle). The
pointer becomes a double arrow.
Press the left mouse button.
Slide the pointer.
Release the mouse button.

II.3.3 CENTRING THE MAP
The centre map function enables you to display the selected objects like transmitters, sites, hexagonal
design... at the centre of the Workspace and the central area of imported geographical data like clutter, DTM,
vector data or scanned images. In both cases, the displayed area is moved conserving the current scale.

To centre an object, proceed as follows :
Right click the object.
Select the Centre map command in the context menu.

II.3.4 CHOOSING A SCALE
To choose a scale, proceed as follows :
Click the arrow next to the scale box on the zoom toolbar.
In the list click the scale value you want.


If the scale value you want is not in the list:
Click in the scale box.
Type the scale value you want.
Press Enter. The value you entered is added to the scale list.


Note : If you drag the icon band containing the scale scrolling box from the toolbar to a side of your
environment, you may find it again by clicking on the upper button

Use the What's this help to get further description about the fields available

II.3.5 DEFINING VISIBILITY RANGES ON OBJECTS
Since the version 2.1, for any object which display properties may be set (sites, transmitters, coverage
studies, survey data, maps), it is possible to specify a visibility range. The object will be visible only if the
zoom level defined in the workspace (in the scale box) is within the object visibility range.

This feature enables you to display in the workspace an object depending on the zoom level.

To define an object visibility range, proceed as follows :
Right click the folder related to the considered object to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Properties command from the opened scrolling menu,
In the Display tab, enter minimum and maximum zoom levels.

Notes :
In case of sites and transmitters, the visibility range is globally specified in the folder Properties
window.
This feature is an add-on, like visibility boxes or layer order, to manage object visibility in the
workspace; the defined visibility ranges have no influence on the objects taken into account in
calculations.
Visibility scales defined for objects are taken into account during printings or print previews. Objects
will appear only if the printing scale is within their respective visibility range.

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II.3.6 DISPLAYING RULERS AROUND THE MAP
It is possible to make visible rulers along the displayed map with the currently chosen scale. A distance
measurement tool is also available.

To display rulers in the current environment, proceed as follows :
Select in the Tools menu, the Options... command.
In the Options dialog box, click on the Coordinates tab.
In the Display rulers part, tick the rulers you want to display in the work space.
Click OK to validate.

Use the What's this help to get further description about the fields available in the window.

II.3.7 GETTING DISTANCES ON THE MAP
ATOLL allows the user to get distances on the map easily by the use of the Distance measurement
button. This tool allows you also to determine the azimuth of the current measurement segment.


To display distances on the map, proceed as follows :
Make displayed the map of your current project,
Left click on the Distance measurement button from the toolbar,
Left click once in the map to put the start point,
Click on the map at each point you want to know the distance from the previous point,
The distance from the first point, the distance from the previous point, and the azimuth angle
of the current measurement segment are displayed in the extreme lower left corner of your
current environment,
Double click on the map to finish the current distance measurement session.


Note :
Each point are separated by straight lines,
ATOLL reads azimuth in a clockwise direction.

II.3.8 DISPLAYED CURSORS
In ATOLL, cursors will appear in different forms according to the current position or command. The meaning
of each possible shapes is described below :

Appearance Meaning


Wait The hourglass tells you to wait. When it disappears, you can enter
another command.

Arrow Use the arrow mainly to select objects or commands. It will remain as
long as a new command has not been activated



Selection arrow
Use the zone selection arrow to define a selection region. You can use it
inside a map to define a zone to print or copy and in the panoramic view
to define the zone to be displayed on the map. You must define a
window on the active map or panoramic view by left clicking (1st corner
of the window top left) and Sliding.

Polygonal
selection arrow
Use the polygonal zone selection arrow to define a non-rectangular
selection region. You can use it inside a map to define a zone to filter
either sites or transmitters.



Hand
You must define a "closed polygonal zone" on the active map by left
clicking several times. Close the polygon by clicking twice. Only active on
maps, use the hand to move the visible part of the displayed map.
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Zoom area The magnifying glass tells you that ATOLL is waiting for a zoom
window to be defined on the active map by left clicking (1st corner of
the window top left) and Sliding.


New transmitter
The transmitter symbol tells you that ATOLL is waiting for you to place a
transmitter on the active map by left clicking. You can place as many
transmitters as you want by holding down the button while you move the
mouse and pressing down the Ctrl key at the same time.

Sights The sights symbol will appear as soon as you have activated one of the
Profile/Reception/Interference functions. This informs you that ATOLL is
waiting for you to left click on a point of the active map.

Sights placed
(Receiver)
The sights placed symbolizes the Receiver and indicate the point on
the map used for calculations displayed in the Measurements or Point
analysis window (Profile / Reception / Interference/AS analysis). You can
access menu by right clicking on the point analysis window.

Pencil The pencil indicates that you can define polygonal zones without the
clutter. ATOLL is waiting for you to left click on various points on the
active map. Double clicking will close the polygon.

Deletion ATOLL is waiting for you to select by left clicking a newly created
polygonal zone.


Position
indicator
ATOLL is waiting for you to select an edge of the newly created polygon
by left clicking. When you click, the cursor changes into the Select/create
points on polygons cursor (below). Right clicking will open a context-
sensitive dialog box allowing you to add a point, delete the polygon and
centre the map on the polygon.


Select/create
points on
polygons
Left clicking followed by dragging one of the polygon edges, will add a
new point to the polygon and modify its contour. Left clicking on a point
that already exists on the polygon, followed by dragging allows you to
move the point. Right clicking opens a context-sensitive dialog box
allowing you to delete a point, delete the polygon and centre the map on
the polygon.

Placing a
measurement
point
ATOLL is waiting for you to left click on a point on the active map so it
can place a measurement point there.

point in a
measurement
path
ATOLL is waiting for you to left click on a point on the active map so it
can start a measurement path. Once you have made your first click, the
cursor will change shape and ATOLL will wait for you to left click on
various points on the active map. Double clicking will end the path.


Microwave link
start
End
ATOLL is waiting for you to left click on a point on the active map (1
st

point in the microwave link). Once you have made your first click, the
cursor will change shape and ATOLL will wait for you to left click on a
second point on the active map to end the link (2
nd
point in the microwave
link)

Measurements
on the map
Use the measurement tool to display projected distances and azimuths in
the status bar .


II.3.9 PRINTING A MAP
To print a map area, proceed as follows :
Click on the select an area tool in the zoom toolbar,
Define the area to be printed: Position the pointer on the map. Press and hold the left mouse
button at the north-west corner of the area, drag the pointer to the south-east corner and
then release the mouse button,
Select the Print area: set command in the Fill menu. The selected area is lighter,
Select the Page setup command in the File menu to configure your print layout. The Page
setup dialog box is displayed,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Select the appropriate options on the available fields you want for your print,
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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 43
When your configuration is achieved, press OK to validate.


To visualize your print sheet, proceed as follows :
Select the Print preview command in the File menu to visualize your print sheet.


To remove the selected area, proceed as follows :
Select the Print area: remove command in the File menu.


Use the What's this help to get further description about the fields available in windows


Note : Visibility scales defined for objects are taken into account during printings or print previews. Objects
will appear only if the printing scale is within their respective visibility range.

Caution : When using the Fit to page option, it is not possible to know the printing scale in advance.

II.3.10 EXPORTING MAPS TO EXTERNAL FILES
To export a map as an external file, proceed as follows :
Click on the select an area tool in the zoom toolbar.
Define the area to be exported: Position the pointer on the map. Press and hold the left
mouse button at the north-west corner of the area, drag the pointer to the south-east
corner and then, release the mouse button.
Select the Export image... command in the File menu. In the Save as dialog box, define the
directory where you want to locate your file, the file name and the file format. Press OK.
In the Size of created file dialog box, specify either the scale and the resolution (dot/inch) to
display the image with this resolution or the pixel size (m) to use image as a georeferenced
raster file. The minimum resolution is set to 1 metre.
Press OK to validate.

Note : Three file formats, *.tif, *.bil and *.bmp are supported. The *.bmp format is rather dedicated to images
and the *.tif and *.bil format to georeferenced images. Thus, to use the exported map as an image, choose
*.tif and *.bmp formats and define a scale and a resolution; this last one will be written in the file. On the
other hand, if you want to use the exported map as geographic data, prefer the *.bil format and specify the
pixel size. For additional information see Supported data formats.

Use the What's this help to get further description about the fields available in the dialog box

II.3.11 EXPORTING MAPS TO OTHER APPLICATIONS
To copy an image to another application as a linked object, proceed as follows :
Click on the select an area tool in the zoom toolbar.
Define the area to be exported: Position the pointer on the map. Press and hold the left
mouse button at the north-west corner of the area, drag the pointer to the south-east
corner and then release the mouse button.
Select the Copy command in the Edit menu,
Open the application.
Select the Paste special... command in the Edit menu. In the Paste special dialog box, choose
the Paste link option and select ATOLL document object in the scrolling list box. Press OK to
validate. A shortcut to the source file is created and thus, the image may be updated by left
clicking on it and selecting the ATOLL linked object: Convert... command.

Note : if the ATOLL file is modified and saved, the linked image is automatically updated.

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To copy an image to another application as a screen shot, proceed as follows :
Click on the select an area tool in the zoom toolbar.
Define the area to be exported: Position the pointer on the map. Press and hold the left
mouse button at the north-west corner of the area, drag the pointer to the south-east
corner and then release the mouse button.
Select the Copy Image... command in the Edit menu. In the Copy image dialog box, choose
the screen resolution option or define the pixel size (m) and then, press OK to validate.
Open the application.
Select the Paste special... command in the Edit menu. In the Paste special dialog box, choose
the Paste option and select Bitmap in the scrolling list box. Press OK to validate.


To copy the north-west and south-east point coordinates of the image to another application, proceed
as follows :
Click on the select an area tool in the zoom toolbar.
Define the area to be exported: Position the pointer on the map. Press and hold the left
mouse button at the north-west corner of the area, drag the pointer to the south-east
corner and then release the mouse button.
Select the Copy Image... command in the Edit menu. In the Copy image dialog box, choose
the screen resolution option or define the pixel size (m) and then, press OK to validate.
Open the application.
Select the Paste command in the Edit menu (or the Unformatted text option when choosing the
Paste Special... command).

Note : The point coordinates vary according to the chosen option (screen resolution or pixel size).
II.4 WORKING WITH THE EXPLORER
II.4.1 WORKING WITH EXPLORER : OVERVIEW
The Explorer window has three tabs:

The Data tab allows the radio data and calculation management; it consists of diverse folders depending on
the modules included in the ATOLL application:

Sites
Antennas
Transmitters
E/GPRS equipment
Predictions
UMTS Parameters (or CDMA/CDMA 2000 Parameters)
UMTS Simulations (or CDMA/CDMA 2000 Simulations)
Hexagonal design
Microwave links
Measurements


The Geo tab allows to handle geographical data; it initially contains three folders and more when you import
other geographical data types (vector data, scanned images) such as :

Clutter
Digital Terrain Model
Traffic (TDMA, UMTS, CDMA/CDMA 2000)


The Modules tab offers the propagation model management. It contains :
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A Propagation models folder where the following propagation models are listed :
Longley-Rice
Okumura-Hata
Costa-Hata
Standard Propagation Model
ITU 526-5
ITU 370-7 (Vienna 93)
WLL

The list of the several AFP models available in your current ATOLL version.

In each tab, the created or imported objects are listed in corresponding folders using a tree-structure
presentation. Each object and folder offer a context menu available by left clicking this one.

II.4.2 RENAMING AN OBJECT
To rename an object, proceed as follows :
Either
Left click the object.
Press the F2 key.
Or
Right click the object
Select the Rename command in the context menu.

II.4.3 DISPLAYING THE OBJECT PROPERTIES
To Open the property dialog of any object, proceed as follows :

Right click the object to open the associated context menu,
Select the Properties... command in the context menu.

Note : depending on the object type, properties can be accessed by just double clicking on it. Double clicking
as the same function than the one in bold in the associated context menu (left click on the object).

II.4.4 DELETING AN OBJECT
To delete an object, proceed as follows :

Either
Right click the object from either the explorer window or on the map (radio data),
Select the Delete command in the context menu,
or
Click on the object from the explorer window,
Press the Suppr key.

II.4.5 MANAGING OBJECT VISIBILITY
The and buttons are located in front of folders containing at least one object.

To open or close a folder, proceed as follows :
Click respectively on the or buttons.

In the example below, the Antennas folder is open, and the Sites folder is closed. A check box is displayed
next to each object visible in the Work space.
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To show or hide an object in the Workspace, proceed as follows :
When a check box is ticked, the corresponding object is visible in the work space. If you want
to make the object invisible, simply untick the check box by clicking on it.

The folders with grey check box contain visible and invisible objects.
In the example, the sites are not displayed in the work space unlike the transmitters. Moreover, some
prediction studies listed in the Prediction folder are not visible.


The different folders composing any environment can be ordered in layers with a view to manage their
display priority on the map. For example, in the example above, the layer associated with the predictions is
displayed over the layer associated with the UMTS simulations. Indeed, in the tree above, the Predictions
folder is located higher than the UMTS simulations one. This feature is particularly useful for the display
managing of geo data objects.

To manage several objects display priority, proceed as follows :
Select the object you want to change the display priority on the map,
Drag it into the current environment,
Put it at the location that gives him the display priority order you want to assign to it.

Note : Putting over layers may get invisible under layers. To avoid that, do not forget to adjust the
transparency level of objects located over the others.

II.5 WORKING WITH DATA TABLES
II.5.1 ACCESSING DATA TABLE
In ATOLL, many radio data objects (sites, transmitters, antennas, UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000 Cells, UMTS
or CDMA/CDMA 2000 parameters, microwave links...) can be stored in a table, summarising all their
characteristics, and allowing you to use filters, groups and sorts on contained data. Table can also be used
to display prediction reports.


To access a Data table, proceed as follows :
Click on the appropriate tab from the explorer window,
Either
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Double click on the data folder (not available for prediction reports),
Or
Right click on the data folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose Open in the scrolling menu.

II.5.2 MANAGING CONTENTS IN TABLES
To check displayed table data, proceed as follows :
Either,
Click the Data tab from the explorer window,
Right click on the data folder in order to display the associated context menu,
Select the data folder properties,
Choose the table tab from the window.
Or,
Open the table you want to manage the contents,
Either,
Right click in any cell of the table,
Choose the Fields... command from the opened context menu,
Or
Choose the Fields... command from the Records menu in the main menu bar.


It is possible to check and to manage (addition and deletion of new types) the data stored in the table. In
this window, are displayed the names, types, allocated lengths, and default value (if existing) of the data
available. Some objects are custom objects of ATOLL and cannot be removed and other are user-
definable.

Use the What's this help to get further description about the fields available in the window.

Notes
When creating a new column (Add.. button from any table tab window), you can fill a choice list
associated with the new variable (only with text format). Hence, when assigning a value to this variable
in the associated cell, you will be able to take either one of the items from the scrolling choice list.
Moreover, the cell can be also edited any value can be assigned to it.
It is possible to define a default value to any new user-defined field. This default value is automatically
reported to the choice list box (only in text format).
Even if tables summarise the characteristics of each item, it is possible to edit, individually, most of
them by two ways (See Editing contents in tables)

II.5.3 EDITING CONTENTS IN TABLES
Two ways are available in order to edit Data table cells :

either by choosing in a scrolling box :

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Data/Table of transmitters

or by editing and changing the value or the text directly in the box :


Data/Table of transmitters

II.5.4 OPENING DIALOGS FROM TABLES
Since most of the tuneable objects can be listed in tables, it is also possible to open the properties dialog box
of any site, antenna, transmitter or cell from the corresponding table.

To do this, proceed as follows :
Open the considered table,
Select the record you want to open the property dialog box
Either
Double click on it,
Or
Right click on the record you want to open the property dialog box,
Select the Record properties... command from the opened context menu (or from the
Records menu).


Note : sometimes, clicking on narrow cells drives to just editing it. To avoid such a behaviour, and to open
the property dialog for sure, double click on the extreme left part of the table in the appropriate row.

II.5.5 MANAGING TABLE DISPLAY
The table formats can be personalized in order to retain pertinent data, or for a clearer visualization. In that
way, it is possible to manage the titles, styles or fonts, to adjust the dimensions of the cells, and to hide or
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freeze columns.


Manage table titles
Activate the Table window,
Select the Format Title command from the Format menu in the menu bar,
A 4 tabs (Font, Colour, Borders, Alignment) font dialog box opens,
Select the title format parameters from the available tabs in the opened window,
Click either the OK or Apply button to validate.


Manage table columns
Activate the Table window,
Select the Format Columns command from the Format menu in the menu bar,
A 4 tabs (Font, Colour, Borders, Alignment) font dialog box opens,
Select the table content format parameters from the available tabs in the opened window,
Click either the OK or Apply button to validate.


Change width or height
Activate the Table window,
Set your cursor on the separation between lines or columns to be modified (in the title bar for
widths and in the 1st shaded column for heights)
Left Click and slide the cursor.


Changing cells widths



Changing cells height

Note : You can define a different width for each column. The height of the cells will be defined for the entire
table.


Display the columns
Activate the Table window,
Select the Display columns command from the Format menu. The dialog box allows to select
the various columns which are available in the corresponding table.


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Freeze/Unfreeze a column
In large tables where the use of scroll bars is necessary, it may be useful to keep some columns visible, by
freezing them on the screen. This feature is always possible except for tables containing reports.
To do so, proceed as follows :
Activate the Table window,
Select the column to be frozen by left clicking on the corresponding title (to freeze several
columns, slide on the associated titles after the 1
st
click - you can only select several columns if
they are adjacent to each other - ),
Select the Freeze columns command from the Format menu

To unfreeze frozen columns, select the Unfreeze columns command from the Format menu


Hide columns
There are three ways to hide columns :
1
Activate the Table window,
Left click on the title of the column to hide (to hide several columns, hold the Ctrl key when
selecting the other columns to hide),
Select the Hide columns command on the Format menu.
2
Activate the Table window,
Do as the same way as in the resize columns method seen above, and slide the pointer on
the title bar in order to obtain a zero width column.
3
Unselect the concerned column in the Display columns command from the Format menu.

To display again the hidden columns, use the Display columns command from the Format menu.


Moving columns
In large tables it can be practical to group columns of interest, or to read data in a special order. In ATOLL,
the column order can be managed easily.
To do so, proceed as follows :
Activate the Table window,
Select the column to be moved by left clicking on the corresponding title (to move several
columns, slide on the associated titles after the 1
st
click - you can only move several columns if
they are adjacent to each other - ),
Click again on the selected columns zone and drag it until the required target. When this
zone is dragged, the place where the columns will be displayed is referenced by a red line.

II.5.6 COPYING AND PASTING IN TABLES
ATOLL provides some powerful tools in order to use the copy and paste functions in tables. You may either
copy any cell with the copy (Ctrl+C or Copy command from the Edit menu) or cut (Ctrl+X or Cut command
from the Edit menu) functions and paste it in any available cell from any table (Ctrl+V or Paste command
from the Edit menu).

Moreover, it is possible to paste several times the same cell in a table. To do so, proceed as follows :
Activate the table window,
Select the cell zone where you want to copy the data,

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If you want to copy the top cell in the selected cells, either use the Fill down (Ctrl+D)
shortkey or the Fill down command from the Edit menu,



If you want to copy the bottom cell in the selected cells, either use the Fill up (Ctrl+U)
shortkey or the Fill up command from the Edit menu,



II.5.7 PRINTING DATA TABLES
In ATOLL, it is as easy to print Data table as maps. To do this, make active your table, and choose the
Print... command from the File menu in the general menu bar.
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Like for maps and reports, it is also possible to preview the print to be made on tables.

II.6 FILTERING/GROUPING/SORTING DATA
II.6.1 SORTING AND FILTERING IN TABLES
In ATOLL, data may be sorted and/or filtered in particular in tables (this is also possible in data folder or on
the map). Data not checking the filters are not taken into account in calculations. There are many ways to
use this feature.

Sorting in Tables
Data may be sorted in ascending (A to Z, 1 to 10) or descending (Z to A, 10 to 1) order. Any field except the
antenna patterns field may be sorted.
To sort data in a table, proceed as follows :
Activate the table window,
Select a title of a column. This column will be the sort reference.
When selected, right click or select the Records menu. Then select the Sort Ascending or
Sort Descending option from the scrolling menu.


Sorting in several columns
ATOLL offers to sort several table columns at the same time.
To do so, proceed as follows :
Activate the table window,
Select the columns to be sorted by selecting them in the title bar,
When selected, right click or select the Records menu. Then select the Sort Ascending or
Sort Descending option from the scrolling menu,
Sorts are successively applied to each selected column, if only these are adjacent to each
other.


Filtering in Tables
To filter a type of data in a table, proceed as follows :
Activate the table window,
Select an item, a type of antenna on the transmitters table, for example,
When selected, right click or select the Records menu. Then select the Filter by selection of
Filter excluding selection option from the scrolling menu to keep only or to reject the type of
the firstly selected item.

See Filtering in tables : Example 1

Filtering data in several columns is possible in the same way not only if selected items are adjacent to each
other. To select different cells, hold the Ctrl key pressed when left clicking.


Advanced data Filtering in Tables
ATOLL enables to make complex filters, by combining several criteria on fields. This can be managed by
using criteria either in the Advanced filter option from the Records menu, or by choosing the general tab from
the item properties which is in consideration.
The authorized filtering criteria are :

Formula Data are kept in the table only if
=X value is X (X may be a number or characters)
<> X value is different from X (X may be a number or characters)
<5 numerical value is less than 5
>7 numerical value is greater than 7
<=10 numerical value is less or equal than 10
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>=20 numerical value is greater or equal than 20

Combinations of filters are made firstly horizontally, then vertically.

See Advanced filtering Example and counter-examples(1 2)...


Adding/modifying a data in any filtered/sorted table
When a new item is added to the project (base station, site, transmitter, ...) or when a data is modified, it is
possible to keep a previous filtering/sorting.
To do so, proceed as follows :
Activate the table window,
Right click on the item in the data window or select the Records menu.
Select the Apply filter/sort option from the scrolling menu.


Restoring data in Tables
To restore filtered data in tables, select the Show all records option from the Records menu.

Filtering, by any way, applies automatically to maps and data folders. As in tables, ATOLL permits to
manage easily data from folders.

II.6.2 EXAMPLE OF FILTER IN TABLES


Filter by selection (Antenna AO9209)


Filter excluding selection (Antenna AO9209)

II.6.3 FILTERING RADIO DATA
In ATOLL, filters may be applied to items with results displayed simultaneously in tables, in the map and in
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the data folders. You may filter, identically, from the table or from the Data table, in order to obtain the same
filtering results. All data not checking the filters are not taken into account in calculations.

Filter tools are available :
1 - Either in the Advanced Filter option from the Records menu (when the Data table window is on) or from
the general tab window from the item properties (see features in Sorting and filtering in tables)
2 - by using the Filter by selection or Filter excluding selection options from either the Records menu or
by right clicking directly on the object in the table to be used as reference for the filtering (see features in
Sorting and filtering in tables).
3 - from the Properties dialog box associated with the current folder.

To filter any folder from its associated Properties dialog box, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the folder you want to sort to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Select the General tab from the opened window,
Click on the button,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened filtering
dialog window,
Click the Filter tab and choose the filtering reference variable(s) and the associated filtering
way(s).
Select a field you want to use for filtering among the discrete fields. ATOLL lists the choice list
if the selected field is a text field with a choice list, or all the values of the selected field in table.
Tick/untick boxes to keep/exclude values from tables, map and explorer. ATOLL displays the
defined filter at the bottom of the dialog.
Click OK to apply filter.

Notes :
The way the data contained in the current folder are filtered can be saved in a configuration template in
order to be used later.
It is also possible to use wildcard characters when defining advanced filter criteria on fields with the
text format.

Filter criteria Function
*string* Filters objects which the chosen field contains the string of characters
string* Filters objects which the chosen field begins with the string of characters

Application: Sites may belong to several groups. In this case, let us assume that each site has an associated
field such as a list of groups (for example gr1 gr3 gr5). Therefore, by entering *gr5* as criterion, you can
filter all the sites included in gr5.

It is possible to select several values at once. To do this, click one or several values using shift
and/or Ctrl button at the same time and then, tick/untick one of boxes.

See examples of filtering

II.6.4 ADVANCED FILTERING : EXAMPLE
Let's consider an ATOLL project which is composed of antenna of two types : GSMA090-12-6 and AO9209.
All A09209 are only 0 azimuth antennas instead of 0, 120 and 240 of azimuth for GSMA090-12-6.
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Example : initial table
A goal could be, for example, to extract GSMA090-12-6 antennas whose azimuths are 0 and 240. This can
be done by using the following syntax in the window described just below :


An example of filtering/sorting

- The type of columns to be filtered/sorted is chosen from a scrolling menu.
- The second line point out that will be kept GSMA090-12-6 antennas whose azimuth is lower than
120,
- or any type of antenna whose azimuth is greater than 120 (4th line). For this constraint, no
AO9209 antenna is concerned

II.6.5 ADVANCED FILTERING : COUNTER EXAMPLE 1
Here are a typical example which could drive an ATOLL user to mistakes in filter and sort syntax. The goal
stays the same than in the example just before. The examples are shown through an advanced filter window
and the corresponding filtered and sorted Data table.

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- The type of columns to be filtered/sorted is chosen from a scrolling menu.
- The second line point out that will be kept GSMA090-12-6 antennas whose azimuth is greater than
120,
- or any type of antenna whose azimuth is less than 120 (4th line), i.e. both GSMA090-12-6 and
AO9209 antennas.

II.6.6 ADVANCED FILTERING : COUNTER EXAMPLE 2
Here are a typical example which could drive an ATOLL user to mistakes in filter and sort syntax. The goal
stays the same than in the example just before. The examples are shown through an advanced filter window
and the corresponding filtered and sorted Data table.



- The type of columns to be filtered/sorted is chosen from a scrolling menu.
- The second line point out that will be kept any type of antenna whose azimuth is greater than 120,
- or any type of antenna whose azimuth is less than 120 (4th line).
- GSMA090-12-6 antennas will be kept without any constraint.

The result indicates there have been no filtering. The final table is identical with the initial table.

II.6.7 EXAMPLES OF FILTERING
Let's consider the transmitter list of an ATOLL project. We find in it two types of antennas and some sites
with several transmitters, active or not.
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Initial map window Initial Data table window


Initial data folders window

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Example 1 :


Data table window/Filter by selection (site 32) Site 32 filtered in Data table window







Site 32 filtered on the map window
Site 32 filtered in the transmitters folder

In this 1st example, are kept only transmitters located on site 32. The result are displayed both on the folder,
map and table windows.


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Example 2 :








Records/Advanced Filter Inactive GSMA090-12-6 antennas in increasing sort in
the transmitters folder




Inactive GSMA090-12-6 antennas in increasing sort in
the Data table window
Inactive GSMA090-12-6 antennas displayed on the
map window

In this 2nd example, are kept only transmitters with inactive GSM090-12-6 antenna type, sorted by site
number. The result are displayed both on the folder, map and table windows.

N.B. : you can retrieve all your data with the Show all records either from the Records menu or from
choosing it on a scrolling list appearing when right clicking on the table.

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II.6.8 SORTING A FOLDER
In the data window, items (transmitters, sites, simulations, etc...) are classified in folders. You can unfold
them by left clicking on the button associated with an item. You can fold them by left clicking on the
button.

In ATOLL, every item folder can be sorted in the same way as in tables. Whenever a Data table is sorted,
the display of the corresponding item is automatically modified in the associated folder.

Moreover, you can sort any folder from its associated properties dialog box. To do so, proceed as follows
:
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the folder you want to sort to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Select the General tab from the opened window,
Click on the button,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened sorting
dialog window,
Choose the sorting reference variable(s) and the associated sorting way(s),
Click OK to validate.


Note : The way the current folder is sorted can be saved in a configuration template in order to be used later.

II.6.9 ARRANGING ITEMS IN GROUPS
In ATOLL, it may be very practical to group data by characteristics. This can be done on the data folder or
subfolder of any item. The group corresponds to the Contents in tables. Several levels (limited by the
memory of your computer) of grouping are available.

To arrange any folder or subfolder in group(s) of variables, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the folder or subfolder you want to arrange in groups to open the associated
context menu,
Either,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Select the General tab from the opened window,
Click on the button,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened
grouping dialog window,
Choose the grouping reference variable(s) and the associated grouping order,
Click OK to validate,
Or,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Group by,
Choose the property you want to use as a group reference on the appeared menu on
the right.


To come back to a standard display, either choose the Group by none option in the scrolling menu or use the
grouping dialog window and put back the grouping reference variables in the Available fields box.

Note : The way the data contained in the current folder are grouped can be saved in a configuration
template in order to be used later.


See examples of grouping by
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II.6.10 EXAMPLES OF GROUPING BY
In the following transmitters folder, sites in red are active, sites in white are inactive :


Data/Transmitters/Group by active sites

The obtained transmitters folder is classified in two groups, one for the active sites, one for the inactive sites :


Data/Transmitters - Transmitters grouped by activity

Note : in ATOLL, activity is a boolean. Active has the true value, whereas inactive has the false value.

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II.6.11 USING A GROUP BY/SORT/FILTER CONFIGURATION
In ATOLL, the way data contained in any folder are grouped, filtered and sorted can be saved in a
configuration template in order to be used later. Configuration templates are directly embedded to saved .atl
projects. Any configuration is erasable.


To create a configuration template (from an existing data organisation), proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the folder you want to sort to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Select the General tab from the opened window,
Click on the button,
Type the configuration name in the opened saving configuration dialog window. The
configuration created is listed in the configuration scrolling list in the General tab and is available
for any data organisation in the current folder only,
Click OK to validate.


Note : For transmitters, a default configuration called As Sites folder is available. Using this configuration
enables you to arrange transmitters in the Transmitters folder according to the organisation criteria defined
for sites.

You can define several configurations and use them when needed. The configurations youve created are
available from the context menu associated with any folder by using the Configuration command and one of
the listed objects in the scrolling menu. To apply the configuration used to newly created objects, select the
Apply current configuration command in context menus.


Existing configurations are not saved in database. Nevertheless, in order to keep these, and potentially
share them between user, ATOLL provides a feature allowing you to save user configurations (including also
geo data set and computation zone) in an external file.

II.6.12 CREATING SUBFOLDERS
In ATOLL, you can manage your data folders in subfolders in order to display them in different ways. You
can, for example, create a subfolder for each sorting or filtering and compare it with each other.

To do so, proceed as follows :
In the data folder window, right click on the item you want to create a subfolder of,
Choose the Create a folder option from the scrolling menu,
A subfolder containing a copy of the original folder content is created.

You can manage your data in subfolders as in the original folder. Every subfolder is associated with a Data
table window. You can display each subfolder on the map, by ticking ( ) or not ( ) the check box
associated with each subfolder. You can manage the visibility of the data as described in the Object visibility
topic.

If you delete a subfolder, of course, data are not deleted. If you delete the last remaining subfolder, its data
go directly to the initial folder. due to refresh consideration, it may happen that data disappear. To come back
to the display of all objects of the folder, use the group by none function related to the considered folder.

II.6.13 REORGANIZING DATA AFTER MODIFICATIONS
When some data are either added or modified, their properties may not be consistent with the current folder
configuration. To make this configuration respected, just choose the apply current configuration from either
the Records menu (in case of displayed table) or from its associated context menu.

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Note : the configuration is automatically applied to radio data dropped on the map. For example, let's
assume that the current configuration filters transmitters which azimuth is 240. We build a tri-sector station
which azimuth are 0,120 and 240. Once dropped, 0 and 120 azimuth transmitters are automatically
consistent with filter. Only the 240 azimuth transmitter is kept.

II.6.14 FILTERING DATA IN A POLYGON
In large projects, it may be useful to work only on a certain number of sites and transmitters, in order to
reduce the computation cost or to make visualisation clearer either on the map, table or in the data folder.

To filter data inside a polygon, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Right click on the Sites folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Filter inside a polygon command from the opened menu,
Either,
Select the Draw option,
Draw the filtering polygon on the map with the mouse, each left click corresponding to
an angle,
Close the zone by double clicking (not displayed when closed ),
Or,
Select the computation zone option,
Only data (Sites and transmitters) contained in the considered polygon filter are kept.


The remaining objects in the polygon are displayed both in the data folders, in the Data tables and on the
map.

In this zone, you may use current sorts, filters or groups or create new ones.

Notes :
You may filter sites inside a polygon even if they are grouped. The filter is applied to subfolders,
The polygon filtering can be saved in a Site folder configuration,
This filter is automatically applied to transmitters,
The filter is saved in the .atl document,
The filter is taken into account when defining a configuration,
The current computation or focus zone can also be taken as polygon filter (see their associated
context menu)
II.6.15 REMOVING THE POLYGON FILTER
In ATOLL, radio data can be filtered in a polygon. As other filters, this can be saved in folder configuration.

To cancel the polygon filter, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Right click on the Sites folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Remove polygon filter command from the opened menu,
All existing data from the current project are then displayed.

II.7 MANAGING DISPLAY IN ATOLL
II.7.1 DEFINING THE DISPLAY PROPERTIES OF ANY ITEM FOLDER
In ATOLL, most of the item groups (sites, transmitters, microwave links, predictions, simulations,
measurements, DTM maps,..) are managed in the same way concerning their display. For each of them, an
homogenised dialog window is available allowing you to define the type of field(s) to display, and how.
Moreover, from this standard window, it is possible to display labels related to the displayed object, and to
manage the information available using the tip tool when pointing the object on the workspace. Finally, you
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will be able to choose or not to display related legend in the corresponding window.

To access the display property window of any object, proceed as follows:
Click the appropriate tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the folder related to the objects from which you want to manage the display
properties,
Left click the Properties command from the opened context menu,
Click on the Display tab from the opened window,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Set the display parameters of the current object,
Click OK to validate.


When working on the display of an item folder (e.g. Site or Transmitter folder), it is possible to choose among
several display types:
single: same representation for any object of the folder.
discrete values: bin representation according to the value of a discrete field available in the table
related to the current object(s).
values interval: bin representation according to the value of a numerical field available in the table
related to the current object(s).


Notes :
Whatever is the display type chosen, it is possible to change the displayed colours. To do that, select
the threshold to modify and use the commands contained in the scrolling menu when clicking the
button.
You can modify globally thresholds and associated parameters using the values interval display type
and the Shaded... command (Actions button).
Each individual display property (e.g. of just one site) is reachable by selecting the display tab from the
related property dialog.

II.7.2 MANAGING AND DISPLAYING LEGENDS
Any displayed ATOLL object may have its associated legend in the Legend window.

To make displayable legend associated with any object, proceed as follows :
Click the appropriate tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the folder related to the objects from which you want to manage the legend
properties,
Left click the Properties command from the opened context menu,
Click on the Display tab from the opened window,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Tick the add to legend box,
Click OK to validate,
The associated legend can be now displayed in the Legend window.

To open the Legend window, just check the Legend command from the View menu in the menu bar. A new
window is then displayed in the current environment.

Notes :
Only displayed objects can have their legend in the Legend window,
The contents of the legend is given in the threshold window definition and is editable.
The legend window can be printed as any other active window. To do this, right click in it and select
the Print.. command in the opened context menu.

II.7.3 THRESHOLDS, COLOURS AND LEGENDS
The thresholds associated with colours are so many criteria making up a range of criteria (e.g. below
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threshold at -45dBm,..., threshold at -70dBm).

You can use this association to provide a colorimetric representation of received signal levels, path losses, or
any other field displayed in values interval in ATOLL.

The definition of thresholds is available by using the button of ATOLL generic display windows.
The several commands are available are listed below :
Select all : ATOLL automatically selects all the representations available in the table.
Delete : ATOLL removes representations selected in the table.
Insert before : This command is available only if a representation is selected in the table. ATOLL adds
a new threshold in the table and places it before the selected one.
Insert after : This command is available only if a representation is selected in the table. ATOLL adds a
new threshold in the table and places it after the selected one.
Properties : This command is available only after selecting one or several representations of the table.
ATOLL opens the Display window where you may change colour and style.
Shading : ATOLL opens the Shading window. You can define the number of value intervals and
configure their displays. Enter the highest (First break) and lowest (Last break) thresholds and an
interval between thresholds. Define the colour shading by choosing beginning end colours. Finally, you
can select a coverage interior and a style of line for coverage contour.

You can set coverage transparency by moving the cursor on the transparency scale and specify a visibility
scale.

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If available, the legend associated with each threshold allows you to display a text instead of the threshold in
the legend. If no text has been entered, thresholds are displayed with associated colours.


Defining thresholds

In the example above, in the case of the signal level option, the defined thresholds mean :
Signal level >= -65 red (1st colour from top),
-65 > Signal level >= -105 shading from red to blue (9 thresholds),
Signal level < -105 not drawn on coverage.


Note :
Shading, Insert before and Insert after features are only available in case of a value intervals display
type.
When double-clicking on any representation in the table, ATOLL opens the associated Display
window.
This display definition works exactly the same in the case of other object groups that display properties
are managed using the ATOLL generic display windows.

II.7.4 DISPLAYING OBJECT LABELS ON THE MAP
Two solutions are generally available in order to display information related to displayed objects (e.g. sites or
transmitters) on the map within ATOLL. This information can be either permanently displayed or temporary
reachable in an help popup related to any pointed object on the map.

To make displayed permanently labels related to any object on the map, proceed as follows :
Click the appropriate tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the folder related to the objects you want to display related labels on the map,
Left click the Properties command from the opened context menu,
Click on the Display tab from the opened window,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Check the items to be displayed in the Label scrolling menu,
Click OK to validate,
The associated labels are now displayed on the map close to the referring objects.

Note : You can display as many labels than parameters related to the considered object. E.g., even if you
add a new field in the transmitter table, this field will be available to be displayed as a label for all the
transmitters.

II.7.5 USING THE TIPS TOOL TO GET INFORMATION
Two solutions are generally available in order to display information related to displayed objects (e.g. sites or
transmitters) on the map within ATOLL. This information can be either permanently displayed or temporary
reachable in an help popup related to any pointed object on the map.

To make available information related to any pointed object on the map, proceed as follows :
Click the appropriate tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the folder related to the objects you want to display related tables on the map,
Left click the Properties command from the opened context menu,
Click on the Display tab from the opened window,
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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 67
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Tick the items to be displayed in the Tips text scrolling menu,
Click OK to validate,
The associated information can be now given in help popups when pointing any item on the
map with mouse.


To make active the tips information, click the from the toolbar. To inactive this function, click it again (
).

Note : You can display as many information in popups than parameters related to the considered object.
E.g., even if you add a new field in the transmitter table, this field will be potentially available to be displayed
in tip balloons.

II.8 USING HANDY TOOLS
II.8.1 USING THE UNDO/REDO COMMAND
Undo/Redo commands are available in ATOLL. It is a first step to enable users to undo and redo :
Most of modifications performed in workspace as : creating, deleting and moving a site (even
moving a site to a high point), a station, a group of stations, modifying antenna azimuth, moving a
transmitter or deleting a transmitter,
Management tasks performed in Explorer window as creating and deleting any object (site,
transmitter, antenna, link, group of hexagons, measurement path, prediction study, map, propagation
model) except simulations in UMTS projects.,
Management tasks performed in tables (add or delete records, paste in tables, fill down or fill up
commands).

The Undo/Redo is reachable from the Edit menu when available.

Note : the last 10 actions can be undone, unless you perform an action which is not supported by the undo
feature. In that case, the undo memory is cancelled.

II.8.2 REFRESHING MAPS AND FOLDERS
Since ATOLL 2.1, it is possible to use the refresh folder; This features allows you to reload currently
displayed maps and apply the current configurations to folder (e.g. after an addition of inconsistent data not
respecting a filter).

To do this, use the button from the tool bar or the shortcut key F5.

Note : this features allows you to cancel some potential refresh problems of the map.

II.8.3 SETTING DOCUMENT PRINTS
In ATOLL, many windows can be easily printed : maps, tables, legend window, measurement window, point
analysis window. Concerning maps and tables, a preview feature is available.

To open the print preview of any table or map, proceed as follows :
Make active the window you want to print,
Select the Print Preview command from the File menu in the general menu bar,
A preview window (in which you can zoom in or zoom out) opens,
Use the Print... or the Close command.

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68 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003

The way tables and maps are printed can also be managed easily in order to provide well-organized and
customized printed outputs.

To setup any table or map print, proceed as follows :
Make active the window you want to parameter the print,
Select the Page Setup... command from the File menu in the general menu bar,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
A fit representation of the print document is displayed and some options dealing with
customisation are available.
Click OK to close the dialog.

Note : the selected options (e.g. : erase outside of focus zone) are taken into account in print preview.

II.8.4 USING THE SITE SEARCH TOOL
A search bar is available to find the location of sites on the map. The Search bar can be opened or closed by
selecting the Search bar command in the View menu.

This bar becomes a floating window by double-clicking on it. In this case, it is possible to resize it.


To search an existing site in a network using the search site tool, proceed as follows :
In the Search bar, type the first characters of the site name in the Find site box. ATOLL
displays a scrolling list containing all the sites, which the name begins with this string of
characters.
Then, either
Select the site in the list,
Or
Go on typing the site name to reduce the number of sites in the list.
After choosing the site in the list, ATOLL automatically centres the map on the selected site.


Notes :
As in advanced filters, it is possible to use the contains (*string*) and begins with (string*) criteria to
search for sites which name contains or begins with the given string. Be careful, *string is unknown.
Use the F3 shortcut to be automatically placed in the Find site box.

II.8.5 USING THE STATUS BAR TO GET INFORMATION
The status bar is one of the different objects that can be displayed or not using the View menu. Once
checked, the status bar is located at the extreme bottom part of your ATOLL environment. Two parts of the
status bar are used in ATOLL. The left part provides information related to the used of the measurement tool
( button in the toolbar), i.e. distances between successive points and azimuths. The right part displays
information about the location where points the mouse on the map : X and Y coordinates (respecting the
defined display coordinate system), the altitude (extracted from the imported DTM file) and the currently
concerned clutter (as defined in the clutter property dialog).

II.8.6 USING ICONS AVAILABLE IN THE TOOL BAR
ATOLL provides a large number of commands that can be accessible using icons located in the tool bar.
Some of them are also linked to shortcut keys.

The different icons located in the toolbar are listed below :

Location in the Standard toolbar
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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 69
: Open the new project dialog (like the Ctrl+N shortcut)
: Access the Open file dialog (like the Ctrl+O shortcut)
: Save the current active project (like the Ctrl+S shortcut)
: Cuts the selected data (like the Ctrl+X shortcut)
: Copy the selected data (like the Ctrl+C shortcut)
: Paste the content of the clipboard (like the Ctrl+V shortcut)
: Print the current active window (table or map) (like the Ctrl+P shortcut)
: Open the About ATOLL dialog

Location in the Radio toolbar
: Create a new station of the currently selected model
: Create a new group of hexagons of the currently selected station template ( no hexagon radius
defined)
: Station model currently selected
: Visible neighbourhood for the selected transmitter
: Activate the point analysis window
: Calculate only invalid matrices, calculate all unlocked coverages and pending simulations (like the F7
shortcut)
: Calculate all matrices from scratch, calculate all unlocked coverages and pending simulations (like the
Ctrl+F7 shortcut)

Location in the Map toolbar
: Activate the area selection tool
: Reload map and folders (like the F5 shortcut)
: Move the map window (like the Ctrl+D shortcut)
: Map scale currently used
: Zoom in on the map (like the Ctrl+A shortcut)
: Zoom out on the map (like the Ctrl+R shortcut)
: Define a zoom area on the map (like the Ctrl+W shortcut)
: Activate the tip tool feature (inactivated :
: Get distances on the map

Location in the Microwave link toolbar
: Create a new microwave link.

Location in the Search toolbar
: Centre map around the selected site.

Location in the Vector edition toolbar
: Create a new vector layer (either in the Geo or in the Data tab)
: Select the vector layer being currently edited
: Draw a new vector polygon
: Draw a new vector line
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70 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
: Draw points
: Allows the user to merge several vector polygons
: Allows the user to make holes in polygons
: Permits to keep only overlapping areas in order to create the resulting polygon
: Allows the user to cut a polygon in several parts

II.8.7 USING SHORTCUTS IN ATOLL
Like many other applications working under Windows environment, ATOLL provides a complete set of
shortcuts in order to make easy and quicker the way to use it.

The different available shortcuts are listed below (some of them are linked with icons of the toolbar):

Using the Ctrl key
Ctrl+A : Select all records in tables (table active) or Zoom in on the map (map active - like icon from the
toolbar)
Ctrl+C : Copy the selected data (like icon from the toolbar)
Ctrl+D : Fill down selected data in tables (table active) or Move the map window (map active - like icon
from the toolbar)
Ctrl+F : Open the find in tables dialog
Ctrl+N : Open the new project dialog (like icon from the toolbar)
Ctrl+O : Access the Open file dialog (like icon from the toolbar)
Ctrl+P : Print the current active window (table or map) (like icon from the toolbar)
Ctrl+R : Zoom out on the map (like icon from the toolbar)
Ctrl+S : Save the current active project (like icon from the toolbar)
Ctrl+U : Fill down selected data in tables (table active)
Ctrl+V : Paste the content of the clipboard (like icon from the toolbar)
Ctrl+W : Define a zoom area on the map (map active) (like icon from the toolbar)
Ctrl+X : Cut the selected data (like icon from the toolbar)
Ctrl+Y : Redo the previous undone function
Ctrl+Z : Undo the last function

Using the F keys
F3 : Locate the cursor directly within the search site tool
F5 : Reload map and folders (like icon from the toolbar)
F7 : Calculate only invalid matrices, calculate all unlocked coverages and pending simulations (like icon
from the toolbar)
Ctrl+F7 : Calculate all matrices from scratch, calculate all unlocked coverages and pending simulations (like
icon from the toolbar)


Note : when a letter is underlined in a command (Use the Alt button to make underlines active in Windows
2000), press Shift+letter to run it.


C H A P T E R 3

























Managing Geographic Data
3
Managing Geographic data


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C H A P T E R 3


Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 73
III MANAGING GEOGRAPHIC DATA
III.1 MANAGING GEOGRAPHIC DATA : OVERVIEW
ATOLL manages several geographic data types: DTM (Digital Terrain Model), clutter (Land use), scanned
images, vector data and supports several file formats in relation to data type. First step is to define
geographic coordinate system then importing geographic data using an easy and fast procedure.
Furthermore, ATOLL allows you to create your own clutter (and traffic raster - in GSM/TDMA, UMTS or
CDMA/CDMA 2000 projects - ) maps thanks to the cartography editor. ATOLL lists the imported DTM, clutter
or traffic objects in their respective folder and creates separate folder for each imported vector data and
scanned image.

