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B e f o r e D a w n : R e c o n c i l i n g G o d with N a t u r e

Keith Thompson Yale University Press, N e w H a v e n , C o n n e c t i c u t , 2005 T h i s review is s o m e w h a t tardy, h a v i n g to d o w i t h a b o o k p u b l i s h e d f o u r years ago, b u t there has b e e n so little c h a n g e i n the a r g u m e n t s a d v a n c e d i n this debate that o u r c o m m e n t s are still totally relevant. W e witness today the attempt to replace D a r w i n i a n e v o l u t i o n by a c o n c e p t k n o w n as " I n t e l l i g e n t D e s i g n . " T o preserve the ecclesiastical c o n c e p t o f a w o r l d g o v e r n e d by a s i n g l e a l m i g h t y deity., n u m e r o u s t h e o l o g i a n s a n d c h u r c h leaders are a t t e m p t i n g to c i r c u m v e n t the scientific c o n c l u s i o n s i m p l i c i t i n D a r w i n i a n e v o l u t i o n . T h e debate is d e s c r i b e d i n K e i t h Thompson's Before Dawn, Reconciling God and Nature, a n d i n letters to s c h o l a r l y j o u r n a l s , s u c h as Science. T h o m p s o n ' s w o r k is i n t e r e s t i n g i n that it discusses the a t t e m p t to e x p l a i n e v o l u t i o n n o t as the n o n - t e l e o l o g i c a l , l o n g - t e r m a d j u s t m e n t o f constructs a n d p r o p e r t i e s i n a d y n a m i c a n d c h a n g i n g u n i v e r s e , b u t as the d e l i b e r a t e , i n t e l l i g e n t l y p l a n n e d p r o d u c t of a s u p e r i o r m i n d , i n o t h e r w o r d s , o f an a l l - p o w e r f u l C r e a t o r G o d . In short, the c o n c e p t o f " I n t e l l i g e n t D e s i g n " is an a t t e m p t to equate the i d e a o f G o d w i t h the realities o f m o d e r n science. Its p r o p o n e n t s seek to preserve the d i c t a b e h i n d a n c i e n t b i b l i c a l texts by a p p e a l i n g to the credulity, of those w h o believe that,, the u n i v e r s e c a n o n l y exist i f some " s u p e r - n a t u r a l " entity d e l i b e r a t e l y c r e a t e d it. S o m e have said that after r e a d i n g sirch a r g u m e n t s thev g a i n the i m p r e s s i o n that the u n i v e r s e is r a t h e r l i k e a vast g o l d f i s h bow], walled-in by i n f i n i t y , i n t o w h i c h an o m n i s c i e n t G o d peers p e r i o d i c a l l y to see h o w the life f o r m s he has c r e a t e d are m a n a g i n g to survive i n an e n v i r o n m e n t , also c r e a t e d by h i m , that is g e n e r a l l y i n i m i c a l to their survival. Is he m e r e l y a m u s i n g himself, o r has. he some u n k n o w a b l e
The Mankind Quarterly

p u r p o s e ? A g a i n , is this C r e a t o r G o d h i m s e l f a -part of the U n i v e r s e , r a t h e r l i k e the elan vital p r o p o s e d by H e n r i B e r g s o n i n the first d e c a d e o f the T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y ? T h o m p s o n describes h o w d i f f i c u l t the issue was f o r p e o p l e l i k e the E n g l i s h c l e r i c W i l l i a m Paley, w h o a r g u e d that " o n f i n d i n g a w a t c h , n o b o d y w o u l d c o n c l u d e that it was c o n s t r u c t e d by a c c i d e n t b u t [rather that it] m u s t have a n i n t e l l i g e n t b u i l d e r . " D a r w i n h e a r d this a r g u m e n t , b u t rejected it, because his d e t a i l e d investigations i n t o nature c o n v i n c e d h i m that a m a n - m a d e watch was n o t an a p p l i c a b l e p a r a l l e l to the w o r l d o f n a t u r e . M i l l i o n s o f years o f n a t u r a l circumstances, p r o p i t i o u s f o r the f o r m a t i o n o f c o m p l e x c h e m i c a l reactions a n d o r g a n i c i n t e r a c t i o n s , create a c o m p l e x w o r l d of i n o r g a n i c a n d o r g a n i c constructs w h i c h c a n c h a n g e i n f o r m o r even deconstruct whenever their environmental conditions change or the outer, gravitational a n d temperature v a r i a t i o n s b e c o m e u n s u i t e d f o r survival. O u r solar system will o n l y exist, a c c o r d i n g to the law o f ever-increasing entropy, as l o n g as energy is s u p p l i e d by the s u n . D a r w i n c o n s i d e r e d , above a l l , the visible c h a n g e i n o r g a n i c n a t u r e , d e p e n d i n g o n b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s - plants and a n i m a l s e x i s t i n g o n e n v i r o n m e n t a l islands, w i t h l i m i t e d a n d p a r t i c u l a r life c o n d i t i o n s - a n d c o n c l u d e d that all o r g a n i s m s show a history o f a d a p t a t i o n to t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r e n v i r o n m e n t i n processes that are l o g i c a l l y e x p l a i n a b l e . A d j u s t m e n t c a n be a c h i e v e d e i t h e r by s p e c i a l i z a t i o n or byincreased intelligence. A s elements are p r o d u c e d i n f o r m i n g stars by n u c l e a r reactions, so solar i r r a d i a t i o n p r o d u c e s a flow o f energy t h r o u g h its v a r i e d f o r m s , w i t h c o n c o m i t a n t changes i n s t r u c t u r e a n d en tropic cycles. T h a t this astonishingly c o m p l e x set o f variables appears to a h u m a n to have some d e g r e e o f s t r u c t u r a l stability is opvious. O n e must c o n s i d e r that m a n exists f o r j u s t seconds h i the eons o f existence of o r g a n i c life a n d b i l l i o n s of c o s m i c events. I n a t t e m p t i n g to evaluate this revival of a n c i e n t religious claims for a g u i d i n g h a n d b e h i n d e v o l u t i o n , it is i m p o r t a n t to note that the h u m a n b r a i p has d e v e l o p e d f r o m a
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r u d i m e n t a r y c o n d i t i o n m i l l i o n s o f years ago a n d that b r a i n d e v e l o p m e n t has b e e n particularly s t r o n g w i t h i n the last few t h o u s a n d years, so that o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f n a t u r e has been much enhanced beyond that o f the earliest c o n t e m p l a t i v e h u m a n societies. W h a t is c a l l e d t h e "Renaissance" was i n p a r t i c u l a r the b e g i n n i n g o f a n analytical d e s c r i p t i o n o f nature by C o p e r n i c u s , K e p l e r , G a l i l e o a n d N e w t o n i n contrast to the m o r e p r i m i t i v e c o n c e p t s o f the a n c i e n t M i d d l e East, G r e e c e and Rome. This progress, from a philosophical c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f n a t u r e to a m o r e analytical search, has h a d s t r o n g r e p e r c u s s i o n s o n the w h o l e range o f h u m a n c i v i l i z a t i o n , a n d f i n a l l y also o n b r a i n d e v e l o p m e n t itself. T h i s is clearly visible w h e n w e c o m p a r e m o d e r n science w i t h a n c i e n t scriptures, w h i c h reveal h u m a n concepts that are vague, c o n t r a d i c t o r y , a n d often totally i l l o g i c a l . F r o m the p o i n t o f view o f post-Brahe, K e p l e r , N e w t o n , Einstein mathematics a n d science, the revelations o f .Darwinian evolution enabled members o f the m o r e advanced p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g societies to i m p r o v e their c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f n a t u r e . I n a d d i t i o n , slowly, b u t with i n c r e a s i n g r a p i d i t y , m o d e r n b r a i n research is l o c a t i n g specific b r a i n f u n c t i o n s by the a p p l i c a t i o n o f m a g n e t o - a n d electr-encephalography, a n d by a m o r e d e t a i l e d analysis o f the n e u r o n - a x o n - d e n d r i t c k s p i n e networks. V i v o - r e s e a r c h o n a n i m a l brains is a i d i n g research o n h u m a n b r a i n structure, a n d a l t h o u g h a l l this is still o n l y i n its early stages, it is s t r o n g l y suggesting that even o u r o w n m e n t a l processes are a part o f the n a t u r a l w o r l d , g o v e r n e d by the same laws o f causality that a p p e a r to gcivern the universe. It is clear that the g r a d u a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f a g r o u p is c o n d i t i o n e d by t h e i n t e r - g r o u p pressures a n d the n e e d to a d a p t to the e n v i r o n m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n . N a t u r a l science causes t e c h n i c a l progress, a n d this results i n b r a i n d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h i n t h e majority o f a given g r o u p w h e r e the average m e m b e r is e x p o s e d t o s u c h progress. T h e process is s i m i l a r
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to the way the m i n d adapts to specific m u s i c a l style. T h e ear has to b e e d u c a t e d to classical tonalities w i t h t h e i r d e f i n e d m a t h e m a t i c a l s e q u e n c e s b e f o r e c o m p l e x m u s i c c a n be u n d e r s t o o d a n d e n j o y e d . I n t e r g r o u p e d u c a t i o n a l pressure i n this field c a n g e n e r a t e s p e c i a l capabilities. T h e r e is a f u n d a m e n t a l i n t e n t expressed i n the search f o r r e l i g i o u s b o u n d s o r s u b o r d i n a t i o n . M e n seek to establish a p p r o v e d l i m i t s to b e h a v i o r so necessary f o r the p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e o f social a n i m a l s that live i n g r o u p s . It is a l a u d a b l e e n d e a v o r o f r e l i g i o n (religio = b i n d i n g ) to establish s u c h a c o d e f o r h u m a n social b e h a v i o r . H a v i n g a t t r i b u t e d m o r a l b e h a v i o r to the n e e d to c o m p l y w i t h the dictaces o f a supposedly benign g o d , r e l i g i o u s leaders a n d their c o n g r e g a t i o n s are i n c l i n e d to feel that their security is c h a l l e n g e d b y the t h e o r y o f e v o l u t i o n , i n t h e sense that o l d gospels a n d r e l i g i o u s rules, based o n t h e existence o f a s u p e r i o r supen-natural B e i n g , are. n o l o n g e r v a l i d . D a r w i n ' s t h e o r y o f e v o l u t i o n , as s u p p o r t e d by s u b s e q u e n t b i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h , c o n f i r m s that a l l o f o r g a n i c n a t u r e is t h e p r o d u c t of the n a t u r a l c o n s e q u e n c e s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l ( t e m p e r a t u r e , r a d i a t i o n intensity, p r e s e n c e o f water, l o w g r a v i t a t i o n a l f o r c e , o x y g e n i n l o w c o n c e n t r a t i o n etc., etc.) c o n d i t i o n s , w h i c h m u s t b e rare i n the universe b u t most, p r o b a b l y i n toto existent o n o t h e r planets i n o t h e r galaxies." B u t because r e l i g i o u s d o c t r i n e s o r d o g m a s are part o f the h u m a n s p h e r e i n a " l o n e l y u n i v e r s e , " we witness a n intense r e a c t i o n to D a r w i n ' s e x p l a n a t i o n i n the f o r m o f a n effort to p r o v e that w h a t is called " e v o l u t i o n . " is n o t h i n g o t h e r t h a n the result o f the i n t e l l i g e n t d e s i g n by a n a l m i g h t y G o d . I n the U . S . n u m e r o u s s c h o o l supervisors have been k n o w n to have g o n e so f a r as to p r o h i b i t the m e n t i o n i n g o f the w o r d " e v o l u t i o n " i n s c h o o l texts: this i n the b e l i e f that a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e v o l u t i o n w o u l d destroy the m o r a l rules o f the C h r i s t i a n c h u r c h . R e c e n t l y a spate o f new b o o k s have a p p e a r e d that a t t e m p t to equate G o d w i t h e v o l u t i o n , i n the
" S. C. Morris: Life's Solution, Inevitable Humans in a Lonelv Universe. Cambridge University Press 2005. H . F. Matare: "Establishing a moon base and exploring the Universe," Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies, Vol. 29. No 3. Volume L, Nos. J & 2, Fall/Winter 2009