Once these folder are created (Traffic description is linked with radio data - depending on the project type -
even if present in the Geo tab of the ATOLL environment) , you may manage them (display, data location
managing, clutter description...) easily. It is also possible to display vector objects over coverages by
importing/transferring these objects directly in the Data tab.

ATOLL also provides some features dealing with data priority like multi-layer management and multi-
resolution management.

Some edition tools for raster or vector objects are also available. Moreover, most of the geo data objects can
be exported in external files (DTM, clutter, raster polygons, vector layers). Finally, maps can be exported as
an image in external files, or in other applications.

III.2 LENGTH UNITS AND COORDINATE SYSTEMS
III.2.1 SETTING A DEFAULT LENGTH UNIT
In ATOLL, it is possible to define a default length distance, like default radio units, that will be used in some
dialog box fields (not in tables), like calculation radius in transmitter and station template properties or
hexagonal radius in station template properties, and when using the Distance measurement button.


To define a default length unit in an already opened project, proceed as follows :
Click on the Tools menu from the toolbar,
Choose the Options... command from the opened scrolling menu,
Click on the Units tab,
Choose in the scrolling list the default length unit for the current .atl ATOLL project.


Notes : We can distinguish the display unit as described above from the internal unit. The internal unit
cannot be changed by the user. In any case (.atl project connected to a database or not), the internal length
unit is the metre. When environments are connected to a database, display and internal unit systems are
stored in the database:
the internal unit is used as length unit in the database,
the display unit is memorised and taken into account when opening a project from the database.

III.2.2 COORDINATE SYSTEMS : BASIC CONCEPTS
A map or a geospatial database is a flat representation of data located on a curved surface. A projection is a
device for producing all or part of a round body on a flat sheet. This projection cannot be done without
distortion, thus the cartographer must choose the characteristic (distance, direction, scale, area or shape)
which is to be shown appropriately at the expense of the other characteristics, or compromise on several
characteristics [1-2]. The projected zones are referenced using cartographic coordinates (meter, yard...).
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74 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003

Two projection systems are widely used:

The Lambert Conformal-Conic projection: a portion of the earth is mathematically projected on a
cone conceptually secant at one or two standard parallels. This projection type is useful for
representing countries or regions that have a predominant east-west expanse.

The Universal Transverse Mercator projection (UTM): a portion of the earth is mathematically
projected on a cylinder tangent to a meridian (which is transverse or crosswise to the equator). This
projection type is useful for mapping large areas that are oriented north-south.

The geographic system is not a projection, but a representation of a location on the earth surface from
geographic coordinates (degree-minute-second or grade) giving the latitude and longitude in relation to the
origin meridian (Paris for NTF system and Greenwich for ED50 system). The locations in the geographic
system can be converted into other projections.

[1] Snyder, John. P., Map Projections Used by the US Geological Survey, 2nd Edition, United States
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 313 pages, 1982.

[2] www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/gps/gps_f.html


ATOLL integrates two databases including more than 980 international coordinate system references, a
database based on the European Petroleum Survey Group and another one regrouping only France's
coordinate systems. ATOLL distinguishes the cartographic coordinate systems for projection and either
cartographic or geographic coordinate systems for display.


The maps displayed in the Work space are referenced in a particular projection system intrinsic to the
imported geographic data files; thus, the projection system depends on the imported geographic file. By
choosing a specific display system, you may see (using the rulers or status bars) the location of sites on the
map in a coordinate system different from the projection coordinate system. You may also position on the
map sites referenced in the display system: the coordinates are automatically converted in the projection
system and the site is displayed on the map.


In the example below, the French Riviera geographic data file has been imported. The map shows the
French Riviera projected using the cartographic NTF (Paris) / France II tendue system (coordinates in
metres). On the other hand, site coordinates are stated in the geographic WGS 72 system (coordinates in
degrees-minutes-seconds).




Note : if all the imported geographic files are referenced in the same projection system and if you do not
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need to convert coordinates in another system; it is not necessary to define projection and display systems.
By default, the two systems are the same.

III.2.3 DEFINING THE PROJECTION COORDINATE SYSTEM
To define the projection coordinate system, proceed as follows :
Select in the Tools menu, the Options... command.
Click on the Coordinates tab from the opened window,
Click on the browse button right to the Projection field.
Use the What's this help to get further description about the fields available in the window
Select a catalogue and choose a coordinate system in the related table. Characteristics of
the selected system are described by clicking the Properties button.
Click OK to validate the projection system.

Notes :
You can add the selected coordinate system to a catalogue of favourite systems by using the
button.
When exporting an ATOLL project in a database, the currently chosen display coordinate system
becomes the internal one.
Default systems cannot be modified.

III.2.4 DEFINING THE DISPLAY COORDINATE SYSTEM
To define the display coordinate system, proceed as follows :
Select in the Tools menu, the Options... command.
Click on the Coordinates tab from the opened window,
Click on the browse button right to the Display field.
Use the What's this help to get further description about the fields available in the window
Select a catalogue and choose a coordinate system in the related table. Characteristics of
the selected system are described by clicking the Properties button.
Click OK to validate the display system.


Notes :
If the display coordinate system is cartographic, X and Y respectively correspond to abscissa and
ordinate.
If the display coordinate system is geographic, X and Y respectively refer to longitude and latitude.
Cartographic systems are identified by the symbol left to the systems, whereas geographic ones
are symbolized by .
You can add the selected coordinate system to a catalogue of favourite systems by using the
button.
Default systems cannot be modified.

III.2.5 CREATING YOUR OWN COORDINATE SYSTEM
ATOLL provides a large catalogue of default coordinate systems. Nevertheless, it is possible to add the
description of geographic and cartographic coordinate systems. The new coordinate system can be created
from scratch or initialised on the basis of an existing one.

To create a new coordinate system, proceed as follows :
Select in the Tools menu, the Options... command.
Click on the Coordinates tab from the opened window,
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76 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
Click on the browse button right to the Projection or Display field.
Either,
Click on the New button,
Or,
Select a catalogue and choose a coordinate system in the related table,
Click on the New button.
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the window,
Choose the catalogue where you want to store the new coordinate system,

Geographic coordinate system (symbolised ) is a latitude and longitude coordinate system. The latitude
and longitude are related to an ellipsoid, a geodetic datum and a prime meridian. The geodetic datum
provides the position and orientation of the ellipsoid relative to the earth.
A cartographic coordinate system (symbolised ) is obtained thanks to a transformation method which
converts a (latitude, longitude) into an (easting, northing). Therefore, to define a projection system, you must
specify the geographic coordinate system supplying longitude and latitude and the transformation method
characterised by a set of parameters. Different methods may require different sets of parameters. For
example, the parameters required to define the projected Transverse Mercator coordinate system are:
- The longitude of the natural origin (Central meridian),
- The latitude of the natural origin,
- The False Easting value,
- The False Northing value,
- A scale factor at the natural origin (on the central meridian),

In the General part, type a name, choose a unit in the scrolling menu (to open it, select the cell
and left click on the arrow), and define usage.
In the Category part, choose in the Type scrolling menu (to open it, select the cell and left click
on the arrow) either Long/Lat in order to create a geographic coordinate system, or a type of
projection and its set of associated parameters for cartographic coordinate systems.
In the Geo part, specify the meridian and choose an existing datum in the Datum scrolling menu
(to open it, select the cell and left click on the arrow). The associated ellipsoid is automatically
selected. You can also describe a geodetic datum by selecting in the Datum scrolling menu.
In this case, you must provide parameters (Dx, Dy, Dz, Rx, Ry, Rz and s) needed for the
transformation of datum into WGS84 and an ellipsoid.
Click OK to validate the display system.


Notes :
An identification code enables ATOLL to differentiate the existing coordinate systems. In case of new
created coordinate systems, assigned codes are integer values strictly higher than 32767.
Management in the coordinate system folder is possible. Use the Technical guide for a the process
description.

Caution: For an easier management and to avoid some confusion, take care to give a unique name to the
created coordinate systems.

III.3 GEO DATA FORMAT SUPPORTED
III.3.1 SUPPORTED GEO DATA FORMATS : OVERVIEW
ATOLL offers import filters for the most commonly used geographic data formats. You can use these filters
to import DTM, clutter, traffic, vector files or scanned images.

The different filters are :

File format Can contain Georeferenced

BIL DTM (16 bits), Clutter (8 Yes via .hdr files
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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 77
bits),
Traffic (8 bits), image (1-
24 bits)
TIFF DTM, Clutter, Traffic, Image Yes via associated .tfw files if they exist
PlaNET DTM, Clutter, Traffic, Image,
Vector data
Yes via index files
BMP DTM, Clutter, Traffic, Image Yes after manually entering northwest and southwest point
coordinates of the image
DXF Vector data, Vector traffic Yes
SHP Vector data, Vector traffic Yes
MIF/MID Vector data, Vector traffic Yes
IST DTM, Clutter, Traffic, Image Yes via .hdr files
Erdas
Imagine
DTM, Clutter, Traffic, Image Yes automatically embedded in the data file



Thus, you can import:
DTM files with TIFF (16 bit), BIL (16 bit), IST (16 bit), PlaNET, BMP (16 bit) and Erdas Imagine (16
bit) formats, .
Clutter and traffic files with TIFF (8 bit), BIL (8 bit), IST (8 bit), BMP (8 bit), PlaNET, and Erdas
Imagine (8 bit) formats.
Vector data files with DXF, PlaNET, SHP and MIF formats.
Vector traffic files with DXF, PlaNET, SHP and MIF formats.
Scanned image files with TIFF (1-24 bit), BIL (1-24 bit), IST (1-24 bit), BMP (1-24 bit), PlaNET and
Erdas Imagine (1-24 bit) formats.

III.3.2 GEOGRAPHIC DATA TYPES USED
ATOLL manages several geographic data types, DTM (Digital Terrain Model), clutter (Land-Use), scanned
images, vector data and traffic data. Unlike DTM, clutter and traffic data which are taken into account in
calculations, the scanned images and vector data are only used for display and provide information about
the geographic environment.


The DTM (Digital Terrain Model)
The DTM (Digital Terrain Model) files describe the ground elevation. The DTM geographic data is a 16
bits/pixel relief map. ATOLL is able either to display it in different ways : single value, discrete values, values
interval.

Note : In most of documents, Digital elevation model (DEM) and digital terrain model (DTM) are
differentiated and do not have the same meaning. By definition, DEM refers to altitude above sea level
including both ground and clutter while DTM just corresponds to the ground height above sea level.


The clutter (or land-use)
The clutter files describe the land cover (dense urban, buildings, residential, forest, open, villages....): the
ground is represented by a grid map where each bin corresponds to a code allocated to a main type of cover
(a clutter class). According to the classification, the clutter is either statistical if the number of clutter classes
depends on the housing density or determinist if the number of clutter classes depends on the cover altitude.
The clutter maps are 8 bits/pixel (256 classes-raster maps). They define an image with a colour assigned to
each clutter class (by default, grey shading).


The traffic data
According to the project type you start, ATOLL proposes different kinds of traffic data.

In any project, you can import or create traffic 8 bits/pixel (256 classes-raster maps). For each bin of the
map, is assigned a code linked with a particular environment class (density of user profiles with associated
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78 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
mobility) for UMTS, CDMA and CDMA 2000 projects or a traffic density (Erlang/km2) in the other projects
(e.g. GSM/TDMA). The raster maps are macroscopic traffic estimation.

In the UMTS, CDMA/CDMA 2000 projects, you can additionally use traffic vector maps and traffic maps per
transmitter and per service.
- Vector maps detail traffic estimations (lines or polygons may have a specific traffic). Each polygon or line is
assigned a specific user profile with associated mobility and density. They can be built from population
density vector maps.
- When traffic is actual information on connections (and no longer subscriber estimation), coming from the
network and dealing with rates per transmitter and service, it is possible to create and use traffic maps based
on this network feedback. They are built from a coverage by transmitter prediction.


The vector data
This type of data represent either polygons (regions...), or lines (roads, coastlines...) or symbols (towns...).


The scanned images
This type of data (4-24 bits/pixel) regroup the road maps and the satellite images.


Comment: DTM, clutter, and scanned images are raster data unlike vector data. Traffic data can be raster or
vector.

III.3.3 BIL DATA FORMAT
Band Interleaved by Line is a method of organizing image data for multiband images. it is a schema for
storing the actual pixel values of an image in a file. The pixel data is typically preceded by a file header that
contains ancillary data about image, such as the number of rows and columns in the image, a colourmap...
BIL data stores pixel information band by band for each line, or row, of the image. Although BIL is a data
organization schema, it is treated as an image format. An image description (number of rows and columns,
number of bands, number of bits per pixel, byte order...) has to be provided to be able to display the BIL file.
This information is included in header HDR file associated with BIL file. A HDR file has the same name as
the BIL file it references, and should be located in the same directory as the source file. The HDR structure is
simple, it is an ASCII text file that contains eleven lines. You can open a HDR file using any ASCII text editor.
The parameters defined in .hdr files are detailed below:


Keywords Acceptable
values
Default Description

nrows any integer > 0 none number of rows in the image
ncols any integer > 0 none number of columns in the image
nbands any integer > 0 none number of spectral bands in the image
nbits* 1, 4, 8, 16, 32 8 number of bits per pixel per band
byteorder I = Intel same as host
machine
byte order in which image pixel values are stored
M = Motorola
layout bil bil organization of the bands in the image file
skipbytes any integer > 0 0 number of bytes of data in the image file to be skipped in
order to reach the start of the image data
ulxmap any real number 0 x-axis map coordinate of the centre of the upper-left pixel
ulymap any real number

nrows - 1 y-axis map coordinate of the centre of the upper-left pixel
xdim any real number 1 x dimension of a pixel in map units
ydim any real number 1 y dimension of a pixel in map units


*The nbits value depends on the geographic data type. Indeed, nbits are respectively 16 (16 bits) for DTM
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and 8 (8 bits) for clutter or traffic.


Example: clutter.hdr file associated with clutter.bil file.

nrows 1500
ncols 1500
nbands 1
nbits 8
byteorder M
layout bil
skipbytes 0
ulxmap 975000
ulymap 1891000
xdim 20.00
ydim 20.00

III.3.4 TIFF DATA FORMAT
Tagged Image File Format graphics filter supports all image types (monochrome, greyscale, palette colour,
and RGB full colour images) and pack bit or fax group 3-4 compressions. The TIFF files are not
systematically georeferenced. In this case, you will have to enter spatial references of the image manually
during the import procedure (x and y-axis map coordinates of the centre of the upper-left pixel, pixel size); an
associated file with TFW extension will be simultaneously created with the same name and in the same
directory as the TIFF file it references. ATOLL will then use the .tfw file during the import procedure for an
automatic georeferencement. TFW file contains the spatial reference data of an associated TIFF file. The
TFW file structure is simple, it is an ASCII text file that contains six lines. You can open a TFW file using any
ASCII text editor. The contents of a TFW file look something like this.


Line Description

1 x dimension of a pixel in map units
2 amount of translation
3 amount of rotation
4 negative of the y dimension of a pixel in map units
5 x-axis map coordinate of the centre of the upper-left pixel
6 y-axis map coordinate of the centre of the upper-left pixel

Example: clutter.tfw file associated with clutter.tif file.

100.00
0.00
0.00
-100.00
60000.00
2679900.00

It is possible to import a group of tiff images as geo data.

Note : ATOLL supports also TIFF files using the LZW compression mode.

III.3.5 PLANET DATA FORMAT
PlaNET geographic data are described by a set of files regrouped in a PlaNET directory. The directory
structure depends on the geographic data type :

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DTM :

The DTM directory consists on three files, the height file and two others:

The index file structure is simple, it is an ASCII text file which holds positional information about file. It
contains five columns. You can open an index file using any ASCII text editor. The format of the index file is
as follows:

Field File name East min East max
Acceptable
values
Float Float Float
Description File name: name of file
referenced by the index
file
x-axis map coordinate of the
centre of the upper-left pixel in
metres
x-axis map coordinate of the
centre of the upper-right pixel
in metres

Field North min North max Square size
Acceptable
values
Float Float Float
Description y-axis map coordinate of the
centre of the upper-left pixel in
metres
y-axis map coordinate of the
centre of the upper-right pixel in
metres
dimension of a
pixel in metres


Example: Index file associated with height file (DTM data).

sydney1 303900 343900 6227900 6267900 50

The projection file provides information about used projection system. This file is optional, it is an ASCII text
file with up to four lines.


Line Description

Spheroid
Zone
Projection
Central
meridian
Latitude and longitude of projection central meridian and equivalent x and y coordinates in
metres (optional)


Example: Projection file associated with height file (DTM data).

Australian-1965
56
UTM
0 153 500000 10000000


Clutter :

The Clutter directory consists on three files, the clutter file and two others:

The menu file, an ASCII text file, defines the feature codes for each type of clutter. It consists of as many
lines (with the following format) as there are clutter codes in the clutter data files.


Field Type Description

Clutter-code Integer (>1) Identification code for clutter class
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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 81
Feature-name String Name associated with the clutter-code. It may contain spaces


Example: Menu file associated with the clutter file

1 open
2 sea
3 inlandwater
4 residential
5 meanurban
6 denseurban
7 buildings
8 village
9 industrial
10 openinurban
11 forest
12 parks
13 denseurbanhigh
14 blockbuildings
15 denseblockbuild
16 rural
17 mixedsuburban


The index file gives clutter spatial references. The structure of clutter index file is the same as the structure of
the DTM index file.


Vector :

Vector data contains features such as coastlines, road, etc. Each of these features are stored in a separate
vector file. Four types of file are used, the vector file ,where x and y coordinates of vector paths are stored,
and three other files:

The menu file, an ASCII text file, lists the vector types stored in the database. The menu file is composed of
one or more records with the following structure:

Field Type Description

Vector type code Integer > 0 Identification code for the vector type
Vector type name String (up to 32 characters in length) Name of the vector type

The fields are separated by space characters.

The index file, an ASCII text file, lists the vector files and associates each vector file with one vector type and
optionally, one attribute file. The index file consists of one or more records with the following structure:

Field Type Description

Vector file
name
String (up to 32
characters in length)
Filename of the vector file
Attribute file
name
String (up to 32
characters in length)
Filename of attribute file associated with the vector file (optional)
Dimensions Real Consist of four fields as follows
- vector file eastmin: minimum x-axis coordinate of all vector path
points in the vector file
- vector file eastmax: maximum x-axis coordinate of all vector path
points in the vector file
- vector file northmin: minimum y-axis coordinate of all vector path
points in the vector file
- vector file northmax: maximum y-axis coordinate of all vector path
points in the vector file
Vector type
name
String (up to 32
characters in length)
Name of the vector type which the vector file is associated with.
This one must match exactly a vector type name field in the menu
file.

The fields are separated by space characters.


Example: Index file associated with the vector files

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82 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003

sydney1.airport 313440 333021 6239426 6244784 airport
sydney1.riverlake 303900 342704 6227900 6267900 riverlake
sydney1.coastline 322837 343900 6227900 6267900 coastline
sydney1.railways 303900 336113 6227900 6267900 railways
sydney1.highways 303900 325155 6240936 6267900 highways
sydney1.majstreets 303900 342770 6227900 6267900 majstreets
sydney1.majorroads 303900 342615 6227900 6267900 majorroads

The attribute file stores the height and description properties of vector paths. This file is optional.


Image :

The Image directory consists of two files, the image file with .tif extension and an index file with the same
structure as the DTM index file structure.

III.3.6 DXF DATA FORMAT
The Drawing Interchange Format (DXF) enables the interchange of drawings between AutoCAD and
ATOLL. DXF files can be either ASCII or binary formats, but only the first type is used in ATOLL.

Essentially a DXF file is composed of pairs of codes and associated values. The codes, known as group
codes, indicate the type of value that follows. Using these group code and value pairs, a DXF file is
organized into sections, which are composed of records, which in turn are composed of a group code and a
data item. Each group code and value are on their own line in the DXF file.

Each section starts with a group code 0 followed by the string, SECTION. This is followed by a group code 2
and a string indicating the name of the section (for example, HEADER). Each section is composed of group
codes and values that define its elements. A section ends with a 0 followed by the string ENDSEC.

III.3.7 SHP DATA FORMAT
ESRI (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc.) Arcview GIS (Geographic Information System)
Shapefiles are a simple, non-topological format for storing the geometric location and attribute information of
geographic features. A shapefile is one of the spatial data formats that you can work with in ArcExplorer. shp
data file are commonly associated with two other files with .shx and .dbf extensions.

A quick description of the 3 files are given below :
shp - the file that stores the feature geometry.
shx - the file that stores the index of the feature geometry.
dbf - the dBASE file that stores the attribute information of features. When a shapefile is added as a
theme to a view, this file is displayed as a feature table.

Note : shp filenames are not limited in number of characters when exporting or importing, even if the file
name is made of more than 8 characters.
III.3.8 MIF DATA FORMAT
MIF (MapInfo Interchange Format) is a format allowing generic data to be attached to a variety of graphical
items. These ASCII files are editable, relatively easy to generate, and work on all platforms supported by
MapInfo. Vector objects may be imported in ATOLL with a MIF extension.

MapInfo data are contained in two files with .MIF and MID. extensions. Graphics reside in a .MIF file and
textual data is contained in a .MID file. The textual data is delimited data, with one row per record and either
Carriage Return, Carriage Return plus Line Feed, or Line Feed between lines. The MIF file has two areas --
the file header area and the data section. The MID file is an optional file. When there is no MID file, all fields
are blank
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More info : http://www.mapinfo.com/community/free/library/interchange_file.pdf

III.3.9 ERDAS IMAGINE DATA FORMAT
ATOLL is able to support Erdas Imagine data files in order to import DTM (16 bit/pixel), clutter (8 bit/pixel),
traffic (8 bit/pixel) and image (1-24 bit/pixel) files with the .img format. These files use the Erdas Imagine
Hierarchical File Format (HFA) structure. For any type of file, if there are pyramids (storage of different
resolution layers), they are used to enhance performance when decreasing the resolution of the display.

ATOLL supports uncompressed as well as compressed (or partially compressed) DTM .img files,
You can create a .mnu file to improve the clutter map loading,
The association colour-code (raster maps) may be automatically imported from the .img file,
These files are auto-georeferenced, i.e. they do not need any extra file for georeferencement,
For image files, the number of supported bands is either 1 (colour palette is defined separately) or 3
(no colour palette but direct RGB information for each pixel). In case of 3 bands, only 8 bit per pixel
format is supported. Therefore, 8-bit images, containing RGB information (three bands are provided:
the first band is for Blue, the second one is for Green and the third for Red), can be considered as 24
bit per pixel files. 32 bit per pixel files are not supported.

III.3.10 OTHER SUPPORTED FORMATS
ATOLL supports 3 other formats than the BIL, TIFF, PlaNET, DXF, SHP, MIF, and IMG ones.

The .ist and .dis formats are ASCII files used for Digital Terrain Model only. Ist images come from Istar,
whereas dis images come from IGN (Institut Gographique National). Ist format works exactly like bil format,
except for DTM images, for which ist format uses a decimetric coding for altitudes, whereas bil images uses
only a metric coding.

The .bmp format is the standard Windows image format on DOS and Windows-compatible computers. The
bmp format supports RGB, colour-indexed, greyscale, and bitmap colour modes, and does not support alpha
channels.

III.4 MANAGING GEOGRAPHIC DATA IMPORT
III.4.1 IMPORTING A GEOGRAPHIC DATA FILE
To import a geographic data file, proceed as follows :
Select the Import command in the File menu from the menu bar,
Specify the directory where the file to be imported is located, the file name and the file type in
the opened dialog box,
Press OK to validate,
Specific import procedures are offered according to the geographic data formats.

Note : the imported geographic files like clutter, traffic density or DTM are listed in their respective folder in
the Geo tab. Vector and image objects are automatically created after importing vector data and scanned
images. Finally, geographic data are displayed in the Work space (See Setting geo data priority).

Use the What's this help to get further description about the fields available in the window.


Notes :
The drag and drop feature is available from any file explorer application to ATOLL.
Shp filenames are not limited in number of characters when exporting or importing, even if the file
name is made of more than 8 characters.
.geo or .cfg (user configuration files) can be used (import-export) to share paths of imported file paths
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84 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
between users.

III.4.2 IMPORTING A GROUP OF TIFF/BMP IMAGES
It is possible to import Tiff compressed (Packbit and FAX-CCITT3 modes) or not and Bmp scanned image
files by groups by using an index file. Once the procedure performed, ATOLL creates a folder per imported
index file.

The import procedure is the same as for the other geo data images (Import command from the File menu).
When obtaining the classic Open dialog box, select the All supported file or PlaNET geo data (index)
format and locate the appropriate file. When clicking the Open button, a dialog box opens in which you must
indicate the image data type.

Note : The drag and drop tool is available to import such a group of Tiff/Bmp files.

Its format is:
- one line per Tiff/Bmp file : Relative name of tiff/bmp file with regard to the index file path XMIN XMAX YMIN
YMAX 0 (the separator is a blank)

Where :
XMAX = XMIN + (number of horizontal bins x bin width)
YMAX = YMIN + (number of vertical bins x bin height)

Example of a two images index file located in the folder C:\TEMP. These two files are located in the same
directory.
nice1.tif 984660 995380 1860900 1872280 0
nice2.tif 996240 1004900 1860980 1870700 0

III.4.3 OPTIMISING THE LOADING OF RASTER MAPS
The loading performance of clutter (and traffic) with .bil, .tif and .img formats is highly improved when ATOLL
does not have to find by itself the list of the classes contained in the file. To benefit from this optimisation, the
user must create a text file named as the clutter (or raster traffic maps) file with .mnu extension, at the same
location. This MNU file gives the correspondence between the code and the class name. This optimisation is
already included in the PlaNET format thanks to the menu file.

To do so, check the validity of an associated .mnu file in the map folder before achieving the import geo data
procedure.

Practical advice: ATOLL can be used to create easily the MNU file. Just import the clutter (or traffic) file
(slow loading) in ATOLL and paste the class description (Description tab in the Properties window) in a text
file.

III.4.4 DESCRIPTION OF MNU FILES
Description
MNU file is useful when importing clutter and raster traffic files with .tif, .bil and .img formats. It gives the
correspondence between the clutter (or traffic) code and the class name. It is a text file named as the clutter
(or traffic) file with .mnu extension, which must be stored at the same location.

Field Type Description
Class code Integer > 0 Identification code for the clutter (or traffic) class
Class name String (up to 32 characters in length) Name of the clutter (or traffic) class

Separator is either a blank or a tab.


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Sample : Mnu file associated to a clutter file.

0 none
1 open
2 sea
3 inland_water
4 residential
5 meanurban

III.4.5 EMBEDDING - LINKING COMPARISON
ATOLL offers the user the possibility to link or embed any imported geo data file. The main differences
between linked and embedded objects are the location where data are stored and how the imported data are
updated after placing them in the ATOLL document.

When you import geographic data without selecting the embed in document option, ATOLL just memorizes
the location where the source files are stored (directory path) and creates a link to source files: the objects
are linked. If you modify the source file, information will be automatically taken into account in the document
.atl. On the other hand, some applications as deleting or moving the source file in another directory involve
the link break. In this case, ATOLL proposes you some solutions to repairing it.

The embedded geographic files are totally included in the document .atl, they become a part of the
document: There is no more link between the document .atl and the source files. Therefore, the ATOLL
document is not updated if you modify the source file.

Practical advice: Prefer the linked objects in order to limit the ATOLL document size.

Note : the distributed calculations do not work in case of embedded geographic data.

III.4.6 EMBEDDING GEOGRAPHIC DATA
You may embed DTM, clutter, traffic, vector and scanned image objects you have imported in your ATOLL
document. This can be done either when importing the geo data, or from the properties of an available
object.


To embed geographic data in the current .atl project during the import procedure, just tick the Embed in
document box in the object import dialog box.


To embed geographic data in the current .atl project from an existing data item, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,

For a clutter, traffic or DTM file :
Expand the Clutter, traffic raster or DTM folder by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the Clutter, traffic raster or on the DTM file you want to embed in the
current project,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click the Clutter, traffic raster or on the DTM file you want to embed in
the current project,

For a scanned map or a vector file :
Either
Right click on the scanned map/vector file you want to embed in the current
project,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
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86 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
Or
Double click the scanned map/vector file you want to embed in the current
project,

Click on the General tab from the opened window,
Click the button from the opened window,
Click OK or Apply to validate.

III.4.7 REPAIRING A BROKEN LINK
It may happens that either some source files (.atl or geo data files) have moved since the last time the
current project was opened. In this case, ATOLL cannot find then automatically and display the following
error message :



Click the button if you want to locate the geo data file by yourself. At the same time,
ATOLL automatically searches for the file with the nearest match based on size, date and type.
When it has found it, it displays the error message below.



If the file corresponds to the source file, press OK.


If the localisation is not successful, you have to link again the geo data file to the project by yourself from
the geo item properties. To do so, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,

For a clutter, traffic or DTM file :
Expand the Clutter, traffic raster or DTM folder by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the Clutter, traffic raster or DTM file you want to fix the link
problem,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click the Clutter, traffic raster or DTM file you want to fix the link problem,

For a scanned map or a vector file :
Either
Right click on the scanned map/vector file you want to fix the link problem,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click the scanned map/vector file you want to fix the link problem,

Click on the General tab from the opened window,
Click the button from the opened window,
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Locate the appropriate data file
Click OK or Apply to validate.

III.4.8 CHECKING THE MAP GEOCODING
You can check the clutter, DTM and scanned map geocoding (coordinates of north-west point, pixel size and
additional coordinates of south east point for .bmp files).

To check the geocoding of any data object (see above), proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,

For a clutter, traffic or DTM file :
Expand the Clutter, traffic raster or DTM folder by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the Clutter, traffic raster or DTM file you want to check its
geocoding,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click the Clutter, traffic raster or DTM file you want to check its
geocoding,

For a scanned map :
Either
Right click on the scanned map file you want to check its geocoding,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click the scanned map file you want to check its geocoding,

Click on the Geocoding tab from the opened window,
Check or modify the extreme northwest and southeast points,
Click OK or Apply to validate.


III.5 MANAGING GEOGRAPHIC DATA PROPERTIES
III.5.1 MANAGING THE DTM DISPLAY
The Digital Terrain Model is a geographic data file representing ground surface elevation.

To manage the DTM display, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Either
Right click on the DTM folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click the DTM folder,
Click on the Display tab from the opened window.
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Set the display parameters of the current DTM,
Click OK to validate.


Depending on what you want to display, you can choose in the display type scrolling menu:
single: same representation for any bin
discrete values: bin representation according to the value of a discrete field (sea level) describing the
DTM object.
values interval: bin representation according to the value of a numerical field (altitude) describing the
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88 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
DTM object.

Whatever the display type you have chosen, you can customize the graphical representation of bins. In the
table, for each line, click on each row.

You can manage the contour line visualisation by using the relief trackbar.

Note : path and description are stored in the external user configuration file.

III.5.2 MANAGING VECTOR OBJECTS DISPLAY
Vector geographic objects contains additional characteristics. Their number and their type depend on the file
format. Indeed, when dealing with .dxf or PlaNET files, a single attribute, the height, is available unlike .mif
or .shp files which can include several attributes (name, length, height). Thus, third dimension vector data
can be read and additional information relating to vectors can be displayed.


To manage the vector objects display, proceed as follows :
Click the tab (Data or Geo) in which in currently located the vector layer in the Explorer
window,
Either
Right click on the vector folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click the vector folder,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the different tabs,
Click on the Display tab,
Set the vector display parameters,
Press OK to validate.


Notes :
You may manage the display of each vector individually. To do so, after having expanding the vector
folder, choose the properties option from the considered vector context menu (left click), then set the
display parameters. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the
opened window.
Path and description are stored in the external user configuration file.
Attributes used in the vector display can be modified thanks to the vector edition features.

III.5.3 DISPLAYING VECTOR LAYERS OVER PREDICTIONS
It is possible to put vector layers either in the Data tab so as to display them on the top of coverage studies,
or in the Geo tab to keep them in the background, thanks to layer order.

To do so, when importing a vector file, you may select Data tab as import destination in the Vector import
dialog.

In addition, a Transfer command (either in Geo, or in Data) is available in each vector layer context menu
(right click on vector layer to open context menu); it enables you to switch vector layers from Geo to Data
tabs or vice versa.

III.5.4 MANAGING SCANNED MAPS DISPLAY
To manage the display of any flat image, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Either
Right click on the flat image folder to open the associated context menu,
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Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click the flat image folder,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the different tabs,
Click on the Display tab,
Set the flat image display parameters,
Press OK to validate.


See importing a geographic data file.

Note : path and description are stored in the external user configuration file.

III.5.5 SETTING GEO DATA PRIORITY
ATOLL lists the imported DTM, clutter or traffic objects in their respective folder and creates separate folder
for each imported vector data and each imported scanned image. Each object corresponds to a layer with a
specific size. Thus, there are as many layers as imported objects. The layers are on top of each other in the
order of listed objects.


At the display level
Only the layer on top and the layers beneath area where there is no data will be visible in the work space.

In the example below, vector data (including highways, coastline, riverlake, majorroads, majorstreets,
railways and airport), clutter, DTM and scanned image have been imported and traffic raster map has been
edited inside the computation zone. In the work space, we can see the linear objects (roads, riverlake,...)
inside and beyond the computation zone and the traffic layer (green colour) inside the computation zone.
The clutter layer is visible in the area where no traffic data has been edited (outside the computation zone).
On the other hand, the DTM layer which is underneath the clutter layer and the scanned map which is
underneath the DTM layer are not visible.



To make a layer visible in the work space, either untick the check box of the other layers (see object
visibility), move the layer on the top of the list, or adjust the transparency level of objects (clutter, traffic and
scanned image) when available.


To move an object in the Geo tab, proceed as follows :
Click and hold on the layer you want to move,
Drag the layer in the list,
Release the layer.


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90 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
At the calculation level
DTM, Clutter and Traffic density folders can contain several objects representing different area of the map
or common parts of the map with identical or different resolutions. ATOLL takes into account in calculations,
for each folder, only the data it sees (that is to say the object on top and the objects beneath area where
there is no data). What is used is what is seen. Thus, for each folder, you must locate on top the objects with
the smallest size and the best resolution.

III.6 MANAGING THE CLUTTER DESCRIPTION
III.6.1 MANAGING THE CLUTTER PROPERTIES
Some propagation models require the use of a land use file. The standard version of ATOLL comes with
propagation models (Standard Propagation Model, Okumura-Hata, Cost-Hata, ITU 526-5, Longley-Rice,
Vienna93, and WLL). Three of them (Okumura-Hata, Cost-Hata, and WLL) use formulae adapted to the
nature of the ground in their predictions.


To manage the clutter display, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Either
Right click on the clutter folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click the clutter folder,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the different tabs,
Click on the Description tab from the opened window,
Set the clutter colours,
Click on the Display tab,
Set the clutter layer transparency level,
Press OK to validate.

Note : path and description are stored in the external user configuration file.

See importing a geographic data file

III.6.2 DESCRIBING THE CLUTTER CLASSES
From any clutter data file, ATOLL assigns a clutter class to each code, and potentially heights in the case of
a semi-deterministic or deterministic clutter description.

To describe the different clutter classes available in the current project, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Either
Right click on the Clutter folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click on the Clutter folder,
Click the Description tab,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Assign colour, name and height (m) to each code.
Press OK or Apply to validate.

To assign a colour to a clutter class, click on the colour box and choose a colour in the colour table. Then,
manually enter name and height for all clutter classes. Furthermore, you may indicate manually, for each
clutter a standard deviation per clutter class (in dB) that will be used to calculate the shadowing margins, and
in UMTS projects, an orthogonality factor per clutter class (Orthogonality factor can be modelled by a value
between 0 and 1. A 0 value indicates no orthogonality at all, instead a 1 value in the case of perfect
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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 91
orthogonality at mobiles).

Note : The description table can be fully copied and pasted (using Ctrl+C and Ctrl+V) in a new ATOLL
project after importing the clutter file. To select globally the clutter class table, just left click on the top left
angle of the clutter table.


Comments:
If the height column is not filled in, the models using this information (WLL model for example) will
consider a zero clutter height.
The white colour is associated with the transparent colour. Thus, the geographic layer below the clutter
will be visible in the area where the transparent colour is assigned.
Before importing a clutter file, it is important to define a reference class corresponding to zero code,
white colour and no data. Thus, the code "0" is allocated to area without clutter.
The class names cannot exceed a length of 50 characters.
Clutter description (and clutter file path) is part of the contents of exported .geo or .cfg files.

III.6.3 ADDING A CLUTTER CLASS
To add a clutter class to the current geo environment, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Either
Right click on the Clutter folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click on the Clutter folder,
Click the Description tab,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Describe each new clutter class in the appropriate cells of the bottom line,
Press OK or Apply to validate.

III.6.4 REFRESHING A CLUTTER MAP
The refresh feature allows the user to clear all clutters not used in the current project.

To refresh the current clutter map, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Either
Right click on the Clutter folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click on the Clutter folder,
Click the Description tab,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Press the button,
ATOLL scans the clutter objects from the map and associates them with the ones in the current
table,
Press OK or Apply to validate.


Advice: Use this function to keep consistency between the clutter classes described in the table and in the
imported file.

Example: ATOLL automatically memorizes the different clutter classes of imported file. Even after deleting
the file, the clutter classes are stored in the description table. Pressing the button will remove
them.

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III.6.5 DISPLAYING STATISTICS ON CLUTTER
To display the relative occupancy of each clutter type in the current project computation zone (or focus
zone if existing), proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Clutter folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Statistics option from the scrolling menu
The surface (Si in km) of each clutter class (i) included in the computation zone (or focus
zone if existing) and its percentage (% of i) are specified:

100 of % =

k
k
i
S
S
i


Notes :
The statistic study is limited to the computation zone (or focus zone if existing), just the clutter area
inside the computation zone is taken into account,
Current statistical results are printable by clicking the button,
Data contained in the statistics window can be copied by selecting them (Ctrl+A) then copying them to
the clipboard (Ctrl+C).

III.7 EDITING GEOGRAPHIC DATA
III.7.1 RASTER OBJECTS
III.7.1.a CREATING A CLUTTER OR TRAFFIC RASTER POLYGON
A cartography editor is available either to modify imported clutter (or traffic raster) map or to produce your
own clutter (or traffic) raster maps without initial clutter (or traffic) object. In the same way, it is easy to delete
clutter or raster traffic polygons. All created polygons can be easily saved in external files. These
modifications are taken into account in calculations by propagation models.


To display the editor tool bar, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Right click the Clutter folder (or traffic object) to open the associated context menu
Select the Edit command from the available scrolling menu,
The clutter (or traffic) editor window opens.


The editor tool bar consists of a selection box to choose the clutter (or traffic) class you want to edit, a
polygon drawing tool , a polygon deletion tool and a close save button.



Note : The clutter (or traffic) class you want to edit must be previously defined in the Description tab of
Clutter properties (or Traffic properties) dialog box.

III.7.1.b EDITING CLUTTER OR TRAFFIC RASTER POLYGONS
To edit clutter or traffic (raster map) polygons, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
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Use either the clutter editor to add clutter data or traffic editor to produce traffic data,
Select the clutter (or traffic - raster map) class you want to edit from the selection box,

Note : to make available clutter (or traffic) classes in the selection box, previously define them (clutter or
traffic) in the Description tab of Clutter properties (or Traffic properties) dialog box.

Select the polygonal drawing tool,
Position the pointer on the map area where you want to edit your own data,
Press the mouse left button (a first point is created),
Slide the pointer on the map and press the mouse left button to create another point,
Carry out the two last steps until you draw the polygonal area you want,
Double click to close off the polygonal area,
Press the close button.


The created polygon is displayed with the same colour as the edited clutter class (or traffic class). As long as
the cartography editor is open, the polygonal area is delimited by a thin black line rewiring the created points.

Note : The clutter or traffic layer must be visible (see multi-layer management in Setting geo data priority) if
you want the modifications to appear on the map.

III.7.1.c MODIFYING CLUTTER OR TRAFFIC RASTER POLYGONS
To resize clutter or traffic polygons (raster map), proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Leave the cartography editor open.
Left click on the black line (limits of the polygonal area). The pointer becomes position
indicator ( ),
Press and hold the mouse left button,
Drag the pointer in the area where you want to locate the point,
Release the mouse button,
Press the close button to validate.


To add a point, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Leave the cartography editor open.
Left click on the black line (limits of the polygonal area). The pointer becomes position
indicator ( ),
Right click to open the associated context menu,
Select the Insert point command from the opened scrolling menu,
Press the close button to validate.


To delete a point, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Leave the cartography editor open.
Left click on the point you want to delete. The pointer becomes position indicator ( ),
Right click to open the associated context menu,
Select the Delete point command from the opened scrolling menu,
Press the close button to validate.

III.7.1.d DELETING CLUTTER OR TRAFFIC RASTER POLYGONS
To delete clutter or traffic (raster map) polygons, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Leave the cartography editor open.
Either
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94 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
Left click on the black line (limits of the polygonal area). The pointer becomes position
indicator ( ),
Right click to open the associated context menu,
Select the Delete polygon command from the opened scrolling menu,
or
Select the Polygon deletion tool,
Click on the polygonal area you want to delete,
Press the Close button to validate.

III.7.1.e DISPLAYING INFORMATION ABOUT RASTER POLYGONS
By using the tips button , ATOLL allows the user to read several information about any polygonal area.

To know the surface and the type of edited data, proceed as follows :
Rest the pointer on the polygonal area until the associated information (code, name, etc...)
appears. Surface is given only in the case of closed polygonal areas.

Note : Information will appear only if the tips button is on.


To display the coordinates or points composing a polygonal area, proceed as follows :
Left click on the black line (limits of the polygonal area). The pointer becomes position
indicator ( ),
Right click to open the associated context menu,
Select the Properties command from the opened scrolling menu,

The coordinates (in the display system) of the point composing the polygon are then displayed in a table
window.

Note : like for the focus or computation zone, the Copy-Paste feature is available in the polygon coordinates
table.

III.7.2 VECTOR OBJECTS
III.7.2.a CREATING A VECTOR LAYER
A toolbar enables you to edit new vector layers and modify the imported ones. This bar can be opened or
closed by selecting the Vector edition command in the View menu.

It is possible to create new vector layers containing polygons, lines and points.


To create a new vector layer, proceed as follows :
Click on the New vector layer icon .

ATOLL creates a folder called Vectors in explorer, either in the Geo tab, or in the Data tab. In fact, the folder
location depends on the open tab of explorer. So, the folder will be placed in the Geo tab if this one is
displayed when creating the new layer.

The new vector layer is listed in the Vector layer scrolling menu .


Any vector object can be easily edited and modified

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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 95
III.7.2.b EDITING A VECTOR OBJECT
Once the vector layer is created, it can be easily edited and managed.

To edit vector objects of the layer, proceed as follows :
Either
In the Vector edition bar, click on the arrow to open the Vector layer scrolling menu,
Select the layer to be edited in the list,
Or
In the Explorer, right click on the vector layer to be edited in order to get the context
menu,
Select the Edit command from the opened scrolling list,
Click on the New polygon icon to create polygons, or on the New line icon to
create lines, or on the New point icon to create points.

Then,
For polygons or lines
Position the pointer on the map,
Press the mouse left button to create the first point of polygon or line,
Move the pointer on the map and press the mouse left button to create another point,
Carry out the two last steps until you draw the polygonal area or the line you want,
Double click to close off polygonal area or to stop the line drawing.

For points
Position the pointer on the map,
Press the mouse left button to create a point,


To clear the current icon selection, press the Esc button on your keyboard or click on the selected icon.

III.7.2.c MANAGING VECTOR OBJECT SHAPES
Some tools available in the Vector edition bar enable you to modify polygon shape of a vector layer.

Indeed, it is possible:
To merge several polygons thanks to the Combine icon ,
To make a hole in a polygon by using the Erase icon ,
To keep only overlapping area of two polygons thanks to the Intersection icon ,
To cut a polygon in two or more by using the Split icon .

The vector layer must be in edition mode in order to be able to modify shape of its polygons.


To put a vector layer in edition mode, proceed as follows :
Either,
In the Vector edition bar, click on the arrow to open the Vector layer scrolling menu,
Select the layer to be edited in the list,
Or
In the Explorer, right click on the vector layer to be edited in order to get the context
menu,
Select the Edit command from the opened scrolling list.


To combine several polygons, proceed as follows :
Choose the vector layer to be edited,
On the map, select a polygon,
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In the Vector edition bar, click the Combine icon ,
Draw one or several polygons on the map,

ATOLL considers all the polygons as a group of polygons. If there is overlapping areas between some
polygons, ATOLL merges them to make a single one.

To clear the current icon selection, press the Esc button on your keyboard or click on the
selected icon.


To erase areas within polygons, proceed as follows :
Choose the vector layer to be edited,
On the map, select a polygon or a group of polygons,
In the Vector edition bar, click the Erase icon ,
Draw one or several polygons on the map,

ATOLL removes all the overlapping areas between polygons.

To clear the current icon selection, press the Esc button on your keyboard or click on the
selected icon.


To keep intersection areas between polygons, proceed as follows :
Choose the vector layer to be edited,
On the map, select a polygon or a group of polygons,
In the Vector edition bar, click the Intersection icon ,
Draw one or several polygons on the map,

ATOLL only keeps the intersection areas between polygons and erases all the areas outside.

To clear the current icon selection, press the Esc button on your keyboard or click on the
selected icon.


To split polygons, proceed as follows :
Choose the vector layer to be edited,
On the map, select a polygon or a group of polygons,
In the Vector edition bar, click the Split icon ,
Draw one or several polygons on the map,

ATOLL uses each polygon side intersecting the existing polygon(s) to cut them.

To clear the current icon selection, press the Esc button on your keyboard or click on the
selected icon.


Additional management features are available when right clicking on any vector object on the map (polygons,
lines or points).

When a vector layer is in Edition mode, you may select in the vector object context menu:
Delete: To remove vector objects on the map,
Convert to line: To convert a polygon into a closed line,
Convert to polygon: To convert a closed line into a polygon,
Open line: To open a closed line; ATOLL removes segment between the last and the first point,
Close line: To close line; ATOLL adds a segment between the last and the first point of the line,
Insert point: To add a point into polygon contour or line; the point is created at the pointer location,
Move: To shift vector objects on the map (place the pointer where you want to locate vector object and
left click to release it),
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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 97
Quit edition: In order for a vector layer to be no more editable,
Properties: To access the vector object property dialog. The General tab sums up the vector layer
name, the vector object identification number and vector object attributes. The Geometry tab lists
coordinates of points composing the selected vector object. Coordinates are stated in the coordinate
system specified in the vector layer property dialog (General tab).