' K_ Maisumoio and Kaiji Tanaka. "Conflict and Cognitive Control," Science V o l . SOS, 13 February 2004. p. 9Cf> The Mankind Qinnteriy

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guise o f " i n t e l l i g e n t d e s i g n . " ' T h e t r e n d to save the c o n c e p t o f a m o n o t h e i s t i c C r e a t o r G o d is u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . T h e r e is a l i n g e r i n g b e l i e f that h u m a n ethics are d e p e n d e n t o n the existence o f a n a l l p o w e r f u l a n d observant a n t h r o p o m o r p h i c C r e a t o r . T h i s faces i n c r e a s i n g d o u b t s as a g e n e r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f astrophysics a n d t h e b i o l o g i c a l sciences b e c o m e s m o r e widely d e v e l o p e d , a n d p o p u l a r d e s c r i p t i o n s o f o t h e r galactic systems i n space, w i t h t h e i r o w n suns, planets a n d o r g a n i c c o m p o u n d s , b e c o m e part o f r o u t i n e television p r o g r a m s . T h a t the u n i v e r s e is c o n t r o l l e d b y laws o f causality was e m e r g i n g a m o n g the a n c i e n t pagans i n E u r o p e p r i o r to the penetration o f M i d d l e Eastern monotheistic concepts into that c o n t i n e n t , as J . W . J a m i e s o n a n d others have s h o w n . E u r o p e a n p a g a n i s m , n o t i c e a b l y as e v i d e n c e d i n early G r e e k t h o u g h t b u t also a m o n g the G e r m a n s , saw causality as a p o w e r f u l force c o n t r o l l i n g a l l that h a p p e n e d - a n d m e n as powerless to c h a n g e n a t u r e ' s laws. H e r e we have the early roots o f m o d e r n science, as r e s u r r e c t e d i n the R e n a i s s a n c e . It is a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the universe that is totally o p p o s e d to the m o n o t h e i s t i c c o n c e p t o f P r o v i d e n c e a n d t h e "will o f G o d , " s u c h as d o m i n a t e d E u r o p e a n t h o u g h t i n the M i d d l e Ages, a n d still d o m i n a t e s the m i n d s o f m i l l i o n s o f p e o p l e i n A s i a . T h e G r e e k s r e c o g n i z e d the reality o f the causal n e x u s that r u n s f r o m t h e Past t h r o u g h the P r e s e n t a n d i n t o the F u t u r e w h e n they n a m e d the three Fates as, Was,-Is a n d W i l l B e . P a e a n G e r m a n s p e r c e i v e d Wyrd as a n irresistible causal force that shaped a l l events. T h i s is i n d i r e c t c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to " P r o v i d e n c e , " w h i c h is a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n by a s u p e r n a t u r a l C r e a t o r G o d i n the w o r k i n g s o f the u n i v e r s e . H e r e we f i n d t h e roots o f . m o d e r n science. S c i e n c e is g r o u n d e d i n causality a n d the e v o l u t i o n a r y changes that take place i n matter, b o t h i n o r g a n i c a n d o r g a n i c . M a n ' s w o r l d is b u t a tiny p a r t o f t h e u n i v e r s e . A s m o d e r n astrophysics
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shows, the w h o l e solar system to w h i c h e a r t h b e l o n g s , w i t h an e x t e n s i o n o f 5 b i l l i o n k i l o m e t r e s , is b u t a tiny p a r t o f the intergalactic w o r l d s w h e r e distances are m e a s u r e d i n m i l l i o n s o f Light-Years. T h a t m e a n s that, o u r w h o l e solar system w i t h i n the M i l k y W a y is j u s t o n e t e n b i l l i o n t h o f the n o r m a l , intergalactic distances w i d e . T a k e n i n earthly d i m e n s i o n s , o u r solar system's sijze m u s t b e m e a s u r e d i n n a n o m e t e r s . I n a d d i t i o n , the l i f e t i m e o f the o r g a n i c w o r l d o n a p l a n e t c a n be b u t a s m a l l p o r t i o n o f the p l a n e t ' s life, c o r r e s p o n d i n g to a s e c o n d i n the l i f e t i m e o f an 80-year-old p e r s o n . S u c h c o n s i d e r a t i o n s givp a n i m p r e s s i o n o f the m i n i m a l i m p o r t a n c e o f m a n o r o f all o f m a n k i n d o n this planet. Yet r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t i e s are still a t t e m p t i n g to argue that there is a s u p e r - n a t u r a l intellect at w o r k b e h i n d the w o r k i n g s o f the u n i v e r s e . Letters to the j o u r n a l Science reveal the debate between t h e o l o g i a n s w h o try to preserve the i d e a o f P r o v i d e n c e a n d a C r e a t o r G o d by p o r t r a y i n g e v o l u t i o n as " i n t e l l i g e n t d e s i g n , " the t e l e o l o g i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d c r e a t i o n o f an assumably b e n e v o l e n t s u p e r m i n d .
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T h e d o g m a t i c o p i n i o n - p r e s c r i p t i o n s issued by d i e c h u r c h e s , especially the Catholjjc. c h u r c h , have l e d to i m p r a c t i c a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s event i n r e g a r d to the use o f contraceptives i n r e l a t i o n to A I D S . I n matters o f b i r t h c o n t r o l the Pope r e c o m m e n d s r a t h e r the use o f the u n f e r t i l e p e r i o d i n w o m e n , as i f s u c h m e t h o d s were n o t also against the basic c h u r c h law, w h i c h is to c o m b i n e sex a n d p r o c r e a t i o n ( w h i c h is i n c i d e n t a l l y the r u l e a m o n g lower a n i m a l s a n d n o t a sign o f a h i g h e r - d e v e l o p e d h u m a n b e i n g who is i n c o n t r o l o f his o r h e r a n i m a l instincts). M o d e r n b r a i n research is a d v a n c i n g o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e b r a i n f u n c t i o n s a n d the differences between h u m a n brains. It seems that even the state o f consciousness will eventually be d e f i n e d as a f u n c t i o n o f the i n t e r a c t i o n o f the n e o c o r t e x w i t h P V G (presynaptic, vesicular g r i d s ) . ' I n b r a i n research it w i l l eventually be established that the h u m a n
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* See. T h e Watch of the Heath: Science and Religion before Darwin. Harper-Collins. L o n d o n . 2005. * See f. jamieson, "Wyrd. Causality and Providence," T h e Mankind Quarterly. Vol. XLW, Spring/Summer 2005. The Mankind Quarterly