III.7.2.d MANAGING VECTOR OBJECT PROPERTIES
Vectors properties can be managed in two ways, either from a table containing all vectors and their attributes
or from the related standard property dialog.

Vector table
All the vectors (polygons, lines, points and groups of polygons) of a vector layer and their attributes are listed
in the corresponding table.

To open this table, proceed as follows :
Click the tab (Data or Geo) in which in currently located the vector layer in the Explorer
window,
Right click on the vector folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Open.

Standard features for managing table contents (Copy/Paste, Fill up/down, Delete, Display columns, Filter,
Sort, Fields) are available in a context menu (when right clicking on column(s) or record(s)) and in the
Format, Edit and Records menus.


Property dialog
As classical property dialog in ATOLL, vector layer property dialog consists of a General tab, a Table tab
and a Display tab.

To open the property dialog related to a vector object, proceed as follows :
Click the tab (Data or Geo) in which in currently located the vector layer in the Explorer
window,
Right click on the vector folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on the Properties command,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the different tabs.


In the General tab, ATOLL indicates:
- The vector layer name,

- If the vector layer is embedded in the .atl document or just linked. In this case, ATOLL displays the
directory path used to access the file,
The Embed button can be used to embed the vector layer in the .atl document when this one is just linked.
The Find button enables you to redefine a new path when file location has changed.

- The coordinate system of the vector layer,
When vector layer is linked, the coordinate system used is the one of the file (system specified when
importing the file). It corresponds to the projection coordinate system when the vector layer is embedded.
The coordinate system can be changed (click on the Convert button to change it). In this case, coordinates of
points composing vector objects of the layer will be converted in the selected coordinate system.

In addition, you can define, in this tab, sort and filter criteria that will be applied to vector objects of the layer
contained in the table.


The Table tab enables you to manage the vector layer table content. Therefore, you may add custom fields
in the table in order to describe vector attributes.

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98 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003

The Display tab enables you to manage the vector layer display; it is possible to display vectors with colour
depending on any attribute.

III.8 MANAGING GEOGRAPHIC DATA EXPORT
III.8.1 EXPORTING A DTM MAP
Like for clutter and traffic raster maps, it is possible to export the current DTM map in either a tif or a bil
format. You may choose to keep the squared part of the current DTM that contains the defined computation
zone.

To export a part or the complete DTM map, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the DTM folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click on the Save as... option from the opened scrolling menu,
Define the format, the directory path and the name to give to the file to be exported,
Click the Save button when this is made,
In the Export dialog box, select one of the options and define the resolution (in metres) of file :
The whole covered region option allows you to save the whole DTM map in another file.
As soon as the file is saved, the properties (name,...) of DTM object listed in the DTM
folder are updated.
The computation zone option allows you to save the DTM region inside the computation
zone in another file. As soon as the file is saved, an additional DTM object is created and
listed in the DTM folder. To enable this option, you must have drawn a computation zone
beforehand.
A resolution value is suggested; it is defined for DTM from the following criteria :
If one DTM object is clipped, the displayed resolution will be the object resolution.
If several objects are extracted, the suggested resolution will be the smallest
resolution of the objects.
The resolution value must be an integer.
The minimum resolution is set to 1 metre.
Click OK to validate.

Notes :
When you save files using BIL and TIF formats, .hdr and .tfw files are automatically created in the
same folder. The .hdr and .tfw files are respectively associated with .bil and .tif files; they contain
geocoding information and resolution,
DTM file path is part of the contents of exported .geo or .cfg files.

III.8.2 EXPORTING A CLUTTER MAP
Like for DTM map and traffic raster maps, it is possible to export the current clutter description in either a tiff,
a bil or a bmp format. You may choose to keep the squared part of the current clutter map that contains the
defined computation zone.

To export a part or the complete clutter map, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Clutter folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click on the Save as... option from the opened scrolling menu,
Define the format, the directory path and the name to give to the file to be exported,
Click the Save button when this is made,
In the Export dialog box, select one of the options and define the resolution (in metres) of file :
The whole covered region option allows you to save the whole clutter map in another file.
As soon as the file is saved, the properties (name,...) of the clutters listed in the Clutter
folder are updated.
The computation zone option allows you to save the clutter region inside the computation
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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 99
zone in another file. As soon as the file is saved, an additional clutter object is created and
listed in the Clutter folder. To enable this option, you must have drawn a computation zone
beforehand.
A resolution value is suggested; it is defined for clutter from the following criteria :
If one clutter object is clipped, the displayed resolution will be the object resolution.
If several objects are extracted, the suggested resolution will be the smallest
resolution of the objects.
The resolution value must be an integer
The minimum resolution is set to 1 metre.
Click OK to validate.

Note :
When you save files using BIL and TIF formats, .hdr and .tfw files are automatically created in the
same folder. The .hdr and .tfw files are respectively associated with .bil and .tif files; they contain
geocoding information and resolution.
Clutter file path (and clutter description) is part of the contents of exported .geo or .cfg files.

III.8.3 SAVING THE EDITED RASTER POLYGONS
Saving the edited polygons consists either in creating a new clutter (or traffic - raster map) file including your
modifications, or in storing your modifications in the existing clutter (or traffic) files.


To store modifications in a new file, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Clutter folder (or Traffic raster object) to open the associated context menu,
Select the Save as command from the opened scrolling menu,
Indicate the path, the name and the format( *.tif, *.bil and *.bmp) for the file to export,
Press OK to validate,

Comment: When you save files using BIL and TIF formats, .hdr and .tfw files are automatically created in
the same folder. The .hdr and .tfw files are respectively associated with .bil and .tif files; they contain
geocoding information and resolution. Saving a file with the BMP format doesn't involve the automatic
creation of georeferencement file. Thus, it is advised to associate with .bmp files a text document including
the same information as the .hdr or .tfw files.

Select one of the options and define the resolution (in metres) of file in the opened Export
dialog box,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened dialog box,



The whole covered region option allows to save in the file the whole clutter map (or traffic map)
including the clutter (or traffic) modifications made by the user. As soon as the modifications are
saved, the properties of clutter (or traffic) object listed in the Clutter (or Traffic) folder are
updated.
The only pending changes option allows just to save in the file the created clutter (or traffic)
polygonal area. As soon as the modifications are saved, an additional clutter (or traffic) object is
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100 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
created and listed in the Clutter (or Traffic) folder.
The computation zone option allows to save in the file the rectangular clutter region (or traffic
region) containing the computation zone encompassing the clutter (or traffic) modifications made
by the user. As soon as the modifications are saved, an additional clutter (or traffic) object is
created and listed in the Clutter (or Traffic) folder.

A resolution value is suggested; it is defined for clutter from the following criteria:
If one clutter object is modified, the displayed resolution will be the object resolution.
If several objects are modified, the suggested resolution will be the smallest resolution of
the altered clutter objects.
If there is no initial clutter object, the resolution will equal the resolution of DTM object
which the modifications are made on or the smallest resolution of the merged DTM objects
if the modifications are performed on several DTM objects.
If you draw your own clutter data without initial DTM, clutter or traffic object, a 100 m
default resolution will be suggested.
For any raster object, the resolution value must be an integer.
The minimum resolution is set to 1 metre.
The same criteria are used to define the resolution of traffic objects: firstly, ATOLL looks for
resolution in the modified traffic objects, secondly in the clutter objects if there is no imported
traffic objects, then in DTM objects in case neither traffic nor clutter data is available and finally
give the 100 m default resolution if there is no traffic, no clutter and no DTM data.

Click OK to validate.

Caution : once the modifications are saved, the polygon dimensions are fixed and cannot be modified.


To store modifications in an existing file, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Clutter folder (or Traffic folder - raster map) to open the associated context
menu,
Select the Save command from the opened scrolling menu,
A message is displayed warning the user that some current clutter (or traffic) files will be
updated,
Press OK to validate

Note : the existing file is made of a fixed size matrix. Hence, changes made outside from this matrix will not
be taken into account.

III.8.4 EXPORTING A VECTOR OBJECT
You can save any edited vector layer in a vector format file. In this case, the vector layer is no longer
embedded in the .atl document; it is a linked file. It can be embedded afterwards.

To export a vector layer, proceed as follows :
Click the tab (Data or Geo) in which in currently located the vector layer in the Explorer
window,
Right click on the Vector layer to be exported in order to open the associated context menu,
Select the Save as command from the opened scrolling menu,
Indicate the path, the name and the format for the file to export. Possible formats are Arcview
(.shp), MapInfo (.mif) and an ATOLL internal format (.agd),
Press OK to validate,

Notes :
Only polygons can be saved in the Arcview (.shp) format. Therefore, a vector layer mixing polygons
and lines, polygons and points, or containing just points or lines can only be saved in MapInfo (.mif) or
ATOLL internal format (.agd).
The ATOLL internal format (.agd) is a new format only supported by ATOLL. Reading of .agd files is
faster than other vector files with classical supported formats (MapInfo, Arcview, Autocad).
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In addition, in case of linked file, it is possible to save modifications performed on the vector layer.

To save modifications on a vector layer, proceed as follows :
Click the tab (Data or Geo) in which in currently located the vector layer in the Explorer
window,
Right click on the Vector layer to be saved in order to open the associated context menu,
Select the Save command from the opened scrolling menu,

ATOLL displays a warning to inform you that the source file will be modified,

Click OK to update the source file.

Note : the Save command is available only if there are some pending changes on the vector layer.


C H A P T E R 4

























Managing Radio Network Data
4
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C H A P T E R 4


Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 105
IV MANAGING RADIO NETWORK DATA
IV.1 MANAGING RADIO NETWORK DATA : OVERVIEW
As a reference radio planning tool, ATOLL is able to work on several technologies. This feature indicates
that there may be a large amount of data in any project. Nevertheless, ATOLL has been developed in order
to maximize the number of common features for any type of projects, either dealing with geo data
management or radio data management. Of course, several specific items dealing with the management of
radio data are introduced depending on the considered technology (e.g. TRXs and Subcells in GSM/TDMA,
Cell level in UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000 projects, etc...).

All the organisation tools (filters, sorts, groups, etc...) described in the user interface basics can be applied
on the radio data, working in the explorer, tables or on the map. That way, working on sites, antennas,
transmitters (including multi-sectored stations and multi-antennas transmitters) stays always easy. Moreover,
it is also possible to define easily, and in the same way in any technology, radio equipment, that will be
assigned to each transmitter of any network.

Specific parts dealing with radio data on GSM/TDMA, UMTS/W-CDMA and CDMA/CDMA 2000 will be seen
next. Optimisations on networks will be described also on specific parts dealing with each of these project
templates.

IV.2 SETTING DEFAULT RADIO UNITS
To build your network, like for the projection of display coordinate system or default length unit used in any
ATOLL project, you must define reception and transmission units as they have to be taken into account in
the working environment.

ATOLL allows you to define the units of measurement for transmission and reception of signal levels, in your
working environment. The options for units are as follows :
Signal transmission units : dBmilliwatts (dBm), Watts or kiloWatts;
Signal reception units : dBmilliwatts (dBm), dBmicroVolts (dBV) or
dBmicroVolts/meter (dBV/m).


To define reception and transmission units in the current project, proceed as follows :
From the menu bar, select the options... command in the Tools menu,
Left click on the Units tab from the opened window,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available and the way to use them,
Choose in the scrolling lists the default reception/transmission units for the current .atl
ATOLL project.
Click OK to validate.


The default unit length can be defined in the same dialog box.

IV.3 SITES
IV.3.1 CREATING A SITE
In ATOLL, a site is a geographical point where one or several transmitters (multi-sector site or station)
equipped with antennas with particular characteristics are located.

Proceed as follows to create a site :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Sites folder to open the context menu,
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Left click the New command from the opened scrolling menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the new site dialog
window.

Notes :
If the new site seems to not appear on the map, expand the Site folder by left clicking on the
associated button. Right click on the site you want to see in order to open a menu from which you
select the centre map option.
Site is automatically created when dropping a base station on the map.

From the Display tab window, you can display sites with colours depending on their attributes. The attributes
of the sites can be displayed as labels in the workspace or in help popups using the tip tool.

In UMTS and CDMA/CDMA 2000 projects, in addition to the geographic information, the definition of site
equipment and their use has to be tuned.

IV.3.2 NAMING AUTOMATICALLY SITES
ATOLL integrates, by default, a prefix to site names : "Site". In addition to this prefix, a number is added and
is incremented automatically. Nevertheless, you can force ATOLL not to use these default prefix and to
prefer user-defined prefixes. You can customise it by adding the syntax described below in an ATOLL.ini file.
You must create this file and place it in the ATOLL installation directory.

The syntax in order to define a new prefix to site names in the ATOLL.ini file is the following :
[Site]
Prefix=newprefix
Each new site will be named newprefixN instead of SiteN.

Notes :
This file is read only when ATOLL is started. Therefore, it is necessary to close the ATOLL session
and to restart it in order to take into account any modification performed in ATOLL.ini.
Naming automatically transmitters is also possible, either from a fixed prefix or based on the site name
with which the considered transmitter refers.

IV.3.3 MANAGING SITE PROPERTIES
Like for all objects organised in folders (Sites, transmitters, Antennas, Predictions, Simulations,
measurements, etc...) within ATOLL, sites can be managed either individually or globally. Global setting is
applied to all the filtered sites.

Global properties management
In ATOLL, you may manage globally the properties associated with existing sites of your network :
To do so, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the Sites folder,
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the opened dialog window.

The displayed window contains 3 tabs (General, Table, Display). The General tab allows you to use the
advanced filter/sort/group by features. The Table tab manage the contents of the Site table. The Display tab
is designed to assign colours, labels and tips to sites. An additional Other Properties tab is possible if some
user defined fields are added to the Site table.


Individual property management
There are two ways to edit properties of each existing site in the current network.
To do so,
Either :
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u Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
u Expand the Sites folder by clicking on the button in front of it
u Right click on the site you want to manage,
u or
u Select on the map the site you want to manage by right clicking on it ( ),
u Choose the Propertiesoption from the context menu
u Use the What's this help to get description about the opened dialog window.

The displayed window contains at least 2 tabs (General and Display). An additional Other Properties tab is
possible if some user-defined fields are added to the Site table. In UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000 projects, an
additional tab dealing with Site equipment is available.


Managing site properties is also possible from the Site table.

IV.3.4 CHANGING A SITE POSITION
ATOLL permits easy management of the site positions. You can proceed in two ways, either by using
geographic coordinates, by integrating the fi eld topology, or by moving sites manually (using the mouse).

A context menu is associated with each created site. This can be obtained identically by right clicking on the
site on the map or in the Sites folder from the Explorer window.

Using the geographic coordinates
To do so, proceed as follows :
u Double click on the site (on the map, or in the Sites folder from the Explorer window) you want
to move, in order to obtain the site properties window. You can do the same by selecting the
Properties option from the context menu associated with this site (see above).
u Choose the General tab,
u Use the What's this help to get description about the opened dialog window
u Give the site coordinates (X,Y) in the display system you have chosen. The position of the site
by default (just at the creation) corresponds to the centre of your active map.

Note : in the General tab of the site properties window, you can also change the name of the site, add
comments for each site, and lock its position on the map. Locking the site position allows "safety" for manual
movements (using the mouse) for sites on the map. When you move the site, a message will ask you to
confirm your action.

Move sites to a high point
When creating a network, it may be very useful to get sites high enough to propagate signals easily. ATOLL
permits to put sites on the highest point (based on the DTM) around a site on a certain range.

To do so, proceed as follows :
u Activate the site context menu (see above),
u Select the Move to a high point... option,
u Display the radius of highest point test around the current site.

Note : ATOLL can use either the DTM or a user-defined height for sites in computations


Moving sites using the mouse
You can move sites manually on the map, by selecting (left click) one and then by dragging it on the map,
left button pressed, wherever you want. A moving confirmation is asked if the site has a locked position
(see above).

IV.3.5 MANAGING SITE ALTITUDES
ATOLL computes automatically the altitude from the imported DTM map. Nevertheless, it is possible to
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108 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
define "real" altitudes that will be the one taken into account for computations. It is possible to have both
altitudes per site, one altitude read from the DTM map (non editable value) and another one that the user
may define in the Real box. Only the real altitude defined by the user is stored in database (Sites table).

To manually define a site altitude, proceed as follows :
u Either,
u Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
u Expand the Sites folder by clicking on the button in front of it
u Right click on the site you want to manage the altitude,
u or,
u Select on the map the site you want to manage the altitude by left clicking on it ( ),
u Choose the Propertiesoption from the context menu,
u Click the General tab of the opened dialog,
u Use the What's this help to get description about the opened dialog window,
u Enter the real altitude in the appropriate field.
u Click OK or Apply to validate your choice


Notes :
In the Sites table, ATOLL displays the real altitude of the site if defined or the DTM altitude in brackets
in case the site has no real altitude.
In calculations, ATOLL takes into account the site real altitudes and the DTM value in case it does not
find any real altitude. You may force ATOLL to consider only site altitudes determined from the DTM
map by selecting the Compute with the DTM altitudesoption in the Properties window (General tab)
of the site folder. In this case, ATOLL ignores the entered real altitudes.
Altitude is global height compared with sea level (Sea is 0 altitude) and depends on the data of the
imported DTM file (which could be DEM, i.e. including clutter height)

IV.3.6 GETTING DISTANCES AROUND SITES
The radial grid is graduated grid on the map around the site, with site text colour. This grid enables the user
to have a better distances around site visualisation. You can set its parameters by using the
button.


To do so, proceed as follows :
u Either,
u Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
u Expand the Sites folder by clicking on the button in front of it
u Right click on the site you want to get distances around,
u or,
u Select on the map the site you want to get distances around by left clicking on it ( ),
u Choose the Propertiesoption from the context menu,
u Click the Display tab of the opened dialog,
u Left click the button to open the site grid parameter setting dialog box,
u Set the maximum radius, the distance between each graduation and the deviation between
angular graduations.

Note : You can access directly to the grid parameters from the Grid option from the site context menu.
Clicking ok is equal to ticking the Show radial grid box.


Example :

- Maximum radius of grid : 5 000 m
- Concentric distance between graduations : 500 m
- Distance between angular graduations : 30
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Grid display with above parameters

IV.3.7 DISPLAYING THE LINE OF SIGHT AREA
The line of sight represents an area within which visible contact can be made, i.e. the visible zone from a
site, choosing either to work on a simple radius or on a more constraining Fresnel ellipsoid.

To display the line of sight area associated with a site, proceed as follows:
Left click on the desired site in the Sites folder (Explorer window) or on the map
Left click to select the Line of sight area option from the context menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the opened dialog window,
Enter the desired parameters and left click,
Click on OK to validate. ATOLL then displays the line of sight area.

IV.3.8 SETTING THE DISPLAY PROPERTIES OF A SITE
ATOLL always permits the user to manage object displays easily. For the sites, this can be done by
selecting the display tab of the site properties window. The properties window is reached from the site
context menu (right click on the site on the map or in the Sites folder from the Explorer window).

On the site display window, you may :
Define the site display colours (text and symbol). You can display sites with colours depending
on their attributes. The attributes of the sites can be displayed as labels in the workspace,

By left clicking on the symbol button, you may change the symbol font, colour, type,
style (bold, italic, underline) and background (colour and type). Concerning the background, you may
choose between :
- , none,
- , halo,
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- , opaque.


Display of the site name, or not and define the related font style,
Display of a radial grid around the site, or not.

Note : If you use the Display tab in the Site folder properties dialog box in the Explorer window, you may
define globally symbol and text sites display, depending potentially on their attributes.

IV.3.9 DELETING BUILT SITES
In ATOLL, sites (like transmitters) are organized in folders. Even if these two tables are linked, it is possible
to delete easily, in one shot, sites and transmitters which refer to.

To do so, proceed as follows :
Open the Sites table,
Select the Sites you want to delete,
Either,
Press the Del button of your keyboard,
Or,
Choose the Delete record command from the Edit menu.

Note :
When deleting a site where transmitters are positioned, ATOLL automatically removes the site and the
transmitters without displaying a warning. Hence, to cancel a deletion, use the undo feature available
in the Edit menu.
Sites can be deleted directly on the map, using their context menu.

IV.4 ANTENNAS
IV.4.1 CREATING AN ANTENNA
An antenna is a device used for radiating or receiving electromagnetic energy. Depending on the type of
project (DECT WLL, GSM, UMTS, etc.), ATOLL provides antennas well-suited to the studied projects.

Furthermore, ATOLL permits you to create antennas and set the parameters for the characteristics of each
of them (Name, manufacturer, gain, horizontal pattern, vertical pattern, and comments).

Note : Creating and setting parameters for different antennas on the basis of manufacturers data is a long
and meticulous operation. To make it easier for you ATOLL allows the use of copy and paste functions as
easily as in all office automation tools. You may thus create an antenna from a blank sheet or from an
existing one ; the ATOLL display is compatible with most of spreadsheets or word processors.


To create an antenna, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Antennas folder to open the context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on New to create a new antenna,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened windows,
Fill out the appropriate fields either manually, or by importing existing values,
Click either OK or Apply to validate


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Notes :
When performing a calculation along an angle on which no data is available, ATOLL computes a linear
interpolation from existing pattern values.
In the other properties tab, there are 3 ATOLL custom properties like the Antenna beamwidth,
minimum and maximum frequencies corresponding to the antenna utilization range. The Beamwidth is,
in a plane containing the direction of the maximum lobe of the antenna pattern, the angle between the
two directions in which the radiated power is one-half the maximum value of the lobe. Translated in
terms of dB, half power corresponds to -3 dB. In this window, you may enter this angle in degrees.
An Electrical tilt field is available in the General tab, but is not taken into account for computations.
Patterns must already integrate this parameter in their shape.

IV.4.2 MANAGING THE ANTENNA PROPERTIES
In ATOLL, you may edit and even modify the current parameters of an antenna. You may do this action
either individually for each antenna, or globally.

Single radiation pattern editing
You may edit horizontal or vertical patterns of each antenna by doing nearly the same as creating an
antenna. To do so, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Antennas folder by left clicking on the sign left to the directory
Select the antenna from which you want to edit the radiation pattern by left clicking on it,
Activate the antenna properties window either by double clicking or by choosing the
properties option from the scrolling menu.
Choose the pattern tab associated with the pattern you want to edit.

You may change the values by filling new ones directly on the tables. Patterns can be copied to clipboard or
printed.


Note : it is possible to display antenna patterns with either linear or logarithmic axes. To choose your
display system, right click in the pattern window and choose the appropriate option from the opened scrolling
menu. The new shape is automatically displayed in the pattern window.


Multiple radiation pattern editing
Like for the other parameters (sites, transmitters, etc...), ATOLL permits to manage antennas in table form.
To activate the antenna table, double click on the antenna folder or choose the Open option from the
antenna context menu (right click on the antenna folder). By resizing cell heights and widths, you may obtain
all the antenna patterns on a view in order to make a comparative choice.


Data Tab/Antenna/Open - Antenna Data table


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Notes :
By using the copy (Ctrl+C) and paste (Ctrl+V) functions, you may even attribute patterns from one
antenna to another one by working directly on the pattern cells of the antenna table,
The way pattern are displayed (linear or logarithmic) is reported in the antenna table as chosen in any
single antenna properties dialog box.

IV.4.3 MODIFYING ANTENNA PARAMETERS IN TABLES
ATOLL can manage easily antenna data with its table form availability. Like for the other items, you may
change data directly in the table (left click on the cell you want to modify), or use the copy and paste (Ctrl+C
and Ctrl+V) functions. This last feature is very useful in that way you may reuse patterns of an antenna to
others.

Example :
In the following table, an new antenna called Antenna1, from Martin SA, has been built, with a 12 dBi
Gain, and some patterns. The goal, here, is to export the patterns of a certain antenna to the one of
Antenna1.

To do so
Activate the antenna table,
Select the pattern cell from the antenna you want to export the patterns,
Copy the cell by using the Ctrl+C function,



Data Tab/Antenna/Open/Pattern copying - Antenna Data table

Select the pattern cell from the antenna you want to change the pattern,
Paste the patterns by using the Ctrl+V option.



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Data Tab/Antenna/Open/Pattern Pasting - Antenna Data table


ATOLL replaced the old pattern by the new one both in the antenna table and properties window. You can
check that data have also been adapted in the patterns table of the modified antenna properties window.

IV.4.4 COPYING ANTENNA PATTERNS TO THE CLIPBOARD
To copy the horizontal/vertical pattern of an existing antenna to the clipboard, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Antennas folder by left clicking on the sign left to the directory
Select the antenna from which you want to copy the radiation pattern by left clicking on it,
Activate the antenna properties window either by double clicking or by choosing the
properties option from the scrolling menu.
Choose the pattern tab associated with the pattern you want to edit (horizontal/vertical),
Right click on the pattern window in order to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Copy command from the opened menu.


This can be made either on a linear or a logarithmic display

IV.4.5 IMPORTING ANTENNA PATTERNS
Using existing values
If you already have table formatted values for antenna patterns in a file (spreadsheet or word processor), you
can import them directly into the cells of the patterns table by copying and pasting from your application (a
spreadsheet in the following example).

To do so, proceed as follows :
Select from your spreadsheet the columns containing angles and values you want to import,
Copy your selection,


Horizontal pattern values copying

Switch to ATOLL,
Click the first top left cell of the corresponding pattern table in the antenna properties window,
Paste the data by using the Ctrl+V shortcut.
Left click on the Apply button


Missing values in selection
If there are some missing values (blank lines) in your data sheet, ATOLL is able to interpolate the values in
order to obtain a complete and realistic pattern all around the antenna. To do so, just follow exactly the steps
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as just above. When pasted, blank lines are being compacted in the pattern table when the apply button is
pressed.

IV.4.6 PRINTING ANTENNA PATTERNS
To print the horizontal/vertical pattern of an existing antenna, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Antennas folder by left clicking on the sign left to the directory
Select the antenna from which you want to print the radiation pattern by left clicking on it,
Activate the antenna properties window either by double clicking or by choosing the
properties option from the scrolling menu.
Choose the pattern tab associated with the pattern you want to edit (horizontal/vertical),
Right click on the pattern window in order to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Print... command from the opened menu.


This can be made either on a linear or a logarithmic display

IV.5 TRANSMITTERS
IV.5.1 TRANSMITTERS : OVERVIEW
A transmitter is the source or generator of any signal on a transmission medium. A transmitter is a piece of
equipment composed of some antennas located on a site. Depending on the type of project, ATOLL
manages differently the transmitters parameters. Whatever is the project, you may manage globally or
individually the transmitter parameters and their single activity/inactivity. A base station is a group of
transmitters on the same site. With ATOLL, you may work on several types, from single to multi-sectored
stations, by creating new ones from nothing or templates.

Then depending on the project type, transmitters are managed differently. Hence, additional levels are
introduced like subcells and TRXs in TDMA/GSM projects, cells (one carrier on a transmitter) for UMTS/W-
CDMA and CDMA/CDMA 2000 projects.

So, the items referenced in this part deal with common management of transmitters and station templates.
All specific parts depending on the technology are described in their respective parts. In the coming sections,
will be described the steps consisting on the creation, deletion, moving and setting of the global properties of
the transmitters and station templates.

IV.5.2 TRANSMITTERS CHARACTERISTICS
IV.5.2.a CREATING A TRANSMITTER
In ATOLL, several antennas can be installed on the same transmitter. The creative steps for one antenna
and more antennas transmitters are identical. The second antenna used is automatically placed at the same
height than the first one.


To create a transmitter, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder,
Choose the New option from the context menu.
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened windows,
Fill out the appropriate fields in the several tab windows,
Click OK or Apply to validate the new transmitter.

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ATOLL opens the "Transmitter new element properties" window containing the main characteristics
describing the transmitter you are building. This window contains at least 2 tabs, additional tabs being linked
with the type of project template you are working on.

The standard tabs are General and Transmitter, and deal with the definition of the transmitter, its location,
the assignment to some specific radio equipment (leading to losses computation), and the antenna(s) used
on this transmitter. The power definition is located in the Transmitter part in GSM/TDMA projects, whereas its
definition is made at the cell level in UMTS/W-CDMA or CDMA/CDMA 2000 projects.

Note : The Other Properties tab window is available for any project if a user-defined field has been added to
the transmitter table.

IV.5.2.b NAMING AUTOMATICALLY TRANSMITTERS
ATOLL integrates, by default, a prefix to transmitter names which is the name of the related site. In addition
to this prefix, the sector number corresponding the considered transmitter is added. Nevertheless, you can
force ATOLL not to use these default prefix and to prefer user-defined prefixes. You can customise it by
adding the syntax described below in an ATOLL.ini file. You must create this file and place it in the ATOLL
installation directory.

The syntax in order to define a new prefix to transmitter names in the ATOLL.ini file is the following :
[Transmitter]
Prefix=newprefix
Each new transmitter will be named newprefixN instead of TxN.

Another solution is to use an automatic prefix by writing these lines:
[Transmitter]
Prefix=<AUTO>
In this case, each new transmitter is called Site name_n. Site name is the name of the site where the
transmitter is located and n is the transmitter number on this site.

Notes :
This file is read only when ATOLL is started. Therefore, it is necessary to close the ATOLL session
and to restart it in order to take into account any modification performed in ATOLL.ini.
Naming automatically sites is also possible.

IV.5.2.c MANAGING TRANSMITTER PROPERTIES
Like for all objects organised in folders (Sites, Transmitters, Antennas, Predictions, Simulations,
measurements, etc...) within ATOLL, transmitters can be managed either individually or globally. Global
setting is applied to all the filtered transmitters.

Global properties management
In ATOLL, you may manage globally the properties associated with transmitters of your network :
To do so, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder,
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the opened dialog window.

The 4 standard tab windows are : General, Table, Propagation and Display.
- The General tab deals with folder organisation and associate configurations.
- The Table tab helps you to manage contents in the Transmitter table.
- The Propagation tab makes possible to assign the same propagation model and calculation radius to all
filtered transmitters of the folder.
- The Display tab allows you to manage the display of transmitters depending on their attributes, to manage
the legend, labels on the map, and the contents of help popups using the tip tool .
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Note : To attribute different colours to the transmitters (used in coverage prediction for example) in the
network easily, use the automatic command from the Display type scrolling box in the Display tab window
(and validate by pressing the Apply button).


Individual property management
There are two ways to edit properties of each transmitter in the current network.
To do so,
Either :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
Right click on the transmitter you want to manage,
or
Select on the map the transmitter you want to manage by left clicking on the
appropriate Tx symbol (arrow),
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the opened dialog window.

The displayed window contains at least 4 tabs (General, Transmitter, Propagation, Display). The Other
Properties tab is available if some user defined fields have been added to the Transmitter table :
- The General tab deals with the referring site and the location of the current transmitter
- The Transmitter tab is linked with the definition of power (in GSM/TDMA projects), assigned losses and
antennas built on this transmitter,
- The Propagation tab make possible to assign a propagation model an a calculation radius to the current
transmitter,
- The display tab allows you to manage the colour assigned to the current transmitter.

Note :
You can open the property dialog of the Site on which is built the transmitter by clicking the button
right to the scrolling site selection box in the General tab.
You can open the property dialog of the Antenna used as main antenna on the transmitter by clicking
the button right to the scrolling antenna selection box in the Transmitter tab.

IV.5.2.d MOVING A TRANSMITTER ON THE MAP
Even if transmitters are linked with sites, it is possible to shift them from their reference site by adjusting Dx
and Dy contained in each transmitter property dialog box. Dx (resp. Dy) is the distance (in metres) between
the considered transmitter and the basis site X-positive (Y-positive) directed.

Nevertheless, it is possible to move a transmitter by using your mouse. To do so, proceed as follows :
Select the transmitter you want to move on the map by left clicking on it and
maintaining it, a specific second pointer appears close to the mouse pointer,

Drag the transmitter until the desired location,

Release the mouse button when reached.



Dx and Dy values are automatically modified in the transmitter properties.
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IV.5.2.e ADJUSTING TRANSMITTER AZIMUTHS
In ATOLL, it possible to modify the azimuth of the antenna(s) of any transmitter by accessing its property
dialog box. Azimuth values are defined in degrees, 0 indicating north, and are ordered in a clockwise
direction.

It is also possible to modify the azimuth of the first antenna of any transmitter by using your mouse. To
do so, proceed as follows :
Select the transmitter you want to move on the map by left clicking on it and release
the mouse button,
Move the pointer to the arrow extremity of the selected transmitter, a specific rotation
pointer appears close to the mouse pointer,

Left click on the green dot and maintain the mouse button pressed,
Drag the pointer in order to execute a rotation around the original location,

The value of the azimuth is displayed in real time in the extreme left part of the status
bar ,
Release the mouse button when the desired angle is reached.



Azimuth value for the first antenna of the considered transmitter is automatically modified in the transmitter
properties.

IV.5.2.f INSTALLING SEVERAL ANTENNAS ON A TRANSMITTER
In ATOLL, it is possible to assign several antennas on the same transmitter in order to compose the several
associated patterns of each of them.

To build several antennas on the same transmitter, proceed as follows :
Either :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
Right click on the transmitter you want to manage,
or
Select on the map the transmitter you want to manage by left clicking on the
appropriate Tx symbol (arrow),
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Click the Transmitter tab of the opened window,
Use the What's this help to get description about the opened dialog,
In the Other antennas part, define additional antennas. Click on the first cell in the Antenna
column, open the scrolling menu (by clicking on the arrow) and choose an antenna in the
scrolling menu. Then, enter its characteristics: azimuth (Azimuth column), down tilt (Tilt column)
and the percentage of power dedicated to this antenna (Percent_power column). Select another
row to validate the new antenna installation,
Click OK or Apply to validate the antenna building.


Notes :
Entering 0% in the Percent_power column means that only the first antenna will be considered.
The other used antennas are automatically placed at the same height as the first one.
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The characteristics of additional antennas are no longer described in the Transmitters table.

IV.5.2.g SETTING TRANSMITTER ACTIVITY
When transmitters are built in a network, you may decide to active them or not. Predictions, simulations and
associated reports/statistics take into account only active transmitters (and not filtered transmitters). In the
Explorer window, active transmitters are displayed in red ( symbol) in the transmitter folder, unlike inactive
which are displayed in white ( symbol).

To set the activity of a transmitter,
Either,
Select the Transmitter tab from the transmitter properties
or
Activate the transmitter table window
(Un)tick the active box in order to make the transmitter (un)active in the network

You may also manage the transmitters activity from the context menu associated with each transmitter
individually (right click on the transmitter subfolder in the geo tab from the explorer window) or globally (right
click on the transmitters folder in the geo tab from the explorer window)

IV.5.2.h DELETING A TRANSMITTER
To delete an existing transmitter, select as follows :
Either :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it
Right click on the transmitter you want to delete,
or
Select on the map the transmitter ( )you want to delete by left clicking on the
appropriate Tx symbol (arrow),
Choose the Delete option from the context menu.

Another alternative is to delete the line associated with the transmitter you want to delete in the Transmitters
table.


Note : When selecting a transmitter, be careful to reach the selection. is different. In that case,
that is the site which is selected. Since the deletion action is possible on sites on which transmitters are built,
be sure of your selection.

IV.5.3 STATION TEMPLATES
IV.5.3.a CREATING A STATION TEMPLATE
A station is one transmitter or a group of transmitters on a same site sharing the same properties. With
ATOLL, you may create, modify or delete station templates and build your network from stations instead of
single transmitters.

To create a new station template, proceed as follows :
From the toolbar, left click on the template scrolling box

Select the Manage Templates... tool
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Click the button to create a new station template,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Enter the parameters of the station being currently built,
Click OK to validate.

The new station template is then available in the station scrolling menu.

Note : In UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000, the station template must integrate the site equipment properties
related to the site on which it will be dropped.

IV.5.3.b DEFINING STATION TEMPLATE PROPERTIES
A station is one transmitter or a group of transmitters on a same site sharing the same properties. With
ATOLL, you may create, modify or delete station templates and build your network from stations instead of
single transmitters.

To manage a station template, proceed as follows :
From the toolbar, left click on the template scrolling box

Select the Manage Template... tool

Select the template you want to manage in the Available templates box,
Click the button to open the station template properties dialog box,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Set the parameters of the current station,
Click OK to validate.


Note : the properties you can adjust are similar to the ones of the transmitter properties.

IV.5.3.c DELETING A STATION TEMPLATE
A station is one transmitter or a group of transmitters on a same site sharing the same properties. With
ATOLL, you may create, modify or delete station templates and build your network from stations instead of
single transmitters.

To delete a station template, proceed as follows :
From the toolbar, left click on the template scrolling box

Select the Manage Template... tool

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Select the template you want to delete in the Available templates box,
Click the button,
Click either OK or Cancel to close the dialog box.

IV.5.3.d DROPPING A STATION FROM A TEMPLATE
In ATOLL, as for (site, transmitter) pairs, you can easily build station from available templates.

Proceed as follows to create a station :
Select in the station template scrolling box (located in the toolbar) the template to use,
Left click on the New station button, left to the scrolling box,
Put the station on the appropriate location on your map,

You may also build several identical stations from a template in ATOLL. To do so, you must have
previously defined a hexagonal cell radius for the corresponding template in its properties dialog window.
When this is made, proceed as follows to create groups of stations :
Select in the station template scrolling box (located in the toolbar) the template to use,
Left click on the Hexagonal design
1
button, left to the scrolling box,
Draw the zone in which you want to build the stations on the map as a computation or focus
zone,
Stations with associated hexagonal shapes around are built as well as possible in the drawn
zone.


Once built, stations objects (sites and transmitters) are put in the corresponding folders, and you may work
on them as if they were sites and transmitters. Hence, you may add additional antennas on each created
transmitter.

Notes :
When you select a specific template, if the Hexagonal design button is not available ( ), please
define a hexagonal cell radius for this template in its properties dialog window, used as the hexagonal
shape radius.
In UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000, the site on which is dropped the station has UMTS equipment
properties which are defined in the station template dialog.
It is also possible to drop a station on an existing site.

IV.5.3.e DROPPING A STATION ON AN EXISTING SITE
In ATOLL, the standard way in dropping stations is in the same time the creation of related site and
corresponding properties (e.g. site equipment in UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000). Nevertheless, it is easily
possible to drop a station from a template on existing site.

Once the reference site is available, to drop a station from a template on it, proceed as follows :
Select in the station template scrolling box (located in the toolbar) the template to use,
Uncheck the visibility flag in front of the hexagonal design folder,
Left click on the New station button, left to the scrolling box,
Move your pointer until the reference site on your map,
When sticked on it, let the station on the site by left clicking.

IV.5.3.f MANAGING A MULTI-SECTORED STATION
Even if you can select only one transmitter at a time, it is possible to group all together the transmitters
composing a same base station (defined in the station templates properties).

1
An hexagonal design is a group of stations created from the same station template
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To do so, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitter folder to open the context menu
Choose the group by sites option
Transmitters are then displayed under sites subfolders in the transmitters folder.

IV.5.3.g MERGING HEXAGONAL GROUPS OF BASE STATIONS
When you build several hexagonal groups of different station templates, some hexagon overlaps can
happen. This overlapping zones can overestimate the number of needed sites regarding to the number of
transmitters. To avoid that, ATOLL provides a tool that helps you to merge sites of different hexagon groups.

To merge sites of different hexagonal groups located within a certain distance, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Display the several hexagon groups by ticking the box ( ) in front of the Hexagonal design
folder,
Right click on the Hexagonal design folder to open the context menu,
Choose the Merge sites... command from the opened menu,
Enter the distance within which you want to merge sites,
Click OK to start the merging process.


Example : let's imagine that two base bi-sector stations of different hexagon groups are located within a
radius of 200 metres, and their respective hexagon cell radius is 500 m and 1000m. With this feature, you
can merge sites located within a distance of e.g. 300 metres. At the end of the process, there will be only one
site on which 4 transmitters will be built.

IV.6 RADIO EQUIPMENT
IV.6.1 RADIO EQUIPMENT : OVERVIEW
Radio equipment are related to several devices producing losses on transmitters. In ATOLL, it is possible to
calculate such losses for each type of equipment regarding to their specific characteristics. The calculated
values may then be used to either determine total losses on transmitters or indicate their order of magnitude
for each of them. Furthermore, for UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000 projects, assigning equipment to transmitter
helps in the determination of the Total noise figure using the Friis equation.


ATOLL enables you to model transmitter equipment in any project except Broadcast. Radio equipment
consists of three main parts:
Tower Mounted Amplifier (also called Mas Head Amplifiers): it is used to reduce the composite noise
figure of the base station. TMAs are connected between antenna and feeder cable,
Feeders,
BTS.

All the components, tower mounted amplifiers, feeders and BTS, are described in three associated tables. In
addition, some characteristics, which may be different for transmitters using the same equipment, are
specified in each transmitter properties.

Equipment can also be managed in a database structure.

IV.6.2 MANAGING TMA EQUIPMENT
TMA (Tower Mounted Amplifier) are used in the equipment specifications linked with each transmitter. When
defined, TMA are available and can be assigned individually to each transmitter of the network.
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To create/manage tower mounted amplifiers equipment, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the Transmitters folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Equipment : TMA equipment... option from the opened menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened dialog
window,
Click on the Records tab to open the TMA definition table,
Create TMA equipment (give an equipment name to each newly created one), and, for each of
them, specify noise figure (noise figure TMA, dB), uplink gain (reception gain TMA, dB) and
downlink loss (transmission losses TMA, dB),
Click the Close button to validate.


Notes :
Losses and gains must be positive values.
The Table tab window allows you to manage user-defined variables in the Records tab window.
Only transmission values are used in TDMA/GSM projects.

IV.6.3 MANAGING FEEDER EQUIPMENT
Feeders are used in the equipment specifications linked with each transmitter. When defined, feeder types
are available and can be assigned individually to each transmitter of the network.


To create/manage feeder equipment, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the Transmitters folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Equipment : Feeder equipment... option from the opened menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened dialog
window,
Click on the Records tab to open the Feeder definition table,
Create Feeder equipment (give an equipment name to each newly created one), and, for each
of them, specify losses per metre (feeder losses per metre, dB/m) and the connector
transmission and reception losses (dB),
Click the Close button to validate.


Notes :
Losses must be positive values.
The Table tab window allows you to manage user-defined variables in the Records tab window.
Only transmission values are used in TDMA/GSM projects.

IV.6.4 MANAGING BTS EQUIPMENT
BTS equipment are used in the equipment specifications linked with each transmitter. When defined, BTS
types are available and can be assigned individually to each transmitter of the network.


To create/manage BTS equipment, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the Transmitters folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Equipment : BTS equipment... option from the context menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened dialog
window,
Click on the Records tab to open the BTS definition table,
Create BTS equipment (give an equipment name to each newly created one), and, for each of
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them, specify noise figure (BTS noise figure, dB),
Click the Close button to validate.


Notes :
Noise figures must be positive values.
The Table tab window allows you to manage user-defined variables in the Records tab window.
Only transmission values are used in TDMA/GSM projects.

IV.6.5 ASSIGNING RADIO EQUIPMENT TO TRANSMITTER
Once defined, TMA, feeder and BTS equipment can be assigned to transmitters taking part of a network in
order to determine corresponding total losses. For example, in GSM/TDMA projects, losses due to
equipment will be available only when the Power and Losses option is chosen to define the efficient power of
transmitters instead of EIRP.


To define transmitter radio equipment, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
Either,
Right click on the transmitter you want to parameter radio equipment to open the
associated context menu,
Choose the Properties command from the opened menu,
Or
Double click on the transmitter you want to parameter radio equipment,
Click on the Transmitter tab from the opened window,
Click the button to open the associated dialog box,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Click OK to validate.


Notes :
Losses and gains must be positive values.
Only transmission values are used in TDMA/GSM projects.

IV.6.6 USING EQUIPMENT TO COMPUTE TRANSMITTER LOSSES
TMA, feeder and BTS equipment allows you to calculate losses on transmitters. Once their characteristics
defined for each transmitter, ATOLL calculates downlink losses for GSM/TDMA projects, and downlink and
uplink losses for CDMA projects, including the total noise figure, using the Friis equation.

To display calculated loss regarding to equipment specifications for each transmitters, open the properties
dialog associated with the considered transmitter, and choose the Transmitter tab window. Calculated values
are indicated in brackets right to the boxes linked with the different types of losses. This fields are editable
and can be user modified.

Notes :
When loss information is lacking, the following default values are considered: Gain=0dB and Noise
figure=0dB.
Only transmission values are used in TDMA/GSM projects.

ATOLL does not automatically recalculate total losses and total noise figure when modifying equipment
characteristics in their respective tables, in each transmitter Equipment specifications window or in the
Transmitters table. It keeps initial values and displays updated values in parentheses.

For automatic total losses and total noise figure update from equipment characteristics, proceed as
follows :
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Either,
Right click on the Transmitters folder, choose Equipment : Apply to transmitters.
Or
Open the Transmitters table,
Select the whole column(s) you want to calculate
Empty it (them) using the Delete key on your keyboard.

Note : The first way enables you to update total losses and total noise figure of all the transmitters while the
second one can be used on a group of transmitters.

IV.6.7 MANAGING RADIO EQUIPMENT IN A DATABASE STRUCTURE
In ATOLL, TMA, feeder and BTS equipment are related to some objects from a database. These are
available when creating a new environment .atl or when opening an existing one (even from a version
previous to 1.9.2) not connected to a database.

To enable the equipment modelling in existing projects connected to a central database, a specific
procedure must be achieved. This is given below :
Let several users be connected with a central database. The database administrator is one of
them,
In database, the administrator must create three tables, called TMAEquipments,
FeederEquipments, and BTSEquipments, respectively dedicated to TMA, feeder and BTS
equipment. Tables are described hereafter. In each table, assign a primary key to the field
NAME,

Field Label Length Description
NAME Text 255 Name of Tower Mounted Amplifier
DL_LOSSES Float 4 Downlink losses of Tower Mounted Amplifier
NOISE_FIGURE Float 4 Noise figure of Tower Mounted Amplifier
UL_GAIN Float 4 Uplink gain of Tower Mounted Amplifier
TMAEquipments table

Field Label Length Description
NAME Text 255 Name of Feeder
LOSS_PER_METER Float 4 Feeder loss per meter
FeederEquipments table

Field Label Length Description
NAME Text 255 Name of base station
NOISE_FIGURE Float 4 Noise figure of base station
BTSEquipments table

The administrator must also define fields, listed below, in the existing Transmitters and
TplTransmitters tables,

Field Label Length Description
TMA_NAME Text 255 Name of the TMA equipment
FEEDER_NAME Text 255 Name of the feeder equipment
BTS_NAME Text 255 Name of the BTS equipment
FEEDERLENGTH_DL Float 4 Length of DL feeder
FEEDERLENGTH_UL Float 4 Length of UL feeder
ANTDIVGAIN Float 4 Antenna gain diversity
MISCDLL Float 4 Miscellaneous DL loss
MISCULL Float 4 Miscellaneous UL loss
Fields to add in the Transmitters and TplTransmitters tables

Users may then refresh their documents .atl or open a new one from the database from projects created
under ATOLL version prior to 1.9.2.
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V MANAGING COMPUTATIONS IN ATOLL
V.1 COMPUTATIONS IN ATOLL : OVERVIEW
Once the network has been built, ATOLL allows you to realize some general studies. To make this easier,
ATOLL provides some calculation tools like multithread and distributed features. Moreover, the several
processes can be either displayed in an event viewer window or inside a log file.

ATOLL provides also the possibility to limit the calculation loading and time by introducing polygonal zones
helping you to limit the computation to a certain set of transmitters. This is made by using two type of
polygonal zones : the computation zone and the focus zone. The first one is the one on which are made the
computations, the second one on which are made the statistical outputs.

Depending on the project type you are working on, you may choose between the different propagation
models available in ATOLL. You may even decide to attribute different ones to the different transmitters
composing the network.

Predictions may be featured in two ways :
You may use the point analysis tool in order to predict, at any point from the current map, the reception
profile between a reference transmitter (in real time) and the value of the several signal levels of the
surrounding transmitters at a given point (using existing path loss matrices).
You may compute different types of standard coverage predictions : coverage by transmitter, coverage
by signal level and overlapping zones. Many customising features on coverage studies are available in
order to make their analysis easier.

All of these are easily manageable. Furthermore, ATOLL allows you to export coverage and path loss results
with a view to use them elsewhere in other application.

Notes :
For CDMA technology projects (UMTS and CDMA/CDMA 2000), ATOLL provides also an active set
analysis based on a particular scenario (given terminal, mobility and terminal) for an existing simulation
at a given point.
Other specific studies like interference studies (GSM/TDMA projects) or handover, service availability,
etc... (UMTS and CDMA/CDMA 2000) are also possible.

V.2 CALCULATION TOOLS IN ATOLL
V.2.1 ATOLL FEATURES FOR COMPUTING
Since the version 2.1, ATOLL provides a multi-thread feature allowing you to share the path loss matrix
computations on several processors. Hence, ATOLL can use two processors of the local machine for
propagation computations, UMTS and CDMA/CDMA 2000 simulations and coverage studies (standard or
specific GSM/TDMA, UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000).

This feature is automatic. That means that, on a bi-processors pc, each processor works out one path loss
matrix, one prediction study or one simulation. Therefore, calculation times are divided in two.

It is also possible to distribute path loss calculation using several Pcs on the same time.

V.2.2 DISTRIBUTING PATH LOSS CALCULATIONS ON SEVERAL PCS
ATOLL provides you the possibility to share computations using the two processors of a bi-processors PC.
Moreover, another feature enables you to distribute path loss calculations on several workstations. The
ATOLL package provides a computing server application; it can be installed either on workstations or
servers and used by ATOLL sessions installed on other stations. Once the computing server application is
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installed on a workstation, this one is considered as a potential calculation server for other workstations with
computing server application. Therefore, a user can distribute calculations of path loss matrices on another
workstation if the computing server application is installed on his workstation and the other one.

This application (working only on propagation computations) supports bi-processors configurations. Once the
computing server application is installed on some computation servers, the distributed computation feature is
possible for other computers of the network.

To activate the distributed calculation on a local workstation, proceed as follows :
From the menu bar, select the Distributed calculation... command in the Tools menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the opened dialog window,
Either,
Check that the Activate the distributed calculation option is selected and type the
name of calculation servers, which you want to distribute computations on (use semicolon
as separator). ATOLL automatically saves the list of calculation servers to be used in an
ATOLL.ini file located in the ATOLL installation directory. The file has the following
syntax:

[RemoteCalculation]
Servers=Workstation_1;Workstation_2

If the list is empty, ATOLL considers that the distributed calculation option is inactive. Then, computations
are run on the local workstation.

Or,
When clicking on the Detect button, ATOLL searches and displays all the potential
calculation servers you can use.
Or,
When clicking on the All button, ATOLL displays the symbol * in the Use servers dialog. In
this case, it will scan all the potential calculation servers when starting calculations.
ATOLL will use all the found calculation servers.
Click OK to validate your choice.

When starting propagation computations, ATOLL searches the calculation servers of the list and distributes
calculations on the found servers. It displays in the Events tab the found calculation servers.


Notes :
If calculation servers entered in the list are not available (workstation is off), computations are run on
the local workstation.
The distributed calculations do not work in case of embedded geographic data and ISTAR format
maps (*.ist).
Several users can distribute their computations on the same calculation server. Path loss matrices are
not simultaneously calculated but one after the others (e.g. 1
st
matrix from user1, 1
st
matrix from
user2)
The ATOLL.ini file can be prepared by an administrator and marked read only.

V.2.3 DISPLAYING CALCULATION EVENTS IN A LOG WINDOW
An event viewer window is available IN ATOLL. To make it display, use the Display menu. This window
consists of two tabs, the Events and Tasks tabs.

Events tab
ATOLL lists some events and provides for each of them, the type, the hour the event occurred and a
description. Events detailed in the Events tab concern PlaNET imports and calculations (path loss matrices
and coverage studies). You may encounter three types of events, displayed with a specific symbol:
- Errors occurred during PlaNET import or calculations: ATOLL does not stop the import or calculation
process; it automatically opens the Events tab to warn you,
- Warnings about minor problems happened during calculations. Be careful, ATOLL does not open the
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Events tab to inform you,
- Information on time a calculation or PlaNET import process is started and ended.

Some features in order to manage events are available. To access them, right click on the window in order to
open the related context menu. Then you will be able to :
- Delete the selected event(s) (Delete command),
- Delete all the events (Delete all command),
- Copy the event description in the clipboard (Copy command),
- Display the entire event description (Properties command).

Tasks tab
The Tasks tab enables you to visualise progress of path loss matrix, prediction study, UMTS, CDMA/CDMA
2000 simulation calculations and neighbour allocation.

As calculation progress is managed in the Tasks tab, it is now possible to work with ATOLL while
calculations are running.

The Tasks tab is automatically open as soon as calculations are started.

To interrupt calculations, click on the button, available in the Tasks tab.

Notes :
Messages listed in the events tab can be saved in a log file.
The log window is automatically magnetised within the other set of ATOLL window. To break this
magnetism, and freely move this window, use the CTRL key when dragging it.

V.2.4 EXPORTING CALCULATION EVENTS IN A LOG FILE
The Event viewer window contains two tabs : Events and Tasks. The events tab displays details about
processes and potential errors, information and warnings.

Messages listed in this tab can be saved in a .log file. To do that, add an option when starting ATOLL from a
command line, with the syntax above :
C:\Program Files\Forsk\ATOLL\ATOLL.exe -log C:\.\events.log

V.3 COMPUTING IN POLYGONAL AREAS
V.3.1 COMPUTATION AND FOCUS ZONES : OVERVIEW
The computation and focus zones are user-definable polygonal areas based on the map cutting. Drawing
such polygonal zones allows the user to reduce calculation area and calculation times.

The computation zone had several functions :
Determining transmitters geographically involved in computations (those which calculation radius
intersects rectangle containing the computation zone),
Determining the validity of path loss matrices (i.e. Increasing the computation zone size invalidates
path loss results),
Clipping traffic maps (during Monte-Carlo simulations, mobiles are dropped within the computation
zone).

The focus zone help you in :
Clipping all the outputs (coverage, reports, statistics),
Clipping the graphic display with lighter colours around the polygon (and optionally when printing).


To sum up, computation zone is the area where ATOLL works out path loss matrices, coverage studies,
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Monte-Carlo and power control simulations while focus zone is the area where you want the results. These
features provide a practical way of analysing sub-areas once the main area is fully calculated. Furthermore,
they enable you to analyse simulation results and coverage without border effect.

Like other polygonal objects (e.g. clutter or traffic), computation and focus zone are easy to manage in
ATOLL. Hence, this zones can created either by drawing, or importing from an external file. Several drawing
tools are available, e.g. resizing, adding points to the zones, removing a point. Moreover, these can be
saved in external files. Information on these zones are also very easy to reach (size and coordinates).

Note : You may perform propagation calculations without geographic data (free space propagation).
Nevertheless, it is necessary to define a computation zone.

V.3.2 COMPUTATION AND FOCUS ZONES : EFFECTS
Computation and focus zones helps you to reduce calculation area and calculation times. They are applied
on several items listed below.

Clutter or traffic statistics
Clutter, traffic, UMTS, CDMA/CDMA 2000 environment statistics refer to the focus zone if there is one. Only
areas inside the focus zone are taken into account.

Note : If not defined, the focus zone is the computation zone.

Clutter
ATOLL calculates the surface of each clutter class contained in the focus zone and its percentage.

Traffic
In UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000 projects, statistics are available only in case of traffic raster maps (traffic
maps based on environments). ATOLL works out surface of each traffic class (environment) contained in the
focus zone. For each of them, it provides surface of each clutter class covered by the traffic class and its
percentage.

In GSM/TDMA projects, ATOLL evaluates the surface of each traffic class contained in the working zone
and its percentage.

UMTS and CDMA/CDMA 2000 environments statistics
For each user profile described in the environment, ATOLL calculates density of users and the number of
users on a clutter class. The density of users remains the same. On the other hand, the number of users is
related to the focus zone.


Path loss matrices
ATOLL works out a path loss matrix for each active and filtered transmitter which the calculation radius
intersects rectangle containing the computation zone. Only contents of the matrices inside the computation
zones are computed.


Coverage studies

Calculation and display
Coverage calculations are achieved by taking into account the computation zone. ATOLL checks coverage
conditions on the areas inside the computation zone. Therefore only bins contained in the computation zone
will be covered.

Tip information on coverage is related to the computation zone. Currently, the focus zone is not considered
for tip information.

Statistics on UMTS and CDMA/CDMA 2000 studies
To be taken into account, the focus zone must be defined before accessing study statistics. It is not
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necessary to define it before computing coverage. When accessing the Statistics tab (in the study Properties
window), ATOLL considers only covered areas inside the focus zone. For each threshold value defined in
the Display tab, it works out the covered surface and its percentage. These data are evaluated for each
environment class, when using maps based environments as traffic cartography.

Note : If not defined, the focus zone is the computation zone.

Study reports
To be taken into account, the focus zone must be defined before accessing reports. Reports are dynamically
updated to take into account the focus zone without requiring a coverage re-calculation. ATOLL considers
only covered surfaces inside the focus zone. Therefore, in case of coverage by transmitter, only transmitters
which coverage intersects the focus zone can be considered in the report.

Note : If not defined, the focus zone is the computation zone.


UMTS and CDMA/CDMA 2000 simulations

Calculation
ATOLL drops mobiles on the traffic area contained in the computation zone. During power control, ATOLL
considers all the active and filtered transmitters which the calculation radius intersects rectangle containing
the computation zone.

Simulation reports
To be taken into account, the focus zone must be defined before checking simulation results (UMTS,
CDMA/CDMA 2000). It is not necessary to define it before calculating simulation. When accessing the results
of the simulation, only sites, transmitters and mobiles located inside the focus zone are considered. The
global output statistics are based on these mobiles.

Notes :
- If not defined, the focus zone is the computation zone. The computation zone is not used as filter.
Therefore, all the transmitters with a calculation area, even those located outside the computation zone, and
all the created mobiles are analysed in the simulation results.
- If the focus and computation zones are the same, only sites and transmitters located inside the focus zone
are dealt with in the simulation results.

Display
All the mobiles even those outside the focus zone are represented on the map. ATOLL provides information
for any of them, in tips and by left clicking on them.


Other calculation algorithms
Other calculation algorithms for allocating primary scrambling codes, neighbours, frequencies, BSIC or
working out the number of requested TRXs take into account all the active and filtered transmitters which the
calculation radius intersects rectangle containing the computation zone.


Printing
You may print either the whole selected area or only the area inside the focus zone when selecting the Erase
outside of the focus zone option.

Note : If the focus zone is not defined, ATOLL will consider the computation zone instead of focus zone.

V.3.3 DRAWING A COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE
To draw a computation or a focus zone, proceed as follows :
Select the Draw command from the Tools : computation (resp. focus) zone menu in the menu
bar,
Position the pointer (polygonal selection arrow) on the map,
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Press the mouse left button (a first point is created),
Slide the pointer on the map and press the mouse left button to create another point,
Carry out the two last steps until you draw the polygonal area you want,
Double-click to close off the polygonal area.

The selected computation zone is delimited by a red line. The focus zone is delimited by a green line and the
background is lighter.

Note : If not defined, the focus zone is the computation zone.

V.3.4 CREATING A COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE FROM POLYGONS
You can create a computation (resp. focus) zone from any polygon imported from a vector file. To do so,
proceed as follows :
Right click on the polygon you want to become the computation (resp. focus) zone to open the
associated context menu,
Select the Use as computation (resp. focus) zone command from the available scrolling menu.

V.3.5 IMPORTING THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE FROM A FILE
As many other geo data objects, ATOLL allows you to import the computation (resp. focus) zone from a file
with either an Autocad (.dxf), Arcview (.shp) or MapInfo (.Mif) format. The imported computation (resp. focus)
zone takes the place of an already existing one.


To import a computation (resp. focus) zone file, proceed as follows :
Either,
Select the Import... command from the Tools : computation (resp. focus) zone menu in
the menu bar,
Or,
Select the Import... command from the File menu in the menu bar,
Specify the directory where the file to be imported is located, the file name and the file type in
the opened dialog box,
Press the OPEN button to validate,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Select the computation (resp. focus) zone option from the Import to scrolling menu,
If necessary, precise the coordinate system associated with the file being currently imported,
Click the Import button to achieve the procedure.


Notes :
The drag and drop feature is available from any file explorer application to ATOLL to import the
computation (resp. focus) zone,
Any computation (resp. focus) zone must be a polygon,
The Tools: computation (resp. focus) zone menu is available only if the map of the project is currently
displayed.
Shp filenames are not limited in number of characters when exporting or importing, even if the file
name is made of more than 8 characters.

V.3.6 EXPORTING THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE TO A FILE
In ATOLL, it is possible to export the computation (resp. focus) zone in order to make it available in other
applications. This can be made in the Arcview (.shp) or MapInfo (.Mif) formats.


To export the current computation (resp. focus) zone to a file, proceed as follows :
Select the Save as... command from the Tools : computation (resp. focus) zone menu in the
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menu bar,
Specify the path, the name and the format of the file to export,
Press the SAVE button to validate,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
If necessary, precise the coordinate system associated with the file being currently exported,
Click the Export button to achieve the procedure.


Notes :
The Tools: computation (resp. focus) zone menu is available only if the map of the project is currently
displayed.
Shp filenames are not limited in number of characters when exporting or importing, even if the file
name is made of more than 8 characters.

V.3.7 DELETING THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE
To delete the computation (resp. focus) zone, proceed as follows :
Either,
Left click on the red (resp. green) line (limit of the computation/focus zone). The pointer
becomes position indicator ( ),
Right click on this limit to open the associated context menu,
Select the Delete computation (resp. focus) zone command from the opened scrolling
menu,
Or,
Choose the computation (resp. focus) zone : Delete command from the Tools menu
when the workspace is displayed on top.

V.3.8 RESIZING THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE
To resize the computation (resp. focus) zone, proceed as follows :
Left click on the red (resp. green) line (limit of the computation/focus zone). The pointer
becomes position indicator ( ),
Press and hold the mouse left button,
Drag the pointer in the area where you want to locate the point,
Release the mouse button.

V.3.9 ADDING A POINT IN THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE
To add a point to the computation (resp. focus) zone, proceed as follows :
Left click on the location on the computation zone limit (red line) you want to add a point. The
pointer becomes position indicator ( ),
Right click on this limit to open the associated context menu,
Select the Insert point command from the opened scrolling menu.

V.3.10 REMOVING A POINT IN THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE
To remove a point from the computation (resp. focus) zone, proceed as follows :
Left click on the point from the computation zone limit (red line) you want to delete. The pointer
becomes position indicator ( ),
Right click on this limit to open the associated context menu,
Select the Delete point command from the opened scrolling menu.

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V.3.11 READING THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE AREA
By using the tips button , ATOLL allows the user to read several information about any object. Thus, it is
possible to display information on the current computation (resp. focus) zone.

To do so, proceed as follows :
Rest the pointer on the red (resp. green) line (limit of the computation/focus zone) except on
the main points making up the computation zone until the information appears.

Note : Information about surface will appear only if the tips button is on.

V.3.12 DISPLAYING THE COMPUTATION/FOCUS ZONE COORDINATES
To display the coordinates or points composing the computation (resp. focus) zone, proceed as follows :
Either,
Left click on the red (resp. green) line (limit of the computation/focus zone). The pointer
becomes position indicator ( ),
Right click on this limit to open the associated context menu,
Select the Properties command from the opened scrolling menu,
The coordinates (in the display system) of the point composing the computation (resp.
focus) zone are then displayed in a table window,
Or,
Choose the computation (resp. focus) zone : Properties... command from the Tools
menu when the workspace is displayed on top.


Advice: To draw an appropriate computation/focus zone, you can copy a list of point coordinates from a
spreadsheet and paste it in the computation zone properties window. The format of the data contained in the
table is the following : X_coordinate TAB Y_coordinate on each line. TAB and Return functions are available
by using simultaneously the Ctrl key and the appropriate key. Coordinates are displayed as chosen
previously.

V.4 PROPAGATION MODELS
V.4.1 PROPAGATION MODELS : OVERVIEW
Propagation models simulate the received signal strength at a given point and take the into account :
the Radio data,
the Geo data like DTM and/or clutters, according to the model.


Propagation models used potentially the following mechanisms :
Free space propagation,
Reflections,
Diffraction,
Scattering.


For any type of project, you must find the best suited one. Nevertheless, ATOLL allows you to manage any
project with several propagation models, even on each independent transmitter.

Some propagation models (Okumura-Hata and Cost-Hata) are based on a model type principle. On the
base of the formulae they offer, you can use these models to develop customized models by duplicating the
existing base model (Okumura-Hata and Cost-Hata).

The Okumura-Hata, Cost-Hata, Longley-Rice, Standard propagation model and WLL models available in
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ATOLL are based on formulae whose parameters can be set. Okumura-Hata and Cost-Hata in particular are
based on one formula for each clutter class.

The ITU 526-5 and ITU 370-7 (Vienna 93) models are deterministic and therefore their parameters cannot be
set.

Like other ATOLL objects, propagation models can be easily managed.


Note : When performing consecutive calculations with different thresholds :
If no calculation radius has been defined, ATOLL recalculates the complete coverage for each
prediction.
If a relatively large calculation radius has been defined, ATOLL "stores in memory" the calculations for
the defined area and only calculates the difference between the two predictions.

V.4.2 PROPAGATION MODEL GENERAL INFORMATION
V.4.2.a SELECTING PROPAGATION MODELS
In ATOLL, there are several places in which to precise propagation models. For this reason, you must be
very careful with the propagation models priority order given to the different places where these models are
defined.


To select a propagation model for all transmitters, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Transmitters folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Click on the Propagation tab from the opened window,
Choose from the scrolling list a propagation model,
Enter a calculation radius,
Click OK to validate.


To select a propagation model for each transmitter, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Either
Expand the Transmitters folder by left clicking on the button,
Either :
Right click on the transmitter you want to give a specific propagation model,
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Or
Double click on the transmitter you want to give a specific propagation model,
Click on the Propagation tab from the opened window,
Choose from the scrolling list a propagation model,
Enter a calculation radius,
Click OK to validate.
Or
Activate the transmitter table window,
Make your choice in each cell from the Propagation model column,
Enter a value in each cell from the Calculation radius column.

Note : The calculation radius limits the scope of the calculations to the radius that has been defined. The
calculation radius prevents the system from calculating over too long distances (e.g. in an urban area). In the
case of very large environments, the calculation radius allows you to improve the calculation time. If no
calculation radius has been defined, ATOLL takes into account the prediction minimum threshold to define
the calculation radius for each transmitter.

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138 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003

To select a default propagation model on predictions, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Click on the Propagation tab from the opened window,
Choose from the scrolling list a propagation model,
Enter the grid resolution,
Use the What's this help to get further description about the fields available in the current dialog
window,
Click OK to validate.

V.4.2.b SETTING PROPAGATION MODEL PRIORITY
You may either define one in the Predictions folder, but priority is given firstly to model(s) defined with
transmitters (in any case, for either coverage studies or point analysis predictions). In that next case, you
can choose a propagation model for each transmitter. What is then displayed as propagation model in
the Transmitters folder properties is the summary of what has been chosen for each independent
transmitter.

For example, if you chose the same propagation model X for each transmitter separately, X will be displayed
as propagation model in the Transmitters folder properties. If you gave a propagation model X to some
transmitters and Y to others, no propagation model will be displayed in the Transmitters folder properties.

Because of the priority given to the transmitters for the choice in propagation models, the one displayed in
the Predictions folder will be kept as reference for the complete project if the (default model) has been
chosen for all the transmitters in the network.

V.4.2.c DISPLAYING GENERAL INFORMATION ON PROPAGATION MODEL
Since the 1.9.2 ATOLL version, the user interface has been homogenised for the different available
propagation models. For all of them, a common General tab window is available. In this tab, you may enter
model name, add some descriptions and check the model signature. The model signature is used for validity
purpose. A unique model signature is assigned to each propagation model. When modifying model
parameters, the associated model signature is changed. This enables ATOLL to detect potential path loss
matrix invalidity. In the same way, two identical propagation models in different projects do not have the
same model signature.

Notes : Model signature corresponds to the MODEL_ID field you can find in .par files when externalising
path loss matrices. Nevertheless, the real name of the used propagation model is also explicitly written in
.par files (TX_MODEL_NAME field).

V.4.2.d CHOOSING THE APPROPRIATE PROPAGATION MODEL
The different propagation models are more or less suited depending on the type of project, radio and
geographic data used in the .atl current project. A summarized description is given in the following table.


Model Frequency
band
Take into
account
Required settings Recommended
use

Longley-Rice
(theoretical)
~ 40 MHz - Terrain profile
- Reflection
- Calibration - Flat areas
- Very low frequencies

ITU 370-7
Vienna 93
100 - 400 MHz - Terrain profile - Percentage time while
real field > calculated
field
- Long distances
(d>10km)
- Low frequencies
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> Broadcast

ITU 526-5
(theoretical)
30 - 10.000
MHz
- Terrain profile
- Diffraction (3 knife-
edge Deygout
method)
Fixed receivers

WLL 30 - 10.000
MHz
- Terrain profile
- Deterministic clutter
- Diffraction (3 knife-
edge Deygout
method)
- Free space loss
- Receiver height and
clearance per clutter
Fixed receivers
> Microwave links
> WLL

Okumura-Hata 150 - 1.000
MHz
- Terrain profile
- Statistical clutter (at
the receiver)
- 1 formula per
clutter
- Reflection
- With diffraction or not
- Urban loss +
correction a(Hr)
1 < d < 20 km
> GSM 900

Cost-Hata 1.500 - 2.000
MHz
- Terrain profile
- Statistical clutter (at
the receiver)
- 1 formula per
clutter
- Reflection
- With diffraction or not
- Urban loss +
correction a(Hr)
1 < d < 20 km
> GSM 1800

Standard
Propagation
Model
150 - 2.000
MHz
- Terrain profile
- Statistical clutter
- Effective antenna
height
- With diffraction weight
- K1, ..., K6 (single
formula)
- LOS or NLOS
differentiation
- Loss per clutter with
clutter weighting
- Receiver clearance
1 < d < 20 km
> GSM 900
> GSM 1800
(Automatic calibration
available)

V.4.2.e MANAGING PROPAGATION MODEL FOLDERS
In the Modules tab, propagation models are organized in folders. That way, these items are easy to manage
like other objects. Hence it is easily possible to delete, duplicate, copy and rename each of them.

To access the different managing properties of any propagation model, right click on the model you want to
manage or use as a model to open the related context menu. Then choose among the several available
commands : delete, duplicate, copy, rename.

All newly created propagation models will then be available in the propagation model selection boxes
(Prediction or Transmitter properties).

V.4.3 PROPAGATION MODELS AVAILABLE IN ATOLL
V.4.3.a WORKING WITH LONGLEY-RICE MODEL
The Longley-Rice is a theoretical model particularly suitable for predictions in the 40 MHz band in flat areas.
This model uses the terrain profile to calculate propagation. However, the Longley-Rice model parameters
can be set in the form of a calibrating involving the distance and an additional loss value.

To manage the Longley-Rice model, proceed as follows :
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140 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the Longley-Rice subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double-click on the Longley-Rice subfolder,
Click on the Parameters tab,
Use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the displayed window,
Define the loss parameters to be added to the model (in constant terrain, 0 values means a
signal linear decreasing as function of distance). dkm is the distance (in kilometres) from the
transmitter,
Validate by clicking on Apply or OK.

V.4.3.b WORKING WITH ITU 526-5 MODEL
The ITU 526-5 model is particularly suitable for predictions in the 30-10000 MHz band on fixed receivers. It
uses the terrain profile and the diffraction mechanism (3 knife-edge Deygout method) to calculate
propagation.

The ITU 526-5 recommendation considers that :
If there are no obstacles, propagation will take place in free space ;
If there is an obstacle, attenuation will be taken into account.

If there is an obstacle, an attenuation will be caused on contact with the relief with diffraction on the main
peak (represented by a red line). The main peak taken into account is the one that intersects the most with
the Fresnel ellipsoid. Any attenuation that occurs is then calculated between the station and the main peak
and between the main peak and the receiver. The result may then show up to two new attenuation peaks in
addition to the main peak. The various peaks are identified by red lines. The attenuation generated by all the
peaks is displayed above the main peak.

To access the ITU 526-5 model properties box, proceed as follows :
Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the ITU526 subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double-click on the ITU526 subfolder,
Click on the Parameters tab,
Use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the displayed window,
A dialog window opens in which you may choose or not to apply an empirical tuneable
corrective formula on the Deygout method,
Validate by clicking on Apply or OK.

V.4.3.c WORKING WITH ITU 370-7 MODEL (VIENNA 93)
The ITU 370-7 model follows the recommendations of the Vienna 1993 international conference on
telecommunications network coordination. This model is particularly suitable for predictions in the 100-400
MHz band over long distances (d>10 km), such as in Broadcast studies. It uses the terrain profile to calculate
propagation.

Vienna 93 model parameter setting is limited to defining the percentage of time during which the real field is
higher than the signal level calculated by the model (1%, 10% or 50% of the time). The 50% value is usually
used for coverage predictions, and 1% is usually used for interference studies.

To access the ITU 370-7 model properties box, proceed as follows :
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Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the ITU370 subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double-click on the ITU370 subfolder,
Click on the Parameters tab,
Use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the displayed window,
Choose the appropriate time percentage for the current study,
Validate by clicking on Apply or OK.


Notes : when using this model, take care not to define reliability level different from 50%.

V.4.3.d WORKING WITH WLL (WIRELESS LOCAL LOOP) MODEL
The WLL model is specially intended for "Radio Local Loop" applications in the 30-10000 MHz band. It is
derived from the ITU 526-5 model from which it takes the prediction algorithms while applying specific
changes :

The possibility of setting loss parameters dealing with free space propagation and loss within the line
of sight area only or not,

If the option Line of sight only is not selected, ATOLL computes Lmodel on each calculation bin, using
formula defined in the dialog box.

If the option Line of sight only is used, ATOLL checks for each calculation bin if the receiver is in the
transmitter line of sight. Receiver is in the transmitter line of sight if 100% of the Fresnel half ellipsoid is
cleared (no obstacle along the transmitter-receiver profile).
If the receiver is in the transmitter line of sight, ATOLL computes Lmodel on each calculation bin, using
formula defined above.
When the receiver is not in the transmitter line of sight, ATOLL considers that Lmodel tends to infinity.

The use of an altimeter clutter whose heights for different items (trees, buildings, etc.) will be added
to those for DTM,

The possibility of defining a height and a receiver clearance associated with each clutter theme; (e.g..
receiver on a building, etc.) whose heights will be added to the heights of the clutter,

Adding notions of transmitter and receiver clearance.

The WLL model uses the terrain profile but also takes into account the height of clutter components. These
components (houses, trees, buildings, etc.) will be added to the DTM altitudes to predict propagation and
path loss.
You can define a clearance space around transmitters and receivers (20 metres by default).This feature
permits in particular to simulate holes in clutter areas.

Example : the clearance can be used to simulate streets in an area of buildings where the clutter file used
does not show street detail.

To access the WLL model properties box, proceed as follows :
Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the WLL subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double-click on the WLL subfolder,
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142 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
Click on the Parameters tab,
Use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the displayed window,
Set the free space path loss prediction parameters,
Define an overall clearance for all the transmitters and receivers,
Define a height and clearance specific to the receiver for each clutter class. If, for a given
class, you have not defined any value, the default height will be used. This land use part will be
available only if the document contains a Land use folder,
Validate by clicking on Apply or OK.

V.4.3.e WORKING WITH OKUMURA-HATA MODEL
V.4.3.e.i Working with Okumura-Hata model : Overview
The Okumura-Hata is a model particularly suitable for predictions in the 150-1000 MHz band over long
distances (1 < d < 20km) and is very adapted to GSM 900 technology. This model uses the terrain profile,
diffraction and reflection mechanisms in order to calculate propagation.

Hata models are well adapted to urban environment. Nevertheless, in order to make them available in a
wide range of environments, It is possible to define several corrective formulas, and to associate each
one to each clutter class available in the opened project. Furthermore, it is also possible to define a default
formula used when no land use data will be available.

V.4.3.e.ii Considering losses due to diffraction (Okumura-Hata)
Okumura-Hata is able to take into account or not diffraction mechanisms by using the 1-knife edge Deygout
method.

To make losses due to diffraction loss available/unavailable, proceed as follows :
Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the Okumura-Hata subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double-click on the Okumura-Hata subfolder,
Click on the Configuration tab,
Use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the displayed window,
Choose from the dedicated scrolling menu to take into account (1) or not (0) losses due to
diffraction,
Validate by clicking on Apply or OK.

V.4.3.e.iii Defining an environment default formula (Okumura-Hata)
ATOLL takes into account that even if you do not have a clutter file or clutter data missing, it is possible to
use the Okumura-Hata model. To achieve this, you may define a default type formula to be assigned to the
undefined zones.

To select the environment default formula, proceed as follows :
Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the Okumura-Hata subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double-click on the Okumura-Hata subfolder,
Click on the Configuration tab,
Use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the displayed window,
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Choose from the dedicated scrolling menu one of the available formulas (tuneable by
accessing the Formulas dialog box) to assign to undefined zones,
Validate by clicking on Apply or OK.

V.4.3.e.iv Assigning environment formulas to clutter types (Okumura-Hata)
When environment formulae (See above) and clutter data are available for the current project, you need to
assign to each detected clutter class a type of formula.

To configure clutter types with available formulae, proceed as follows :
Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the Okumura-Hata subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double-click on the Okumura-Hata subfolder,
Click on the Configuration tab,
Use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the displayed window,
Select in the scrolling lists cells from the Formula column the clutter-formula associations,
Validate by clicking on Apply or OK.


Comment : Without this association, the Okumura-Hata model, which use the clutter classes, will be unable
to perform prediction calculations. The Configuration tab is only visible is there is a Land use folder in the
document.

V.4.3.e.v Creating/Modifying environment formulas (Okumura-Hata)
To create/modify an environment formula :
Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the Okumura-Hata subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double-click on the Okumura-Hata subfolder,
Click on the Configuration tab,
Click on the button to open the associated dialog box,
Use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the displayed window,
Adjust formula types and coefficients as function of the currently concerned environment,
Validate by clicking on OK.

V.4.3.f WORKING WITH COST-HATA MODEL
V.4.3.f.i Working with Cost-Hata model : Overview
The Cost-Hata is a model particularly suitable for predictions in the 1500-2000 MHz band over long
distances (1 < d < 20km) and is very adapted to GSM 1800 technology. This model uses the terrain
profile, diffraction and reflection mechanisms in order to calculate propagation.

Hata models are well adapted to urban environment. Nevertheless, in order to make them available in a
wide range of environments, It is possible to define several corrective formulas, and to associate each
one to each clutter class available in the opened project. Furthermore, it is also possible to define a default
formula used when no land use data will be available.

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144 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
V.4.3.f.ii Considering losses due to diffraction (Cost-Hata)
Cost-Hata is able to take into account or not diffraction mechanisms by using the 1-knife edge Deygout
method.

To make losses due to diffraction loss available/unavailable, proceed as follows :
Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the Cost-Hata subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double-click on the Cost-Hata subfolder,
Click on the Configuration tab,
Use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the displayed window,
Choose from the dedicated scrolling menu to take into account (1) or not (0) losses due to
diffraction,
Validate by clicking on Apply or OK.

V.4.3.f.iii Defining an environment default formula (Cost-Hata)
ATOLL takes into account that even if you do not have a clutter file or clutter data missing, it is possible to
use the Cost-Hata model. To achieve this, you may define a default type formula to be assigned to the
undefined zones.

To select the environment default formula, proceed as follows :
Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the Cost-Hata subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double-click on the Cost-Hata subfolder,
Click on the Configuration tab,
Use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the displayed window,
Choose from the dedicated scrolling menu one of the available formulas (tuneable by
accessing the Formulas dialog box) to assign to undefined zones,
Validate by clicking on Apply or OK.

V.4.3.f.iv Assigning environment formulas to clutter types (Cost-Hata)
When environment formulae (See above) and clutter data are available for the current project, you need to
assign to each detected clutter class a type of formula.

To configure clutter types with available formulae, proceed as follows :
Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the Cost-Hata subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double-click on the Cost-Hata subfolder,
Click on the Configuration tab,
Use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the displayed window,
Select in the scrolling lists cells from the Formula column the clutter-formula associations,
Validate by clicking on Apply or OK.


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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 145
Comment : Without this association, the Cost-Hata model, which use the clutter classes, will be unable to
perform prediction calculations. The Configuration tab is only visible is there is a Land use folder in the
document.

V.4.3.f.v Creating/Modifying environment formulas (Cost-Hata)
To create/modify an environment formula :
Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the Cost-Hata subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double-click on the Cost-Hata subfolder,
Click on the Configuration tab,
Click on the button to open the associated dialog box,
Use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the displayed window,
Adjust formula types and coefficients as function of the currently concerned environment,
Validate by clicking on OK.

V.4.3.g WORKING WITH STANDARD PROPAGATION MODEL
V.4.3.g.i Working with Standard Propagation model : Overview
The Standard Propagation Model is a model particularly suitable for predictions in the 150-2000 MHz band
over long distances (1 < d < 20km) and is very adapted to GSM 900 and 1800 technologies. This model uses
the terrain profile, diffraction mechanisms (calculated in several ways) and takes into account clutter classes
(statistically) and effective antenna heights in order to calculate propagation. An automatic calibration is
available.

The model may be used for any technology. It is based on the following formula :

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) clutter f K H K H d K loss n Diffractio K H K d K K
L clutter Rxeff Txeff Txeff el
+ + + + + + =
6 5 4 3 2 1 mod
log log log log

with,

P
R
: received power (dBm).
P
Tx
: transmitted power (EIRP) (dBm)
K
1
: constant offset (dB).
K
2
: multiplying factor for log(d).
d : distance between the receiver and the transmitter (m).
K
3
: multiplying factor for log(H
Txeff
).
H
Txeff
: effective height of the transmitter antenna (m).
K
4
: multiplying factor for diffraction calculation. K
4
has to be a positive number.
Diffraction loss : loss due to diffraction over an obstructed path (dB).
K
5
: multiplying factor for log(H
Txeff
)log(d).
K
6
: multiplying factor for
Rxeff
H .
Rxeff
H : effective mobile antenna height (m).
K
clutter
: multiplying factor for f(clutter).
f(clutter): average of weighted losses due to clutter.

All of these parameters are user-definable in the Standard Propagation Model Properties window consisting
in 4 tabs (General, Parameters, Clutter, Calibration).

See Typical values for Standard Propagation Model formula parameters.

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146 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
V.4.3.g.ii Accessing Standard Propagation Model properties
Users cannot access the internal formula of the Standard Propagation Model. Nevertheless, you may define
all the contained parameters in the Parameters and Clutter tab windows from the SPM properties dialog box.

To access the Standard Propagation Model properties box, proceed as follows :
Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Propagation models by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the SPM subfolder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double-click on the SPM subfolder,
A dialog window opens,
Select the tab according the way you want to adjust model parameters.


See Typical values for Standard Propagation Model formula parameters.

V.4.3.g.iii Adjusting Standard Propagation Model parameters
You may adjust the parameters contained in the SPM base formula by using both the General and the
Clutter tab windows from the SPM properties box.

Excepting for the f(clutter) (defined in the Clutter tab window), all parameters (including the Diffraction terms)
are user-definable in the Parameters tab window.

In 5 cases, user have to select his choice in scrolling menus :
Effective antenna height determination method,
Diffraction calculation method (Deygout, Epstein-Peterson, Deygout with correction, Millington).
The Profiles cell : if you select the already calculated option, ATOLL establishes a profile between
each transmitter and each point located on its calculation perimeter (user-defined by the calculation
radius) and then, uses the nearest profile to make a prediction on a point inside the calculation
perimeter (radial optimisation). When choosing the systematic option, ATOLL systematically
determines a profile between each transmitter and any points in its calculation area. To avoid longer
calculation times, it is recommended to choose the already calculated option.
Corrective term for hilly regions,
The Grid calculation method. You can perform the calculations either at the centre (centred option) or
in the bottom left corner (bottom left option) of each grid.

For all the other parameters, user may enter directly the appropriate values directly in the associated
boxes.


See typical values for Standard Propagation Model formula parameters.

V.4.3.g.iv SPM General tab window
V.4.3.g.iv.i SPM General tab window
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When opened, use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the available fields.

V.4.3.g.v SPM Parameters tab window
V.4.3.g.v.i SPM Parameters tab window


When opened, use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the available fields.

The Standard Propagation Model is a model particularly suitable for predictions in the 150-2000 MHz
band over long distances (1 < d < 20km) and is very adapted to GSM 900 and 1800 technologies. This
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148 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
model uses the terrain profile, diffraction mechanisms (calculated in several ways) and takes into account
clutter classes (statistically) and effective antenna heights in order to calculate propagation. An automatic
calibration is available.

This tab manage parameters from the Standard Propagation model base formula.


In the Near transmitter and Far from transmitter parts, specify the maximum distance, max distance, and
four (K
1
,K
2
) sets (two sets per part).
Max distance is a maximum distance from transmitter. When d (distance between receiver and transmitter) is
inferior to the maximum distance, the receiver is near transmitter. On the other hand, if d is greater than the
maximum distance, the receiver is considered far from transmitter.
Two (K
1
,K
2
) sets, (K
1
,K
2
)
los
and (K
1
,K
2
)
nlos
, are defined in each part. They enable to differentiate the case
where the receiver is in the transmitter line of sight path (los index) or isnt (nlos index).
Therefore, the (K
1
,K
2
) sets taken into account in prediction calculations will depend on d and visibility.


In the Effective antenna height part, define the H
eff
calculation method, the minimum and maximum
distances (distance min and distance max) and K
3
factor. H
eff
may be calculated with six different methods.

Note : distance min and distance max are set to 3000 and 15000 m according to ITU recommendations and
to 0 and 15000 m according Okumura recommendations.
These values are only used in two methods and have different meanings according to the method.


In the Diffraction part, specify which method you want to use for calculating the Diffraction term and K
4

factor.

These diffraction calculation methods are based on the General method for one or more obstacles
described in ITU 526-5 recommendations. The calculations take earth curvature into account via the effective
Earth radius concept.

Four different methods (Deygout, Epstein-Peterson, Deygout with correction and Millington) are available.


In the Other parameters part, specify the values for K5, K6, Kclutter and hilly terrain corrective factor.. Enter
1 or 0 to respectively take it into account or not. In the calculation profile, if you select the already
calculated option, ATOLL establishes a profile between each transmitter and each point located on its
calculation perimeter (user-defined by the calculation radius) and then, uses the nearest profile to make a
prediction on a point inside the calculation perimeter (radial optimisation). On the other hand, when
choosing the systematic option, ATOLL systematically determines a profile between each transmitter and
any points in its calculation area.

Comment: To avoid longer calculation times, choose the already calculated option.


Finally, you can perform the calculations at the centre (centred option) or in the bottom left corner (bottom left
option) of each grid.

To select a method (in Effective antenna height and Diffraction parts)
Right click on the method line and then, on the arrow.
Choose a method in the list.

Note : Default values have been assigned to multiplying factors. The default values correspond to the quasi-
open Okumura-Hata formula valid for a 935 MHz frequency. typical values for parameters composing the
Standard Propagation Model formula.

V.4.3.g.v.ii Standard Propagation Models parameters
In the Near transmitter and Far from transmitter parts, specify the maximum distance, max distance, and
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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 149
four (K
1
,K
2
) sets (two sets per part).
Max distance is a maximum distance from transmitter. When d (distance between receiver and transmitter) is
inferior to the maximum distance, the receiver is near transmitter. On the other hand, if d is greater than the
maximum distance, the receiver is considered far from transmitter.
Two (K
1
,K
2
) sets, (K
1
,K
2
)
los
and (K
1
,K
2
)
nlos
, are defined in each part. They enable to differentiate the case
where the receiver is in the transmitter line of sight path (los index) or is not (nlos index).
Therefore, the (K
1
,K
2
) sets taken into account in prediction calculations will depend on d and visibility.

In the Effective antenna height part, define the Heff calculation method, the minimum and maximum
distances (distance min and distance max) and K
3
factor.

V.4.3.g.v.iii Effective Antenna Height SPM
Effective transmitter antenna height (H
Txeff
) may be calculated with six different methods.


Height above ground
The transmitter antenna height is above the ground (H
Tx
in m).
H
Txeff
= H
Tx

Height above average profile
The transmitter antenna height is determined in relation to an average ground height calculated along a
profile between a transmitter and a receiver. The profile length depends on distance min and distance max
values and is limited by the transmitter and receiver locations. Distance min and Distance max are
respectively minimum and maximum distances from the transmitter.
( )
0 0
H H H H
Tx Tx Txeff
+ =
where,
Tx
H
0
is the ground height (ground elevation) above sea level at transmitter (m).
0
H is the average ground height above sea level along the profile (m).
Note: If the profile is not located between the transmitter and the receiver, H
Txeff
equals H
Tx
.

Slope at receiver between 0 and distance min
The transmitter antenna height is calculated using the ground slope at receiver.
( ) ( ) d K H H H H H
Rx Rx Tx Tx Txeff
+ + + =
0 0

where,
Rx
H is the receiver antenna height above the ground (m).
H Rx 0
is the ground height (ground elevation) above sea level at receiver (m).
K is the ground slope calculated over a user-defined distance (Distance min). In this case, Distance
min is a distance from receiver.

Notes:
1. If m 20 <
HTxeff
then, ATOLL uses 20m in calculations.
2. If m 200 >
HTxeff
then, ATOLL takes 200m.
Spot H
t

If H
oTx
> H
oRx
then, ( )
Rx Tx Tx Txeff
H H H H
0 0
+ =
If H
oTx
H
oRx
then,
Tx Txeff
H H =

Abs Spot H
t

H H
H H
Rx Tx Tx Txeff 0 0
+ =
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150 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003

Enhanced slope at receiver
ATOLL offers you a new method called Enhanced slope at receiver to evaluate the effective transmitter
antenna height.



Let x-axis and y-axis respectively represent positions and heights. We assume that x-axis is oriented from
transmitter (origin) to receiver.

This calculation is achieved in several steps:

1
st
step: ATOLL determines line of sight between transmitter and receiver.

The LOS line equation is:

( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
i s
d
H H H H
H H
i LOS
Rx Rx Tx Tx
Tx Tx

+ +
+ = Re
0 0
0

where,
i is the point index.
Res is the profile resolution (distance between two points).

2
nd
step: ATOLL extracts the transmitter-receiver terrain profile.

3
rd
step: Hills and mountains are already taken into account in diffraction calculations. Therefore,
in order for them not to unfavourably influence the regression line calculation, ATOLL filters the
terrain profile.
ATOLL calculates two filtered terrain profiles, one established from transmitter and another from receiver. It
determines filtered height of every profile point. Profile points are evenly spaced on the basis of profile
resolution. To determine filtered terrain height at a point, ATOLL evaluates ground slope between two points
and compares it with a threshold set to 0.05; three cases are possible.

Some notations defined hereafter are used in next part.
H
filt
is the filtered height.
H
orig
is the corrected original height. Original terrain height is determined from extracted ground profile and
corrected by considering Earth curvature.

- Filter starting from transmitter
C H A P T E R 5


Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 151
Let us assume that H
filt-Tx
(Tx) = H
orig
(Tx)

For each point, we have three different cases:
1
st
case: If ( ) ( ) 1 > i
H
i
H orig orig
and
( ) ( ) ( )
05 . 0
Re
1


s
i
H
i
H orig orig
,
Then, ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1 + =

i
H
i
H
i
H
i
H orig orig Tx filt Tx filt

2
nd
case: If ( ) ( ) 1 > i
H
i
H orig orig
and
( ) ( ) ( )
05 . 0
Re
1
>

s
i
H
i
H orig orig

Then, ( ) ( ) 1 =

i
H
i
H Tx filt Tx filt

3
rd
case: If ( ) ( ) 1 i
H
i
H orig orig

Then, ( ) ( ) 1 =

i
H
i
H Tx filt Tx filt

If ( ) ( ) i
H
i
H orig filt
> additionally
Then, ( ) ( ) i
H
i
H orig Tx filt
=



- Filter starting from receiver
Let us assume that H
filt
(Rx)=H
orig
(Rx)

For each point, we have three different cases:
1
st
case: If ( ) ( ) 1 + > i
H
i
H orig orig
and
( ) ( ) ( )
05 . 0
Re
1

+
s
i
H
i
H orig orig
,
Then, ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1 + + + =

i
H
i
H
i
H
i
H orig orig Rx filt Rx filt

2
nd
case: If ( ) ( ) 1 + > i
H
i
H orig orig
and
( ) ( ) ( )
05 . 0
Re
1
>
+
s
i
H
i
H orig orig

Then, ( ) ( ) 1 + =

i
H
i
H Rx filt Rx filt

3
rd
case: If ( ) ( ) 1 + i
H
i
H orig orig

Then, ( ) ( ) 1 + =

i
H
i
H Rx filt Rx filt

If ( ) ( ) i
H
i
H orig filt
> additionally
Then, ( ) ( ) i
H
i
H orig Rx filt
=



Then, for every point of profile, ATOLL compares the two filtered heights and chooses the greatest one.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) i
H
i
H
i
H Rx filt Tx filt filt
= , max

4
th
step: ATOLL determines the influence area, R. It corresponds to the distance from receiver at which the
original terrain profile plus 30 metres intersects LOS line for the first time (when beginning from transmitter).
The influence area must satisfy additional conditions:
R 3000 m,
d R 01 . 0 ,
R must contain at least three bins.