"Sacrificing Dialog; for Politics" (letter) Science Vol. 309: 8/26/05. See: http://www.aepris.com/news/aiU/1938SP/AD880025.htinI. "Pope believes contraception unacceptable even with AIDS." 'J. C. Eccles. "How the Self Controls its Brain.' Springer 1994.
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b r a i n is f u n c t i o n i n g a l o n g the same lines as the b r a i n o f a l l vertebrates. W e w i l l t h e n finally u n d e r s t a n d that all those mysteries o f h u m a n i n s p i r a t i o n are part o f the n o r m a l , natural functions of our nanostructural brain build-up i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the nervous system a n d that there is n o ' ' m e t a p h y s i c a l " play i n v o l v e d . A s to the basis f o r h u m a n morality, we are left w i t h the n e e d f o r a r e t h i n k i n g o f o u r m o r a l p h i l o s o p h i e s , w i t h the f i n i t e l i m i t s o f o u r p l a n e t E a r t h i n m i n d . T h e apostles d i d n o t w o r r y a b o u t a f i n i t e p l a n e t w i t h a fixed a m o u n t o f cultivatable l a n d , energy, clean water, a n d air, etc. M a n k i n d is n o w f a c i n g e x p o n e n t i a l g r o w t h , a n d c a n p e r c e i v e w h a t c o n t i n u i n g e x p o n e n t i a l growth w i l l l e a d to. If, f o r e x a m p l e , the o n e b i l l i 6 n p o p u l a t i o n of A f r i c a c o n t i n u e s to g r o w at a rate o f 3 % p.a., it will reach 2 b i l l i o n i n u n d e r 20 years a n d 20 b i l l i o n i n a century. O n e can i m a g i n e the e m i g r a t i o n pressures a l o n g the way, c o n s i d e r i n g the p r e s e n t e m i g r a t i o n pressure a n d the g r o w i n g flow o f fugitives over the s o u t h e r n f r o n t i e r s o f E u r o p e a n d the U S A . U n f o r t u n a t e l y those masses can brinsc w i t h t h e m the c u l t u r a l d i s o r d e r that drives t h e m out of their o w n d i s o r g a n i z e d h o m e c o u n t r y i n the first place. M a n k i n d w i l l have to r e c o g n i z e that n o t all brains are equally d e v e l o p e d to the p o i n t o f h e l p i n g a n d c o n t r i b u t i n g to a progressive, science-based society th*at makes life o n this p l a n e t r e a s o n a b l e a n d enjoyable. M a n k i n d has to m a k e a c h o i c e : M a n e i t h e r adapts to the realities of h u m a n existence a n d m a k e s the best o f this e p h e m e r a l a n d short life by d e t a i l e d and scientific p l a n n i n g or he can c o n t i n u e to believe i n a s u p e r n a t u r a l , all-ernbraciihg, c a r i n g F a t h e r f i g u r e , w i t h rewards a n d p u n i s h m e n t i n heaven. W i l l i the latter cboiceu there is the dansrer that fatalism w i l l p r e v a i l a n d p r e v e n t m a n k i n d f r o m r e a c t i n g realistically to n a t u r a l disaster. T h e basis of m o r a l i t y does n o t He i n measures that w i l l l e a d to the survival o f the m a x i m u m n u m b e r o f i n d i v i d u a l s , as with a c o l o n y of ants. It lies i n those measures that have the most p r o m i s i n g i n f l u e n c e o n the q u a l i t y o f life o f m e n a n d w o m e n i n the h o p e f u l l y i n n u m e r a b l e n u m b e r o f generations to c o m e . T h i s i n c l u d e s
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m a n ' s o w n d e v e l o p m e n t a n d his ability to c o n t r i b u t e to the d e v e l o p m e n t o f c u l t u r e a n d science, w h i c h i n t u r n most s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e his f u t u r e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the universe. In this review I have m o v e d away f r o m the d i r e c t c o n t e n t o f the a u t h o r ' s b o o k b u t his b o o k is what has i n s p i r e d m e to d o this. ' ' H. F. Ma tare

Sexploitation du sel a travers le temps [Salt E x p l o i t a t i o n through T i m e ] . Collection Bibhoteca Memoriae Antiquitati.% V o l . X V T I I . Dan Monah, Gheorghe Dumitroaia, Olivier Weller and John Chapman ( eds). Piatra N e a m j : E d i t u r a C o n s t a n t i n Matasa. 2007. Articles i n F r e n c h a n d E n g l i s h . H a r d cover, 327 pages, 93 photos, 50 maps a n d plans, 28 drawings, 17 tables. I S B N 978-973-777703-4. T h e c o l l e c t i o n Biblioteca Memoriae Antiquitatis was set u p in P i a t r a N e a m j ( R o m a n i a ) , i n 1973 with the i n t e n t i o n to e x p l o i t the results o f several p r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r a l -and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f i n d s on the R o m a n i a n territory. T h e present v o l u m e is the 18 i n the series a n d deals w i t h the r e m a r k a b l e f i n d s m a d e over h a l f a century, r e g a r d i n g the b e g i n n i n g s of salt e x p l o i t a t i o n i n territories of today's R o m a n i a . T h e b o o k collects the m a j o r i t y of the papers d e l i v e r e d at the I n t e r n a t i o n a ! C o n f e r e n c e The frehistcnit: and Protohistvric Archaeology of Salt ( P i a t r a N e a m j , O c t . 21-23, 2004), as welt as s o m e a d d i t i o n a l articles f r o m authors w h o d i d n o t attend the event. T h e c o n f e r e n c e itself was a p r e m i e r e i n respect of l o c a t i o n , sitice all p r e v i o u s studies i n the f i e l d o f p r e h i s t o r i c sail e x p l o i t a t i o n h a d taken place in West E u r o p e a n titles (Paris, L i e g e , D u r h a m , E s s i i n g e n , C a r d o n a ) . A l t h o u g h all 19 articles d e a l w i t h salt a n d salt e x p l o i t a t i o n , the s t a n d p o i n t s are diverse, ranging from field research to e t h n o a r c h a e o l o g y , e t h n o g r a p h y , a n d linguistics.
dl

P r e h i s t o r i c (especially N e o l i t h i c a n d C h a l c o l i t h i c ) salt e x p l o i t a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d to be p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t ,


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a n d as m a n y as 12 papers o f the v o l u m e u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n d e a l w i t h it. T o b e g i n with, D a n M o n a h a n d G h e o r g h e D u m i t r o a i a ( " R e c h e r c h e s sur 1'exploitation p r e h i s t o r i q u e d u sel e n R o u m a n i e " ) i n t e r p r e t results o f investigations c a r r i e d o u t especially i n M o l d a v i a (eastern R o m a n i a ) , w h e r e the earliest traces o f salt e x p l o i t a t i o n i n the w o r l d are said to have b e e n d i s c o v e r e d . D o r i n N i c o l a , R o x a n a M u n t e a n u , Daniel G a r v a n , C o n s t a n t i n Preoteasa and Gheorghe D u m i t r o a i a ("Cucttieti-Slatina V e c h e , R o m a n i a . P r e h i s t o r i c E x p l o i t a t i o n o f a Salt R e s o u r c e " ) p r e s e n t t h e i r 2003 field w o r k o n the site near the salt s p r i n g at Solca-Slatina M a r e . T h e stratigraphy a n d the finds at that site prove that salt e x p l o i t a t i o n dates f r o m the p r e - C u c u t e n i a n d C u c u t e n i civilizations a n d lasted u n t i l the M i d d l e A g e s . T h e authors argue that the m a i n p a r t o f the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e n t o r y relates to the last stage o f the C u c u t e n i c i v i l i z a t i o n . I n the n e x t p r e s e n t a t i o n , J o h n C h a p m a n a n d D a n M o n a h ("A Seasonal Cucuteni Occupation at Siliste-Prohozesti, R o m a n i a " ) give a n overview of the 2003 excavations at P r o h o z e s t i - S i l i s t e , w h i c h is i n t e r p r e t e d as a seasonal C u c u t e n i s a l t - e x p l o i t a t i o n a n d h i d e - c u r i n ' g site. I n spite o f the d a m a g e caused by recent t i l l a g e , ' t h e s t r a t i g r a p h i c r e c o n s t r u c t i o n a l l o w e d the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f three cycles o f c o n s t r u c t i o n . T h e discovery o f i m p o r t e d B a l k a n f l i n t blades leads the a u t h o r s t o . i n f e r that even s u c h a s m a l l site was connected to i n t e r - r e g i o n a ! e x c h a n g e n e t w o r k s w h i c h p r e s u m a b l y i n c l u d e d salt water o r re-crystallized salt. G e o r g e B o d i ( " E x p e r i m e n t s w i t h Salt C r y s t a l l i z a t i o n " ) p r o p o s e s an e x p e r i m e n t , c o n d u c t e d d u r i n g the s u m m e r of 2002 i n the C u c u t e n i a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p a r k , a i m e d at o b t a i n i n g salt crystals f r o m salt s p r i n g water. S t a r t i n g f r o m b o t h a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a n d e t h n o g r a p h i c a l r e c o r d s , the a u t h o r t r i e d to r e p r o d u c e two m e t h o d s o f o b t a i n i n g re-crystallized salt: d i r e c t c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n by fire a n d e v a p o r a t i o n i n special pots. T h e a u t h o r c o n c l u d e s that, i n spite o f the o n l y partial success o f the e x p e r i m e n t , the results m a y p r o v e to be a u s e f u l start f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . I n a n o t h e r p r e s e n t a t i o n . Olivier Weller, Gheorghe Dumitroaia, Dan M o n a h and L a u r e N u n i n g e r ( " L ' e x p l o i t a t i o n cles sources salees de
The Mankind Quarterly