Notes:
1. When several influence areas are possible, ATOLL chooses the highest one.
2. If d < 3000m, R = d.
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152 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003

5
th
step: ATOLL performs a linear regression on the filtered profile within R in order to determine a regression
line.
The regression line equation is:

b x a y + =

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )


=
i
m
i
m filt m
d
i d
H
i
H d
i d
a
2
and
d
a
H
b
m m
=

where,
( )

=
i
filt m
i
H
n
H
1

i is the point index. Only points within R are taken into account.
2
R
d
dm
=
d(i) is the distance between i and transmitter (m).

Then, ATOLL extends the regression line to transmitter location. Therefore, its equation is:

( ) ( ) b s i a i regr + = Re

6
th
step: Then, ATOLL calculates effective transmitter antenna height,
HTxeff
(m).

a
b
H H
H
Tx Tx
Txeff
2
0
1+
+
=

If H
Txeff
is lower than 20m, ATOLL recalculates it with a new influence area, which begins at transmitter.

Notes:
1. In case m
HTxeff
1000 > , 1000m will be used in calculations.
2. If H
Txeff
is still lower than 20m, an additional correction is taken into account (7
th
step).

7
th
step: If H
Txeff
is still lower than 20m (even negative), ATOLL evaluates path loss using H
Txeff
= 20m and
applies a correction factor.

Therefore, if m
HTxeff
20 < ,
( )
K
f d m
H L L lowant Txeff el el
+ = = , , 20
mod mod

where,
( )
( ) ( )
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+

=
1000
93 . 6
1000
63 . 9
20 1 20
20 3 . 0
10
5
d d
H
H
d
K
Txeff
Txeff lowant

f is the frequency (MHz).

C H A P T E R 5


Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 153
V.4.3.g.v.iv Correction for hilly regions
An optional corrective term enables ATOLL to correct path loss for hilly regions when transmitter and
receiver are in LOS.

Therefore, if receiver is in transmitter line of sight and the Hilly terrain correction option is active, we have:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
K
clutter f
K H K
d
H K H K
d
K K L LOS hill clutter Rx Txeff Txeff LOS LOS el , 6 5 3 , 2 , 1 mod
log log log log + + + + + + =

When transmitter and receiver are not in line of sight, the path loss formula is:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) clutter f
K H K
d
H K
n Diffractio
K H K
d
K K L clutter Rx Txeff Txeff NLOS NLOS el
+ + + + + + =
6 5 4 3 , 2 , 1 mod
log log log log

K
hill,LOS
is determined in three steps. Influence area, R, and regression line are supposed available.

1
st
step: For every profile point within influence area, ATOLL calculates height deviation between
the original terrain profile (with Earth curvature correction) and regression line. Then, it sorts
points according to the deviation and draws two lines (parallel to the regression line), one which
is exceeded by 10% of the profile points and the other one by 90%.

2
nd
step: ATOLL evaluates the terrain roughness, h; it is the distance between the two lines.

3
rd
step: ATOLL calculates K
hill,LOS
.

We have
K K K hf h LOS hill
+ =
,


If m h 20 0 < , 0 =
Kh

Else ( ) ( ) 746 . 6 log 29 . 15 log 73 . 7
2
+ = h h
Kh


If m h 10 0 < , ( ) ( )
i
regr
H H K Rx Rx Rx hf
+ =
0
1924 . 0 2
Else ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
h
i
regr
H H
h h
K
Rx Rx Rx
hf

+
+ =
0 2
21 . 11 log 75 . 14 log 616 . 1 2

i
Rx
is the point index at receiver.

V.4.3.g.v.v Diffraction computation in SPM
This feature is available in the General tab window from the SPM properties box.

In the Diffraction part, user has to define calculations method for the Diffraction term and K
4
factor. These
diffraction calculation methods are based on the General method for one or more obstacles described in ITU
526-5 recommendations. The calculations take earth curvature into account via the effective Earth radius
concept.

Four different methods (Deygout, Epstein-Peterson, Deygout with correction and Millington) are available.


In order to define precisely the diffraction profile, a clearance per clutter class must be defined. To do so,
enter the appropriate values in the Clutter tab window from the SPM properties box in cells just left to the
clutter classes ones.

V.4.3.g.v.vi Deygout
The Deygouts construction, limited to a maximum of three edges, is applied to the entire profile from
transmitter to receiver.
This method is used to evaluate path loss induced by multiple knife-edges. Deygout method is based on a
hierarchical knife-edge sorting, so as to distinguish the main edges, which induce the strongest losses, and
secondary edges, which have a lower effect. The edge hierarchy depends on the obstruction parameter ()
value.

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154 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
1 obstacle
A straight line between transmitter and receiver is drawn and the heights of obstacles above the Tx-Rx axis,
h
i
, are calculated. The obstruction positions, d
i
, are also recorded. From these data,
i
are evaluated. The
point with the highest value is termed the principal edge, p, and the corresponding loss is J(p).

Point p
Rx
Tx
h
p
Sea level

Deygout construction 1 obstacle

Therefore, we have ( )
p
J loss n Diffractio =

3 obstacles
Then, the main edge (point p) is considered as a secondary transmitter or receiver. Therefore, the profile is
divided in two parts: one half profile, between the transmitter and the knife-edge section, another half,
constituted by the knife-edge-receiver section.
The same procedure is repeated on each half profile to determine the edge with the higher . The two
obstacles found, (points t and r), are called secondary edges.
Losses induced by the secondary edges, J(
t
) and J(
r
), are then calculated.
Once the edge hierarchy is determined, the total loss is evaluated by adding all the intermediary losses
obtained.


Point t
Point r
Point p
Rx
Tx
hp
hr
ht
Sea level

Deygout construction 3 obstacles

Therefore,

If 0 >
p
, we have ( ) ( ) ( )
r t p
J J J loss n Diffractio + + =
Else ( )
p
J loss n Diffractio =

Note: In case of ITU 526-5 and WLL propagation models, Diffraction loss term is
determined as follows:
If 78 . 0 >
p
, we have ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
r t p
J J t J loss n Diffractio + + =
C H A P T E R 5


Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 155
Where,
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
= 1 ,
6
min
p
J
t
Else 0 = loss n Diffractio

Deygout with correction
The Deygout with correction (ITU 526-5) method is based on the Deygout construction (3 obstacles) plus an
empirical correction, C.

Therefore,
If 0 >

p
, we have ( ) ( ) ( )
r t p
J J J loss n Diffractio + + = +C
Else ( ) C J loss n Diffractio
p
+ =



Note: In case of ITU 526-5 propagation model, Diffraction loss term is determined as
follows:
If 78 . 0 >
p
, we have ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) C J J t J loss n Diffractio
r t P
+ + + =


Where,
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
= 1 ,
6
min
p
J
t
d C 04 . 0 0 . 8 + = (d: distance stated in Km between the transmitter and the
receiver).
Else 0 = loss n Diffractio

V.4.3.g.v.vii Epstein-Peterson
The Epstein-Peterson construction is limited to a maximum of three edges. First of all, the Deygout
construction is applied to determine the three main edges over the whole profile as described above. Then,
the main edge height, h
p
, is recalculated; according to the Epstein-Peterson construction, h
p
is the height
above a straight line connecting t and r points. The main edge position d
p
is recorded and hence, from these
data,
p
and J(
p
) are evaluated.

Point t
Point r
Point p
Rx
Tx
hp
hr
ht
Sea level

Epstein-Peterson construction

Therefore, we have ( ) ( ) ( )
r t p
J J J loss n Diffractio + + =

V.4.3.g.v.viii Millington
The Millington construction, limited to a single edge, is applied over the whole profile. Two horizon lines are
drawn at the transmitter and at the receiver. A straight line between the transmitter and the receiver is
defined and the height of the intersection point between the two horizon lines above the straight line , h
h
, is
calculated. The position d
h
is recorded and then, from these values,
h
and J(
h
) are evaluated using the
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156 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
same previous formulas.

Point h

Rx
Tx
h h

Sea level


Millington construction

Therefore, we have ( ) h
J loss n Diffractio =

V.4.3.g.v.ix Sample values for SPM formula parameters
Here are some orders of magnitudes for the different parameters composing the Standard Propagation
Model formula

GSM 900 GSM 1800 GSM 1900 UMTS CDMA/CDMA 2000
K1 12 22 22 23.5 12
K2 44.9 44.9 44.9 44.9 44.9
K3 > 0 > 0 > 0 > 0 > 0
K4 > 0 > 0 > 0 > 0 > 0
K5 -6.55 -6.55 -6.55 -6.55 -6.55
K6 0 0 0 0 0

Since K1 is a constant, its value is strongly dependant on the values given to losses per clutter class (if
needed)

C H A P T E R 5


Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 157
V.4.3.g.vi SPM Clutter tab window
V.4.3.g.vi.i SPM Clutter tab window


When opened, use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the available fields.

In this tab, you may define the average of weighted losses due to clutter, f(clutter) in the case of statistical
clutter maps.

( )

=
=
n
i
i i
w L clutter f
1

where,

L: loss due to clutter user-defined in the Clutter tab (dB).
w: weight determined thanks to the weighting function.
n: number of points taken into account over the profile. Points are evenly spaced depending on the
profile resolution.

The losses due to clutter are evaluated over a maximum distance from receiver, Max distance. Each
clutter class is assigned specific loss, Loss per clutter class. The losses are calculated from ground and
clutter heights. The weighting function enables to give a weight to each point. Four weighting functions are
available:

Four weighting functions are available:

Uniform weighting function:
n
w
i
1
=
Triangular weighting function:

=
=
n
j
j
i
i
d
d
w
1

'
i i
d D d = , where d
i
is the distance between the receiver and the i point and D is the maximum distance
user-defined.
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158 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
Logarithmic weighting function:

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
n
j
j
i
i
D
d
D
d
w
1
1 log
1 log

Exponential weighting function:

=
n
j
D
d
D
d
i
j
i
e
e
w
1
1
1

where

L: loss due to clutter.
w: weight.
n: number of points taken into account over the profile.

To select the weighting function
Right click on the weighting function line and then, on the arrow.
Choose a function type in the list.

In the case of semi-deterministic clutter maps, you may define a clearance (m) around the receiver for
each clutter class.

In the case of deterministic clutter maps, all information related to the evaluation of losses per clutter class
are given directly by the data contained in the maps Clearance and heights are already know, and there is
no need to define them again in this dialog.

V.4.3.g.vi.ii Typical values or losses per clutter class (SPM)

Losses per clutter class
Dense urban from 4 to 5
Woodland from 2 to 3
Urban 0
Suburban from -5 to -3
Industrial from -5 to -3
Open in urban from -6 to -4
Open from -12 to -10
Water from -14 to -12

These values have to be entered only when considering statistical clutter maps.

C H A P T E R 5


Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 159
V.4.3.g.vii SPM Calibration tab window
V.4.3.g.vii.i SPM Calibration tab window


When opened, use the button to get a context-sensitive help on the available fields.

In this tab, you may statistically analyse difference between predictions and measurements (Click on the
Statistics.... button) and perform an automatic model calibration (Click on the Calibrate... button) from
measurement survey.

Choose in the list the measurement paths you want to use. In the Filter part, you may select the
measurement points to be taken into account in statistics and for the model calibration by specifying
distance and measurement intervals, los (measurement points in the transmitter line of sight) and nlos
(measurement points which arent in the transmitter line of sight) options.

Note : Statistical analysis and calibration cant be performed without measurement survey.

V.4.3.g.vii.ii Displaying statistics before calibration (SPM)
This feature is available in the Calibration tab window from the SPM properties box.

With this, you may statistically analyse difference between predictions and an existing measurement survey.

To statistically compare measurements with prediction results, left click on the Statistics button. The
study is carried out on the measurement points which check filter criteria. The report window is
displayed:

All parameters defined in General and Clutter tabs are summarized in the Model parameter part: the
formulas used for calculations depending on visibility and distance from transmitter, the algorithms for
evaluating Diffraction and H
eff
terms and the losses per clutter classes.

In the Global statistics part, the number of measurement points which check filter criteria (Num points), the
average value (Mean), the standard deviation (Std deviation), minimum (Min) and maximum (Max) values
are evaluated for data like error, error (LOS), error (NLOS), log(d), log(H
eff
), Diff, log(d)log(H
eff
) and Hmeff.

The difference between experimental (measurement) and theoretical (prediction) values (named Error), is
calculated on the whole path. On the other hand, Error (LOS) is only calculated from points in transmitter line
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160 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
of sight path and Error (NLOS) takes into account points which arent in transmitter line of sight path. Other
data (log(d), log(H
eff
), Diff, log(d)log(H
eff
) and Hmeff) are calculated on the whole path.

In the Statistics per clutter classes part, Num points, Mean and Std deviation on error are detailed per clutter
classes.

Finally, the correlation matrix is specified.

V.4.3.g.vii.iii SPM Statistics dialog window
The calibration dialog window allows the user to statistically analyse difference between predictions
and an existing measurement survey.

To statistically compare measurements with prediction results, left click on the Statistics button. The
study is carried out on the measurement points which check filter criteria. The report window is displayed:

All parameters defined in General and Clutter tabs are summarized in the Model parameter part: the
formulas used for calculations depending on visibility and distance from transmitter, the algorithms for
evaluating Diffraction and H
eff
terms and the losses per clutter classes.

In the Global statistics part, the number of measurement points which check filter criteria (Num points), the
average value (Mean), the standard deviation (Std deviation), minimum (Min) and maximum (Max) values
are evaluated for data like error, error (LOS), error (NLOS), log(d), log(H
eff
), Diff, log(d)log(H
eff
) and Hmeff.

Error, the difference between experimental (measurement) and theoretical (prediction) values, is calculated
on the whole path. On the other hand, Error (LOS) is only calculated from points in transmitter line of sight
path and Error (NLOS) takes into account points which arent in transmitter line of sight path. Other data
(log(d), log(H
eff
), Diff, log(d)log(H
eff
) and Hmeff) are calculated on the whole path.

In the Statistics per clutter classes part, Num points, Mean and Std deviation on error are detailed per
clutter classes.

Finally, the correlation matrix is specified.

V.4.3.g.vii.iv Calibrating the Standard Propagation Model
This feature is available in the Calibration tab window from the SPM properties box.

With this, you may perform an automatic model calibration from an existing measurement survey.

Choose in the list the measurement paths you want to use. In the Filter part, you may select the
measurement points to be taken into account in statistics and for the model calibration by specifying distance
and measurement intervals, los (measurement points in the transmitter line of sight) and nlos (measurement
points which arent in the transmitter line of sight) options.

Note : Statistical analysis and calibration cant be performed without measurement survey.


From a selected measurement session, you may either display statistics on comparison with the current
propagation model or choose to calibrate this model in order to stick its results to the measurements.


To calibrate the model, press the Calibrate... button. The Calibration window is open.

The calibration is carried out on the measurement points which check filter criteria using the linear regression
method.

The variables (cste, clutter, log(d), log(H
eff
), Diff, log(d)log(H
eff
), Hmeff) to be calibrated, the corresponding
correlation coefficients (except for cste and clutter which are constant) and the corrections to be made on K
i

initial factors to take into account the calibration are listed in a table.
C H A P T E R 5


Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 161

You may compare the average error (Mean) and the error standard deviation (Std deviation) before (initial
statistics) and after (current statistics) calibrating the model.


To achieve the model calibration, right click one or several variables (using shift and/or Ctrl button at the
same time) and then, press Identify button. The calibration will be achieved when the current Mean and Std
deviation values and hence, all correlation coefficients are as close to zero as possible.

When selecting a specific variable, you may see, in the right small window, the correlation between error and
this variable. When the correlation coefficient is close to one, a straight line can be drawn from the points: the
error is strongly dependent on the variable. On the other hand, when the correlation coefficient is close to
zero, the points are scattered around the straight line: there is no correlation between the error and the
variable.

When all the variables are selected, identification is processed for each variable from the most correlated to
the less correlated to error.

To recover the initial data before calibration, press Reinitialise button.
To validate the calibration, press OK. The corrections will be added to K
i
factor values.

Note : K
1
and K
2
factors are the same for near and far options.

Important comment : Model automatic calibration solution is a mathematical solution. Before committing
results, ensure of their relevance towards a physical and realistic solution. See Typical values for Standard
Propagation Model formula parameters

See also (to calibrate 1 variable - to calibrate several variables)

V.4.3.g.vii.v SPM Calibration dialog window
The calibration dialog window allows the user to perform an automatic model calibration from an existing
measurement survey.

Choose in the list the measurement paths you want to use. In the Filter part, you may select the
measurement points to be taken into account in statistics and for the model calibration by specifying
distance and measurement intervals, los (measurement points in the transmitter line of sight) and nlos
(measurement points which arent in the transmitter line of sight) options.

Note : Statistical analysis and calibration cant be performed without measurement survey.


From a selected measurement session, you may either display statistics on comparison with the current
propagation model or choose to calibrate this model in order to stick its results to the measurements.


To calibrate the model, press the Calibrate... button. The Calibration window is open.

The calibration is carried out on the measurement points which check filter criteria using the linear
regression method.

The variables (cste, clutter, log(d), log(H
eff
), Diff, log(d)log(H
eff
), Hmeff) to be calibrated, the corresponding
correlation coefficients (except for cste and clutter which are constant) and the corrections to be made
on K
i
initial factors to take into account the calibration are listed in a table.

You may compare the average error (Mean) and the error standard deviation (Std deviation) before
(initial statistics) and after (current statistics) calibrating the model.

To calibrate the model, right click one or several variables (using shift and/or Ctrl button at the same time)
and then, press Identify button. The calibration will be achieved when the current Mean and Std
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162 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
deviation values and hence, all correlation coefficients are as close to zero as possible.

When selecting a specific variable, you may see in the right small window the correlation between error
and this variable. When the correlation coefficient is close to one, a straight line can be drawn from the
points: the error is strongly dependent on the variable. On the other hand, when the correlation
coefficient is close to zero, the points are scattered around the straight line: there is no correlation
between the error and the variable.

When all the variables are selected, identification is processed for each variable from the most
correlated to the less correlated to error.

To recover the initial data before calibration, press Reinitialise button.
To validate the calibration, press OK. The corrections will be added to K
i
factor values.

Note : K
1
and K
2
factors are the same for near and far options.

Important comment : Model automatic calibration solution is a mathematical solution. Before committing
results, ensure of their relevance towards a physical and realistic solution.

See also (to calibrate 1 variable - to calibrate several variables)

V.4.3.g.vii.vi To calibrate one variable
Let us consider the scatter of measurement points depending on their calculation values for a given variable.


calculated
values for the
variable
ERROR (measurement prediction)
Regression line


If the regression line (where the sum of square differences is minimised) is :

b ax y + =

It is easy to prove that :

=
2
X
XY
a where x x X
i
= and y y Y
i
= with y x a b + =

When a variable is calibrated, the new value of the coefficient K
i
is equal to a and the constant value is equal
to b. The coefficients are effectively affected to the model by clicking on OK. b is generally not null, thats
why Cste is often set when identifying a variable.

CAUTION: The Correction column means the difference between the new value and the current value of the
model for each coefficient.

The correlation equals to:

=
Y X
XY
r

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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 163
A correlation is considered satisfying when its absolute value is closed to 1. When it is not the case, the
resulting correction may be unstable and so not reliable.

Once the variable has been calibrated (after pushing the Identify button), a correction is suggested and the
correlation is then set to zero because the differences between measurements and predictions are no longer
dependent on the calculated values.

Once the identification is processed, the correlation graphic becomes:

calculated values
for the variable
ERROR (measurement prediction)
Regression line


V.4.3.g.vii.vii To calibrate several variables
We can generalise the regression line for a set of N coefficients :

[ ]
(
(
(

=
N
N
x
x
a a y M K
0
0


We can prove by the same mean :

(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(




Y X
Y X
Y X
a
a
a
X X X
X X X
X X X X X
N N N N
N
M M
K L
O M
K
1
0
1
0
2
0
2
1 1 0
0 1 0
2
0


with
( )
0 0 0
x x X
i
= , ( )
1 1 1
x x X
i
= and ( ) ( ) ( ) y y Y
i
=

By inverting the matrix, we can get the coefficients a
i
.


CONCLUSION:
It is important to notice that the matrix may be not inverted (or nearly not) in some cases.
When the correlation is wrong (When
( )
i N
X
is nearly a constant (for example log(H
eff
) when H
eff
is
unique) and more generally variables whose correlation is wrong (its absolute value near to zero).
When the variable is actually a constant, the correlation is 0 and no calibration is offered (in this case
the chart is empty).
When two variables depend on each other (2 lines are proportional in the matrix: for example log(d)
and log(d)*log(H
eff
) when H
eff
is nearly a constant), the process works wrongly and may diverge.

So, it is advised to process identification for several variables at a time but only for those which are well
correlated and do not depend on another one already involved.

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164 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
V.5 TUNING RECEPTION PARAMETERS
V.5.1 SETTING THE RECEIVER PROPERTIES
In ATOLL, the calculation of signal levels at any point, for point analysis or coverage purpose, is linked with
the definition of a receiver. Depending on the considered project type, different properties might be tuneable.

To set receiver properties, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Either,
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the context menu,
Choose the Properties option from the context menu.
Or
Double click on the Predictions folder
Left click on the Receiver tab from the opened window,
Use the What's this help to get description about receiver fields,
Enter its height and, for all projects except CDMA studies, associated antenna, losses, and the
adjacent channel protection level.


Notes :
By default, the antenna is set to an imaginary omni one with a 0 dB gain,
In GSM/TDMA projects, its is possible to set the adjacent channel protection level. This parameter is
used in interference computations in order to simulate the signal level offset due to an adjacent
channel contribution on the considered channel. For example, if the value is set to 18 dB (default
value), this means that the signal level coming from an adjacent channel will be decreased by 18 dB
on the total noise computation.

For UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000 studies, the point analysis tool is used for a particular scenario. Depending
on the type of mobility, service or terminal (or Radio configuration in CDMA/CDMA 2000) chosen, radio
parameters are not the same for the receiver. Consequently, to manage receiver parameters used in the
point analysis, you must set the characteristics of each used UMTS parameters (type of service, mobility,
terminal) or CDMA/CDMA 2000 (type of service, Radio Configurations) in the corresponding properties
dialog window.

In GSM/TDMA projects, ATOLL has also an option which limits the representation for coverages around
stations, in order to consider synchronisation problems. This feature is a graphic representation for
coverages and is not taken into account in calculations.

To define the maximum range value limiting the coverage display around stations, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
either,
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the context menu,
Choose the Properties option from the context menu.
or
Double click on the Predictions folder
Left click on the System tab (if available) from the opened window,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the current window,
Set maximum range parameters,
Click OK or Apply to validate.

V.5.2 COMPUTING SHADOWING MARGINS PER CLUTTER CLASS
Propagation models are some mathematical tools in order to predict path losses along a profile with the
better accuracy possible taking into account that they were initially calibrated on reference fields. The results
given by such models are considered exact in only 50% of cases. The real results are, in fact, spread a result
Gaussian curve, an the propagation models provide only statistical results. In reality, we should have to
consider variations in results due to either an inexact modelling of the real field, influence of external
C H A P T E R 5


Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 165
conditions on radio propagation, etc...

This fact can be taken into account by considering some model standard deviation per clutter class, clutter
on which is located the receiver on which you want to calculate a signal level. These standard deviations
(corresponding with 84.15% of probability of appropriate results), linked with a certain needed reliability level
on results (point analysis or coverages) lead to additional losses per clutter class called shadowing margins,
i.e. margins from a result (given by propagation model - in dB) for which the probability of error is 50%. Each
time a reliability level is imposed in ATOLL, these margins have different values. Nevertheless, in order to
define the reliability level, a dialog allows you to list these margins per clutter class for any value defined
reliability level.


To compute shadowing margins per clutter class as a function of reliability level, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Shadowing margins... option from the scrolling menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about other fields available in the current window,
Set the reliability level,
Click the button to start computation,
Click OK to close the dialog.


Notes :
Shadowing margin values are not null only when standard deviations are defined for clutters.
In UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000 projects, uplink soft handover gains due to multipath (2 and 3 links)
are also indicated in this window,
If no clutter data is available, shadowing margin will be set to 0dB, and UL soft handover gain will be
set to the default global value (defined in the Transmitter global parameters in UMTS or CDMA/CDMA
2000),
When the reliability level is 50%, even if UL SHO gains (2 and 3 links) are computed in this window,
the value taken into account is the default global value (defined in the Transmitter global parameters)
for coverage studies and point analysis.
In UMTS and CDMA/CDMA 2000 simulations, these losses are evaluated by computing random
shadowing errors and are added to the model path loss.

V.5.3 USING RELIABILITY LEVEL ON PREDICTIONS
ATOLL models the probability of error on the predicted path loss; errors on calculations depend on the
transmitter-receiver path and the receiver position. They are due to some obstacles, which are not taken into
account by the propagation model (in case geographic data are not up-to-date or appropriate enough, or
when there are point obstacles). This phenomenon is called shadowing or slow fading; variation occurs over
distances comparable to the width of obstacles (buildings, hills ) along the path.

From a user-defined standard deviation corresponding to the clutter class where the receiver is located and a
reliability level, ATOLL evaluates a shadowing margin and adds it to the path loss predicted by the model. In
order for ATOLL to take into account a defined reliability level in calculations, you must define model
standard deviation per clutter class. All coverage studies integrate the possibility to enter a reliability level (in
their property dialog box).


Notes :
If your model is correctly calibrated, you may use the model standard deviations that ATOLL
calculates for each clutter class, in the Measurements folder (Statistics in the Predictions tab of the
Properties window).
In case of a correctly calibrated propagation model, typical standard deviations should be around 6 dB
to 9 dB.
We remind you that model calibration and its result (standard deviation) strongly depend on the
measurement samples you use. A calibrated model must restore the behaviour of measurements
depending on their configuration on a large scale, not totally stick to a few number of measurements.
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166 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
The calibrated model has to give correct results for every new measurement point performed in the
same geographical zone, without having been calibrated on these measurements.
In Interference computation (GSM/TDMA, UMTS, CDMA/CDMA 2000), Shadowing margins
(depending on the entered reliability level and the standard deviation per clutter class) are applied only
on signal level values. These are not taken into account in noise determinations.


When calculating coverage with a x% reliability level, ATOLL displays the areas where the measured field
exceeds the predicted signal during x% of time. When increasing the reliability level, the predicted signal
deviates from average and hence, the shadowing margin raises.


Notes :
When using the ITU 370 model, take care not to define reliability level, the reliability level being already
included as a parameter.
The possibility to make soft handover in UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000 make available the computation
of UL SHO gains for 2 and 3 links in predictions or simulations (UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000).

V.6 POINT ANALYSIS PREDICTIONS
V.6.1 POINT ANALYSIS PREDICTIONS : OVERVIEW
ATOLL contains several propagation models for specific needs. Once the choice has been made, the
associated parameters have been set and the receiver has been tuned, you are able to make radiowave
propagation predictions. ATOLL provides a point analysis tool allowing you, in the standard case (for all
types of projects),
to study reception along a profile between from a reference transmitter in real time (no matrices
needed),
to evaluate the signal levels coming from the surrounding transmitters at a given point (using existing
path loss matrices).

Furthermore, this tool is very helpful in the analysis of cases related to specific technologies. With this, you
can
evaluate interferences on a selected transmitter at a given point, and determine the interferers and
associated noise levels in GSM/TDMA projects,
make a complete active set analysis at a given point for a probe UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000 user
moving in the network with a particular behaviour. This tool will help you to study also, at a point, the
pilot reception and the connection status.
These specific studies are available in their specific parts.

Of course due to the fact that several powers can be defined on an identical transmitter (at the TRX type
level in GSM/TDMA or at the cell level in UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000), point analysis window provides the
possibility to select either the TRX type or the carrier of the study.

Using the Standard Propagation Model, it is possible to obtain further data along a terrain profile with the
point analysis. Handing other tools like export ease, link budget, the possibility to adjust in real time reliability
level, etc...are also available


Note : like for coverage predictions, and because propagation models may be defined either in the
Predictions folder or in the Transmitters folder, you must be very careful to its priority order. The
propagation model defined with transmitters is taken first before the one defined with Predictions
(See Selecting and managing propagation models).

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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 167
V.6.2 DISPLAYING POINT ANALYSIS RESULTS
V.6.2.a USING THE RECEIVER
To make the point analysis active, just click on the button. When this is made, you can move over the
active map, and have displayed in Point analysis window the reception on a terrain profile, the distance
and to predict the received signal level from a given station (for all available models) and interferers on the
transmitting station at the point you are currently located.

If you click on the map, the receiver is fixed on a particular point. To move it again, just click the icon,
and drag it over the map.

V.6.2.b STUDYING THE PROFILE FROM A TRANSMITTER
With the point analysis tool, ATOLL is able to display a view of the terrain profile between a given station and
the point defined by the receiver on the map using the propagation model as defined before (with priority
order respect).

To make active the reception profile window :
From the menu bar, tick the Point analysis command in the View menu,
The point analysis window opens in the lower right corner of your current environment,
Left click on the Profile tab,
Select the transmitter you want to base the prediction from the associated scrolling list,
Either
Click the button in the Point analysis window,
Or
Click the button from the toolbar,
The data appearing on the profiles (ellipses, clutter, etc.) will depend on the model used (See
below).


In this profile tab window, ATOLL indicates the propagation model associated with the selected transmitter;
this model is used for analysis. You may choose to display either the signal or several losses at any point.
You can also choose the item level at which the power(s) of each transmitter are defined.


The altitude (expressed in metres) is reported on the vertical scale. Along the profile, if the signal meets an
obstacle, this causes an attenuation with diffraction symbolized by a red vertical line (if the model used takes
into account diffraction mechanisms). The main peak taken into account is the one that intersects the most
the Fresnel ellipsoid. Any attenuation that occurs is then calculated in one hand, between the station and the
main peak, in the other hand, between the main peak and the receiver. With some propagation models using
a 3 knife-edge Deygout diffraction method, the result may then show up two new attenuations peaks in
addition to the main peak. The various peaks are identified by red lines. The attenuation generated by all the
peaks is displayed above the main peak.

Profile with ITU 526-5, Okumura-Hata or Cost-Hata model
When you use the ITU 526-5, Okumura-Hata or Cost-Hata models, Fresnel ellipsoids (blue) will appear on
the profile and possible diffraction peaks will be represented by a red line. The attenuation generated by
these peaks will be displayed above the main peak.

Profile with WLL model
When you use the WLL model, clutters will also appear on the profile in addition to DTM.
As for the previous models, the Fresnel ellipsoids (in blue) and possible diffraction peaks due to the DTM
and/or clutters symbolized by red lines with attenuation calculated for all these peaks displayed above the
main peak.

Profile with the Longley-Rice and Vienna 93 models
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168 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
Only the first Fresnel ellipsoid and the terrain profile appear for these two models.

Profile with the Standard Propagation model
A report containing information on transmitter-receiver profile can be displayed.

V.6.2.c DISPLAYING PREDICTED SIGNAL LEVELS AT A POINT
With the point analysis tool, ATOLL is able to display the signal from active transmitters in a network at the
point defined by the receiver on the map by using the propagation model as defined before (with priority
order respect).

To make active the reception window :
From the menu bar, tick the Point analysis command in the View menu,
The point analysis window opens in the lower right corner of your current environment,
Left click on the Reception tab,
Click the button from the toolbar,
Move over the current map to the places where you want to make your analysis.


The value of the different signal levels coming from different transmitters is reported in the Reception window
in bar form, from top to bottom from the highest predicted signal level to the lowest one. Displayed bars have
the same colours as defined for each transmitter.

Notes :
Displaying the predicted signal level at a point is possible only if path loss matrices have already be
determined. To do this, you must have previously executed any coverage prediction or simulations
(CDMA/CDMA 2000, UMTS) before using the point analysis tool.
You can choose the item level at which the power(s) of each transmitter are defined,
IN GSM/TDMA projects, it is possible to select the HCS layer on which you want to study signal levels.
For UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000 studies, that's the pilot power which is displayed in this window
whereas it is the Ec/Io which is given in the AS analysis window (1,2)

V.6.2.d LISTING ALL SIGNAL AND C/I LEVELS AT A POINT
In complement to the studies with point analysis of the profile from a transmitter, predicted signals from
surrounding transmitters, and, potentially interferences in case of GSM/TDMA projects, ATOLL provides an
additional tab in the point analysis window allowing you to display, in the same window, general information
at the receiver.

So, ATOLL provides in the Results tab of the Point analysis window:
General information on the receiver: its coordinates (stated in the Display coordinate system) and the
clutter class which it is located on,
The signal level received from each transmitter containing the receiver in its calculation area,
(Transmitters are sorted in a descending signal level order),
C/I levels due to surrounding transmitters, first both in co-channel and adjacent cases, then in adjacent
channel case only (studying always the most interfered TRX) in GSM/TDMA projects.

Notes :
Displaying the predicted signal level at a point is possible only if path loss matrices have already be
determined. To do this, you must have previously executed any coverage prediction or simulations
(CDMA/CDMA 2000, UMTS) before using the point analysis tool.
Interferences are possible only if some channels have been allocated to TRXs.
You can choose the item level at which the power(s) of each transmitter are defined,
IN GSM/TDMA projects, it is possible to select the HCS layer on which you want to study signal levels.
For UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000 studies, that's the pilot power which is displayed in this window
whereas it is the Ec/Io which is given in the AS analysis window (1,2)

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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 169
V.6.3 MANAGING POINT ANALYSIS
V.6.3.a SELECTING A TRANSMITTER IN POINT ANALYSIS
When realizing reception profile and interference analysis using the point analysis tool, it is possible to
display results at an identical point for several transmitters.

To do so, when using the point analysis icon over the map as a moving receiver, click on the map at
the location you want to study different transmitters. Then, the receiver is fixed on the map. In the Point
analysis window (Profile or Interference tab), select the transmitter to study then. Results are
automatically displayed in the Point analysis window.

V.6.3.b SELECTING THE POWER DEFINITION ITEM IN POINT ANALYSIS
Depending on the technology, power can be defined with different values within the same transmitters. The
point analysis window allows you to select the level at which several powers can be defined for the same
transmitter. Hence, you can select :
In GSM/TDMA, the TRX type (BCCH, TCH or TCH_INNER) over which to study the profile. Choosing
the (All) option takes the TRX type with the highest signal level
In UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000, the carrier, knowing that several cells can be assigned to a
transmitter, each cell characterising a carrier on a transmitter. Choosing the (All) option takes the
carrier where the related cell has the highest signal level.

This feature is available both when working in the Profile, Reception, Interference, Results and AS Analysis
tabs(1, 2). Nevertheless, concerning the last one, the (all) option (for cells) works regarding the carrier
selection mode as defined in the site equipment (UMTS, CDMA/CDMA 2000)

V.6.3.c ADJUSTING RELIABILITY LEVEL IN A POINT ANALYSIS
ATOLL permits the user to display the properties of the probe receiver used in a point analysis window.
Depending on the tab in use (reception profile, predicted signal, interference analysis, Results, and AS
Analysis tabs(1, 2), it is possible to display different pieces of information.

The reliability level can be set at the receiver, in order to calculate shadowing margins (using standard
deviation defined per clutter class) to apply to computed propagation.

In any tab window of the point analysis window, to access the reliability setting box, proceed as follows :
Right click in the current Point analysis window,
Choose the Properties... option from the context menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Set the value of the reliability level,
The related shadowing margin (and UL SHO gains in UMTS and CDMA/CDMA 2000
projects) value is automatically displayed,
Click OK to close the dialog.


Notes :
Shadowing margin values are not null only when standard deviations are defined for clutters.
If no clutter data is available, shadowing margin will be set to 0dB, and UL soft handover gain will be
set to the default global value (defined in the Transmitter global parameters in UMTS or CDMA/CDMA
2000),
In UMTS and CDMA/CDMA 2000 simulations, these losses are evaluated by computing random
shadowing errors and are added to the model path loss.

V.6.3.d DISPLAYING SIGNAL LEVELS OR LOSSES IN POINT ANALYSIS
ATOLL permits the user to display the properties of the probe receiver used in a point analysis window.
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170 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
Depending on the tab in use (reception profile, predicted signal, interference analysis, Results, and AS
Analysis tabs(1, 2), it is possible to display different pieces of information.

Hence, you can choose to display results at a given point in term of path loss, total losses or signal level in
the Profile tab of the point analysis window. This can also be made as a coverage condition.

In the Profile tab window, to access the result type box, proceed as follows :
Right click in the current Point analysis window,
Choose the Properties... option from the context menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Choose to display either the signal level, path loss or total losses in the Result type scrolling
box,
Click OK to close the dialog and validate your choice.


The available study criteria are detailed in the table below.

Study criteria Formulas
Signal level (
rec
P
)
( )
Rx ant Shadowing path rec
L
G
M L EIRP P
Rx
+ =

Path loss (
path
L
)
L
L L
ant path
Tx
+ =
model

Total losses (Total-Losses)
( ) ( )
G G
L L M L Losses Total
ant ant Rx Tx Shadowing path
Rx Tx
+ + + + =


Note : In case of coverage studies, it is possible to calculate the signal level at the receiver in dBm, dBV or
dBV/m.

V.6.3.e DISPLAYING LINK BUDGET AT A RECEIVER
ATOLL permits the user to display the link budget at a receiver along a path profile. The link budget is made
of powers, gains and losses composing the signal level.


To display the link budget box at any point, proceed as follows :
From the menu bar, check the Point analysis command in the View menu,
Left click on the Profile tab,
Right click in the current Point analysis window,
Choose the Link budget... option from the context menu.

V.6.3.f USING A SITE AS A TARGET FOR POINT ANALYSIS
ATOLL provides a feature in order to put the receiver used for point analysis on the exact location of an
existing site, using any tab (reception profile, predicted signal, interference analysis, Results, or AS Analysis
tabs(1, 2)) of the point analysis window.

To put the point analysis tool on an existing site, proceed as follows :
Make active the point analysis,
Right click on the receiver to open the associated context menu,
Select the Target site command from the opened scrolling menu,
In the Target site dialog, choose one existing site from the scrolling list,
Click OK to close the dialog.

V.6.3.g DISPLAYING SPM PARAMETERS OVER A PROFILE ANALYSIS
When using Standard Propagation model, you may display a report containing information on transmitter-
receiver profile.

To get it, proceed as follows :
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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 171
Right click on the profile part of the current window in order to open the associated context
menu,
Choose the Model details command from the displayed menu.


The default text editor for txt files opens. In this report, ATOLL gives the number of points taken into account
along the transmitter-receiver profile and details for every point:
The distance between the point and the transmitter (Dist) in m,
The ground height (Alt) in m,
The ground height with earth curvature consideration (Gr H) in m,
The total height (Tot H) in m: Tot H = Gr H + clutter height.

Note : At the transmitter (first point in the list) or at the receiver (last point in the list), we respectively have:
Tot H = Gr H + Clutter height + H
Tx
and Tot H = Gr H + Clutter height + H
Rx,
where, H
Tx
and H
Rx
are
respectively transmitter and receiver antenna heights above the ground (m).

The clutter class,
The filtered total height (Flt H) in m. ATOLL determines this parameter only when the Enhanced
slope at receiver method is selected.

Then, it recapitulates effective transmitter antenna height (Tx effective height), K1 and K2 parameters used
in calculations (Far or Near, LOS or NLOS) and detailed propagation results. Correction for low Tx effective
height, are different from zero.

V.6.3.h EXPORTING A POINT ANALYSIS STUDY
Whatever is the point analysis you are currently making (reception profile, predicted signal level, interference
analysis, Results, and AS Analysis tabs(1, 2)), ATOLL permits the user to export a result as displayed in the
Point analysis window as in image in any application.

To do so, proceed as follows :
From the menu bar, tick the Point analysis command in the View menu,
The point analysis window opens in the lower right corner of your current environment,
Choose the tab associated with your current study,
Make your results displayed,
Right click in the Point analysis window,
Choose the Copy option from the context menu,
Switch to another application supporting any format image,
Paste the current content of your clipboard by :
Either
by using the Ctrl+V shortcut,
Or
by choosing the Paste function from the Edit menu.

V.6.3.i PRINTING A POINT ANALYSIS STUDY
Whatever is the point analysis you are currently making (reception profile, predicted signal level, interference
analysis, Results, and AS Analysis tabs(1, 2)), ATOLL permits the user to print a result as displayed in the
Point analysis window :

To do so, proceed as follows :
From the menu bar, check the Point analysis command in the View menu,
The point analysis window opens in the lower right corner of your current environment,
Choose the tab associated with your current study,
Make your results displayed,
Right click on the Point analysis window,
Choose the Print... option from the context menu,
The Print dialog window opens,
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172 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
Choose the appropriate printing parameters,
Click OK to start printing.

V.7 COVERAGE STUDIES
V.7.1 COVERAGE STUDIES : OVERVIEW
A coverage is a set of covered pixels. This coverage is defined by coverage conditions in order to select
the transmitters that must be taken into account for the study. Then, according to this selection, any pixel will
be covered as depending on the display type chosen, either by transmitter, by signal level, by overlapping
zones in the standard case (for all projects). So, a coverage is a graphic representation of points for which
a coverage condition is satisfied.

Depending on the type of project considered, some specific studies (treated in their specific parts) are also
available :
- Interference studies in GSM/TDMA projects
- Specific E/GPRS studies dealing with coding schemes or rates colouring,
- Specific UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000 studies based either on simulations or user-defined traffic loads.

Like for many other ATOLL objects, the management of coverage study is both easy and powerful. The
generic ATOLL display dialog (including legend, label et tip management) is used and allows you to display
your study on several attributes related to transmitters. Furthermore, some organization features (filter, sort
and groups) are also available.

Management of results is also provided in ATOLL in a very complete way. Indeed, it is possible to
lock/unlock either complete studies or individual matrices, to display, print or export exhaustive coverage
reports, to export matrices or coverage zones, to check the validity of current results regarding to the current
radio configurations, and other tools always with a view to make handy coverage studies in ATOLL.

V.7.2 SETTING PREDICTION PARAMETERS
V.7.2.a SETTING CALCULATION AREAS
Concerning the calculation areas, 3 parameters have to be defined : the grid resolution, the calculation
radius from each transmitter and the computation zone (the focus zone has no effect on the matrix sizes).

To change the grid resolution, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
either
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
or
Double click on the Predictions folder
Click on the Predictions tab from the opened window,
Enter the grid resolution,
Use the What's this help to get further description about the fields available in the current dialog
window,
Click OK to validate.


The calculation radius limits the scope of the calculations to the radius that has been defined. The calculation
radius prevents the system from calculating over too long distances (e.g. in an urban area). In the case of
very large environments, the calculation radius allows you to improve the calculation time. If no calculation
radius has been defined, ATOLL takes into account the prediction minimum threshold to define the
calculation radius for each transmitter. Calculation radius can be set either from the transmitters properties or
from the station template properties.
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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 173


Note : when changing a computation zone (for example : reducing) in which some predictions studies have
already been made, it is strongly advised to run again predictions in order to ensure validity of results with
current computation zone.

V.7.2.b EXTERNALISING PATH LOSS RESULTS
The first step of coverage predictions consist in the determination of the path loss matrices associated with
each active transmitter in the network. This is automatically made for the first coverage prediction. Results
(path loss matrices) may be stored either directly in the current atl project or in an external .losses folder.


To store path loss matrices in an external .losses folder of the current .atl ATOLL project, proceed as
follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Properties... option from the scrolling menu,
Check the external calculation storage box,
Use the What's this help to get description about other fields available in the current window,
Click OK to validate.


When selecting this option, a folder with .losses extension is automatically created in the directory where the
ATOLL project is saved. This new folder has the same name as the associated ATOLL project. The folder
consists of two files per active transmitter, a binary file with .los extension including the path loss matrices
and a text file with .par extension containing calculation parameters.

Caution : the external files are updated without saving the ATOLL environment as soon as calculations are
performed. To keep consistency with the stored calculations, the corresponding ATOLL environment must
be saved before closing.

Using this option, calculations are no longer stored in the .atl file. Nevertheless, to get a .atl file with smaller
size (where matrices where initially embedded into), save your environment with another name using the
File: Save as command; a new .losses folder linked to .atl file is created in the same directory. This feature
enables the user to store bigger calculations in external files without storage size limitation (2 Gbytes for a
file).This could be useful for both calculation sharing, optimisation of storage sizes, and, hence, calculation
time.

Note : this feature allows you to create matrices that will sharable between several users.

V.7.2.c CREATING COVERAGE CALCULATIONS
Whatever is the project type, all existing predictions are organized in subfolders of the Predictions folder from
the Data tab explorer window. At the beginning of any session, no prediction is available.

To create any prediction, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on New...,
Choose from the list the type of prediction to realize in the opened window,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the associated prediction
window,
Set prediction parameters,
Click OK to validate your choice.

At this step, no calculation is made. A prediction with the parameters you decided is ready to be calculated
only.

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174 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
Notes : User interface of each prediction study Properties is standardised. For any common study, the
Properties window consists of three tabs:
The General tab where you may rename the study, add some comments, define group, sort and filter
criteria,
The Condition tab where you can specify the study parameters,
The Display tab to define coverage display settings.

V.7.2.d MAKING COVERAGE STUDIES PER GROUP OF TRANSMITTER
In ATOLL, you may obtain coverage combining areas per transmitter and colour by levels for several
studies. Indeed, in any project, you may create automatically prediction study with a filter on a selected
transmitter or a group of transmitters.


To create a coverage study by transmitter or by group of transmitters :
Either,
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it
Right click on the transmitter you want to manage,
Or,
Select on the map the transmitter you want to manage by left clicking on the
appropriate Tx symbol (arrow),
Choose the Predictions... option from the context menu,
Choose a prediction study in the opened window and press OK,
Click on the Calculate button to start calculations. The created study is listed in the Predictions
folder.