M o l d a v i e : u n e x e m p l e de r e s o u r c e structurante d u t e r r i t o i r e d e p u i s le N e o l i t h i q u e " ) f o c u s o n phe salt s p r i n g water i n a m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y perspective. T h u s , the a r c h e o l o g i s t , the h i s t o r i a n , the g e o m a t i c i a n , the geo-archaeologist, the p a l e o b o t a n i s t a n d the c h e m i s t are (brought t o g e t h e r to study the b i o c h e m i c a l a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l processes, as w e l l as the social c o n t e x t of the d y n a m i c s a n d interactions b e t w e e n m a n a n d salt water i n the s u b - C a r p a t h f a n M o l d a v i a . T h e article deals w i t h the objectives o f the p r o p o s e d i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y project, the protocol of spatial analysis, arid the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l choices i m p o s e d by s u c h various data. Olivier Weller, Alfons Figuls and Fidel G r a n d i a ( " P r e m i e r e carriere de sel g e m r a e p u r o p e e n n e : le V a i l S a l i n a a C a r d o n a ( C a t a l o g n e , Espagnc)? au N e o l i t h i q u e m o y e n (4500-3500 B C ) . T e c h n o l o g i c , m i n e r a l o g y et p e t r o g r a p h y de l ' o u t i l a g e l i t h i q u e " ) discuss the f i n d i n g o f a large n u m b e r of stone tools, most o f t h e m u s e d i n salt e x t r a c t i o n , at the f o o t o f the o u t c r o p s of the r o c k salt i n C a r d o n a ( C a t a l o n i a , S p a i n ) . T h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l study of these artifacts places the first E u r o p e a n t e c h n i q u e s o f r o c k salt e x p l o i t a t i o n d u r i n g the M i d d l e N e o l i t h i c . T h e e x t r a c t i o n tools, t h o u g h not s p e c i a l i z e d , were m a d e of e x o g e n o u s raw materials. T h e authors argue that salt m i n i n g activity involved t r a d e d raw materials a n d e x c h a n g e d objects c o m i n g f r o m o t h e r c o n t e m p o r a r y m i n i n g sites. B u r c i n E r d o g u and M i h r i b a n Ozbasaran ("White, Pure, I m m a c u l a t e a n d I n c o r r u p t i b l e : Salt i n P r e h i s t o r i c C e n t r a l A n a t o l i a " ) present the p r e l i m i n a r y results of the 2003 C e n t r a l A n a t o l i a n Salt P r o j e c t , the first project that aims to investigate salt e x p l o i t a t i o n i n A n a t o l i a . O f the 78 A n a t o l i a n sources o f salt, T u z G o l u (Salt L a k e ) is ,the most i m p o r t a n t , h a v i n g h i g h l y c o n c e n t r a t e d saline water (up to 33%) a n d a n o u t p u t o f 300,000 to as/year. W h e n the water evaporates i n s u m m e r , it f o r m s 5-30 c m thick crusts, w h i c h i n o n e t r a d i t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e is b r o k e n by i r o n tools a n d t h e n g r o u n d by stone hancl-mills. Salt was used f o r c u r i n g skins a n d as c o n d i m e n t ; also, salt m i x e d with clay was u s e d f o r pots i n w h i c h water c o u l d be k e p t c o o l a n d f r e s h i n s u m m e r t i m e . T h e a u t h o r s ' survey also f o c u s e d o n the
(

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N e o l i t h i c site o f S a p m a z k o y (ca 18 k m east o f the l a k e s h o r e ) , a n d they p r e s u m e that there were settlements d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the p r e h i s t o r i c salt e x p l o i t a t i o n u n d e r discussion. B i s s e r k a G a y d a r s k a a n d J o h n C h a p m a n ("Salt R e s e a r c h i n B u l g a r i a " ) m a k e a c r i t i c a l assessment o f the p o t e n t i a l p r e h i s t o r i c B u l g a r i a n salt sources. T h r e e categories o f sources are c o n s i d e r e d : coastal saline lakes o f the N o r t h B l a c k Sea area, i n l a n d salt sources i n eastern B u l g a r i a , a n d places m a r k e d by Slatina t o p o n y m s i n western B u l g a r i a . T h e authors a c k n o w l e d g e that the a m o u n t o f salt sources i n B u l g a r i a is s m a l l i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h the n e i g h b o r i n g c o u n t r i e s , b u t they assume that the soiirces were n o t less intensively exploited, since the number of the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l sites l o c a t e d near c e r t a i n or possible salt sources is large e n o u g h to suggest association. Nevertheless, Gaydarska and Chapman conclude that further investigations are necessary to estimate the scale o f the p r e h i s t o r i c e x p l o i t a t i o n o f Salt i n B u l g a r i a . E m a n u e l a M o n t a g n a r i K o k e l j ('"Salt a n d the Trieste Karst (North-Eastern Italy) in Prehistory: some c o n s i d e r a t i o n s " ) discusses arguments i n s u p p o r t o f the i d e a that, as early as the N e o l i t h i c , the Trieste Karst (Italy) m i g h t have b e e n the north-westernmost outpost, of a pastoral netvs'ork e x t e n d e d over m a n y h u n d r e d s k i l o m e t e r s , a n d that salt was a key e l e m e n t o f the system. She presumes that the p r e h i s t o r i c s h e p h e r d s k n e w about the e c o n o m i c p o t e n t i a l i t y o f the area a n d they r e g u l a r l y came to collect the salt f o r m e d in coastal p o n d s as a result of solar e v a p o r a t i o n . T o p o g r a p h i c , a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a n d e t h n o - h i s t o r i c a l data are p u t f o r w a r d i n the d i s c u s s i o n . I n his p a p e r ("Salt i n L a t e B r o n z e A g e E u r o p e " ) , A n t h o n y H a r d i n g reviews the evidence f o r salt e x p l o i t a t i o n i n E u r o p e d u r i n g the s e c o n d h a l f o f the B r o n z e A g e . H e argues that the scarcity o f the E t u o o e a n sites is due to lack of p r o p e r investigations, a n d he expects to see m u c h m o r e e v i d e n c e f o r B r o n z e A g e salt e x p l o i t a t i o n i n the c o m i n g years. M a g d a M i r c e a a n d M a n t i s A l e x i a n u ("A Re-evaluation o f Salt Resources f o r the C L c u t e n i - T r i p o l y e A r e a " ) p r o p o s e a r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the i m p o r t a n c e o f salt resources f o r the
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p r e h i s t o r i c C u c u t e n i - T r i p o l y e area, as w e l l as f o r the steppe area n o r t h of the B l a c k Sea. P r e v i o u s attempts to i d e n t i f y salt resources i n that area l e d to the c o n c l u s i o n that it was d e p r i v e d o f salt, a n d that the the C u c u t e n i - T r i p o l y e settlements got. salt f r o m the E a s t e r n C a r p a t h i a n s . A g a i n s t that view, the a u t h o r s o f the article p r o v i d e h y d r o - g e o l o g i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l , e t h n o l o g i c a l , a n d c l i m a t i c e v i d e n c e that b o t h e x p l o i t a t i o n a n d t r a d i n g o f salt were p r a c t i c e d i n the N o r t h P o n t i c a r e a i n p r e h i s t o r i c times. T h e a m p l e series o f papers d e a l i n g w i t h p r e h i s t o r y is f o l l o w e d by a n u m b e r o f papers d e v o t e d to the e x p l o i t a t i o n a n d use o f salt d u r i n g A n t i q u i t y . C r i s t i n a C a r u s i ("Le c o m m e r c e d u sel dans l ' A n t i q u i t e g r e c q u e " ) discusses the p o s i t i o n of salt as a c o m m o d i t y i n the a n c i e n t G r e e k society, w h e r e salt was a basic i n g r e d i e n t i n b o t h the c u i s i n e o f that time a n d i n m e d i c a l treatments, as m e n t i o n e d i n a n c i e n t treatis.es. T h e a u t h o r also tackles the issue o f the vessels e m p l o y e d f o r the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of salt, a n d p r o v i d e s a survey o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n of a n c i e n t G r e e k salted f i s h a n d sauce r e c i p e s . B e r n a r d M o i n i e r ( " E l e m e n t s p o u r tine g e o g r a p h i e d u sel dans l ' A n t i q u i t e " ) gives a g e o g r a p h i c image o f salt d u r i n g A n t i q u i t y in the M e d i t e r r a n e a n area, w h e n salt was basically a c h e a p , c o m m o n a n d u n t a x e d c o m m o d i t y . lit spite of the i m p o r t a n c e o f salt e x p l o i t a t i o n a n d trade, there are few g e o g r a p h i c a l surveys left by G r e e k a n d R o m a n writers o n that m a t t e r . T h e a u t h o r proposes a s u m m a r y of the e m e r g e n c e of. a salt m a r k e t e c o n o m y i n l i n e with the c o n c o m i t a n t g r o w t h of p o p u l a t i o n i n the a r e a e x a m i i e d . In her t u r n , R o x a n a - G a b r i e l a C u r c a ( " " L a h a l o t h e r a p i e - texts antiques et p r a t i q u e s actueiles clans la R o u r n a n i e O r i e n t a l e " ) m a k e s a c o m p a r i s o n between m o d e r n practices of salttherapy i n M o l d a v i a n villages (as p r e s e n t e d by recent e t h n o g r a p h e r s ) a n d i d e n t i c a l or s i m i l a r practices m e n t i o n e d by a n c i e n t C r e e k a n d L a t i n a u t h o r s (Aristotle, H i p p o c r a t e s , Soranos, Piiny). C a t a l i n a R e s t r e p o M a r t i n e z ("Les salines c o n t i n e n t a l s d ' A n t i o q u i a - C o l o m b i e " ) presents an i n v e n t o r y of the c o n t i n e n t a l salt sources i n the A n d o q u i a region. ( C o l u m b i a )
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a n d t h e i r p a t r i m o n i a l i m p o r t a n c e . Because the salt lakes o f that r e g i o n are i n a bad c o n d i t i o n , she proposes that the Gaucas ( H e l i c o n i a ) and the M a r i n e Salt L a k e ( G i r a r d o t a ) s h o u l d be r e s t o r e d a n d conserved. T w o papers a p p r o a c h the e x p l o i t a t i o n of the salt sources f r o m a n e t h n o - a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h . T h e f o r m e r ("The E x p l o i t a t i o n o f the Salt-Water Sources i n M o l d a v i a : an Ethno-Archaeological Approach") represents the contribution of Marms Alexianu, Gheorghe Dumitroaia and D a n M o n a h , w h o present salt-water sources o f M o l d a v i a . T h e i r aims were to identify a n d m a p those sources, to carry o u t surface investigations a n d excavations (in o r d e r to detect possible traces o f pre-incl us trial e x p l o i t a t i o n ) , to p e r f o r m ethno-archeologic.al enquiries on the present-day e x p l o i t a t i o n a n d to use e t h n o g r a p h i c analogies f o r the u n d e r s t a n d i n g ; o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l situations. T h e authors p o i n t o u t the roles of e x i s t i n g salt-water springs i n the o p e n i n g o f new a r c h a e o l o g i c a l sites, d u e to discovery o f traces o f p r e - i n d u s t r i a l h u m a n c o m m u n i t i e s of M o l d a v i a . I n the latter article ("Recherches e t h n o a r c h e o l o g i q u e s sur le sel: les enquetes de 2004 et les p r e m i e r s resultats o b t e n u s dans la z o n e cle P o i a n a S l a t i n e i a L u n c a (dep. N e a m j , R o u r n a n i e " ) , M a r i u s A l e x i a n u a n d O l i v i e r W e l l e r p r e s e n t the achievements o f an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y F r e n c h - R o m a u i a n j o i n t project, i n i t i a t e d i n 2003, as a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the p r e l i m i n a r y w o r k d o n e by a R o m a n i a n team a n d p u b l i s h e d in 1992. T h e e t h n o g r a p h i c a l survey o f 2004 m a n a g e d to refine the i n i t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n , to s u p p l y new data a n d to o p e n n e w d i r e c t i o n s of research about the p r e h i s t o r i c salte x p l o i t a t i o n sites i n the s u b - C a r p a t h i a n . r e g i o n o f eastern Romania. T h e v o l u m e closes w i t h a l i n g u i s t i c study ( " R o m a n i a n husca 'salt o b t a i n e d by e v a p o r a t i o n o f s a l t w a t e r ' e x p l a i n e d as a n O l d G e r m a n i s m " ) , in' w h i c h A d r i a n 'Poruciuc p r o p o s e s a new e t y m o l o g y f o r the R o m a n i a n r e g i o n a l term husca. T h e a u t h o r rejects the t r a d i t i o n a l etymology (based o n U k r a i n i a n huska 'little goose') a n d points o u t the p r o b a b l e r e l a t i o n between R o m a n i a n husca a n d O l d G e r m a n i c *huska (cf. L o w G e r m a n huske a n d E n g l i s h husk). P o r u c i u c reaches the
The Mankind Qxiaiierly

c o n c l u s i o n that R o m a n i a n husca s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d a m o n g the terms that reflect the earliest contacts between G e r m a n i c i n t r u d e r s a n d l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n s qf the C a r p a t h i a n area (in w h i c h n a t u r a l sources o f salt water have b e e n e x p l o i t e d since prehistory). D e s p i t e the inevitable l i m i t a t i o n s o f the a m o u n t o f i n f o r m a t i o n that can be i n c l u d e d i n s u c h a selection, as c o m p a r e d to the vastness of the topic, the b o o k still gathers a n i m p o r t a n t n u m b e r o f sigpiftcant studies o n the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f salt i n E u r o p e a n d elsewhere. The i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p r o a c h d i s p l a y e d by most papers opens ways to a better u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of salt e x p l o i t a t i o n against the b a c k g r o u n d o f the social, e c o n o m i c , and cultural circumstances specific to traditional communities. Ileana Oana Macari