Notes :
The general tab of the prediction dialog can be also used to filter transmitters in such way,
Coverages per group of transmitters work like when filtering transmitters in coverage studies, i.e., the
filter is made on display only, and note on computations.

V.7.2.e DEFINING PREDICTION PROPERTIES
Coverage predictions are manageable identically as point analysis prediction. Firstly, because propagation
models may be specified either in the Predictions folder or in the Transmitters folder, you must be very
careful to its priority order. The propagation model defined with transmitters is taken first before the one
defined with Predictions (See Selecting and managing propagation models). Then take care about the fact
that reception is modelled as if it was made on a receiver with specific parameters.

Predictions are organised as the other ATOLL objects, i.e. in a folder form. The Predictions folder is the root
for all the performed coverage predictions subfolders. So, it is possible to access to the properties of either
the Predictions folder or of any prediction subfolder.


To access predictions global properties, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
either
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
or
Double click on the Predictions folder
Click either the Predictions, Receiver or the System tab (if available),
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in each window,
Set predictions parameters,
Click OK to validate your choice.


To access the properties dialog box of any prediction, proceed as follows :
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Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Predictions folder by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the prediction study you want to access the properties dialog box,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click on the prediction study subfolder you want to access the properties dialog
box
Click on the available tabs to display the different windows,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in each window,
check or adjust prediction parameters,
Click OK to validate your choice.

V.7.2.f FILTERING TRANSMITTERS IN A COVERAGE STUDY
In ATOLL, it is possible to define filters on transmitters taking part of a prediction study. In fact, these filters
deals only with display. During calculation, ATOLL takes into account all the network active transmitters to
calculate the prediction and displays only coverage related to this transmitter.

Practical examples: The network consists of 4 stations (Tx0, Tx1, Tx2 and Tx3).
Coverage by transmitter study: with best server, no margin and filter on Tx0.
ATOLL displays the areas where the signal level from Tx0 is higher than the specified threshold and Tx0 is
the best server.

Interfered areas study: any calculation option and filter on Tx0.
Tx1, Tx2 and Tx3 are possible interferers; they are taken into account in calculations.

To make a filter on any study, open its associated properties, and use the standard filter tools by clicking the
button.

Notes :
Filters defined in the Transmitters folder and filters inside a polygon have priority over the prediction
filters. Transmitters, which do not check these filter criteria, are considered as inactive in predictions.
In the General tab, Group and Sort features enable you to organise study result in the Explorer. You
can group or sort a study according to any transmitter attribute. These commands are always available
except when selecting display of best signal level, best server path loss, best server total losses or
number of servers.

V.7.2.g DEFINING THE COVERAGE CONDITIONS
In ATOLL, the condition tab of any coverage study property dialog allows you to filter the active transmitters
(with calculation area) that will be part of the computation.

So, in this tab, you must specify (using the What's this help to get information about available fields in the
condition tab window):
The study criterion you want ATOLL to calculate: you can choose to evaluate the signal level at the
receiver (Signal level), the path loss (Path loss) or the total losses (Total losses), as in point analysis,
Minimum and maximum thresholds: a bin of the map will be covered only if the calculated criterion
on the bin is between minimum and maximum thresholds.
Servers you want to study. You may choose All or best signal level.
A margin in case of a best signal study.

- In case of all the servers are considered (All), the coverage area of Txi is the zone where:
( ) threshold Maximum or or threshold Minimum

<
Losses Total L P
Txi Txi
tot
Txi
rec


- In case of best signal (Best signal level) and no margin, the coverage area of Txi is the zone where:
( ) threshold Maximum or or threshold Minimum

<
Losses Total L P
Txi Txi
tot
Txi
rec

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176 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
and
Txi is the best server

- In case of best signal level and a margin, the coverage area of Txi is the zone where:
( ) threshold Maximum or or threshold Minimum

<
Losses Total L P
Txi Txi
tot
Txi
rec

and
Txi is the best server or otherwise,
P
Txi
rec
is within a margin of the best server

Note : In GSM/TDMA projects, you can select Best signal level of the highest priority layer as server. Let us
assume that each transmitter belongs to a HCS layer with a defined priority. In this case, the coverage area
of Txi corresponds to the zone where:
( ) threshold Maximum or or threshold Minimum

<
Losses Total L P
Txi Txi
tot
Txi
rec

and
Txi is the best server
and
Txi belongs to the HCS layer with the highest priority

The study reliability level. Entering 60% as reliability level means that the measured criterion exceeds
the predicted one, 60% of the time.
The selection of an item defining power in transmitters (TRX types in GSM/TDMA projects, carrier in
UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000)

Note : this tab deals with transmitter selection only. Data to be displayed are managed in the Display tab.

V.7.2.h MANAGING PREDICTION DISPLAY
Like for the other ATOLL objects classified in folders and subfolders, prediction results can be either
displayed (by ticking the box just left to each prediction) or not (by unticking the box just left to each
prediction) on the map. You may even display all the calculated predictions by ticking the box just left to the
Predictions folder (See Managing object visibility)

Concerning the coverage itself, ATOLL uses the generic display dialog in order to make easy and complete
its management. So, when creating a prediction study, once the filter on the transmitters to take into account
in computations are coverage (and interference) condition are set (condition tab), the display tab allows you
to coloured the defined zones depending on selected attributes (using the What's this help to get
information about available fields in the display tab window). Attributes can be chosen in order to realize
either common studies (coverage by transmitter, by signal level, overlapping zones), or specific studies (e.g.
interference studies in GSM/TDMA projects, handover status, pilot pollution, etc.., in UMTS or CDMA/CDMA
2000 projects).

These attributes can be, for example :

Signal level (in dBm, dBV, dBV/m)
On each bin of each transmitter coverage area, ATOLL calculates signal level received from the transmitter.
A bin of a coverage area is coloured if signal level exceeds (=) entered minimum thresholds (bin colour
depends on signal level). Coverage consists of several independent layers which you may manage visibility
in the workspace. There are as many layers as transmitter coverage areas. Each layer shows the different
signal levels available in the transmitter coverage area.

Best signal level (in dBm, dBV, dBV/m)
On each bin of each transmitter coverage area, ATOLL calculates signal levels received from transmitters,
which coverage areas overlap the studied one, and chooses the highest value. A bin of a coverage area is
coloured if the signal level exceeds (=) entered thresholds (the bin colour depends on the signal level).
Coverage consists of several independent layers which you may manage visibility in the workspace. There
are as many layers as defined thresholds. Each layer corresponds to an area where the signal level from the
best server exceeds a defined minimum threshold.

Path loss (dB)
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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 177
On each bin of each transmitter coverage area, ATOLL calculates path loss from the transmitter. A bin of a
coverage area is coloured if path loss exceeds (=) entered minimum thresholds (bin colour depends on path
loss). Coverage consists of several independent layers which you may manage visibility in the workspace.
There are as many layers as coverage areas. Each layer shows the different path loss levels in the
transmitter coverage area.

Total losses (dB)
On each bin of each transmitter coverage area, ATOLL calculates total losses from the transmitter. A bin of
a coverage area is coloured if total losses exceed (=) entered minimum thresholds (bin colour depends on
total losses). Coverage consists of several independent layers which you may manage visibility in the
workspace. There are as many layers as coverage areas. Each layer shows the different total losses levels
in the coverage area.

Best server path loss (dB)
On each bin of each transmitter coverage area, ATOLL calculates signal levels received from transmitters,
which coverage areas overlap the studied one, determines the best transmitter and evaluates path loss from
the best transmitter. A bin of a coverage area is coloured if the path loss exceeds (=) entered thresholds (bin
colour depends on path loss). Coverage consists of several independent layers which you may manage
visibility in the workspace. There are as many layers as defined thresholds. Each layer corresponds to an
area where the path loss from the best server exceeds a defined minimum threshold.

Best server total losses (dB)
On each bin of each transmitter coverage area, ATOLL calculates signal levels received from transmitters,
which coverage areas overlap the studied one, determines the best transmitter and evaluates total losses
from the best transmitter. A bin of a coverage area is coloured if the total losses exceed (=) entered
thresholds (bin colour depends on total losses). Coverage consists of several independent layers which you
may manage visibility in the workspace. There are as many layers as defined thresholds. Each layer
corresponds to an area where the total losses from the best server exceed a defined minimum threshold.

Number of servers
ATOLL evaluates how many coverage areas cover a bin in order to determine the number of servers. The
bin colour depends on the number of servers. Coverage consists of several independent layers which you
may manage visibility in the workspace. There are as many layers as defined thresholds. Each layer
corresponds to an area where the number of servers exceeds (=) a defined minimum threshold.

Caution: In case of a signal level, path loss or total losses display, the lowest defined threshold must be
equal to the minimum threshold entered in the Condition tab.

Notes :
ATOLL offers default calculation and display parameters when creating common prediction studies
(coverage by signal level, coverage by transmitter and overlapping), but it is possible to cover by signal
level even if choosing a coverage by transmitter study.
The definition of a study (coverage condition and display parameters) can be chosen for a study
template.
Choosing another display type can make invalid coverage study. In this case, it is necessary to
recalculate prediction study in order to update coverage.

V.7.2.i CREATING A COVERAGE STUDY TEMPLATE
ATOLL provides a feature allowing you to save the definition of a coverage study (General, condition and
display tab properties) in a study template.

To save the settings of any study in a template, proceed as follows :
Right click the coverage study you want to save as a template,
Choose the "Save as a template" command from the opened context menu,
ATOLL saves the study parameters in a Studies.xml file stored in the ATOLL installation
directory.


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178 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
All the study templates saved in this file are available when creating new prediction studies. In the Study
types window, ATOLL lists all the classical studies available for a type of project in the standard studies part
and the study templates you have created in the customised studies part.

Note : the name given to the reference study is kept as template name.

It is possible to remove a study template from the file. In the Study types window, select a customised study
and click on the Delete button.

V.7.2.j DELETING A COVERAGE STUDY TEMPLATE
In ATOLL, coverage study templates are saved in a Studies.xml file stored in the ATOLL installation
directory. These templates contain settings of reference studies set in their General, condition and display
tab properties.

To delete an existing study template proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on New...,
Select from the list the study template (customized studies) you want to delete,
Click the button,
Click OK to close the dialog.


Note : you can also delete globally all the customized studies by deleting the Studies.xml file in the ATOLL
directory.

V.7.2.k RUNNING COVERAGE CALCULATIONS
In ATOLL, coverage studies can be firstly created and tuned, and then calculated. So, it is possible to
prepare a complete set of coverage studies, and let them work all together only when necessary.

To run calculations on created predictions, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Calculations will be made only on unlocked predictions (symbolized ),
Either,
Expand the Predictions folder by left clicking on the button,
From the menu bar, click either the Calculate button
2
or the Calculate all button
3
,
Or,
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose either the Calculate or Calculate all command from the opened scrolling menu,
The event viewer opens showing the calculations progress in the Tasks tab (you may stop
calculations even by clicking the Stop button or pressing the Esc key),
When finished, results are then displayed on the current map.

Notes : The calculate and calculate all features can be accessed also either :
by using respectively the F7 and Ctrl+F7 keys,
from the Tools menu in the menu bar,
from the Predictions folder context menu.

V.7.2.l LOCKING COVERAGE STUDIES
ATOLL permits you to lock some coverage predictions (and keep associated results) whereas you desire to

2
In this case, locked path loss result matrices (in the Result storage window from the Predictions context menu) are not calculated again

3
In this case, even locked (in the Result storage window from the Predictions context menu), path loss matrices are calculated again. If there exists
some locked matrices, a warning message prevents you from the destruction of existing data
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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 179
commit calculations on other studies. So, this feature offers the user the possibility to easily compare
prediction results. This can be made either globally or independently for each existing prediction.

To lock/unlock any single prediction study :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Predictions folder by left clicking on the button,
Right click on the prediction study you want to lock/unlock the calculations,
Select/Unselect the Locked study option from the opened scrolling menu,


To lock/unlock all the existing prediction studies :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
Select either the Lock studies or Unlock studies from the opened scrolling menu.


Locked predictions are displayed with the icon, whereas unlocked predictions are given by the icon.

Note : Be careful not to mix up locking predictions with locking path loss results from the Result storage.
Even if some predictions are locked and other unlocked, path loss matrices may stay unchanged if either
they are locked in the Result storage window or if the user does not use the Calculate all button.


Caution : when calculations have to be completed, be sure to have already defined the coordinate system
used in the current project.

V.7.3 COMMON PREDICTION STUDIES
V.7.3.a CALCULATING A COVERAGE BY TRANSMITTER
In ATOLL, all studies are classified in a study types box, referencing standard and customized studies.
Standard studies are divide into two parts, common studies and studies which are specific to the current
project (GSM/TDMA, UMTS, CDMA/CDMA 2000). Common studies for any projects are : coverage by
transmitter, coverage by signal level and overlapping zones.

The coverage by transmitter study enables the user to predict coverage zones by transmitter as function of
either the signal level, the path loss or total losses defined within a user-defined range.

To prepare this prediction study, in the prediction creation steps, select the coverage by transmitter option
from the study types window. The opened window is made of three tab windows : General, Condition, and
Display. For all of these, use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the
windows.

The coverage by transmitter study is a template for which the field 'Transmitter' is selected by default in the
display tab. In that case, coverage zones will be displayed with the same colours than the ones defined for
each transmitter.

Notes :
ATOLL offers default calculation and display parameters when creating common prediction studies but
it is possible to cover by signal level even if choosing a coverage by transmitter study just by setting
display.
Choosing another display type can make invalid coverage study. In this case, it is necessary to
recalculate prediction study in order to update coverage.

V.7.3.b CALCULATING A COVERAGE BY SIGNAL LEVEL
In ATOLL, all studies are classified in a study types box, referencing standard and customized studies.
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180 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
Standard studies are divide into two parts, common studies and studies which are specific to the current
project (GSM/TDMA, UMTS, CDMA/CDMA 2000). Common studies for any projects are : coverage by
transmitter, coverage by signal level and overlapping zones.

The coverage by signal level study enables the user to predict coverage zones by transmitter as function of
either the signal level, the path loss or total losses defined within a user-defined range.

To prepare this prediction study, in the prediction creation steps, select the coverage by signal level option
from the study types window. The opened window is made of three tab windows : General, Condition, and
Display. For all of these, use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the
windows.

The coverage by signal level study is a template for which the field 'Best signal level' is selected by default in
the display tab. In that case, each layer corresponds to an area where the signal level from the best server
exceeds a defined minimum threshold. Numerous option related to signal level coverage are available in the
Display tab.

Notes :
ATOLL offers default calculation and display parameters when creating common prediction studies but
it is possible to cover by transmitter even if choosing a coverage by signal level study just by setting
display.
Choosing another display type can make invalid coverage study. In this case, it is necessary to
recalculate prediction study in order to update coverage.
Choosing a display per best signal level make the coverage folder made of threshold items whereas
choosing a display per signal level let the folder be made of transmitter items.

V.7.3.c DETERMINING OVERLAPPING ZONES
In ATOLL, all studies are classified in a study types box, referencing standard and customized studies.
Standard studies are divide into two parts, common studies and studies which are specific to the current
project (GSM/TDMA, UMTS, CDMA/CDMA 2000). Common studies for any projects are : coverage by
transmitter, coverage by signal level and overlapping zones.

Overlapping is a coverage whose points correspond, for a defined condition, to the common points of areas
covered by the signal of, at least, two transmitters. Therefore, ATOLL displays the areas where the signal
level from at least two transmitters (signal level option), the path loss of the signal received from at least two
transmitters (path loss option), or total losses along two paths between the considered point and transmitters
(total losses option), is between minimum and maximum user-defined thresholds.

To prepare this prediction study, in the prediction creation steps, select the Overlapping option from the
study types window. The opened window is made of three tab windows : General, Condition, and Display.
For all of these, use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the windows.

The coverage by signal level study is a template for which the field 'Best signal level' is selected by default in
the display tab. In that case, each layer corresponds to an area where the signal level from the best server
exceeds a defined minimum threshold. Numerous option related to signal level coverage are available in the
Display tab.

Notes :
ATOLL offers default calculation and display parameters when creating common prediction studies but
it is possible to cover by transmitter even if choosing an overlapping study just by adjusting display.
Choosing another display type can make invalid coverage study. In this case, it is necessary to
recalculate prediction study in order to update coverage.

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V.7.4 MANAGING PREDICTIONS RESULTS
V.7.4.a MANAGING PREDICTION RESULTS : OVERVIEW
ATOLL contains several features in order to manage prediction results. Prediction results concern both
coverages or matrices.

From available results, it is possible to display associated statistical reports on the coverage zones
associated with each prediction study, and to easily export or print them.

For any prediction, coverage results may be exported in ArcView or MapInfo format. Exported data
are covered areas associated with the considered study.

Another ATOLL feature allows you a complete management of path loss matrices related to transmitters.
Firstly, it is possible to lock only some path loss matrices (even if invalid), while calculating path loss
matrices from other transmitters of the network. Then, it is possible to check the validity of current matrices
regarding the current radio parameters. Then, these path loss matrices my also be exported in order to be
used by other tools.

Results (path loss matrix for each transmitter) may be either directly embedded to any current project, or
outsourced to an external folder, in order to let them available from other users. Indeed, ATOLL permits to
share propagation results stored in an external folder between several users. Therefore, this special
results storage permits to use in the same project, both external results for some transmitters and
private results for others. This part is treated in the specific multi-users chapter.


Note : even if several cells can be defined per transmitter in UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000, only one path
loss matrix is computed per transmitter, powers not being parameters of interest for matrix computation.

V.7.4.b DISPLAYING PREDICTION REPORTS
ATOLL offers a report editing feature on all available prediction for any project type. These can be done
either separately for each prediction or for all displayed prediction ( box ticked for predictions in the
Predictions folder you want a report). Reports come in the form of tables whose contents can be displayed or
not.

When a report table is active, columns can be managed by using the columns to display option from the
Format menu. On first opening, the report will only display the name and coverage areas columns.

To edit a report on any displayed coverage, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Predictions folder by left clicking on the button,
Right click on the Prediction you want a report to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Report option from the scrolling menu,
The associated report is then displayed as a new window,
Choose the Display columns... option from the Format menu,
Tick the boxes associated with the variables to display as columns is the current report.

Notes :
You may display simultaneously report on all displayed coverages by using the Report option from the
Predictions folder context menu. The obtained report concerns all displayed predictions, and is
featured in the order defined in the Explorer window Data tab.
The several parameters than can be displayed in reports have more or less meaning depending both
on the considered technology and study.
Columns to display are either related to the global coverage or to each transmitter taking part into the
coverage.

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V.7.4.c EXPORTING PREDICTION REPORTS
The results on any coverage prediction can be inserted into office application programs. To do so, like
for any other table in ATOLL, perform a copy and paste for the entire report, then reformat the text if
required (change into a table, modify, etc...).

You may also export the displayed map (including currently displayed results) and the results from the point
analysis window to any other application program supporting image data format.

V.7.4.d PRINTING PREDICTION REPORTS
You can use ATOLL to print both characteristics tables and reports as well as maps with their coverage.

To print a prediction report, proceed as follows :
Make active a report window,
Choose the Print... option from the File menu in the menu bar,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Adjust the printing parameters (We assume that your printer is correctly configured for your
Windows applications. If this is not the case, first use the Print configuration... option),
Click OK to validate and activate the printing.

Print reports can be centred on the sheet and possibly spread over a number of sheets for large-scale tables.
Cell sizes are then displayed on the screen.

Comment : When printing a report, a footnote is created automatically in order to indicate the date (in
month/day/year format) and the time of printing as well as the page numbering.

V.7.4.e EXPORTING PREDICTION COVERAGES
With ATOLL, it is possible to export the coverage areas resulting from any coverage prediction in Bmp or Tiff
raster formats or in ArcView, MapInfo or Agd vector formats. Of course, it is possible to only export
predictions that have been calculated beforehand. Exporting coverage predictions allows the user to
generate data file easy to import as vector or raster objects in the future within ATOLL or within other
applications. For each exported prediction (total or for a transmitter), the exported zone is delimited by the
rectangle encompassing the coverage. All coverage type can be exported.


To export any prediction coverage zone, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Predictions folder by left clicking on the button,
Right click on the Prediction you want to export the coverage zones,
Choose the Export... option from the scrolling menu,
Choose the name, the format and the path for the file to export,
Click on the Save button to validate,
Check or modify the reference coordinate system for the file to export,
Click the Export button to achieve the prediction export.


Notes :
Be very careful about the accuracy of the coordinate system format to export. Indeed, this function is
particularly useful in the case of the coordinates being different between your ATOLL file and the data
present in ArcView or MapInfo. Selecting a different coordinates system results in the exported
coordinates being converted (e.g. a cartographic type system to geographic type system or vice-
versa).
Shp filenames are not limited in number of characters when exporting or importing, even if the file
name is made of more than 8 characters.
Raster format export is not possible when there is a coverage area per transmitter (coverage studies
with display type per transmitter, per any transmitter attribute, per signal level, per path loss, per total
losses). In this case, only coverage area of a single transmitter can be exported in BMP or TIFF raster
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format.

See Coverage prediction available exports

V.7.4.f COVERAGE PREDICTION AVAILABLE EXPORTS
Depending on the type of prediction, the following exports are possible :

Prediction Possible export

Overlapping
Coverage by signal level
Coverage by C/I level
Pilot pollution
Downlink total noise The total coverage
handover status
E/GPRS max rate per timeslot
E/GPRS coding scheme


Coverage by transmitter
Interfered zones
Service area (Eb/Nt) uplink The total coverage
Service area (Eb/Nt) downlink Coverage of each transmitter
Effective service area
Pilot reception analysis Ec/Io


For each exported prediction (total or for a transmitter), the exported zone is delimited by the rectangle
encompassing the coverage

Note : exporting coverage zones by transmitter is possible only if the associated coverage study folder is
displayed is made of transmitter subfolders.

V.7.4.g MANAGING EXISTING MATRICES
The Results window enables you to handle the private calculation matrices stored in the .atl environment or
in the external calculation folder associated with the .atl environment .

Once calculations achieved, to display results, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Left click on the Predictions folder,
Choose the Result storage... option from the context menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields and buttons available in the
opened window.


Each line displayed in the table deals with a transmitter. For each of one, by selecting the transmitter(s) of
interest, You may :
lock its results on path loss,
delete its results from the private folder,
exclude useless calculations.

V.7.4.h LOCKING PATH LOSS RESULTS
This feature enables you to let unchanged any path loss matrices if you desire it. Thus, even if you press the
Calculate button for any coverage prediction, locked predictions results stay identical as before.
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184 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation Forsk 2003
Nevertheless, all existing (even locked) matrices are recalculated if you use the Calculate all button
during calculations.


There are two ways to lock path loss matrices, either from the Predictions global properties in a table form, or
from any transmitter properties.


To lock/unlock propagation results (one transmitter at a time), proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Transmitters folder by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the transmitter you want to lock the associated path loss matrix,
Choose the Properties option from the opened scrolling menu,
Or
Double click on the transmitter you want to lock the associated path loss matrix
Click on the Propagation tab,
Tick/Untick the Locked box,
Use the What's this get description about other fields available in the current window,
Click OK to validate.


To lock/unlock propagation results (possibly on several transmitters), proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Result storage... option from the opened scrolling menu,
Either
Tick/Untick the Locked box associated with the transmitters you want to lock/unlock
the associated path loss matrix,
Or
Select the transmitters you want to lock path loss matrix,
Choose the Lock/Unlock option from the Action button,
Use the What's this get description about other fields available in the current window,
Click OK to validate.


Note : be careful not to make confusion with locking calculations.

V.7.4.i CHECKING PATH LOSS RESULTS CONSISTENCY
This feature enables you to check if current path loss results are consistent with the current radio
parameters. There are two ways to check path loss matrices validity, either from the Predictions global
properties in a table form, or from any transmitter properties. If validity is not ok, you may calculate path loss
matrices again in order to keep consistency. Reasons of invalidity are displayed for each transmitter.


To check propagation results validity (one transmitter at a time), proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Expand the Transmitters folder by left clicking on the button,
Either
Right click on the transmitter you want to check the associated path loss matrix
validity,
Choose the Properties option from the opened scrolling menu,
Or
Double click on the transmitter you want to check the associated path loss matrices
validity,
Click on the Propagation tab,
Check the label displayed in the Validity line. If the label is "No", its reason is given just below,
Use the What's this help to get description about other fields available in the current window,
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Click OK to validate.


To check propagation results validity (possibly on several transmitters), proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Result storage... option from the opened scrolling menu,
Check the label displayed in the Validity column. If the label is "No", its reason is given in the
just right,
Use the What's this help to get description about other fields available in the current window,
Click OK to validate.

From this dialog box, it is possible to know how many matrices must be recalculated in order to be
consistent with the current radio configuration before starting calculations. Only matrices dealing with
active transmitters are taken into account in that case. To do so, click on the . The
number is automatically given in the dialog. The number of transmitters available in the current network is
also indicated.

V.7.4.j EXPORTING PATH LOSS MATRICES
Existing path loss matrices in a project may be exported in an external file (for each transmitter) available for
other applications. While exporting, the user must select the type of value he desires to export (Path loss or
Signal levels). If Signal level is selected, he may choose units.
Furthermore, ATOLL enables the user to select the storage file format (binary, text or table).


To export a path loss matrix, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Predictions folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Result storage... option from the opened scrolling menu,
Select the transmitter(s) (cell(s) in UMTS or CDMA/CDMA 2000) from which you want to
export the existing matrix,
Use the What's this help to get description about other fields available in the current window,
Choose the Export... option from the Action button,
Choose the name, the format, the field and the path for the file to export,
Click OK to validate.


Possible exported values are :
Propagation path losses in dB ;
Signal levels in dBm, dBV or dBV/m.


Possible file formats to export values are :
Binary format : .bil ;
Text : .txt with tab as separating character ;
Table : .csv with semicolon as separating character.

Caution : take care not to confuse with externalising path loss results (each matrix is "made" of a .par and
.los file)


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VI GSM/TDMA PROJECT MANAGEMENT
VI.1 GSM/TDMA PROJECTS : OVERVIEW
GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) and DCS ((Digital Communications System) are radio
technologies using TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) principles, each on a different frequency band.

In TDMA technology, users are spread over frequency bands made of physical channels. Each of these
physical channels is divided into a certain number of logical channels called timeslots. The norm in standard
TDMA is 8 timeslots per channel. This means that a channel can carry simultaneously 8 speaking users.

Even if users on a same physical channel do not interferer each other (spread on time), every data carried
on a physical channel can be potentially interfered by other communications occurring on co-channel or on
adjacent channel. The goal of planning such a GSM/TDMA network will be to provide a sufficient coverage to
cover a maximum area, to assign to transmitters enough channels in order to absorb the traffic demand by
limiting interferences in the network.

Geo data are easily manageable as in the other projects. You may either create or import any of these data.
Sites, antennas, station templates, transmitters, measurements, and propagation models work in the same
way for GSM/TDMA projects than for the other technology types. Nevertheless, the complexity of such a
modelling has led to the introduction of several specific radio data for GSM/TDMA in order to optimise the
management of radio resources. As many objects in ATOLL, these data are easy to manage and use
generic dialogs.

Traffic is also a parameter than can be easily generated and managed in ATOLL. This is useful in order to
dimension TRXs (set of logical channels) for each transmitter. Once the number or resources needed to
absorb the traffic is set, you can easily manually assign frequencies to transmitters. Even if all common
studies are available (coverage by transmitter, coverage by signal level, overlapping) with some specific
conditions due to GSM/TDMA, ATOLL provides also some other specific coverage studies dealing with
interferences : interfered areas and coverage by C/I level. Furthermore, like for the study of the profile and
reception in point analysis (and active set in UMTS and CDMA/CDMA 2000), it is possible to study
interferences in GSM/TDMA using the point analysis.

These results show clearly that most of the time the network has to be optimised in order to stick to the goals
(see above). Hence, ATOLL provides powerful features dealing with the determination (manually or
automatically) and the management of neighbourhoods. These definitions, used with some other constraints
can be used as input constraints for an automatic planning tool. The results have to provide a frequency plan
with enough resources to absorb the defined traffic minimizing interferences on the basis of input constraints.
Once the frequency plan is set, an automatic tool is available in order to check its consistency.

EDGE (Enhanced Data-rates for GSM - or Global - Evolution) and GPRS (Global Packet Radio Service) are
technologies using also TDMA concepts. Contrary to GSM working in circuit switched mode, EDGE and
GPRS use timeslot working on packet switched mode, but can be mixed with GSM timeslots on transmitters.
Hence, it is possible in ATOLL to work on such projects using a unique template, and some transmitters will
be defined as E/GPRS stations or not. Related properties will be adapted. Once the composite network (and
related equipment) is set, ATOLL provides specific computations on E/GPRS such as coverage by coding
schemes or by rate per timeslot. Furthermore, coming from rate studies, it is possible to calculate the
average capacity per timeslot per transmitter.

For all the dialogs used in TDMA projects, the What's this context tool allows the user to understand the
specific fields and available features.

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VI.2 MANAGING GSM/TDMA RADIO DATA
VI.2.1 MANAGING GSM/TDMA RADIO DATA : OVERVIEW
In ATOLL, radio network modelling and radio resource management has lead to the introduction of specific
radio data for GSM/TDMA projects :
Frequencies
HSNs
BSICs
TRX types and Cell types
HCS layers

As many other objects in ATOLL, these parameters have been integrated to the tool with a will to make their
management and their use easy. By their use, it is possible to define subcells and TRXs of stations. For all of
these, you can describe and manage several frequency and BSIC domains.

Thanks to this advanced description level, concentric cells are supported. In addition, modelling of several
hopping modes are supported : no hopping, Base Band Hopping and Synthesised Frequency Hopping.
Some parameters such as MAL (Mobile Allocation List), HSN (Hopping Sequence Number), MAIO (Mobile
Allocation Index Offset) are managed.

VI.2.2 FREQUENCIES
VI.2.2.a FREQUENCIES : OVERVIEW
In ATOLL, for a complete exploitation of frequencies, it is possible to define frequency domains and groups
based on standard frequency bands.

A domain is a set of groups; it consists of one or several groups. A frequency domain belongs to a
frequency band; it is a subset of the frequency band.
A group is a set of channels. A frequency group belongs to one or several frequency domains; it is a
subset of frequency domains.

Manual and automatic frequency planning is based on frequency domains assigned to the TRX types in cell
types.

The creation and the management of frequency domains and groups, like for many other objects in ATOLL
always stays easy and clear.

VI.2.2.b MANAGING FREQUENCY BANDS
Frequency bands represent the reference frequency set that frequency groups and domains (which include
specific rules, steps and exclusions) refer to. Frequency bands can be seen as a fixed item, whereas groups
and domains are the frequency subsets that can be managed in order to stick to available frequency lists.


Frequency band properties can be accessed in two ways, either from a frequency band table, either from a
frequency band dialog.

To open the frequency band dialog, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder in order to get the related context menu,
Choose the Properties option from the opened menu,
Click on the Frequencies tab,
Use the What's this help to get description about available fields in the opened window,
Either
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Select the frequency band you want to manage,
Click the modify button to open the associated dialog,
Or,
Double click the frequency band you want to manage.
Click the General tab,
Define the frequency band parameters,
Click OK to validate your choice,
Click again OK to close the transmitters properties dialog box.


Notes :
The Frequency domains tab lists the domains related to the current frequency band,
Addition, deletion of frequency bands are made using respectively the and
buttons,
The button helps you to manage the content of the frequency band table (See below).


To open the frequency band table, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder in order to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Network settings : Frequency bands...] command from the opened menu,
Define the parameters of each frequency band.


Notes :
The dialog of each frequency band (see above) is reachable by either double clicking the related
record in the table, or by using the button once a record is selected,
The button helps you to manage the content of the frequency band table.
An Other Properties tab is available when some user defined fields have been added to the Frequency
band table.

VI.2.2.c MANAGING FREQUENCY DOMAINS AND GROUPS
For an easier resource management, frequency domain and group tables are available. Frequency domains
are linked to types of TRXs. When defining a cell type, you must assign a frequency domain to each TRX
type.

To define domains and groups of frequencies, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Network settings : Domains : Frequencies] command from the opened menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
In the Domains dialog, enter a domain per line and specify the related frequency band. To
validate a domain creation, select another line.
Either
Select a domain in the table and click on the Properties button.
Or
Select the line relating to a domain and double click on it.
In the domain properties dialog, specify the name of group(s) that you want to associate to this
domain and define for each of them:
- The lowest available frequency (Min),
- The highest available frequency (Max),
- The value interval between the frequencies (Step),
- Frequency (frequencies) you do not want to use (Excluded). You can paste a list of
frequencies; separator must be a blank character,
- Additional frequency (frequencies) you want to consider during allocation (Extra). You can
paste a list of frequencies; separator must be a blank character.
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You can also define the domain-group pairs in the Group of frequencies window.

To do so, proceed as follows :
After defining all the domains, close the Domains dialog,
Right click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Network settings : Groups : Frequencies] command from the opened menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
In the Group of frequencies window, select a domain and associate one or several groups of
frequencies to each of them. Define the groups as explained above.


The defined domains can be now assigned to TRX types of each cell type in order then to be used as
constraints in the automatic allocation of frequencies.

VI.2.3 HSNS
VI.2.3.a HSNS : OVERVIEW
In ATOLL, modelling of base frequency hopping and synthesised frequency hopping are supported. So,
some parameters such as MAL (Mobile Allocation List), HSN (Hopping Sequence Number), MAIO (Mobile
Allocation Index Offset) are managed.

HSN (Hopping Sequence Number) parameter is used to describe frequency hopping sequence; this is one of
4 input parameters for GSM hopping sequence generator algorithm. HSN may take 64 different values; they
are numbered from 0 to 63. Frequency sequences are pseudo-random, except for the special case of HSN =
0, where frequencies are used one after the other (cyclic hopping).

In ATOLL, for a complete exploitation of HSNs, it is possible to define HSN domains and groups.

A domain is a set of groups; it consists of one or several groups.
A group is a set of HSNs. A HSN group belongs to one or several HSN domains; it is a subset of HSN
domains.

Manual and automatic HSN planning are based on the HSN domains assigned to TRX types in cell types.

Creation and management of HSN domains and groups, like for many other objects in ATOLL always stays
easy and clear.

VI.2.3.b MANAGING HSN DOMAINS AND GROUPS
For an easier resource management, HSN domain and group tables are available. HSN domains are linked
to types of TRXs. When defining a cell type, you must assign a HSN domain to each TRX type.

To define domains and groups of HSNs, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Network settings : Domains : HSNs] command from the opened menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
In the Domains dialog, you can enter a domain per line. To validate a domain creation, select
another line.
Either
Select a domain in the table and click on the Properties button.
Or
Select the line relating to a domain and double click on it.
In the domain properties dialog, specify the name of group(s) included in this domain and
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define for each of them:
- The lowest available HSN (Min),
- The highest available HSN (Max),
- The value interval between the HSNs (Step),
- HSN(s) you do not want to use (Excluded). You can paste a list of HSNs; separator must
be a blank character,
- Additional HSN(s) you want to consider during allocation (Extra). You can paste a list of
HSNs; separator must be a blank character.

Note : A default domain called Domain_of_all_HSN exists; it contains the 64 HSNs.


You can also define the domain-group pairs in the Group of HSNs window.

To do so, proceed as follows :
After defining all the domains, close the Domains dialog,
Right click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Network settings : Groups : HSNs] command from the opened menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
In the Group of HSNs window, select a domain and associate one or several groups of HSNs
to each of them. Define the groups as explained above.


The defined domains can be now assigned to TRX types of each cell type in order then to be used as
constraints in the automatic allocation of HSNs.

VI.2.4 BSICS
VI.2.4.a BSICS : OVERVIEW
BSIC depends on NCC (Network Colour Code) and BCC (BTS Colour Code). NCC and BCC are integers
between 0 and 7. 64 BSICs are available. They are distributed in 8 groups (one group per possible NCC) of
8 BSICs.

In versions prior to 2.1, BSIC notation was NCC-BCC. During BSIC allocation, it was necessary to specify
NCC; therefore, ATOLL could choose BSICs to be allocated in a fixed domain containing 8 possible BSICs
(from NCC-0 to NCC-7).

Since the version 2.1, notation has been changed:

BSIC = NCCx8 + BCC

BSICs are numbered from 0 to 63.

In addition, BSIC management has been enhanced. As available BSICs depend on the country and on the
area; it is sometimes necessary to distinguish borders from other zones. To model this, domain and group
tables have been created.

A domain is a set of groups; it consists of one or several groups.
A group is a set of BSICs. A BSIC group belongs to one or several BSIC domains.

Therefore, a BSIC domain can contain more or less than 8 BSICs.

Manual or automatic BSIC planning is based on the BSIC domain assigned to transmitter.

Creation and management of BSIC domains and groups, like for many other objects in ATOLL always stays
easy and clear.

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VI.2.4.b MANAGING BSIC DOMAINS AND GROUPS
For an easier resource management, BSIC domain and group tables are available. You must assign a BSIC
domain to each transmitter.

To define domains and groups of BSICs, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Network settings : Domains : BSICs] command from the opened menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
In the Domains dialog, you can enter a domain per line. To validate a domain creation, select
another line.
Either
Select a domain in the table and click on the Properties button.
Or
Select the line relating to a domain and double click on it.
In the domain properties dialog, specify the name of group(s) that you want to associate to this
domain and define for each of them:
- The lowest available BSIC (Min),
- The highest available BSIC (Max),
- The value interval between the BSICs (Step),
- The BSIC(s) you do not want to use (Excluded). You can paste a list of BSICs; separator
must be a blank character,
- Additional BSIC (s) you want to consider during allocation (Extra). You can paste a list of
BSICs; separator must be a blank character.

Note : A default domain called ALL NCCs exists; it contains the 64 BSICs.


You can also define the domain-group pairs in the Group of BSICs window.

To do so, proceed as follows :
After defining all the domains, close the Domains dialog,
Right click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Network settings : Groups : BSICs] command from the opened menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
In the Group of BSICs window, select a domain and associate one or several groups of
BSICs to each of them. Define the groups as explained above.


The defined domains can be now assigned to each transmitter in order then to be used as constraints in the
automatic allocation of BSICs.

VI.2.5 CELL TYPES
VI.2.5.a CELL TYPES : OVERVIEW
In ATOLL, a cell type describes the types of TRXs that a cell can use and their parameters, which can be
different.

Examples: Default cell types are available in the tool:
The cell type GSM900_N_NORMAL (a non concentric GSM900 normal cell) contains BCCH and TCH
TRXs.
The cell type DUALBAND_CC_MINI (a concentric dual band cell) contains BCCH, TCH and
TCH_INNER TRXs.

Cell types are linked to station templates or transmitters. Indeed, when defining a station template or
transmitter properties, you must specify the cell type which the station or transmitter refers to.

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Creation and management of cell types, like for many other objects in ATOLL always stays easy and clear.

VI.2.5.b TRX TYPES : DEFINITION
By default, three types of TRXs are modelled in ATOLL:
The BCCH TRX type: this TRX type is the BCCH carrier,
The TCH TRX type which is the default traffic carrier,
The TCH_INNER TRX type: this TRX type is the inner traffic carrier.

Note : you can define additional TRX types directly from the GSM_EGPRS.mdb document template.

The cell type definition must include a TRX type, which is the BCCH carrier (BCCH TRX type), and a TRX
type, which is the default traffic carrier (TCH TRX type). Only one TRX type carrying the broadcast and only
one TRX type carrying the default TCH are supported.

TRX types are the standard elements which compose cell types.

VI.2.5.c MANAGING CELL TYPES
Cell types are linked to station templates or transmitters. Indeed, when defining a station template or
transmitter properties, you must specify the cell type which the station or transmitter refers to.

Cell type properties can be accessed in two ways, either from a Cell type table, either from a Cell type dialog.

To open the cell type dialog, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder in order to get the related context menu,
Choose the Properties option from the opened menu,
Click on the Cell types tab,
Use the What's this help to get description about available fields in the opened window,
Either
Select the cell type you want to manage,
Click the modify button to open the associated dialog,
Or,
Double click the cell type you want to manage.
Click the General tab,
Define the cell type parameters,
Click OK to validate your choice,
Click again OK to close the transmitters properties dialog box.


Notes :
Addition, deletion of cell types are made using respectively the and buttons,
The button helps you to manage the content of the cell type table (See below).


To open the cell type table, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder in order to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Network settings : Cell types...] command from the opened menu,
Either
Select the cell type you want to manage,
Click the modify button to open the associated dialog,
Or,
Double click the cell type you want to manage.
Define the parameters of each cell type.

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Notes :
The dialog of each cell type (see above) is reachable by either double clicking the related record in the
table, or by using the button once a record is selected,
The button helps you to manage the content of the cell type table.
An Other Properties tab is available when some user defined fields have been added to the Cell type
table.

VI.2.5.d CELL TYPE PARAMETERS
In the cell type properties window, you can rename it, enter the types of TRXs (BCCH, TCH, TCH_INNER)
used by this cell type and specify for each of them:

The assigned frequency domain,
Only channels belonging to this frequency domain will be allocated to TRXs during automatic or manual
frequency planning.

Maximum MAL (Mobile Allocation List) length,
This is the maximum size of the MAL. In other words, it corresponds to the maximum number of channels
allocated to TRXs of a subcell during automatic frequency planning in case SFH (Synthesized Frequency
Hopping) or BBH (Base Band Hopping) is supported and allocation mode is free.

Allocation mode,
It refers to the allocation strategy used during manual or automatic frequency planning. Two allocation
strategies are offered:
- Free allocation: all the channels of the frequency domain can be assigned to TRXs.
- Grouped allocation: Only channels belonging to a same group of the frequency domain can be chosen.

Min C/I,
This is a quality condition; you can enter specific quality requirements for each TRX type. It can be used as
reference value in interference studies and in AFP.

% max interference,
This is the maximum percentage of interfered area or interfered traffic that ATOLL must not exceed during
automatic frequency planning.

Default DL power offset,
This is a reduction of power relative to the transmitter power. It enables you to model power control of TCH
TRXs and concentric cells (TCH_INNER TRXs that transmit a power lower than BCCH TRX and TCH
TRXs).

Default hopping mode,
Here, you can specify if frequency hopping technology is supported for this TRX type. If frequency hopping is
supported, choose either the Base Band Hopping mode (BBH), or the Synthesized Hopping mode (SFH).
Else, select Non Hopping.

Default reception threshold,
This is the reception condition for this TRX type. You can enter a specific reception condition for each TRX
type.

AFP weight,
This is a cost factor used to increase or decrease the importance of a TRX type during automatic frequency
planning. The cost factor must be a positive real. The higher the AFP weight is, the higher the constraint on
the TRX type is.

HSN domain,
Only HSNs belonging to this HSN domain will be allocated to subcells during automatic or manual frequency
planning. Allocation of HSN is performed in case of BBH or SFH.
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Freeze HSN,
Selecting this option enables you to keep the current HSN allocation of subcells related to this TRX type
when starting a new AFP session.

DTX support (default),
Here, you can specify if DTX (Discontinuous Transmission) technology is supported for this TRX type.

Number of circuit TS (default),
This is the number of time slots per TRX dedicated to circuit traffic (voice) (
N
circuit
TS ).

Number of packet TS (default),
This is the number of time slots per TRX supporting packet traffic (
N
packet
TS
).

Number of composite TS (default),
This is the number of time slots per TRX supporting both voice and packet traffic (
N
composite
TS
).


Note : These time slots are exclusively dedicated to traffic channels; they are not used for BCCH and CCCH
(Control Common Channels).

In case of BCCH TRX type, at least one time slot is used for BCCH. So, we have:

1 + +
F N N N ng multiplexi
composite
TS
packet
TS
circuit
TS



In case of TCH or TCH_INNER TRX types, we have:

F N N N ng multiplexi
composite
TS
packet
TS
circuit
TS
= + +



F ng multiplexi
is the multiplexing factor of the frequency band, which the frequency domain assigned to this TRX
type belongs to.

The number of requested TRXs for voice traffic depends on these values. In case of E/GPRS stations,
ATOLL considers only time slots available for voice traffic (
N N
composite
TS
circuit
TS
+
). If the E/GPRS option is not
selected (GSM station), ATOLL considers all the time slots (
N N N
composite
TS
packet
TS
circuit
TS
+ +
).


In addition, these parameters are taken into account in GPRS dimensioning (Timeslot capacity calculation)

Default hysteresis,
This parameter is not used in this ATOLL version.
This is a default value of a subcell specific parameter. It denotes the handover hysteresis margin (when
going below min reception level). It concerns intra-cell handovers only.

Priority,
This parameter is not used in this ATOLL version.
If a probe mobile can be served by more than one subcell of a transmitter, the subcell that has a higher
service priority will serve it.


There are two groups of characteristics, the default ones and the global ones. The default characteristics are
used to initialise subcell properties when creating a transmitter; they can be modified in the transmitter
property dialog without modifying the default values defined for the cell type, which the transmitter refers to.
The global characteristics are only specified in the cell type property dialog and cannot be changed in each
transmitter property dialog; they are unique and applied to all the transmitters based on the cell type.
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VI.2.5.e EXAMPLES OF CELL TYPES
Two examples of cell types provided by default in ATOLL are explained below :

Normal cell type
A normal cell type consists of two TRX types:
- BCCH TRX type
- TCH TRX type

The table below described parameters to be specified for any selected hopping mode.

Characteristics Type Used in ATOLL 2.1 Hopping mode
Non
hopping
BBH SFH
Frequency domain Global Automatic or manual frequency
planning
x x x
Maximum MAL (Mobile Allocation
List) length
Global Automatic frequency planning Not used x x
Allocation mode Global Automatic or manual frequency
planning
x x x
Min C/I Global Interference studies,
Automatic frequency planning
x x x
% max interference Global Automatic frequency planning x x x
Default DL power offset Default Signal level studies = 0 for
BCCH
= 0 for TCH
= 0 for BCCH
= 0 for TCH
= 0 for BCCH
= 0 for TCH
Default hopping mode Default Interference studies Non
Hopping
Base Band
Hopping
Synthesized
Hopping
Default reception threshold Default Signal level studies x x x
AFP weight Global Automatic frequency planning x x x
HSN domain Global Automatic frequency planning Not used x x
Freeze HSN Global Automatic frequency planning x x x
DTX support (default) Default Automatic frequency planning,
Interference studies
x x x
Number of composite TS (default) Default Number of requested TRXs,
GPRS-like studies
x x x
Number of packet TS (default) Default Number of requested TRXs,
GPRS-like studies
x x x
Number of circuit TS (default) Default Number of requested TRXs,
GPRS-like studies
x x x
Default hysteresis Default Not used Not used Not used Not used
Priority Global Not used Not used Not used Not used


Concentric cell type
A concentric cell type consists of three TRX types:
- BCCH TRX type
- TCH TRX type
- TCH_INNER

The table below described parameters to be specified for any selected hopping mode.

Characteristics Type Used in ATOLL 2.1 Hopping mode
Non hopping BBH SFH
Frequency domain Global Automatic or manual
frequency planning
x x x
Maximum MAL (Mobile Allocation
List) length
Global Automatic frequency planning Not used
x
x
Allocation mode Global Automatic or manual
frequency planning
x x x
Min C/I Global Interference studies,
Automatic frequency planning
x x x
% max interference Global Automatic frequency planning x x x
Default DL power offset Default
Signal level studies
= 0 for BCCH
=> 0 for TCH
<> 0 for
TCH_INNER
= 0 for BCCH
=> 0 for TCH
<> 0 for
TCH_INNER
= 0 for BCCH
=> 0 for TCH
<> 0 for
TCH_INNER
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Default hopping mode Default Interference studies Non Hopping Base Band
Hopping
Synthesized
Hopping
Default reception threshold Default Signal level studies x x x
AFP weight Global Automatic frequency planning x x x
HSN domain Global Automatic frequency planning Not used x x
Freeze HSN Global Automatic frequency planning x x x
DTX support (default) Default Automatic frequency
planning,
Interference studies
x x x
Number of composite TS (default) Default Number of requested TRXs,
GPRS-like studies
x x x
Number of packet TS (default) Default Number of requested TRXs,
GPRS-like studies
x x x
Number of circuit TS (default) Default Number of requested TRXs,
GPRS-like studies
x x x
Default hysteresis Default Not used Not used Not used Not used
Priority Global Not used Not used Not used Not used

VI.2.6 HCS LAYERS
VI.2.6.a HIERARCHICAL CELLS : OVERVIEW
In ATOLL, It is possible to model hierarchical networks. Indeed, you may define several types of layers, a
given priority on each of them, and then, assign one of them to transmitters.

Hierarchical cells are taken into account (including priority) in any prediction study (e.g. coverage by
transmitter, interfered areas and coverage by C/I levels) based on search for best server for coverage
conditions.

VI.2.6.b MANAGING HCS LAYERS
In ATOLL, HCS layers are listed in a table form. Hence, their management (creation, deletion or
modification) is identical to standard management of data in tables.

To manage HCS layers that will be available to assign to transmitters, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the Transmitters folder,
Choose the Layers... option from the context menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened dialog
window,
Click on the Records tab to open the Layers definition table and define layers and related
priority inside,
Click the Close button to validate.

VI.2.7 TRANSMITTERS
VI.2.7.a ASSIGNING HCS LAYERS TO TRANSMITTERS
To assign a HCS layer among existing ones to a transmitter, proceed as follows :
Either :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it
Right click on the transmitter which you want to assign a HCS layer to,
or
Select on the map the transmitter which you want to assign a HCS layer to by left
clicking on the appropriate Tx symbol (arrow),
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
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Click on the General tab,
Choose the HCS layer to assign to the current transmitter in the associated scrolling menu,
Click OK or Apply to validate.


Notes :
Layer priority is then automatically assigned to transmitter. This parameter maybe taken into account
in GSM/TDMA coverage conditions in prediction studies,
Assigning HCS layers to transmitters is optional.

VI.2.7.b ASSIGNING CELL TYPES TO TRANSMITTERS
A cell type consists in TRX types (BCCH, TCH or TCH inner). Assigning a cell type to a transmitter enables
you to define its subcells (TRX type properties become subcell properties). A subcell corresponds to the
transmitter-TRX type pair.

To assign a cell type to a transmitter, proceed as follows :
Either :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
Right click on the transmitter you want to manage,
or
Select on the map the transmitter you want to manage by left clicking on the
appropriate Tx symbol (arrow),
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Click on the TRXs tab of the current dialog,
Use the What's this help to get description about the opened dialog window,
Click on the scrolling menu and choose a cell type in the list,
Click OK to close the dialog


Notes :
Cell type associated to the transmitter can be changed afterwards,
ATOLL automatically updates subcell characteristics according to the new selected cell type.
Once selected, cell type property dialog can be open by clicking on the button,
ATOLL indicates the main frequency band of the transmitter. This is the frequency band, which the
frequency domain assigned to BCCH TRX type belongs to. ATOLL takes into account this frequency
band in path loss matrix evaluation.
VI.2.7.c ASSIGNING BSIC DOMAINS TO TRANSMITTERS
Once defined, a BSIC domain have to be assigned to a transmitter. Only BSICs included in the assigned
BSIC domain can be manually or automatically allocated to a transmitter.

To assign a BSIC domain to a transmitter, proceed as follows :
Either :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
Right click on the transmitter you want to manage,
or
Select on the map the transmitter you want to manage by left clicking on the
appropriate Tx symbol (arrow),
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Click on the TRXs tab of the current dialog,
Use the What's this help to get description about the opened dialog window,
In the Identification part, click on the scrolling menu and choose a BSIC domain in the list,
Click OK to close the dialog


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Notes :
BSIC domain associated to the transmitter can be changed afterwards,
Once selected, BSIC domain dialog can be open by clicking on the button,
The BSIC domain is an input required for manual or automatic BSIC allocation.

VI.2.7.d ASSIGNING MANUALLY BSICS TO TRANSMITTERS
The colour code BSIC (Base Station Identity Code) for a transmitter is made up of the NCC (Network Colour
Code) and the BCC (BTS Colour Code). The NCC code is, for example, 0 or 4 for France. The BCC code
(respectively NCC) is a digit between 0 and 7.
The BCCH-BSIC pair permits, on a given territory, to identify precisely a cell. At a higher level, it may exist
identical BCCH-BSIC pairs characterising very distant zones. In ATOLL, you can either allocate it manually
to each transmitter or automatically to all transmitters in the network.

Once a BSIC domain has been allocated to a transmitter, it is possible either to manually or automatically
choose a BSIC among available ones for any transmitter.

To manually allocate a BSIC to a transmitter, proceed as follows :
Either :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
Right click on the transmitter you want to manage,
or
Select on the map the transmitter you want to manage by left clicking on the
appropriate Tx symbol (arrow),
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Click on the TRXs tab of the current dialog,
Use the What's this help to get description about the opened dialog window,
Click on the scrolling menu and choose a BSIC in the list,
Click OK to close the dialog


Notes :
BSIC associated to the transmitter can be changed afterwards.
The selected BSIC must be part of the chosen BSIC domain.
Once chosen in single digit format, the related NCC-BCC format is automatically displayed above the
scrolling box.
It is possible to edit the BSIC scrolling box. Furthermore, you can enter the BSIC value with a NCC-
BCC format in the scrolling box, and click the Apply button. ATOLL will convert it in the single digit
format consistent with the related BSIC domain.
VI.2.7.e ALLOCATING MANUALLY A BCCH TO TRANSMITTERS
BCCH (Broadcast Control CHannel) permits the diffusion of the cell characteristic data, including the steady
diffusion of several types data systems. This channel must be part both of the main frequency band (coming
from the selected cell type) and allocated channels in TRXs. The BCCH is defined on the timeslot 0 of a
selected frequency.

To allocate manually a BCCH to a transmitter, proceed as follows :
Either :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
Right click on the transmitter you want to manage,
or
Select on the map the transmitter you want to manage by left clicking on the
appropriate Tx symbol (arrow),
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Click on the TRXs tab of the current dialog,
Use the What's this help to get description about the opened dialog window,
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Either,
In Non Hopping or Base Band Hopping, Create a new TRX of type BCCH and enter the
related channel,
Or,
In Synthesised Frequency Hopping, Create a new TRX of type BCCH, fill the related
MAL in the TRX part, and enter the channel on which will be located the timeslot 0
dedicated to the steady diffusion of BCCH information,
Click OK to close the dialog


Note : You can also automatically a TRX of type BCCH by entering the related frequency in the BCCH
columns from the transmitter global table.

VI.2.8 SUBCELLS AND TRXS
VI.2.8.a MANAGING SUBCELLS IN TRANSMITTERS
The subcells of transmitter and their settings are defined in this part. A subcell is a group of TRXs sharing the
same radio characteristics, the same quality (C/I) requirements, and common settings. A subcell is defined
by the transmitter-TRX type pair.

Subcells of transmitter and their settings depend on the cell type selected for the transmitter. The cell type
predefines the TRX type of each subcell and some parameters initialised by default values defined for the
cell type. The default values reported for subcells can be modified without changing reference for the cell
type. On the other hand, ATOLL updates subcell characteristics when selecting another cell type.

Except their TRX type (coming from the selected cell type), all subcell properties are editable and can be
modified in the subcell part of any transmitter property.

To access the subcell table from the transmitter properties, proceed as follows :
Either :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
Right click on the transmitter you want to manage,
or
Select on the map the transmitter you want to manage by left clicking on the
appropriate Tx symbol (arrow),
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Click on the TRXs tab of the current dialog,
Use the What's this help to get description about the opened dialog window,
Define the Subcell settings in the subcell part,
Click OK to close the dialog.

VI.2.8.b DISPLAYING THE SUBCELL LIST
Even if subcells are linked to transmitters, it is possible to display all existing subcells of a network in an
editable form.

To open the subcell general table, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Subcells : Subcell list] command from the opened menu,
Define the Subcell settings.


The button helps you to manage the content of the subcell table.

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VI.2.8.c SUBCELL PROPERTY DETAILS
Whatever is the way to reach subcell properties (from transmitter properties or from the subcell table), for
any of them, ATOLL details:

Requested TRXs
This is the number of TRXs requested for a subcell. In case of BCCH TRX type, the number of requested
TRXs is 1 by default. In case of TCH or TCH_INNER TRX type, this is a network dimensioning result, which
depends on the traffic density in the subcell and on the blocked call percentage.

Traffic load,
It indicates the usage rate of TRXs; its value is between 0 and 1. This parameter may be, either user-
defined, or automatically reported after calculating the number of requested TRXs. In this case, traffic load
(
traffic
L
) is a dimensioning result; this is a global traffic load for all the subcells of each transmitter. We have:

TRX
traffic
N
Traffic
L =

Traffic
is the traffic request (Erlang) on the transmitter coverage area,
TRX
N
is the total number of TRXs requested by a transmitter.

It is taken into account in interference calculation and automatic frequency planning.

HSN
This is the hopping sequence number of subcell. All the TRXs of the subcell have the same HSN. HSN can
be manually entered or automatically allocated. Only HSN belonging to the HSN domain assigned to this
TRX type (in the selected cell type property dialog) can be allocated. This parameter is taken into account in
interference calculation in case of SFH or BBH.

Synchronisation
Type the same string of character in order for the TRXs of several subcells are synchronized during
frequency hopping. By default, synchronization is performed at the site level; TRXs of subcells on a same
site are synchronized. You may also define synchronization at the subcell level (different values for each
subcell) or group of transmitters level (unique value for subcells of this group).

Notes :
1. Any string of character can be entered.
2. This field is case sensitive.

This parameter is taken into account in interference calculation in case of frequency hopping (BBH or SFH).

DL power offset
This is a reduction of power relative to the transmitter power. Entering 3 dB means that the subcell power will
be 3 dB lower than the transmitter power defined in the Transmitter tab.

Hopping mode
If frequency hopping is supported, choose either the Base Band Hopping mode (BBH), or the Synthesized
Hopping mode (SFH). Else, select Non Hopping.

Reception threshold
This is the reception condition for the subcell. This value can be used as reference value in signal level
coverage predictions (lowest received signal level in order for receiver to be covered by the subcell).

Hysteresis
This parameter is not used in this ATOLL version.

DTX supported
Select this option if DTX (Discontinuous Transmission) technology is supported for the subcell.

Number of circuit TS (default)
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This is the number of time slots per TRX dedicated to circuit traffic (voice) (
N
circuit
TS ).

Number of packet TS (default)
This is the number of time slots per TRX supporting packet traffic (
N
packet
TS
).

Number of composite TS (default)
This is the number of time slots per TRX supporting both voice and packet traffic (
N
composite
TS
).

Note : These time slots are exclusively dedicated to traffic channels; they are not used for BCCH and CCCH
(Control Common Channels).

In case of BCCH TRX type, at least one time slot is used for BCCH. So, we have:
1 + +
F N N N ng multiplexi
composite
TS
packet
TS
circuit
TS


In case of TCH or TCH_INNER TRX types, we have:
F N N N ng multiplexi
composite
TS
packet
TS
circuit
TS
= + +


F ng multiplexi
is the multiplexing factor of the frequency band, which the frequency domain assigned to this TRX
type belongs to.

The number of requested TRXs for voice traffic depends on these values. In case of E/GPRS stations,
ATOLL considers only time slots available for voice traffic (
N N
composite
TS
circuit
TS
+
). If the E/GPRS option is not
selected (GSM station), ATOLL considers all the time slots (
N N N
composite
TS
packet
TS
circuit
TS
+ +
).
In addition, these parameters are taken into account in GPRS dimensioning (Timeslot capacity calculation).

VI.2.8.d ALLOCATING FREQUENCIES MANUALLY IN GSM/TDMA
In ATOLL, for GSM/TDMA projects, frequencies (or channels) are defined at the TRX level. The manual
allocation of frequencies is made by the management of TRXs in transmitters.

The allocation can be also made by filling the Channels column from the transmitter table. When entering
channel values in the table, TRXs of type TCH are automatically created in the related transmitters.

BCCH can be assigned identically.

Automatic frequency allocation can also be made using the optional AFP module.

VI.2.8.e MANAGING TRXS IN TRANSMITTERS
From transmitter properties, it is possible to list TRXs of transmitter and channels allocated to TRXs. This
TRX table can be automatically filled after an automatic frequency planning. You may also fill it manually. It
contains a TRX per line.

TRX is the transmitter level at which channels are defined.

To access the TRX table from the transmitter properties, proceed as follows :
Either :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
Right click on the transmitter you want to manage,
or
Select on the map the transmitter you want to manage by left clicking on the
appropriate Tx symbol (arrow),
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Click on the TRXs tab of the current dialog,
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Use the What's this help to get description about the opened dialog window,
Define the TRX settings in the TRXs part,
Click OK to close the dialog.

VI.2.8.f DISPLAYING THE TRX LIST
Even if TRXs are linked to transmitters, it is possible to display all existing TRXs of a network in an editable
form.

To open the TRX general table, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Subcells : TRX list] command from the opened menu,
Define the TRX settings.


The button helps you to manage the content of the TRX table.

VI.2.8.g TRX PROPERTY DETAILS
Whatever is the way to reach TRX properties (from transmitter properties or from the TRX table), for any of
them, ATOLL details:

Index
This is identification number of TRX. This number (integer) may be user-defined or automatically given by
ATOLL (after closing the dialog).

TRX type

Channels
Specify channel(s) allocated to TRX: 1 channel per TRX if the hopping mode for the TRX type is Non
Hopping or Base Band Hopping, several channels per TRX if the hopping mode for the TRX type is
Synthesized Hopping.
Channel(s) can be either copied, or manually selected one by one in the scrolling menu (select the box and
click on the arrow to open the scrolling menu). The scrolling menu offers you channels of the frequency
domain assigned to this TRX type (Cell type property dialog).

Note : When pasting a list of channels, separator must be a blank character.

MAIO (Mobile Allocation Index Offset),
The MAIO is selectable for each TRX separately. It is used in case of frequency hopping (BBH or SFH) to
avoid intra-site collisions due to co or adjacent channel consumption. This is an integer; its range of value is
between 0 and N-1 (N is the number of channels used in the hopping sequence). MAIO can be manually
entered or automatically allocated.

Freeze Channels
Select this option to keep the current channel allocation at the TRX level when starting a new AFP.

Note : the Freeze channels option can be also imposed at the transmitter level only.

VI.3 WORKING ON GSM/TDMA TRAFFIC DATA
VI.3.1 CREATING A GSM/TDMA TRAFFIC MAP : OVERVIEW
IN GSM/TDMA projects, ATOLL provides a raster traffic map type. A class related to Erlang densities is
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assigned to each pixel of the working environment.

This traffic map is similar to clutter raster maps within ATOLL in term of management. Hence, these are
easy to manage.

In ATOLL, it is possible to import easily a traffic map and manage its properties. You can also create or
modify your own traffic maps using the cartography editor. The resulting traffic map can be analysed using
statistic features.

Furthermore, ATOLL permits to export generated traffic map in external files.

VI.3.2 CREATING A GSM/TDMA TRAFFIC RASTER MAP
ATOLL permits to import several raster formats of traffic maps. These maps can be either imported from
data files or directly created with the polygon drawing tool available in ATOLL.


To import a raster file as traffic data in GSM/TDMA projects. To do so, proceed as follows :
Choose the Import command from the File Menu in the menu bar,
Indicate the path and the name of the file to be imported in the opened dialog box,
Choose the traffic density option from the scrolling menu in the File import window to consider
the file as traffic,
Press the button to validate.


The traffic editor works like the cartography editor.

Note : clutter files can be imported as traffic files.

VI.3.3 DESCRIBING THE GSM/TDMA TRAFFIC RASTER CLASSES
From any traffic raster data file, ATOLL assign a traffic class to each code, and traffic density (Erlang/km) in
GSM/TDMA studies.

To describe the different traffic raster classes available in GSM/TDMA projects, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Either
Right click on the Traffic density folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click on the Traffic density folder,
Click the Description tab,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Assign colour, name and density (Erlang/km) to each code.
Press OK or Apply to validate.


To assign a colour to a traffic raster class, click on the colour box and choose a colour in the colour table.
You can then manually enter name and density for all traffic classes if these data haven't been automatically
specified during the import procedure.

Note : The description table can be fully copied and pasted (using Ctrl+V and Ctrl+C) in a new ATOLL
project after importing the traffic raster file.


Comments:
ATOLL considers as transparent colour. Thus, the geographic layer below the traffic will be visible in
the area where the white colour is assigned.
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Before importing traffic raster file, it is important to define a reference class corresponding to zero
code, white colour and no data. Thus, the code "0" is allocated to area without any traffic.
The class names cannot exceed a length of 50 characters.
Path and description are stored in the external user configuration file.

VI.3.4 ADDING A GSM/TDMA TRAFFIC RASTER CLASS
ATOLL allows you to add a new traffic class.

To add a traffic raster class to the current geo environment in GSM/TDMA projects, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Either
Right click on the Traffic density folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click on the Traffic density folder,
Click the Description tab,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Press the button and describe it.
Press OK or Apply to validate.

VI.3.5 REFRESHING A GSM/TDMA TRAFFIC RASTER MAP
The refresh feature allows the user to clear all the traffic raster classes not used in the current project.

To refresh a traffic raster map in GSM/TDMA projects, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Either
Right click on the Traffic density folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or
Double click on the Traffic density folder,
Click the Description tab,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Press the button,
ATOLL scans the traffic raster objects from the map and associates them with the ones in the
current table,
Press OK or Apply to validate.


Advice: Use this function to keep consistency between the traffic raster classes described in the table and
the map.

Example: ATOLL automatically memorizes the different traffic raster classes of imported file. Even after
deleting the file, traffic raster classes are stored in the description table. Pressing the button will
remove them.

VI.3.6 EXPORTING A GSM/TDMA TRAFFIC RASTER MAP
Like for DTM map and clutter maps, it is possible to export a traffic raster map in either a 8 bits/pixel tiff, a bil
or a bmp format. You may choose to export a part or the complete traffic raster map.

To export a part or the complete traffic raster map in GSM/TDMA projects, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Traffic density folder in order to get the related context menu,
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Left click on the Save as... option from the opened scrolling menu,
Define the format, the directory path and the name to give to the file to be exported,
Click the Save button when this is made,
In the Export dialog box, select one of the options and define the resolution (in metres) of file :
The whole covered region option allows you to save the whole traffic map in another file.
As soon as the file is saved, the properties (name,...) of the traffic maps listed in the Traffic
map subfolder are updated.
The only pending changes option allows just to save in the file the created traffic polygonal
area. As soon as the modifications are saved, an additional clutter (or traffic) object is
created and listed in the Traffic folder.
The computation zone option allows you to save only traffic map region inside the
computation zone in another file. As soon as the file is saved, an additional traffic object is
created and listed in the Traffic map subfolder. To enable this option, you must have
drawn a computation zone beforehand.
A resolution value is suggested; it is defined for clutter from the following criteria :
If one traffic object is clipped, the displayed resolution will be the object resolution.
If several objects are modified, the suggested resolution will be the smallest
resolution of the altered clutter objects.
If there is no initial clutter object, the resolution will equal the resolution of DTM
object which the modifications are made on or the smallest resolution of the merged
DTM objects if the modifications are performed on several DTM objects.
If you draw your own traffic data without initial DTM, clutter or traffic object, a 100 m
default resolution will be suggested.
The resolution value must be an integer.
The minimum resolution is set to 1 metre.
Click OK to validate.

Comment: When you save files using BIL and TIF formats, .hdr and .tfw files are automatically created in
the same folder. The .hdr and .tfw files are respectively associated with .bil and .tif files; they contain
geocoding information and resolution.

VI.3.7 MANAGING GSM/TDMA TRAFFIC MAP DISPLAY
To manage the display of any traffic map in GSM/TDMA projects, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Traffic density folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Click on the Display tab from the opened window.
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Set the display parameters of the current map,
Press OK to validate.

VI.3.8 DISPLAYING STATISTICS ON GSM/TDMA TRAFFIC
Statistics on the traffic raster maps are available. Statistics are given globally and relatively as functions of
traffic classes. Traffic density statistics indicates the proportion of each traffic class. Traffic statistics refer to
the focus zone is existing.


To display traffic statistics of the map in GSM/TDMA projects, proceed as follows :
Click the Geo tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Traffic density folder to open the associated context menu,
Choose the Statistics option from the scrolling menu
The surface (Si in km) of imported or edited traffic class (i) included in the focus (if existing)
zone and its percentage (% of i) are specified:

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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 209
100 of % =

k
k
i
S
S
i


Notes :
If no focus zone is defined, statistics are given over the computation zone.
Current statistics are printable by clicking the button.

VI.4 GSM/TDMA NETWORK DIMENSIONNING
VI.4.1 COMPUTING THE NUMBER OF REQUESTED TRXS
Once you have imported or created the traffic map(s), you will have to use these data in order to dimension
the transmitter network. Since the reference element for carrying data is TRXs, the dimensioning consists in
determining the number of TRXs required for each transmitter in order to handle a certain amount of the
defined circuit traffic.

Transmitters are based on several TRX types (BCCH, TCH, TCH inner). Each of them is composed of as
many timeslots as defined in reference frequency band. Hence, ATOLL it is useful to calculate the number of
TRXs requested by each subcell.

In order to define the influence areas of subcells to dimension, this study is based on coverages by
transmitter related to each TRX type. Once made, traffic data is integrated on these covered areas in order
to evaluate the amount of traffic to absorb per subcell. Imposing a GOS (Grade of Service) in term of Erlang
B (blocked calls) or Erlang C (delayed calls), ATOLL computes the appropriate number of TRXs needed to
absorb such a traffic.

For transmitters made of several TRX types, including the definition of power offsets, the idea is to define
coverage per TRX types. Nevertheless, for any network based on normal or/and concentric cells,
dimensioning procedure is the same and can be performed in one step. The window is divided into three
parts:
A table which enables you to assign related coverage per transmitter study and percentage of traffic to
be covered to each TRX type (defined in the TRX types table of GSM_EGPRS.mdb document
template),
A part to specify dimensioning parameters,
The Results part.


To start a session of required number of TRXs per subcell, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder in order to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Dimensioning : Requested TRX number calculation...] option from the opened
menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened dialog
window,
For each TRX type except BCCH, open the prediction study scrolling menu and select
corresponding coverage by transmitter study in the list. By default, ATOLL assigns to each
TRX type, the first coverage by transmitter study with the right TRX type it finds in the
Predictions folder,
Then, for each TRX type except for the BCCH and TCH (the default traffic carrier), enter a
percentage of traffic to be covered on the related coverage. ATOLL always considers 100%
of traffic to be covered on the TCH coverage by transmitter study.
Enter a Grade of Service relative to your strategy,
Left click on the Run button to start the calculations.


Once calculations have been completed, results are given in the table. For each transmitter and each TRX
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type, ATOLL displays the number of TRXs requested to satisfy the traffic demand on the transmitter
coverage area with a given GOS.

ATOLL also computes a global traffic load (
traffic
L
) which indicates the average occupancy of TRXs; its value
is between 0 and 1. This is a global traffic load. We have:

TRX
traffic
N
Traffic
L =

Traffic is the traffic demand (Erlang) on the transmitter coverage area,
TRX
N
is the total number of TRXs requested by a transmitter.


Click the button to report this number to requested TRX number. Values are then
automatically reported in the subcell part of the transmitter property dialog boxes.


Notes :
In order not to consider twice some traffic data, use the best server option with a 0 dB option for the
reference coverage by transmitter,
Coverage by transmitter study on TCH TRX type is mandatory. If no study corresponding to TCH TRX
type exists, ATOLL systematically proposes New study (you will be able to specify study conditions
after clicking on Run). For other TRX types, ATOLL enters No study; in this case, you may create a
study by selecting New study.
The number of requested TRXs for voice traffic depends on the number of timeslots dedicated to voice
in subcells. In case of E/GPRS stations, ATOLL considers only time slots available for voice traffic
(
N N
composite
TS
circuit
TS
+
). If the E/GPRS option is not selected (GSM station), ATOLL considers all the time
slots (
N N N
composite
TS
packet
TS
circuit
TS
+ +
).


VI.5 SPECIFIC GSM/TDMA PREDICTION STUDIES
VI.5.1 SETTING SPECIFIC COVERAGE CONDITIONS IN GSM/TDMA STUDIES
Whatever the project type is, the way to create or to manage coverage studies is identical. Only study
parameters are different.

Hence, in GSM/TDMA projects, even if coverage study dialogs are composed of the three classical tabs :
The General tab where you may rename the study, add some comments, define group, sort and filter
criteria,
The Condition tab where you can specify the study parameters,
The Display tab to define coverage display settings,
coverage conditions are managed with some specifics related to GSM/TDMA technology.


GSM/TDMA specific settings in predictions are described below :

1- Indeed, coverage conditions include the possibility to choose between two options for the definition of
reception thresholds. You can either manually enter a lower threshold for the transmitters to be part of a
coverage, or you can choose the lower threshold defined in subcells (taking into account the power offset) for
this. To do this, select the button next to the threshold boxes. In each pixel, ATOLL will then take into
account all subcells respecting its minimum signal level at that point for the coverage. The best server notion
(+ margin) and the reliability level options are then considered.

2 - Concerning the best server option, ATOLL provides the possibility to consider or not HCS layers and
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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 211
associated priorities. So, you can select Best signal level of the highest priority layer as server. Let us
assume that each transmitter belongs to a HCS layer with a defined priority. In this case, the coverage area
of Txi corresponds to the zone where:

( ) threshold Maximum or or threshold Minimum

<
Losses Total L P
Txi Txi
tot
Txi
rec

and
( ) BCCH
P
Txi
rec is the highest one
and
Txi belongs to the HCS layer with the highest priority

Note : choosing the Best signal level per HCS layer makes ATOLL consider the best server of each HSC
layer on the considered pixel. Overlapping best server zones are enable.

3 - Furthermore, it is possible to restrict the reception on certain TRX types using the appropriate scrolling
box. It is possible to select the All option in interference studies.

4 - In interference studies, it is possible also to use the button in order to consider the min C/I threshold
defined per subcell as lower or upper ratio signal to noise for interference definition.

5 - As for the TRX type filter at reception on a pixel (See above 3 - ), you can also restrict the study to
potentially interfered TRX type using the appropriate scrolling box. Selecting the (All) option makes ATOLL
study C/I over each TRX type.

6 - Other specific options are relative to interference studies or E/GPRS studies and are described in the
corresponding context sensitive help.

Note : since each pixel can be seen as a receiver, its related properties have to be set (e.g. : adjacent
channel protection level).

VI.5.2 STUDYING INTERFERED AREA PREDICTIONS
The determination of interference zones is possible as soon as channels have been allocated to the
transmitters composing the current network, exactly like for interferences study using the point analysis tool.
This study is closely based on the principle of common prediction studies from which it takes the definition
mode and to which it adds an interference condition. Nevertheless, specific coverage GSM/TDMA conditions
are available. Prediction parameters are also standard.

The interfered areas study enables the user to predict areas where transmitters are interfered (taken into
account depending on signal level) by other transmitters sharing either an identical channel or an adjacent
channel as function of signal to noise ratio. ATOLL computes C/I level on each calculation bin where
conditions on signal reception are satisfied. Then, it considers in coverage the bins where the calculated C/I
is lower than an upper threshold and colours the bin depending on an interfered transmitter attribute. The
interference definition is proper to each study.

To prepare this prediction study, in the prediction creation steps, select the Interfered area option from the
study types window. The opened window is made of three tab windows : General, Condition, and Display.
For all of these, use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the windows.

The interfered area study is a template for which the field 'Transmitter' is selected by default in the display
tab. In that case, interfered zones will be displayed with the same colours than the ones defined for each
transmitter.

Note :
Shadowing margins (depending on the entered reliability level and the standard deviation per clutter
class) are applied only on the C values. These are not taken into account in I determinations.
ATOLL offers default calculation and display parameters when creating interference area prediction
studies but it is possible to colour by any other consistent attribute just by adjusting display.
Choosing another display type can make invalid coverage study. In this case, it is necessary to
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recalculate prediction study in order to update coverage.
The study depends on the hopping mode, and the study will be made on :
The most interfered channel (this one with the lowest C/I) of TRXs belonging to the selected
TRX type (BCCH, TCH, TCH_INNER) or the most interfered channel of all the TRX types (All),
in case of a non hopping mode,
The MAL of the selected subcell (BCCH, TCH, TCH_INNER) or the most interfered MAL of all
the subcells (All), in case of base band hopping,
The most interfered MAL-MAIO of the selected subcell (BCCH, TCH, TCH_INNER) or all the
subcells (All), in case of synthesised frequency hopping.
on each pixel
Since each pixel can be seen as a receiver, its related properties have to be set (e.g. : adjacent
channel protection level).

VI.5.3 COMPUTING A COVERAGE STUDY BY C/I LEVEL
The determination of zones by C/I level is possible as soon as channels have been allocated to the
transmitters composing the current network, exactly like for interferences study using the point analysis tool.
This study is closely based on the principle of common prediction studies from which it takes the definition
mode and to which it adds an interference condition. Nevertheless, specific coverage GSM/TDMA conditions
are available. Prediction parameters are also standard.

The coverage by C/I level study enables the user to predict C/I levels involving transmitters (taken into
account depending on signal level) sharing either an identical channel or an adjacent channel with other
transmitters as function of signal to noise ratio. The interference definition is proper to each study.

To prepare this prediction study, in the prediction creation steps, select the Coverage by C/I level option from
the study types window. The opened window is made of three tab windows : General, Condition, and
Display. For all of these, use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the
windows.

The coverage by C/I level study is a template for which the field 'C/I level' is selected by default in the display
tab. In that case, each layer corresponds to an area where the C/I level exceeds a defined minimum
threshold. Numerous option related to signal level coverage are available in the Display tab.

Note :
Shadowing margins (depending on the entered reliability level and the standard deviation per clutter
class) are applied only to the C values. These are not taken into account in I determinations.
ATOLL offers default calculation and display parameters when creating coverage by interference level
but it is possible to colour by any other consistent attribute just by adjusting display.
Choosing another display type can make invalid coverage study. In this case, it is necessary to
recalculate prediction study in order to update coverage.
When selecting a "highest signal level" option with a margin or the "All" option, you may have areas
where several transmitters are interfered. On these bins, several C/I values are calculated. Therefore,
you may choose to display either the lowest one of these values (Min C/I option) or the highest one
(Max C/I option) in the Field scrolling box of the display tab.
The study depends on the hopping mode, and the study will be made on :
The most interfered channel (this one with the lowest C/I) of TRXs belonging to the selected
TRX type (BCCH, TCH, TCH_INNER) or the most interfered channel of all the TRX types (All),
in case of a non hopping mode,
The MAL of the selected subcell (BCCH, TCH, TCH_INNER) or the most interfered MAL of all
the subcells (All), in case of base band hopping,
The most interfered MAL-MAIO of the selected subcell (BCCH, TCH, TCH_INNER) or all the
subcells (All), in case of synthesised frequency hopping.
on each pixel
Since each pixel can be seen as a receiver, its related properties have to be set (e.g. : adjacent
channel protection level).

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VI.5.4 STUDYING INTERFERENCES WITH THE POINT ANALYSIS
With the point analysis tool, ATOLL is able to display interferers for a given transmitter, at the receiver
location on the map using the propagation model as defined before (with priority order respect). To permit
interferences, user must not have forgotten to attribute frequencies to transmitters. Furthermore, since each
pixel can be seen as a receiver, its related properties have to be set.

To make active the Interference analysis window (GSM/TDMA projects only):
From the menu bar, check the Point analysis command in the View menu,
The point analysis window opens in the lower right corner of your current environment,
Left click on the Interference tab,
Select the transmitter you want the receiver to be currently connected from the associated
scrolling list,
Click the button from the toolbar,
Move over the map to display the transmitter interferers at any point,
The data appearing in the Point analysis window on receiver interference at the point
clicked on will be as follows :


You can study a TRX type or all the TRX types. ATOLL displays the signal level and interference received
on:
The most interfered channel of the selected transmitter subcell (BCCH, TCH, TCH_INNER) or the
most interfered of all the transmitter subcells (All), in case of a non hopping mode.
The MAL of the selected transmitter subcell (BCCH, TCH, TCH_INNER) or the most interfered MAL of
all the transmitter subcells (All), in case of base band hopping.
The most interfered MAL-MAIO of the selected transmitter subcell (BCCH, TCH, TCH_INNER) or the
most interfered MAL-MAIO of all the transmitter subcells (All), in case of synthesised frequency
hopping.

In this tab, ATOLL provides for a given receiver:
The signal level received from the interfered subcell.
The overall interference received from interferer transmitters,
The interference level received from each interferer. Interferers are sorted in a descending signal level
order.

ATOLL informs you when reduction factors of signal level and interference level are taken into account;
reception bars consist of two parts, a full part, which shows the received signal or interference level, and an
empty part corresponding to signal or interference level reduction. In case of the interfered subcell reception
bar, signal level reduction can be due to the subcell power offset. For each interferer transmitter reception
bar, interference level reduction can be due to power offsets of subcells, adjacent channel protection and
fractional load.




Let's imagine the following scenario :
Site 1_0 is a transmitter made of two subcells, one is TRX type BCCH (no power offset), the other is
TRX type TCH (power offset 3dB). The channel 520 is assigned to TRX BCCH
Site 3_2 is a transmitters made of two subcells, one is TRX type BCCH (power offset 3dB), the other is
TRX type TCH (power offset 3dB). The channel 520 is assigned to TRX BCCH
Site 3_1 is a transmitters made of two subcells, one is TRX type BCCH (no power offset), the other is
TRX type TCH (power offset 3dB). The channel 520 is assigned to TRX BCCH
Site 1_1 is a transmitters made of two subcells, one is TRX type BCCH (no power offset), the other is
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TRX type TCH (power offset 3dB). The channel 519 is assigned to TRX BCCH
No channel is assigned to any TRX TCH for these transmitters.
The Non hopping mode is assigned to TRX of types BCCH for these transmitter.

The studied transmitter is Site1_0, we observe potential interferences on all its TRX types, i.e. we study the
worst case. The asked reliability level is 75 % (some standard deviations per clutter class have been
defined). Like for interfered areas and coverage by C/I levels, the study is made on the most interfered
channel per subcell in case of non hopping mode.

Point analysis drives to the following results :
- The 1st bar in red indicates the signal level from the transmitter Site1_0 at the receiver point (- 123.34
dBm) ; Initially, its value would have been -118.62 dBm, but its signal level value is decreased by 4.72 dB
due to the shadowing margin.
- The 2nd bar indicates the overall interference for interfering stations (- 103.09 dBm) ;
- The following bars indicate, respectively, in descending order, signal levels caused by each interferer
subcell on the station studied
(Site3_2 : -103.31 dBm, Site3_1 : -188.81 dBm and Site1_1 : - 119.44 dBm).

You can see that interferences on Site1_0 are due to the fact that overall interferences are greater that the
Site1_0 signal level itself. Overall interferences are made of the signal level contributions of several
transmitters. Nevertheless, we can observe partly or fully filled bars for each them coming from different
reasons :
The partly filled purple bar comes from the power offset on the TRX BCCH (3 dB) of the transmitter
Site3_2.
The fully filled blue bar is due that no power offset is defined on the TRX BCCH of the transmitter
Site3_1.
The partly filled green bar is due to the fact that the TRX BCCH of the transmitter Site1_1 is made of
the channel 519. Since the adjacent channel protection level is set to 18 dB, its contribution is -119.44
dB, instead of -111.44 dB initially. If a supplementary power offset would have been defined for this
subcell, the related bar would have been cleared from 3dB more.

If the bar representing interference of the station is full, this means that this station interference on the
interfered station is not attenuated by one of the factors described above.

Notes :
Only signal level (C) is downgraded by the shadowing margin (depending on the entered reliability
level and the standard deviation per clutter class). The interference level (I) is not altered by the
shadowing margin.
Neither DTX, nor traffic load of TRXs are taken into account to evaluate the interference levels
(ATOLL calculates interference level by considering 100% as voice activity factor and traffic load).
Determining interferers at a point is possible only if an interference coverage study has already been
performed,
If a MAL is defined on the most interfered subcell, you can obtain, for example, the following result :
Interference on : TCH M.A.L. 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525

VI.6 GSM/TDMA NETWORK OPTIMISATION
VI.6.1 NETWORK OPTIMISATION : OVERVIEW
Once the network has been dimensioned, you may define transmitters neighbours. This can be made
manually, but ATOLL proposes an optional function allowing you to automatically allocate neighbours.
Allocating transmitter neighbours manually can also be made for external transmitters from a linked network
in co-planning. Neighbour definition helps in the automatic frequency planning in order to impose frequency
separation constraints on neighbours.

Once the neighbours are defined, it is possible to improve the current frequency allocation by using an
automatic allocation tool. This helps you in imposing separation constraints on :
- Neighbours
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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 215
- Within transmitters,
- On transmitters located on unique sites
- Defined exceptional pairs of transmitters.

This automatic tool will try to reach a best solution respecting also the number of requested TRXs per
transmitter. Furthermore, this tool can help you for the determination of HSNs, MAIOs, BSICs, SFHs.

ATOLL provides also an automatic tool in order to check the consistency on the reached frequency plan,
obtained either manually or by the use of the automatic allocation tool.

VI.6.2 GSM/TDMA NEIGHBOURS
VI.6.2.a ALLOCATING GSM/TDMA TRANSMITTER NEIGHBOURS MANUALLY
When defined, cell neighbours are a way to optimise the search of possible cells aiming to perform handover
from the current coverage area. Allocating neighbours in a network is optional. Defining neighbours helps in
imposing constraints for frequency automatic allocation.

Note : neighbours are not a filter for transmitters being part of interferers. All transmitters in a network take
part in interferences on each transmitter. Neighbours of any linked project in co-planning can also be listed
and chosen manually.


Manual allocation of GSM/TDMA neighbours must be performed for each transmitter, one at a time. To do
this, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Either,
Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
Either,
Right click on the transmitter from which you want to define the neighbourhood,
Choose the properties option from the context menu,
Or
Double click on the transmitter from which you want to define the neighbourhood,
Click the Neighbours tab from the current window,
Use the What's this help to get information about fields available in the current window,
In the displayed window, in the top table, click on cell to choose from the scrolling box the
desired cell as a transmitter for the current one. In the scrolling box are displayed all the
transmitters located within a radius of 30 km around the reference transmitter,
Click either another table cell, or the button to validate and add a new line to
the table,
When you have completed your entry, click on OK to close the dialog box.
or
Choose the [Neighbours:Neighbour lists...] command from the opened menu,
Click the Neighbours tab from the opened window,
In the displayed table, click on a table cell to determine either base transmitters or
associated neighbours in the network,
Click another table cell to validate and add a new line to the table,
When you have completed your entry, click on OK to close the dialog box.

Notes :
Neighbours manual allocation tools are also ways to check currently allocated neighbourhoods,
Due to the organisation of neighbourhoods in tables, the copy-paste feature can be used in order to
generate the neighbour table of a global network (or per transmitter).
This feature only deals with GSM/TDMA, CDMA/CDMA 2000 and UMTS technologies.

An automatic allocation tool is also available.

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VI.6.2.b ALLOCATING GSM/TDMA TRANSMITTER NEIGHBOURS AUTOMATICALLY
You can carry out neighbour allocation globally on all the transmitters or only on a group of transmitters. In
this case, ATOLL will consider all the transmitters contained in the group of transmitters, the symmetric
neighbours of these transmitters and all the other ones, which have an intersection area with the transmitters
of the group.

Note : neighbours are not a filter for transmitters being part of interferers. All transmitters in a network take
part in interferences on each transmitter.

Allocating automatically permits to allocate neighbours globally in the current network by imposing
constraints on active transmitters that must be satisfied. Force neighbours reciprocity and within co-site is
possible.


To automatically allocate GSM/TDMA neighbours in a network, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Neighbours:Automatic allocation...] command from the opened menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Set the parameters for the current Auto Neighbours allocation study,
Click the button to start calculations,
Once calculations are achieved, click the button to attribute neighbours to
transmitters as displayed in the current table,

When clicking on the Commit button, ATOLL assigns neighbours to transmitters. Neighbours are listed in the
Neighbours tab of each transmitter properties window.

In the Results part, ATOLL provides the neighbour list of each transmitter. If transmitters have a current
allocation, they are noted existing.

When selecting the Reset option, ATOLL deletes all the current neighbours and carries out a new neighbour
allocation. If not selected, the existing neighbours are kept. Therefore, if you add a new transmitter i and start
a new allocation without selecting the Reset option:
ATOLL determines the neighbour list of the transmitter i,
It examines the neighbour list of other transmitters. If there is space in neighbour list of another
transmitter j:
- The transmitter i enters the transmitter j neighbour list if allocation criteria are satisfied. The
transmitter i will be the first one in the neighbour list.
- The transmitter i does not enter the transmitter j neighbour list if allocation criteria are not satisfied.
If the transmitter j belongs to the transmitter i neighbour list and the force symmetry option is selected:
- The transmitter i will enter the transmitter j neighbour list if there is space in the transmitter j
neighbour list.
- If the transmitter j neighbour list is full, ATOLL removes the transmitter j from the transmitter i
neighbour list in order to preserve the link symmetry

Click the Close button to achieve the procedure.


Notes :
This feature only deals with GSM/TDMA, CDMA/CDMA 2000 and UMTS technologies.
No prediction study is needed to perform the automatic neighbour allocation. When starting an
automatic neighbour allocation, ATOLL automatically calculates path loss matrices if it does not find
them.

VI.6.2.c DISPLAYING CURRENT GSM/TDMA NEIGHBOUR LIST
ATOLL provides the possibility to open an editable table referencing all the GSM/TDMA neighbours of the
current network.
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Forsk 2003 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this documentation 217

To access the GSM/TDMA neighbour table, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Neighbours:Neighbour lists...] command from the opened menu,
Click the Neighbours tab from the opened window,
In the displayed table, left column lists reference transmitters, right column, the related
neighbours.

This table can be used to allocate neighbours manually.

VI.6.2.d DELETING ALLOCATED GSM/TDMA NEIGHBOURS
To do this, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Either
Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
Right click on the transmitter from which you want to exclude some neighbours,
Choose the properties option from the context menu,
Click the Neighbours tab from the current window,
Or
Right click on the transmitters folder,
Choose the [Neighbours:Neighbour lists...] option from the context menu,
Click the Neighbours tab from the opened window,
In the displayed table, select the target neighbour line,
Press the keyboard Del (or Suppr.) key
Click on OK to validate and close the dialog box.


Note : this can also be made for external neighbours from a linked project in co-planning.

VI.6.2.e DISPLAYING GSM/TDMA NEIGHBOURS ON THE MAP
Once the GSM/TDMA neighbours have been allocated, you can display a given neighbourhood on the map.

To display the neighbours of any transmitter, proceed as follows :
Click on the visible neighbourhood icon from the toolbar,
Left click on the desired transmitter to select it on the map,
The neighbours are displayed (colour of the reference transmitter) on the map such as :



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for the transmitter Site4_0 located on Site 4


Note : This feature only deals with GSM/TDMA, CDMA/CDMA 2000 and UMTS technologies.

VI.6.3 GSM/TDMA FREQUENCY PLAN
VI.6.3.a ADJUSTING AFP PARAMETERS PER TRANSMITTER
In ATOLL, it is possible to adjust AFP parameters per transmitter and not only as global constraints.

In the TRXs tab of the transmitter property dialog, it is possible to force :
Subcell part :
The main frequency band used by propagation model when assigning cell types to transmitters,
The frequency domains for each subcell in which the automatic tool chooses frequencies as defined by
default in the selected cell types,
The allocation mode (Free or Group constrained) for the AFP to allocate frequencies to TRX (defined
in TRX types of the selected cell type),
The allowed C/I and max percentage of interference per subcell (coming the TRX type properties of
each selected cell type),
The minimum reception threshold for each subcell (defined in TRX types of each cell type),
The max MAL length allowed per subcell (defined in TRX types of each cell type),
The hopping mode, for each subcell of each transmitter,
The site synchronisation at the subcell level,
The support of DTX per subcell (or not),


Furthermore, ATOLL is able to compute automatically the requested number of TRXs (at the subcell level)
for all transmitters of the network. When computed, values are automatically reported in the subcell part of
the transmitter property dialog boxes.

TRX part :
In the transmitter property dialog (TRXs tab), you can choose manually the frequencies related to each TRX.
The MAIO can also be manually specified. Concerning the AFP itself, it is possible to freeze channels of
each TRX at this level. This way, existing channels will not be overwritten by any new automatic allocation.