B o n d a g e of the M i n d : H o w O l d Testament Fundamentalisjm Shackles the M i n d and Enslaves the S p i r i t R.D. Gold A l d u s Books, Inc., 200S T h i s discussion of the O l d T e s t a m e n t is a c r i t i c a l attack on r e l i g i o u s f u n d a m e n t a l i s m that applies to a variety o f "revealed" religions. T h e term "religious fundamentalist" usually evokes s u c h images as a Jerry f alwell-type p r e a c h e r or a n i m a m d e l i v e r i n g an anti-Western s e r m o n . R.D. Gold i n t r o d u c e s f u n d a m e n t a l i s m as p r a c t i c e d by the third A b r a . h a m i c r e l i g i o n , O r t h o d o x J u d a i s m . L i k e their C h r i s t i a n a n d M u s l i m f u n d a m e n t a l i s t counterparts, fundamentalist O r t h o d o x J u d a i s m takes the literal m e a n i n g o f the T o rah (the first five books of the O l d T e s t a m e n t ) as i n f a l l i b l e a n d i m m u t a b l e . Since H e w h o a u t h o r e d the T o r a h is perfect,
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There are ocher key texts (e.g. the Talmud) anct tenets in Judaism, but Gold focuses on the Torah, since, as the Orthodox claim, it is the text that man directly received from the Divine. Thus, they claim that the Torah
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H i s w o r d s create the f o u n d a t i o n o f a m o r a l life. If the T o r a h is i n d e e d sacred, t h e n attempts to alter O r t h o d o x J u d a i s m i n o r d e r to m e s h w i t h m o d e r n c o n d i t i o n s (liberalization) m u s t be v i g o r o u s l y rejected. G o l d ' s m o t i v a t i o n i n w r i t i n g the b o o k was what he saw as the i r r a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t between l o g i c a n d f a i t h (or to p a r a p h r a s e : " A t h e n s us. J e r u s a l e m " ) , w h i c h u n d e r l i e s the O r t h o d o x resistance to m o d e r n times. B u t w h i l e he is a t t a c k i n g f u n d a m e n t a l i s t J u d a i s m , what he has to say is relevant to all f u n d a m e n t a l i s t sects i n all m o n o t h e i s t i c revelation religions. T h e u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y *bn f u n d a m e n t a l i s t d o c t r i n e rests not w i t h f a l l i b l e h u m a n s bHu w i t h an i n t a n g i b l e entity that has a w i l l that h u m a n s c a n n o t h o p e to c o m p r e h e n d . A. debate w i t h the O r t h o d o x about the factual basis o f the T o r a h p r o c e e d s f r o m a listing o f e r r o n e o u s a r c h e o l o g i c a l "facts" that are t h o u g h t to s u p p o r t events d e s c r i b e d i n the T o r a h a n d devolves to c o m p l e t e r e j e c t i o n of any necessity to p r o v i d e c o n c r e t e h i s t o r i c a l evidence. T o the O r t h o d o x , the T o r a h m i r a c l e s , t h o u g h they defy r a t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n , are satisfactory-enough p r o o f s . R a d o n a ! discourse is eventually d i s c a r d e d a n d the O r t h o d o x cloak themselves i n airs of m o r a l superiority. G o l d p o i n t s our that fundamentalists a p p e a l to faith r a t h e r than reason, a characteristic not o n l y o f O r t h o d o x Jews but also of f u n d a m e n t a l i s t M u s l i m s a n d Christians. P a r t i c u l a r l y g a l l i n g to G o l d is the f u n d a m e n t a l i s t c o n c e p t of a v e n g e f u l g o d , a n d the corollary that d i v i n e r e t r i b u t i o n is a just response f o r n o t f o l l o w i n g the sacred laws". F r o m medieval! p o g r o m s to twentieth century g e n o c i d e , f u n d a m e n t a l i s t s Jews see anti-Jewish v i o l e n c e as r i g h t e o u s p u n i s h m e n t a n d those p e r f o r m i n g such acts are m e r e l y c a r r y i n g out Flis w i l l . I n a bizarre sense, the persecutors are really H i s servants. G o l d calls such t h i n k i n g ,
represents the only true and accurate history of the Jewish people. "Rabbi: Hurricane punishment for puilout": http://\rtvw.vne tnews.com/Ex t/Coiiip/ArticleLayotu/CdaAi'ticiePrin [Pre view/1. _506.'_.-313S779,00.licml "Hagee repeats charge that Kal'rina result of gay 'sin'": http://wiviv.npr.org/blogs/neSv5/2003/04/hagee_repeais_cbarge_tliai_k atr.html
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in a d d i t i o n to the b e l i e f i n u s i n g threats to p r o m o t e m o r a l b e h a v i o r , " i m m o r a l . " L o s t to the f u n d a m e n t a l i s t is the c o n c e p t o f m o r a l b e h a v i o r f o r its o w n sake r a t h e r t h a n the p a r e n t a l "I said s o " c o u p l e d w i t h a s o u n d t h r a s h i n g . M o d e r n c i v i l i z a t i o n , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the scientific m e t i i o d a n d h u m a n i s m , is v i e w e d by f u n d a m e n t a l i s t s as morally corrupt. C i v i l i z a t i o n has lost its b e a r i n g s a n d , t h e r e f o r e , n e e d s to be c o r r e c t e d . I n l i b e r a l d e m o c r a c i e s , f u n d a m e n t a l i s t s use the p o l i t i c a l process to advance " c o r r e c t " s o c i a l p o l i c i e s that w i l l , i n t h e i r view, "save" n o n believers as well as believers f r o m d i v i n e w r a t h . A t the o t h e r e n d o f the s p e c t r u m , since it is nearlyi m p o s s i b l e to legislate c h a n g e s i n social attitudes, "direct a c t i o n " is v i e w e d as p r o p e r a n d necessary. I n terms o f f u n d a m e n t a l i s t v i o l e n c e , m e d i a coverage g e n e r a l l y focuses o n A r a b s u i c i d e b o m b i n g s a n d " a b o r t i o n i s t " assassinations. H o w e v e r , extremists exist w i t h i n all r e l i g i o n s , i n c l u d i n g Judaism. T h i n l y v e i l e d d e a t h threats by f u n d a m e n t a l i s t rabbis e c h o statements issued by their f u n d a m e n t a l i s t c o u n t e r p a r t s . T e r r o r i s t s s u c h as B a r u c h G o l d s t e i n a n d Y i e a l A m i r , as R . D . G o l d p o i n t s out, were O r t h o d o x Jews. B o t h m e n w e r e m o t i v a t e d to m u r d e r , i n g e n e r a l , by t h e i r b e l i e f that Israel was g i v e n to the Jews as a gift f r o m the C r e a t o r H i m s e l f i n e x c h a n g e f o r s u b m i t t i n g to H i s s a c r e d laws. Sacrileges, i n c l u d i n g i n t r u s i o n u p o n the H o l y L a n d by n o n Jews a n d g i v i n g parts o f it away to non-Jews, n e e d e d to be dealt with sternly a n d decisively. M o s t o f the b o o k presents generally n o n - t e c h n i c a l a r g u m e n t s against any r a t i o n a l basis f o r fundamentalist. O r t h o d o x d o g m a i n an easy-to-read f o r m a t a n d eschews archeological and historical jargon'. Also, a brief summary o f the m y t h - m a k i n g process a n d a theory (shared by o t h e r b i b l i c a l h i s t o r i a n s ) o f h o w the T o r a h was w r i t t e n over time
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"Pat Robertson calls for assassination of Hugo Chavez": h u p : / / V A V W . usatoday.com/n e ws/na uo n / :i? OOf^S-l'l'-ro be r tsori-_x.htm ""Rabbi's incitement against Olmcrt threatens to split apart Chabad": h:cp://wvw.i'onvard.co.ni/articles/12444/ A lengthier general overview of J e w i s h history, also in a non-technical iorniac, i s ; The Sacred Cjunn, i V o r i u a n F. Cantor, I9f>4, Harped'ererirtial.
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are presented. Because Gold undercuts a key f u n d a m e n t a l i s t assertion that the T o r a h was given to Jews b y the D i v i n e , h e m a k e s the c o n t e n t itself suspect. One e x a m p l e is the J e w i s h c l a i m by d i v i n e right to C a n a a n . B u t o t h e r c o n t e m p o r a r y civilizations also h a d a c l a i m to d i v i n e r i g h t to the r e g i o n . Rather than a barren wilderness, C a n a a n was a p r o s p e r o u s r e g i o n p o p u l a t e d b y a n u m b e r o f tribes r u l e d over by E g y p t . T h e Israelites themselves w e r e n o t a genetically d i s t i n c t tribe, h a v i n g genetic ancestry s i m i l a r to the p e o p l e n o w c a l l e d P a l e s t i n i a n s . R e l i g i o u s laws f o r b i d d i n g intermarriage a n d restricting interaction with non-Jews eventually i n c r e a s e d g e n e t i c distance b e t w e e n Jews a n d t h e i r n e i g h b o r s i n the D i a s p o r a . O f p a r t i c u l a r interest to biologists is the suggestion that the religious experience c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d as a neurological phenomenon. G o l d suggests t h a t . t h e r e is a " r e l i g i o u s c e n t e r " i n the b r a i n a n d w o n d e r s why i t even exists. Areas o f the b r a i n d o c h a n g e i n activity d u r i n g p r a y e r o r m e d i t a t i o n (e.g. N e w b e r g et al, 2001, Psychiatry Research, 113-22). T h e r e is i n c r e a s e d activity i n the f r o n t a l c o r t e x , w h i c h is also o b s e r v e d w i t h tasks u t i l i z i n g a t t e n t i o n o r concentration. Interestingly, the c i n g u l a t e , a part o f the l i m b i c system, was also activated. T h e sense o f w e l l - b e i n g a n d relief r e s u l t i n g f r o m prayer arid m e d i t a t i o n c o u l d b e d u e to activation o f the l i m b i c system, since e m o t i o n s a p p e a r to o r i g i n a t e f r o m this c o l l e c t i o n o f b r a i n n u c l e i . C h a n g e s i n a u t o n o m i c tone, also r e p o r t e d w i t h prayer a n d m e d i t a t i o n , are m e d i a t e d t h r o u g h a n i n t e r a c t i o n between the l i m b i c system a n d the h y p o t h a l a m u s . T h u s , the " r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e , " a n e m o t i o n a l l y c h a r g e d sensation o r a n "out-ofb o d y " f e e l i n g r e s u l t i n g f r o m r i t u a l , c o u l d be p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y q u a n t i f i a b l e . I f the " r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e " is a n i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n cognitive a n d e m o t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s , p e r h a p s the extent o f c h a n g e i n f u n c t i o n a n d " r e l i g i o u s n e s s " are
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r e l a t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , c o u l d f u n d a m e n t a l i s m be c o r r e l a t e d to c h a n g e s i n b r a i n f u n c t i o n ? Perhaps specific activation levels o r r e c r u i t m e n t o f c e r t a i n structures differentiates a n i n f r e q u e n t synagogue attendee a n d a H a r e d i . F u r t h e r data are n e e d e d to d i s t i n g u i s h possible differences b e t w e e n the r e l i g i o n s . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e c o m m o n h i s t o r i c a l o r i g i n o f the three monotheistic religions may have a common n e u r o l o g i c a l c e n t e r as w e l l .
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T h e d e g r e e to w h i c h e n v i r o n m e n t interacts w i t h b i o l o g v o n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f f u n d a m e n t a l i s m is a n i n t r i g u i n g q u e s t i o n G o l d raises. H i s i n c l i n a t i o n is that religious f u n d a m e n t a l i s m is e n t i r e l y m e d i a t e d by u p b r i n g i n g a n d attempts to persuade us that this is so via a h y p o t h e t i c a l "babies switched u p o n b i r t h " e x p e r i m e n t . A West B a n k J e w i s h baby raised i n a J e w i s h f u n d a m e n t a l i s t e n v i r o n m e n t w o u l d g r o w u p to b e a n O r t h o d o x J e w i s h settler, a n d , s i m i l a r l y , a n A r a b baby w o u l d grow u p to be a f u n d a m e n t a l i s t M u s l i m m i l i t a n t . Riowever, i f the babies were raised i n the " w r o n g " r e l i g i o u s e n v i r o n m e n t , the Jewish baby w o u l d t h e n g r o w u p to be a M u s l i m f u n d a m e n t a l i s t a n d the A r a b baby a n a n t i - P a l e s t i n i a n Jewish settler. I f socialreligious factors were the o n l y determinants of f u n d a m e n t a l i s m , t h e n this may be a reasonable o u t c o m e . D e s p i t e r a i s i n g t h e possibility that biologv-- m a y have a s i g n i f i c a n t role i n the e x p r e s s i o n q f f u n d a m e n t a l i s m , such a h y p o t h e t i c a l result tends to u n d e r m i n e a b i o l o g i c a l role. T h e r e are o t h e r possible e x p e r i m e n t s that c o u l d u n c o v e r gene-environment interactions in the role of f u n d a m e n t a l i s m , s u c h as d e t e r m i n i n g the h e r i t a b i l i t y o f f u n d a m e n t a l i s m i n twins .
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T h e title suggests that f u n d a m e n t a l i s m "shackles the m i n d , " b u t d o v a r y i n g degrees o f "religiousness" affect cognitive ability? O n average, Jews have h i g h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e than non-Jewish W h i t e s . H o w d p C h r i s t i a n , M u s l i m a n d J e w i s h f u n d a m e n t a l i s t s c o m p a r e against each o t h e r o n
* Persinger, 1907. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 153-30. A review of recent musings on the role of the brain and religion: Snyder, 200S, New England journal Of Medicine, 6-7. Kirk el al. 1999, Twin Research, 81-7.
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Hammer et al, 2000, Proceedings of the National Academy Of Sciences USA, 6769-74. " Further insight into Jewish fundamentalist attitudes and practice may be found in books wricten by the controversial author Israel Shahak. Also see: Newberg et. al. 2006, Psychiatry Research, 67-71.
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cognitive tasks a n d h o w d o f u n d a m e n t a l i s t s vs. secularists compare? T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of r e l i g i o n , a n d the concept of an o m n i p r e s e n t entity, has b e e n suggested to arise f r o m p r i m i t i v e b e h a v i o r s that facilitated h a r m o n i o u s social relations. O n this p o i n t , I will defer to sociobiologists w h o have p r e v i o u s l y e x p o u n d e d o n this c o n c e p t . Aldric Ha ma

T h e Curse of

Hani:

Race and Slavery in E a r l y J u d a i s m , Christianity and Islam David M. Goldenberg P r i n c e t o n University Press, 2005 D a v i d G o l d e n b e r g attempts to clarify the b i b l i c a l o r i g i n o f the j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f b l a c k slavery. A f t e r r e a d i n g the b o o k , o n e is left w i t h the i m p r e s s i o n that the j u s t i f i c a t i o n was based o n l i n g u i s t i c m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . T h e B i b l i c a l o r i g i n of the "curse" is f o u n d f o l l o w i n g the G r e a t F l o o d that destroyed every living creature o n earth. N o a h ' s three sons, S h e m , J a p h e i h a n d H a m were the forefathers o f the races ("be f r u i t f u l ... a n d r e p l e n i s h the earth."). F o l l o w i n g the recession of the waters, N o a h p l a n t e d a v i n e y a r d a n d later m a d e w i n e . Thoroughly e n j o y i n g his new vintage, N o a h f e l l i n t o a d r u n k e n stupor a n d lay n a k e d i n his tent. H e was f o u n d by his youngest son H a m . H a m c a l l e d his o t h e r brothers to l o o k at their i n e b r i a t e d father. H o w e v e r , S h e m a n d J a p h e t h took a g a r m e n t , a n d w i t h o u t l o o k i n g at their father, c o v e r e d h i m . N o a h w o k e u p a n d s o m e h o w f i g u r e d out w h a t H a m h a d d o n e a n d cursed C a n a a n , the son H a r n , to be his b r o t h e r s ' "slave o f slaves." T h e "curse o f H a m " , refers to the eternal c o n d e m n a t i o n o f " H a m " and! his o f f s p r i n g to slavery. T h e first m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g rests i n who was actually c u r s e d . R a t h e r t h a n the "curse o f C a n a a n , " we h e a r of the
l u

"curse o f H a m . " G o l d e n b e r g suggest that it was post-biblical era writers w h o f o c u s e d o n H a m as the root o f the curse rather t h a n C a n a a n , w h o h a d the m i s f o r t u n e o f s h o u l d e r i n g the curse. The second m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g lies i n the ethnic classification o f the " c h i l d r e n o f H a m . " A c a r e f u l r e a d i n g o f the story w i l l show that t h e r e is n o m e n t i o n o f a s p e c i f i c race. Goldenberg shows that this m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g likely o r i g i n a t e d i n a l i n g u i s t i c e r r o r , m i s t r a n s l a t i n g ham f o r b l a c k or d a r k , w i t h their i n s i d i o u s m o r a l c o n n o t a t i o n s . In m o d e r n P l e b r e w ham m e a n s " h o t , " w h i c h to s o m e i m p l i e d that H a r n was the father o f the p e o p l e s l i v i n g in " h o t " .Africa. H o w e v e r , the r e a l m e a n i n g o f " H a m " to those who first wrote o f the "curse o f C a n a a n " is u n k n o w n . T h u s , this t r a n s l a t i o n a l e r r o r is i n p a r t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the literary p e r p e t u a t i o n o f the "curse o f H a m , " r a t h e r t h a n the "curse of C a n a a n . " . R e l i g i o u s writers have suggested that the " H a m i t e s " were in fact the K u s h i t e s . A s w i t h the e t y m o l o g y o f " H a m , " the o r i g i n o f the t e r m " K u s h i t e " is o b s c u r e . In fact, the l a n d o f " R u s h " has b e e n d e s c r i b e d as e x i s t i n g a n y w h e r e between E t h i o p i a a n d I n d i a , t h o u g h m o r e c o m m o n l y as a p o r t i o n of East A f r i c a a n d the s o u t h w e s t e r n A r a b i a n P e n i n s u l a . T h e r e are, o f course, d a r k - s k i n n e d peoples . w i t h i n these areas, but it is n o t at a l l clear if the " c u r s e " relates to any o f t h e m . It. is possible that the assignment o f the black A f r i c a n s as the b i b l i c a l K u s h i t e s was a p o s t - b i b l i c a l era i n v e n t i o n . Slavery i n g e n e r a l was p e r m i t t e d by the A b r a b a m i c r e l i g i o n s , i n c l u d i n g C h r i s t i a n i t y . C o m m o n to J u d a i s m a n d I s l a m was the aversion o f taking o n e ' s k i n s m a n as a slave (except as a f o r m o f p u n i s h m e n t ) . T h e T o r a h a n d the sages d i s c o u r a g e d e n s l a v i n g a f e l l o w jew b u t d i d n o t p r o h i b i t n o n Jewish slaves. ~ N o r d i d the N e w T e s t a m e n t c o n d e m n slavery
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Goldenberg points otic that the Bible did not appear to harbor antiblack A f r i c a n sentiment. However, post-biblical Jewish sages, such as Philo and Maimomdes. did. for example, Leviticus 25:44-46. Jewish ownership of Christian slaves was prohibited within the Roman Empire with the Theoclosian Code ( A . D . 4'J5/. H o w e v e r , J e w i s h trading of non-Jewish slaves around the Mediterranean continued.
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(e.g., T i t u s 2:9-10), a n d i n d e e d , slaves were seen as a p a r t o f the n a t u r a l social o r d e r (Galatians 3:28). Islam a l l o w e d the t a k i n g o f i n f i d e l s a n d prisoneps o f war c a p t u r e d i n n o n M u s l i m areas as slaves, so that the Islamic conquests m u c h o f n o r t h e r n A f r i c a i n the seventh a n d e i g h t h centuries, a n d c o n t i n u o u s slave r a i d i n g e x c u r s i o n s i n t o b l a c k A f r i c a ( u n t i l s t o p p e d by E u r o p e a n c o l o n i a l r u l e i n A f r i c a i n the n i n e t e e n t h century) led. to a vast i m p o r t a t i o n o f b l a c k slaves, i n t o t h e A r a b w o r l d . B l a c k s k i n may have b e e n u s e d as a " m a r k e r " f o r n o n - b e l i e v i n g o r p a g a n by Jews, C h r i s t i a n s a n d M u s l i m s . T h e i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r s o f b l a c k slaves i n (lit Mediterranean a n d A r a b i a lead to the retroactive c o r r o b o r a t i o n o f blacks as t h e d e c e d e n t s o f H a m . T h e ancients d i d n o t e m b r a c e p o l i t i c a l correctness w h e n it c a m e to r a c e , a n d G o l d e n b e r g notes the r a c i a l consciousness that existed i n b i b l i c a l a n d p o s t - b i b l i c a l times. T h e E g y p t i a n s saw themselves as " i n t e r m e d i a t e " i n c o l o r , b e t w e e n the p a l e E u r o p e a n s i n the N o r t h a n d the b l a c k A f r i c a n s . T h e Jews d e s c r i b e d themselves as " n e i t h e r black n o r w h i t e " b u t " h o n e y - c o l o r e d . " F u r t h e r m o r e , the J e w i s h priestly class was to be o f a s k i n c o l o r n e i t h e r b l a c k n o r white (and n e i t h e r t o o tall n o r t o o s h o r t ) . T h u s , those o f a n entirely d i f f e r e n t s k i n c o l o r were f a i r g a m e as slaves. B l a c k s were d e s c r i b e d b y G r e c o - R o m a n s , a n d postb i b l i c a l Jews, C h r i s t i a n s a n d A r a b s as h a v i n g " s i n g e d ' hair, " c r o o k e d " ( o r c u r v e d , t h i c k ) l i p s a n d r e d eyes. Black A f r i c a n s were also d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g n a k e d o r sparsely clothed, with large penises. Compare these early d e s c r i p t i o n s w i t h a m o r e m o d e r n d e s c r i p t i o n o f the "Aethiopids" of E t h i o p i a a n d Somalia, a N e g r i d / E u r o p i d a d m i x t u r e : " S l e n d e r o f m e d i u m stature... face is m o r e o r less o f t h e E u r o p i d f o r m , w i t h rather n a r r o w , p r o m i n e n t nose; there is n o p r o g n a t h i s m . . . T h e s k i n is r e d d i s h o r b l a c k i s h - b r o w n . . . H a i r n e i t h e r wavy... n o r i n tight s p i r a l s . . . Scantiness o f b o d y h a i r , save f o r o n the scalp"'". A l t h o u g h G o l d e n berg's process o f u n c o v e r i n g the
r