In the AFP tab of the transmitter property dialog, it is possible to impose :
A weight on cost function used for convergence on this specific transmitter. For example, entering a
value of 2 for a specific transmitter whereas the value for other transmitters is 1 means that we will
consider convergence when the reached cost function on this transmitter will be half the one of the
other transmitters.
To avoid recalculation by AFP of parameters as frequencies, HSNs and BSICs at the transmitter level,
it is possible to freeze them. Frequencies can be also frozen at the subcell level (see above).
Exceptional channel separations with other transmitters that are neither co-site nor neighbours of the
currently considered transmitter.

VI.6.3.b DEFINING EXCEPTIONAL PAIRS FOR FREQUENCY ALLOCATION
In ATOLL, the automatic frequency allocation algorithm (AFP) tries to compute a frequency plan respecting
some separation constraints on neighbourhood, channels within transmitters, and within sites, trying of
course also to minimize interferences. It is also possible to force additional channel separation constraints
between other transmitters; these are called exceptional pairs.

Exceptional pairs of transmitters can be defined either individually (one transmitter at a time) or globally (from
a global table).

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For any transmitter, to define channel separations with any other transmitter, proceed as follows :
Either :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
Right click on the transmitter you want to manage,
or
Select on the map the transmitter you want to manage by left clicking on the
appropriate Tx symbol (arrow),
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Click on the AFP tab of the current dialog,
Use the What's this help to get description about the opened dialog window,
In the displayed table window, click on a cell to choose from the scrolling box the target
transmitter with which to force exceptional channel separation,
Click either another table cell, or the button to validate and add a new line to the
table.
When you have completed your entry, click on OK to close the dialog box.


To access the exceptional pair table, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Frequency plan : Exceptional pairs] command from the opened menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the opened dialog window,
In the displayed table, click on a table cell to determine transmitters pairs and associated
channel separations,
Click another table cell to validate and add a new line to the table,
When you have completed your entry, click on OK to close the dialog box.


The button helps you to manage the content of the Exceptional separation table.
Other constraints are imposed in transmitter properties.
Exceptional pairs can be also defined from the AFP dialog.

VI.6.3.c USING THE AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY PLANNING TOOL
The automatic frequency planning tool allows the user to assign frequencies to number of TRXs defined per
transmitter. The goal is to assign sufficient resources in order to handle a certain amount by checking
separation constraints and minimizing interferences.

A certain number of inputs are defined in the transmitter properties. Others are imposed at the global level.
Finally, others are imposed when starting the AFP session.

Automatic frequency planning can be performed in two steps. The first step consists in computing
interference histograms. Then, during the second step, the tool performs frequency plan optimisation. The
AFP dialog consists of two parts relating to different process steps.


Step 1 : Interference determination

For each pair (interfered subcell, interferer subcell), ATOLL calculates a C/I value on each bin of the
interfered subcell service area; all the subcells are supposed to share the same channel. Then, ATOLL
integrates C/I values calculated over the service area of the interfered subcell and determines an
interference histogram. Histogram shows the different interference probabilities. Interference probability is
the probability that users of the interfered subcell receive a C/I higher than a C/I value; interference
probability is stated either in percentage of interfered area or in percentage of interfered traffic.

To start the interference determination, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
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Right click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Frequency plan : Automatic allocation] command from the opened menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the opened dialog window,
Click the button,
In the opened dialog select on which servers to base the current study for the Service zone
determination (see coverage conditions in predictions),
Choose to base the allowed percentage of interference (defined in TRX types of cell types) in
term of surface or in term of traffic,
Click OK to start the computation.


After calculating or importing interference histograms, the calculation status for AFP becomes "Ready".

Caution: Changing some transmitter or subcell properties such as power offset, reception threshold and
transmitter power or EIRP makes invalid interference histograms. In this case, you must recalculate them.

It is possible to import and export interference histograms (respectively by clicking on the Import and Export
buttons). When exporting interference histograms, ATOLL creates two ASCII text files in the specified
directory: xxx.dct and xxx.clc (xxx is the user specified name). The .dct file contains the name of transmitters
taken into account in AFP and their associated identification numbers; the .clc file details interference
histogram of each pair (interfered subcell, interferer subcell). Thanks to this feature, you may validate the
AFP inputs and exploit external sources of information as AFP inputs. In addition, the exported interference
histograms can be used as input for external optimisation tools.

Notes :
When importing interference histograms, you must specify the .clc file to be imported; ATOLL looks for
the associated .dct file in the same directory and uses it to decode transmitter identifiers. When this file
is unavailable, ATOLL assumes that the transmitter identifiers are the transmitter names.
No validity control is performed when importing an interference histogram file.
ATOLL only imports interference histograms relating to active transmitters with a calculation area.


Step 2 : Frequency plan optimisation

Once interference histograms are available, optimisation can be started. AFP respects quality requirements
such as the minimum C/I threshold and the % maximum of interference defined for each TRX type in the cell
type property dialog. Each subcell should have an interference probability (% of interfered traffic or interfered
area) lower than the % maximum of interference that its C/I is lower than the minimum C/I threshold.

To run the automatic algorithm, in the opened AFP dialog, use the What's this help to get description about
the fields and adjust the AFP parameters :
- Choose the AFP model,
- Choose the resources to be allocated in the current session,
- Define channel separations within transmitters, within sites, between defined neighbours, and check the
separations within exceptional pairs,
- Choose to consider or not discontinuous transmission mode on subcells supporting DTX (in that case,
enter an activity factor),
- Propose a duration on which the current session can base the optimisation; the automatic tool deal with
one domain at a time.

Once these parameters are set, click the button. Every time the AFP stops, choose either to
commit reached channels or to continue (Resume button) optimisation.

Note : A audit on the computed frequency plan is available.

VI.6.3.d CHECKING THE FREQUENCY PLAN CONSISTENCY
Once frequencies have been assigned to TRXs (manually, automatically), ATOLL provides a tool in order to
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check the consistency of the current frequency plan.

Some systematic checking :
- Definition of a unique BCCH TRX per transmitter,
- Consistency between TRXs and related cell types,
- In case of Non Hopping or Base Band Hopping : definition of one unique frequency per TRX,
- In case of Synthesised Frequency Hopping : definition of a frequency list per TRX,
- In case of Synthesised Frequency Hopping : respect of max MAL lengths,
- In case of Synthesised Frequency Hopping : MAIO less than the number of MAL frequencies

Furthermore, you can parameter some additional checking on Frequencies, HSN and/or BSIC elements :
- First, you can check the compliance of the current frequency plan with the allocation strategy (Free or
Group constrained) at the TRX type level (subcells in transmitters),
- Then, you can check the respect of domains for allocated resources of type frequency, HSN or BSIC.
These domains are tested in order to check that they are not empty. Concerning frequencies, the tool is able
to check compliance of frequency domains within related frequency bands,
- Finally, you can also check channel separation constraints within transmitters, in co-site transmitters,
between neighbours and between exceptional pairs.


To start the Frequency plan consistency checking, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Frequency plan : Check consistency] command from the opened menu,
Use the What's this help to get description about the opened dialog window,
Click the OK button.


Results about consistency are displayed in the tasks tab of the event viewer. This can be also stored in an
external log file.

VI.7 E/GPRS PROJECTS MANAGEMENT HELP
VI.7.1 E/GPRS PROJECTS : OVERVIEW
GPRS (Global Packet Radio Service) and EDGE (Enhanced Data-rates for GSM - or Global - Evolution) are
2.5th numeric telephony norms working around the 900-1800 MHz band, using the TDMA (Time Division
Multiple Access) technology as classical GSM norm. The aim of these technologies is to increase data rates,
spectral efficiency and coverage to open up new applications for mobile use. These are available from
standard ATOLL when creating a new project by choosing the GSM_EGPRS template.

GSM and E/GPRS projects share the same template. A station will be able to allow both GSM and GPRS
services depending on its properties. This will be set at the subcell level with timeslot either dedicated to
circuit, packet or composite services.

Each transmitter dealing with E/GPRS must have a piece of E/GPRS equipment. ATOLL allows the user to
either create or modify easily these equipment. These are linked with so-called coding schemes functions of
C or C/I thresholds. GPRS technology provides 4 coding schemes whereas EDGE can offer 9. With ATOLL,
you can set these coding schemes and display their effects in graphs.

Since E/GPRS technology is based on GSM norm, it is possible to define or not, in the same network,
transmitters as E/GPRS stations.

Compared to GSM norm, E/GPRS provides the support of larger amounts of data services. Moreover, this
technology permits to carry more data per timeslot. Depending on the radio data and the number of timeslots
dedicated to packet service transmissions for the transmitters part of the current network, ATOLL can
determine the average capacity per timeslot per transmitter.

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Finally, ATOLL provides specific E/GPRS coverage studies depending either on only C or both C and C/I
and E/GPRS equipment as defined with each transmitter :
E/GPRS coding schemes analysis,
E/GPRS max rate per timeslot analysis.

The What's this context tool allows the user to understand the specific E/GPRS fields and features available
in the several dialog boxes.

VI.7.2 SETTING E/GPRS PARAMETERS
VI.7.2.a CREATING AN E/GPRS EQUIPMENT
A folder called E/GPRS equipment is available in the Explorer window Data tab. It enables you to manage
specific equipment for GPRS and EDGE networks. Thresholds associated with coding schemes are defined
in these equipment. Any transmitter dealing with GPRS or EDGE technology have to be assigned an existing
piece of equipment.


To create a new E/GPRS equipment, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Equipment : E/GPRS Equipment] command from the opened menu,
Fill the empty table line in order to create the new piece of equipment,
Click the button to open the related complete dialog,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Set the E/GPRS equipment settings,
Click OK or Apply to achieve the creation,


Notes :
The button helps you to manage content of the E/GPRS Equipment table.
An Other Properties tab is available if some user defined fields have been added to the E/GPRS
Equipment table.

VI.7.2.b MANAGING E/GPRS EQUIPMENT PROPERTIES
In ATOLL, it is possible to modify properties (name, number of coding schemes, thresholds and associated
graphs) of any existing equipment. These equipment have to be defined for each transmitter taking part in
specific E/GPRS coverage predictions (Coding schemes and Max rate per timeslot).


To manage an E/GPRS equipment, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Equipment : E/GPRS Equipment] command from the opened menu,
The associated Data table opens,
Define the parameters of each E/GPRS Equipment.


Notes :
The dialog of each E/GPRS Equipment is reachable either by double clicking the related record in the
table, or by using the button once a record is selected,
The button helps you to manage content of the E/GPRS Equipment table.
An Other Properties tab is available if some user defined fields have been added to the E/GPRS
Equipment table.
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VI.7.2.c SETTING CODING SCHEMES PARAMETERS
In GPRS or EDGE technology, the main data is the number of coding schemes. Coding scheme is a coding
algorithm used to introduce more or less redundancy (rate multiplier) and improve packet transmission. Four
and nine coding schemes are respectively available for GPRS and EDGE networks. The more important the
coding scheme is, the less redundancy there is. Therefore, in GPRS networks, using a coding scheme 4
means that there will be no redundancy.


To adjust the parameters associated with coding schemes from any equipment, proceed as follow :
Access the property dialog of the equipment you want to adjust the associated coding
schemes,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Click on the General tab to check or modify the name and/or the maximum number of coding
schemes available for the current equipment,
Click on the Thresholds tab to define, for each coding scheme :
Power threshold and Signal noise ratio threshold : They are respectively the minimum
power (C) and the minimum signal noise ratio (C/I) required at the receiver in order for the
coding scheme to be used,
Max rate (kbps): It is the maximum rate (kbps) obtained when there is no data
transmission error,
Rates depending on C (kbps) and rates depending on C/I (kbps): These columns
contain values used to represent Rate=f(C ) and Rate=f(C/I) graphs,
Click OK or Apply to validate.


The and buttons allows to display graphs associated with the currently selected
coding scheme.

VI.7.2.d DISPLAYING RATE GRAPHS
In E/GPRS technology, coding schemes are linked with data transmission redundancy level. The least
redundancy deals with riskier data transmissions with potentially higher transmission rates. The most
redundancy deals with safer data transmissions but with lower rates. Coding schemes are hence defined in
order to obtain the best compromise between enough transmission speed and safety of data packet
transmission. That is why each coding scheme has an optimum working range depending on either C or C/I
values. This can be pointed out through graphs attached with the definition of each coding scheme linked to
E/GPRS equipment.


To display the rate graph as function of C or C/I values for a given coding scheme, proceed as follows :
Access properties dialog box of the equipment you want to adjust the associated coding
schemes,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Click on the Thresholds tab,
Either,
Click on the C or C/I cell you want to display the associated rate graph,
Or,
Select the line of the coding scheme you want to display a rate graph,
Click either the or button to open the graph (as function
respectively of C or C/I) dialog window,
The Rate graph window opens. It consists of a table where you can define C (or C/I) and rate
values (copying and pasting a set of values, adding and deleting values is possible) and a part
where the graph is displayed,
Click OK or close the window.

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Note : these graphs show the rate evolution depending on radio conditions (C and C/I) by considering block
error rates. Therefore, from these graphs, you can choose a coding scheme suitable to radio conditions.

VI.7.2.e DEFINING A TRANSMITTER AS AN E/GPRS STATION
In ATOLL, transmitters part of network dealing either with GPRS or EDGE can be or not considered as
E/GPRS stations by default. In this last case, they are taken as classical GSM stations. For this reason,
except the specific E/GPRS part, all transmitters can be either created or managed identically that
transmitters from a complete GSM/TDMA network.


To assign E/GPRS properties to any transmitter, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Either,
Double click the Transmitters folder to open the associated table,
Tick the boxes associated with such transmitters in the E/GPRS column,
Assign the associated E/GPRS to cells,
Or
Access the properties dialog box of the transmitter you want to define as an E/GPRS
station,
Click on the E/GPRS tab,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the current
window,
Tick the Station E/GPRS box and complete the E/GPRS equipment field,
Click OK or Apply to validate.


Notes :
When choosing the equipment, all pieces of equipment previously described in the E/GPRS equipment
folder are available in the E/GPRS equipment scrolling menu. If none is chosen, ATOLL does not
consider the associated transmitter in the E/GPRS specific studies,
The average rate per timeslot is an uneditable field coming from output calculation.

VI.7.3 SPECIFIC E/GPRS PREDICTION STUDIES
VI.7.3.a CREATING A COVERAGE BY E/GPRS CODING SCHEMES
This study displays areas according to the used coding schemes. The coverage colour depends on the
assigned coding scheme. The coding scheme choice is determined from radio conditions (C or/and C/I).
Therefore, the strongest C and C/I values are, the higher the coding scheme will be. When both graphs are
used, ATOLL uses the lowest one.

As this study can be based on C/I, some parameters are similar to the ones found in interference predictions.

To prepare this prediction study, in the prediction creation steps, select the E/GPRS option from the study
types window. The opened window is made of three tab windows : General, Condition, and Display. For all of
these, use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the windows.

In the condition tab, specific coverage GSM/TDMA conditions are available. Moreover, if you tick the
'Calculations based on C/I option, both conditions on signal (C ) and signal noise ratio (C/I) must be satisfied
to be able to use a given coding scheme.

The coverage by coding scheme is a template for which the field 'Coding Schemes' is selected by default in
the display tab. In that case, each layer shows the coding schemes to be used in the transmitter coverage
area. You can also choose to display your coverage in term of Best coding schemes. The resulting coverage
shows the best coding scheme that can be used on each pixel. Other options related to E/GPRS coverage
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are available in the Display tab.

Note :
ATOLL offers default calculation and display parameters when creating E/GPRS prediction studies.
Choosing another display type can make invalid coverage study. In this case, it is necessary to
recalculate prediction study in order to update coverage.
Since each pixel can be seen as a receiver, its related properties have to be set (e.g. : adjacent
channel protection level).

VI.7.3.b COMPUTING A COVERAGE BY E/GPRS RATE PER TIMESLOT
This study displays the areas where the rate carried by transmitter on one packet timeslot exceeds the user-
defined thresholds. The rate is determined from rate=f(C ) or/and rate=f(C/I) graphs defined for each coding
scheme. When both graphs are used, ATOLL chooses the less favourable rate.

As this study can be based on C/I, some parameters are similar to the ones found in interference predictions.

To prepare this prediction study, in the prediction creation steps, select the E/GPRS option from the study
types window. The opened window is made of three tab windows : General, Condition, and Display. For all of
these, use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the windows.

In the condition tab, specific coverage GSM/TDMA conditions are available. Moreover, if you check the
'Calculations based on C/I option, both conditions on signal (C ) and signal noise ratio (C/I) must be satisfied
to be able to use a given coding scheme.

To calculate the coverage per rate/timeslot, two coverage display options are available. Firstly, you can
choose the Rate/timeslot. In that case, each layer shows the rates that a transmitter can carry one timeslot.
You can also choose to display your coverage in term of Best rate/timeslot. The resulting coverage gives the
best rate/timeslot per pixel from the previous display. Other options related to E/GPRS coverage are
available in the Display tab.

Note :
ATOLL offers default calculation and display parameters when creating E/GPRS prediction studies.
Choosing another display type can make invalid coverage study. In this case, it is necessary to
recalculate prediction study in order to update coverage.
Since each pixel can be seen as a receiver, its related properties have to be set (e.g. : adjacent
channel protection level).

VI.7.3.c CALCULATING THE AVERAGE CAPACITY PER TIMESLOT PER TRANSMITTER
ATOLL provides a calculation tool in order to determine the spatial average capacity per timeslot for each
E/GPRS transmitter with a calculation area. This analysis is based on E/GPRS study definition. ATOLL does
not use the calculated E/GPRS coverage; it only takes into account study parameters specified in the
Condition tab of the property dialog.


To calculate the average capacity per timeslot for all the transmitters in an E/GPRS network, proceed
as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder in order to get the related context menu,
Choose the [Dimensioning : Timeslot capacity calculation...] option from the opened menu,
A dialog window opens,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Choose the rate per timeslot reference study to base on the current calculation,
Click on the Run button to start calculations,
When finished, results are displayed for each transmitter in the current table,
Click on the Commit results button to assign to each transmitter its associated rate,
The committed rate is reported in the properties dialog box of each transmitter.

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Note : if no prediction is available to base the average rate per timeslot study on, it is proposed to the user to
create a new one in order to use its parameters for the calculation.


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VII W-CDMA/UMTS PROJECT MANAGEMENT
VII.1 UMTS PROJECTS : OVERVIEW
UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) is a radio technology using W-CDMA (Wideband Code
Division Multiple Access) principles. UMTS is based on Wideband CDMA air interface whereas
CDMA/CDMA 2000 (1xRTT and IS95) on Narrowband CDMA. W-CDMA/UMTS is available in ATOLL with
the optional UMTS module.

In UMTS, everybody works at the same frequency, signals are spread over a band of 3.84 MHz (on each
carrier) and distinguished by the use of OVSF codes on them. Nevertheless, this induces potentially high
levels of noise which can be defeated by sophisticated power controls on uplink (from terminals) and on
downlink (from transmitters) traffic channels.

Because of power control, there is not a single solution to model a UMTS network, and results depend totally
on network parameters such as traffic and user behaviours. Hence, these parameters have to be modelled
before starting calculations via user distributions. Simulation results provide a snapshot of the UMTS network
at a certain time.

In order to simulate user distributions and associated behaviours, some parameters have to be set. These
are services, mobility types, terminal, user profiles and environment types. Each of these is easy to manage
like any other folder-like object within ATOLL. All these parameters go together with traffic maps, based on
environments, on user profiles (with no required definition for environment parameters) or on Transmitters
and Services (in term of rates or number of users - with no required definition for environment and user
profile parameters).

UMTS power control simulations and UMTS specific coverage predictions need the definition of the previous
parameters. Classical coverage predictions are also available to study cell pilots. The point analysis tool
allows a specific analysis of any active set at any given point on the map, for a particular scenario (service,
terminal, and speed of a probe mobile which current status is provided by network simulation results).

Geo data are easily manageable like for other projects. You may either create or import geographic objects.
Sites, antennas, station templates, transmitters, measurements, and propagation models work in the same
way for UMTS and the other technology projects. Nevertheless, due to an enhanced resource management
to consider at site level, site equipment and resource management per service have been introduced.
Furthermore, since UMTS support several carrier networks, a new item characterising each carrier per
transmitter has been introduced : UMTS cells. Hence, many properties are defined at the cell level (e.g.
powers).

Like for the other types of technologies, neighbours may be manually defined by the user or with the help of
the neighbour automatic allocation tool, but at the cell level. UMTS Downlink primary scrambling codes
enable the user to distinctly identify cells (transmitters and carriers). They can also be defined manually or
automatically imposing a large number of constraints.


The What's this context tool allows the user to understand the specific UMTS fields and features available in
dialog boxes.

VII.2 UMTS SPECIFIC CONCEPTS
In a W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) network, a code is allocated to each link
transmitter-terminal. This code allows the terminal to identify the useful signal spread over the whole
bandwidth as mobiles use the same frequency band simultaneously. Consequently, each mobile is indirectly
interfered by all the others. It is thus essential for UMTS to perform reliable power control especially on the
uplink, in order to limit network interference level.

To achieve power control simulation and coverage calculation, UMTS planning requires traffic snapshots
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unlike GSM planning, which only needs traffic data when dimensioning a network for a certain grade of
service.

UMTS coverage directly depends on offered traffic : the more the traffic is, the smaller the coverage zones
are. This phenomenon is called cell breathing. As Traffic is dynamic, coverage calculation is necessarily
statistical.

ATOLL achieves coverage predictions in two steps :
First, it simulates power control)for realistic user distributions to obtain network parameters and
interference level (simulation part).
Then, it generates bin-based coverage probability predictions (prediction part).

See UMTS projects protocol


ATOLL enables W-CDMA/UMTS network planning, 3G network based on Wideband Code Division Multiple
Access technique (W-CDMA) and multi-service management. These major concepts and new technologies
require new network and data modelling, with appropriate needs for traffic modelling. A wide range of
different UMTS services (speech, web, video-conferencing,...), available to consumers, generates a more
complex traffic than standard voice transmissions. Appropriate traffic data model and relevant localisation on
a map, i.e. traffic cartography represents a major input for UMTS planning. Specific UMTS objects are
available when creating a new project with ATOLL. The UMTS project is designed to provide specific UMTS
radio and traffic data structures, UMTS simulations and predictions folders.

VII.3 UMTS PROJECTS PROTOCOL
A classical UMTS project protocol, within ATOLL, is described below :

Network design : Setting radio data

Pilot studies based only on signal reception

Traffic input
Traffic description : activity probabilities
Traffic map design : number of subscribers or users (depending on the type of map)

Simulations (Evaluation of interference level)
Realistic user distribution generation
Power control simulation

UMTS oriented prediction studies
Point predictions
Coverage predictions

Network optimisation
Neighbour allocation
Primary scrambling code allocation

VII.4 MANAGING UMTS RADIO DATA
VII.4.1 MANAGING UMTS RADIO DATA : OVERVIEW
Due to their complexity, UMTS networks, in ATOLL have been modelled by the introduction of specific radio
items.

Firstly, due to the fact that the number of channel elements is limited by site, these are set from the Site
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folder. Hence, in ATOLL, you can model several pieces of equipment with different radio resource
management parameters and describe channel element consumption for each equipment type/service
couple. Then, you can assign a piece of equipment to each site.

Some features have been introduced in order to adjust the global specific parameters of UMTS networks.

UMTS supports multi-carrier networks, i.e. a transmitter can work on several carriers on the same time, each
carrier being set with different properties. Hence, to take it into account, a new level has been introduced in
order to simulate the carrier level on each transmitters : UMTS cells. Like many other objects in ATOLL,
these are easily manageable and provide several tools in order to make their use easy.

VII.4.2 UMTS SITE EQUIPMENT
VII.4.2.a CREATING UMTS SITE EQUIPMENT
In UMTS, site equipment allows the user to define some equipment related to channel elements and some
other specific UMTS parameters and calculation options (MUD factor, Rake efficiency factor, Carrier
selection, Overhead CEs, AS restricted to neighbours) .

To create a UMTS site equipment, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Sites folder to open the context menu,
Left click the [Equipment : Open] command from the opened scrolling menu,
In the Equipment window, describe a piece of equipment per line. Type its name, the
manufacturer name and define:

MUD factor
Multi-User Detection is a technology used to decrease intra-cellular interference on uplink. MUD is modelled
by a coefficient between 0 and 1; this factor is considered in the UL interference calculation. In case MUD is
not supported by equipment, enter 0 as value.

Rake receiver efficiency factor
This factor enables ATOLL to model macro-diversity on uplink. ATOLL uses it to calculate the uplink macro-
diversity gains and uplink signal quality in simulations, point-to-point handover analysis and coverage
studies. This parameter is considered on uplink for softer and softer-softer handovers; it is applied to the sum
of signals received on the same site. The factor value can be between 0 and 1. It models losses due to the
signal recombination imperfection.

Carrier selection
It refers to carrier selection mode used during the transmitter admission control in mobile active set. Three
methods are available:
- UL min noise: The least loaded carrier (carrier with the lowest UL load factor) is selected,
- DL min power: The carrier with lowest used total DL power is selected,
- Random: The carrier is randomly chosen.

Overhead CEs uplink and downlink: number of channel elements that a cell uses for common
channels on uplink and downlink.

AS restricted to neighbours
This option is used to manage mobile active set. If you select this option, the other transmitters in active set
must belong to the neighbour list of the best server.

Click on to close the table.


Note : Rake efficiency factor for computation of recombination in downlink has to be set in terminals.

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VII.4.2.b MANAGING UMTS SITE EQUIPMENT
Site equipments are listed in a table in ATOLL. So, as many other objects, they are easy to manage both in
term of contents or handy tools.

To access to the UMTS site equipment table, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Sites folder to open the context menu,
Left click the [Equipment : Open] command from the opened scrolling menu,
The table displays each piece of equipment in each line.
Click on to close the table.


Notes :
Standard features for managing table content (Copy/Paste, Fill up/down, Delete, Display columns,
Filter, Sort, Fields) are available in context menu (when right clicking on column(s) or record(s)) and
in the Format, Edit and Records menus.
Rake efficiency factor for computation of recombination in downlink has to be set in terminals.

VII.4.2.c MANAGING CHANNEL ELEMENT CONSUMPTION PER UMTS SITE EQUIPMENT
UL and DL channel elements are independently dealt with in power control simulation. Furthermore, the
number of channel element required by a site depends on site equipment, user service and link direction (up
or down).


To describe channel element consumption during UMTS simulation, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Sites folder to open the context menu,
Left click the [Equipment : Channel Element consumption] command from the opened
scrolling menu,
In the CE consumption window, enter for each equipment-service pair the number of UL
and DL channel elements that ATOLL will consume during power control simulation,
Click on to close the table.

VII.4.2.d ASSIGNING UMTS SITE EQUIPMENT TO SITES
Once equipment related to channel element are defined, it is possible to assign a piece of equipment to each
site.

To assign a piece of equipment to a site proceed as follows :
Either :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Expand the Sites folder by clicking on the button in front of it
Right click on the site you want to manage,
or
Select on the map the site you want to manage by right clicking on it ( ),
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Click the Equipment tab,
Use the What's this help to get description about the opened dialog window.
Enter the maximum number of uplink and downlink channel elements available for the site;
then, click on the Equipment scrolling menu and choose a piece of equipment in the list,
Click on OK to validate.


Note :
In case you have defined neither equipment nor channel element consumption, ATOLL considers the
following default values, Rake efficiency factor = 1, MUD factor = 0, Carrier selection = UL minimum
noise, Overhead CEs downlink and uplink = 0, AS restricted to neighbours option not selected, and
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uses one channel element per link (up or down) for any service, during power control simulation.
Equipment can be also assigned by accessing site table.

VII.4.3 TRANSMITTER UMTS SPECIFIC PARAMETERS
VII.4.3.a DEFINING THE TRANSMITTER UMTS GLOBAL PARAMETERS
In ATOLL, some parameters which are globally related to the UMTS technology can be accessed easily and
applied to all the items of a network; these are called global parameters.

Some of them are used as global values, other as default values. All of these are essential in UMTS power
control simulations.

To access the global parameters of a UMTS network, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the transmitters folder,
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Click the Global parameters tab,
Use the What's this help to get description about the opened dialog window,
Click OK to close the dialog.

VII.4.4 UMTS CELLS
VII.4.4.a UMTS CELLS : DEFINITION
Because ATOLL supports multi-carriers networks, and also since it is possible to define some rules about
carrier selection for a mobile when defining its active set, a new level has been introduced, the cell level. A
cell defines a carrier on a transmitter. Data of interest like transmission powers (Pilot, Synchronisation, Other
common channels, Maximum power), total power, UL load percentage, primary scrambling codes, active set
thresholds are defined at the cell level. Hence, neighbours are also defined at the cell level.

The number of cells per transmitter is limited by the number of carriers available for a network as defined in
the global parameter dialog. Cells can be listed either by transmitter, in a specific dialog, or in a table form,
as other radio data (sites and transmitters). So, here again, the management of cells stays easy and
comfortable.

VII.4.4.b CREATING A UMTS CELL
The cell concept is fully supported in ATOLL. Cell is characterised by the transmitter-carrier couple.
Therefore, you can define several cells per transmitter (as many cells as carriers associated to transmitter).

To define UMTS transmitter cells, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab in the Explorer window,
Right click on the Transmitters folder to open the context menu,
Left click the [Cells : Open] command from the opened scrolling menu,

The Cells table contains all the identifiers of a cell, its name, transmitter and carrier which the cell refers
to, cell primary scrambling code, scrambling code domain to which the allocated scrambling code
belongs, all the values defining transmitted signal level, pilot power, synchronisation power, other
common channels power, maximum power, total power used, information about the cell uplink load and
an active set management parameter, AS threshold.

Click on to close the table.


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Notes :
Cells are automatically created and described in the table when you drag and drop a station. On the
other hand, you must define them manually after adding a new transmitter (New command when
right clicking on the Transmitters folder) or copying a list of transmitters in the Transmitters table.
Cell default name is: Transmitter name(carrier). If you change transmitter name or carrier, ATOLL
does not update the cell name.
You cannot create two cells related to the same transmitter-carrier couple.

VII.4.4.c MANAGING UMTS CELL PROPERTIES
In UMTS, cells are defined per transmitter. Nevertheless, their associated properties can be reached by
several ways. Like many other objects (Sites, Transmitters, Antennas, Predictions, Simulations,
measurements, etc...) within ATOLL, cells can be managed either individually (per transmitter or in a single
dialog) or globally.

Global properties management
In ATOLL, you may manage globally the cell properties of your network by accessing the cell table :
To do so, proceed as follows :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Right click on the Transmitters folder to open the context menu,
Left click the [Cells : Open] command from the opened scrolling menu,
Click on to close the table.


Individual property management
There are two ways to edit cell properties of each transmitter in the current network.
To do so,
Either :
Left click on the Data tab of the Explorer window,
Expand the transmitters folder by clicking on the button in front of it,
Right click on the transmitter which cell properties you want to access,
or
Select on the map the transmitter which cell properties you want to access by left
clicking on the appropriate Tx symbol (arrow),
Choose the Properties option from the context menu,
Click the Cell tab from the opened dialog,
Use the What's this help to get description about the opened dialog window.


It is also possible to open a single dialog for each cell. To do so, proceed as follows :
Open the cell table (see above)
Either
Double click the record which property dialog you want to open,
Or
Right click on the record which property dialog you want to open to get its associated
context menu,
Select the Record Properties command from the opened scrolling menu (or the Record
Properties command from the Records menu),
Use the What's this help to get description about the opened dialog window.


Notes :
Cell Properties dialog consists of three tabs: cell characteristics entered in the cells table are grouped
in the General and Transmission/Reception tabs, Internal and external neighbours may be allocated to
the cell in the Neighbours tab.
It is possible to define additional fields in the cell table by using the Fields command in its related
context menu (or from the Records menu). If it is the case, this new field will then be available in the
Other properties tab of any cell property dialog.

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VII.4.4.d POWER PARAMETERS IN UMTS
Because powers can be defined differently within a same transmitter depending on carriers, these are
defined at the cell level in ATOLL.

To define the different powers related to UMTS technology, access the cell properties (either from the
table or from dialogs) and fill the following fields (Transmission/Reception tab) :
Max power
Pilot power
SCH power
Other CCH power

The total power used and UL load used in specific UMTS coverages are also defined in the cell properties.
The active set threshold (default value : 5dB) used for active set determination has also to be set there.

VII.4.4.e ACTIVE SET PARAMETERS IN UMTS
For a given terminal allowed to perform handover, the active set contains the transmitters with which it is
connected. The main parameter to be measured for transmitters in the active set is the pilot quality (Ec/Io).
Once the best server, in term of pilot quality, is defined, other transmitters are selected using an active set
threshold. This threshold is defined at the cell level, considering the cell which pilot quality is the best for a
given active set.

To define the active set threshold of any cell, access the cell properties (either from the table or from
dialogs) and fill the field AS threshold (Transmission/Reception tab).

VII.5 MANAGING UMTS TRAFFIC DATA
VII.5.1 UMTS TRAFFIC DATA : OVERVIEW
The aim of UMTS network planning in ATOLL is to provide some specific coverage predictions based on
power control simulations. These simulations use the data available from the current network. In UMTS
projects, the multi-service ability allows the definition of specific traffic maps. Hence, you may use maps
based on either environment types, rates or number of users per service and per transmitter, or on user
profiles.

To achieve power control simulation, ATOLL use the other classical geo data (clutter maps, DTM or DEM
maps), the radio configuration (sites, antennas, transmitters, cells) and the specific UMTS parameters.
These topics are organised in folders and are easily manageable. They deal with :
services,
mobility types,
terminals,
user profiles,
environment classes.


UMTS traffic data structure describes multi-service traffic on the network. The central data is the user profile,
which describes a type of subscriber by listing his communication behaviours:
which terminal(s) does he use ?
for which service(s)?
with which usage characteristics (frequency, duration, volume,)?

The mobility concept has been added to take into account strong Ec/Io and Eb/Nt dependence on mobile
speed. When defining a mobility type, you have to give Ec/Io requirements, which will determine mobile
terminal active set. When creating a new circuit or packet switched service, in addition to basic
characteristics (nominal rate,) you have to provide Eb/Nt targets in uplink and downlink for each mobility
type previously defined. You may define different receiver types, called terminals and containing power
characteristics and mobile active set size.
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Environments just associate a list of user profiles with a specific mobility to a subscriber density.
Environment classes or user profiles can be used to geographically define multi-traffic areas.


As with any Data table in ATOLL, these tables are automatically stored in a database if the user works with a
connected document.

ATOLL powerful data management features are available on traffic tables. For example, you may group
terminals by their active set size.

ATOLL manages multi-carrier networks. It allows the user to choose the way carriers are selected by
transmitters. Moreover, any specific CDMA study may deal with several carriers depending on the user or on
the radio parameters of the network.

VII.5.2 WORKING ON UMTS SERVICES
VII.5.2.a CREATING UMTS SERVICES
UMTS allows the user to carry not only voice but also data for web, or video conferencing for example.

In UMTS, Services are divided into two categories: circuit switched and packet switched. Usually, circuit
switched services support soft handover unlike packet switched services.

ATOLL provides a function to enable or disable soft handover for a given service.


To create a service, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the UMTS Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Right click on the Services folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on New,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Click the available tabs to set the parameters of the created service,
Validate by clicking on OK.


Note : In the Eb/Nt tab window, (Eb/Nt)DL and (Eb/Nt)UL targets are the thresholds (in dB) that must be
achieved to provide users with the service. These parameters depend on user speed and must be defined
for all mobility types.

VII.5.2.b SETTING UMTS SERVICE PARAMETERS
Similar to the other ATOLL object folders, UMTS services are easily manageable. Creation steps and
display management are standard.


To manage the UMTS services parameters, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the UMTS Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Expand the Services folder by left clicking on the button,
Either,
Right click on the service of which you want to manage the properties to open the
associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or,
Double click on the service of which you want to manage the properties,
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Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Click the available tabs to adjust the parameters of the current service,
Validate by clicking on OK.


Notes :
When the Services table is displayed and active, it is possible to open the property dialog window of
any service by simply double clicking on any cell in the associated line, or on the associated arrow at
left.

The coding factors, which penalize UL and DL service rates, may be supplied in two ways. For each service,
you may :
Either enter high UL and DL coding factors and then, set a low enough UL and DL Eb/Nt threshold so
that the advantage of high coding can be simulated (higher error correction rate means smaller bit
error rate and thus a smaller required Eb/Nt),
Or enter low UL and DL coding factors value and take into account the coding to define the required
UL and DL Eb/Nt values, i.e. a high enough Eb/Nt threshold to simulate the disadvantage of little
coding.

VII.5.2.c MANAGING GLOBALLY UMTS SERVICES
In ATOLL, UMTS objects are organized in folders. For this reason, ATOLL allows the user to simultaneously
display all topics of one type (services, mobility, terminal, user profiles, environment) in a table window.


To open the services table, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the UMTS Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Either,
Right click on the Services folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Open,
Or,
Double click on the Services folder,
The services table opens.
Click on to close the table.


The services table works exactly like the other tables. Its cells are editable, sorting and filtering tools, and
copy/paste functions are available.

Notes :
The advanced grouping/filtering/sorting feature may be used on the services from the context menu
associated with the Services folder. From the properties dialog box, you may also manage the
contents of the services table. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in
the different windows.
When the Services table is displayed and active, it is possible to open the property dialog window of
any service by simply double clicking on any cell in the associated line, or on the associated arrow at
left.

VII.5.3 CONFIGURING UMTS MOBILITY TYPES
VII.5.3.a CREATING A UMTS MOBILITY TYPE
In UMTS, receiver mobility knowledge is important for efficient active set management: a mobile used by a
speed driver or a pedestrian will not necessarily be connected to the same transmitters. Ec/Io requirements
and Eb/Nt targets per service and per link (up and down) are largely dependent on mobile speed.

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To create a UMTS mobility type, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the UMTS Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Right click on the Mobility type folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on New,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Set the parameters of the currently created mobility,
Validate by clicking on OK.


Mobility parameters are pilot quality (Ec/Io) thresholds (in dB). For a given mobility type :
Ec/Io threshold is the minimum Ec/Io required from a transmitter to enter the active set. In ATOLL, this
value is verified for the best server.

VII.5.3.b UMTS ACTIVE SET CONDITIONS
The transmitters taking part in the active set have to check the following conditions:
They must be using the same carrier (at the cell level).
The pilot quality (Ec/Io) of the best server has to exceed the Ec/Io threshold (defined for each
mobility type).
The pilot quality difference between other cells and the best server must not exceed the AS-
threshold value set per cell.
Other cells have to belong to the neighbour list of the best server if you have selected the restricted
to neighbours option (in the definition of the Site equipment).

VII.5.3.c SETTING A UMTS MOBILITY TYPE
Like for the other ATOLL object folders, UMTS mobility types are easily manageable. Creation steps and the
display management are standard.


To manage the mobility types parameters, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the UMTS Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Expand the Mobility type folder by left clicking on the button,
Either,
Right click on the mobility of which you want to manage the properties to open the
associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or,
Double click on the mobility of which you want to manage the properties,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Set the parameters of the current mobility,
Validate by clicking on OK.


Note : When the Mobility type table is displayed and active, it is possible to open the property dialog window
of any mobility by simply double clicking on any cell in the associated line, or on the associated arrow at left.

VII.5.3.d MANAGING GLOBALLY UMTS MOBILITY TYPES
In ATOLL, UMTS objects are organized in folders. For this reason, ATOLL allows the user to simultaneously
display all topics of one type (services, mobility, terminal, user profiles, environment) in a table window.


To open the mobility types table, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
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Expand the UMTS Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Either,
Right click on the Mobility types folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Open,
Or,
Double click on the Mobility types folder,
The mobility types table opens.
Click on to close the table.


The mobility types table works exactly like the other tables. Its cells are editable, sorting and filtering tools,
and copy/paste functions are available.

Notes :
The advanced grouping/filtering/sorting feature may be used on the services from the context menu
associated with the mobility types folder. From the properties dialog box, you may also manage the
contents of the mobility types table. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields
available in the different windows.
When the Mobility type table is displayed and active, it is possible to open the property dialog window
of any mobility by simply double clicking on any cell in the associated line, or on the associated arrow
at left.

VII.5.4 SETTING UMTS TERMINAL EQUIPMENT
VII.5.4.a CREATING A UMTS TERMINAL
In UMTS, terminals describe the terminal equipment that can be used in the network (cellular phone, multi-
media terminal, in-car navigation device,...). Each terminal is modelled by a minimum and maximum
transmission power (dynamic range for uplink power control), its antenna gain and reception loss, and an
internal thermal noise. Active set size is the maximum allowable number of transmitters in connection with
the terminal (macro-diversity). Finally, you may enter a Rake receiver efficiency factor. This factor enables
ATOLL to model macro-diversity efficiency on downlink. ATOLL uses it to calculate the downlink macro-
diversity gains and downlink signal quality in simulations, point-to-point analysis and coverage studies. This
parameter is considered on downlink for any handover type; it is applied to the sum of signal levels. The
factor value can be between 0 and 1. It models losses due to the signal recombination imperfection.

To create a UMTS terminal, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the UMTS Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Right click on the Terminals folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on New,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Set the parameters of the currently created terminal,
Validate by clicking on OK.


Note : Rake efficiency factor for computation of recombination in uplink has to be set in site equipment.

VII.5.4.b SETTING UMTS TERMINAL PARAMETERS
Like for the other ATOLL object folders, UMTS terminals are easily manageable. Creation steps and the
display management are standard.


To manage the terminal parameters, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the UMTS Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
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Expand the Terminals folder by left clicking on the button,
Either,
Right click on the terminal of which you want to manage the properties to open the
associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or,
Double click on the terminal of which you want to manage the properties,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Set the parameters of the current terminal,
Validate by clicking on OK.


Notes :
When the Terminal table is displayed and active, it is possible to open the property dialog window of
any terminal by simply double clicking on any cell in the associated line, or on the associated arrow at
left.

VII.5.4.c MANAGING UMTS NETWORK TERMINALS
In ATOLL, UMTS objects are organized in folders. For this reason, ATOLL allows the user to simultaneously
display all topics of one type (services, mobility, terminal, user profiles, environment) in a table window.


To open the terminals table, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the UMTS Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Either,
Right click on the Terminals folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Open,
Or,
Double click on the Terminals folder,
The terminals table opens.
Click on to close the table.


The terminals table works exactly like the other tables. Its cells are editable, sorting and filtering tools, and
copy/paste functions are available.

Notes :
The grouping/filtering/sorting advanced feature may be used on the services from the context menu
associated with the Terminals folder. From the properties dialog box, you may also manage the
contents of the terminals table. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available
in the different windows.
When the Terminal table is displayed and active, it is possible to open the property dialog window of
any terminal by simply double clicking on any cell in the associated line, or on the associated arrow at
left.

VII.5.5 MODELLING UMTS USER PROFILES
VII.5.5.a CREATING A UMTS USER PROFILE
In UMTS, user profiles model the behaviour of the different subscriber categories. Each user profile is
constituted by a list of services and their associated usage parameters such as used terminal, call or session
frequency (calls/hour) and duration or data volume to be transferred.

Parameters for circuit switched services are:
Average number of calls per hour
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Average duration of a call in seconds
Used terminal (equipment used for the service (from the Terminals table))

Parameters for packet switched services are:
Average number of sessions per hour
Volume in Kbytes which is transferred on the downlink during a session
Volume in Kbytes which is transferred on the uplink during a session
Used terminal (equipment used for the service (from the Terminals table))

Example: For a web-browsing service, a session starts when the user opens his browsing application and
ends when he quits the browsing application. Between these two events, sometimes the user may be
downloading web pages and other times he may not be using the application, or be browsing local files. A
session is described by the volume transferred both on the downlink and the uplink.


Those parameters are used in simulation to determine the probability (activity status) that a user is
transmitting or receiving communication for the given service and terminal when the snapshot is taken.

Notes :
For circuit switched services, entering a one-hour call during 1000s corresponds to define 2 calls per
hour during 500sthe activity probability is the same in both cases.
For all the services defined for a user profile, in order to be taken into account during traffic scenario
elaboration, the sum of activity probabilities must be lower than 1
You can model temporal variations of user behaviour by creating different profiles for different hours
(busy hour, ...).


To create a UMTS user profile, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the UMTS Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Right click on the User profiles folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on New,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Set the parameters of the currently created user profile,
Validate by clicking on OK.


VII.5.5.b ADJUSTING UMTS USER PROFILE PROPERTIES
Like for the other ATOLL object folders, UMTS user profiles are easily manageable. Creation steps and the
display management are standard.


To manage the user profile parameters, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the UMTS Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Expand the User profiles folder by left clicking on the button,
Either,
Right click on the user profile of which you want to manage the properties to open the
associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Properties,
Or,
Double click on the user profile of which you want to manage the properties,
Use the What's this help to get description about the fields available in the opened window,
Set the parameters of the current user profile,
Validate by clicking on OK.


Notes :
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When the User profiles table is displayed and active, it is possible to open the property dialog window
of any user type by simply double clicking on any cell in the associated line, or on the associated arrow
at left.

VII.5.5.c MANAGING GLOBALLY UMTS USER PROFILES
In ATOLL, UMTS objects are organized in folders. For this reason, ATOLL allows the user to display
simultaneously all topics of one type (services, mobility, terminal, user profiles, environment) in a table
window.


To open the user profiles table, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the UMTS Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Either,
Right click on the User profiles folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu on Open,
Or,
Double click on the User profiles folder,
The user profiles table opens.
Click on to close the table.


The user profiles table works exactly like the other tables. Its cells are editable, sorting and filtering tools,
and copy/paste functions are available.

Notes :
The grouping/filtering/sorting advanced feature may be used on the services from the context menu
associated with the User profiles folder. From the properties dialog box, you may also manage the
contents of the user profiles table. Use the What's this help to get description about the fields
available in the different windows.
When the User profiles table is displayed and active, it is possible to open the property dialog window
of any user type by simply double clicking on any cell in the associated line, or on the associated arrow
at left.

VII.5.6 SETTING UMTS ENVIRONMENT CLASSES
VII.5.6.a CREATING A TYPE OF UMTS ENVIRONMENT
Environment classes may be used to describe subscriber spatial distribution on a map; they are the available
classes for traffic cartography design. Environment class represents an economic and social concept, which
defines the characteristics of user profiles. Each environment class contains a set of three data (user profile,
mobility, density) where density is a number of subscribers with the same profile per km. There is no
restriction on the number of data sets constituting an environment.

To get an appropriate user distribution, you may assign weights per clutter classes, for each environment
class.


To create a UMTS environment type, proceed as follows :
Click the Data tab from the Explorer window,
Expand the UMTS Parameters folder by left clicking on the button,
Right click on the Environments folder to open the associated context menu,
Left click in the scrolling menu