h i s t o r i c a l basis f o r the "curse o f H a m " was i n f r i o r u n c , p e r h a p s a c o m p a r i s o n o f the r e l i g i p u s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r slavery may be m o r e t h o u g h t p r o v o k i n g . Despite t h e a b o l i t i o n of slavery i n E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s i n the 1800's, slavery c o n t i n u e s today i n A r a b A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s . T h e "white slave" trade is also active, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the M i d d l e E a s t ' .
4

Aldric Mama

" Baker, Race, 1974, Oxford University Press. Also in: Sayce (Peterson ed.). Race in Ancient Egypt and the Old Testament, 2008, Scott-Towusend: reviewed in Mankind Quarterly, 49, 2009, p. 106. The Mankind Quarterly

" Goldenberg notes die Islamic inclination for iight-coinplexioned girls as slaves (p. 90). Volume L, Nos. J & 2, Fall/Winter 2009

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E c o n o m i c Studies. T h e f o u n d e r s i n c l u d e d s o m e o f the m o s t r e n o w n e d scholars o f their t i m e i n the f i e l d o f a n t h r o p o l o g y a n d r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s . In the course o f its 46-year existence its e d i t o r i a l b o a r d has i n c l u d e d , a m o n g s t m a n y others, the f o l l o w i n g d i s t i n g u i s h e d scholars:

The Mankind Quarterly was f o u n d e d as a quarterly j o u r n a l of a n t h r o p o l o g y , i n the broadest sense o f "the science o f m a n , " i n 1961. T h i s was a dime w h e n the study of m a n h a d already d i v e r s i f i e d into physical a n t h r o p o l o g y , e t h n o g r a p h y , quantitative cross-cultural research, archaeology a n d o t h e r subspecialties such as psychology and comparative linguistics. T h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s t o d k place against the b a c k g r o u n d o f a w i d e n i n g gulf between the b i o l o g i c a l a n d social sciences. F o l l o w i n g the l e a d i n g d o g m a o f the day, c u l t u r a l a n d s o c i a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s i n a c a d e m e began to d e n y the importance of biology for behavioral and cultural phenomena. Conversely, biological (physical) a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s a l i g n e d themselves with the " h a r d " sciences, m a n y d e s c r i b i n g themselves as h u m a n biologists rather t h a n a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s i n an attempt to distance themselves f r o m a social a n t h r o p o l o g y that they n o l o n g e r saw as scientifically s o u n d . I n m a n y places, these divisions persist to the present day. The Mankind Quarterly wis f o u n d e d as a response to these c e n t r i f u g a l trends. Its f o u n d e r s were u n i t e d i n the view that h u m a n b i o l o g y , b e h a v i o r a n d culture interact i n m a n i f o l d ways. T h e y also were u n i t e d i n the view that b i o l o g i c a l a n d c u l t u r a l diversity can o n l y be u n d e r s t o o d as the o u t c o m e s of e v o l u t i o n a r y , e c o l o g i c a l , a n d historic processes. In s h o r t , 77i<? Mankind Quarterly was established as a j o u r n a l f o r those scholars who still believed i n a u n i f i e d "science o f m a n " dtat studies the interactions between b i o l o g i c a l a n d c u l t u r a l diversity. It was first p u b l i s h e d i n E d i n b u r g h ( S c o t l a n d ) , but p u b l i c a t i o n was transferred to the U n i t e d States i n 1979, since w h e n it has b e e n p u b l i s h e d f r o m W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . by the C o u n c i l for S o c i a l a n d
The Mankind Quarterly

A n t h r o p o l o g y and B i o l o g y : Sir Charles B. D a r w i n ( C a m b r i d g e ) ; R. Ruggles Gates ( L o n d o n ) ; L u i g i G e d d a ( R o m e ) ; C o r r a d o G i n i (Rome) A r c h a e o l o g y and Palaeontology: H e n r i V . Vallois (Paris); B e r t i l L u n d m a n (Uppsala) Genetics: D a v i d C . Rife (New D e l h i ) ; j . D . j . H o f m e y r (Pretoria); O . v o h V e r s c h u e r (Muenster)
Mythology:

Joseph C a m p b e l l (New York)


Psychology:

R a y m o n d B. Cattell ( H o n o l u l u ) ; H e r i r v K. Garrett ( C o l u m b i a & C h a p e l H i l l ) ; Frank C. M c G u r k (Villanova); S. D . Porteus ( H o n o l u l u ) ; A u d r e y Shuey ( R a n d o l p h - M a c o n ) Sociology: Charles C. losey (Indiana); Stefan T. Possony (Stanford); H e r b e r t Sanborn (Tennessee); H . T u r n e y - H i g h (South Carolina)

T h r o u g h o u t its existence The Mankind Quarterly has m a i n t a i n e d its c h a r a c t e r as a j o u r n a l d e v o t e d to the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y stud}" o f m a n . 'Today the e d i t o r i a l b o a r d i n c l u d e s scholars f r o m a wide variety of d i s c i p l i n e s , f r o m p r i m a t o l o g y , physical a n t h r o p o l o g y a n d h u m a n genetics, to p s y c h o l o g y , sociology, rnvthology a n d history. D e s p i t e their
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diverse expertise a n d views, d i e editors share a c o m m o n interest i n the e v o l u t i o n a r y a n d h i s t o r i c a l processes that generate h u m a n diversity. S i n c e history a n d b i o l o g i c a l e v o l u t i o n are o n g o i n g processes, this i n c l u d e s an interest i n the social, c u l t u r a l , d e m o g r a p h i c a n d b i o l o g i c a l changes that are t a k i n g place i n m o d e r n societies. M a n y o f the articles the j o u r n a l p u b l i s h e s are o f a n h i s t o r i c a l n a t u r e a n d deal with t h e o r i g i n s o f the racial, e t h n i c , l i n g u i s t i c a n d c u l t u r a l diversity we see today. H o w e v e r , the e d i t o r s are especially interested i n the c u r r e n t l y o n g o i n g processes that w i l l i n f l u e n c e h u m a n diversity i n the f u t u r e . It can be a r g u e d that these processes are the m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y relevant topics i n the study, o f m an. The Mankind, Qjiarterly is n o t a n d never has b e e n a f r a i d to p u b l i s h articles i n c o n t r o v e r s i a l areas, i n c l u d i n g b e h a v i o r a l race differences a n d the i m p o r t a n c e o f m e n t a l ability f o r i n d i v i d u a l o u t c o m e s a n d g r o u p differences. D u r i n g the " B e l l C u r v e w a r s " o f the 1990s, it received c o n s i d e r a b l e c r i t i c i s m w h e n o p p o n e n t s r e a l i z e d that m a n y o f the w o r k cited by H e r r n s t e i n a n d M u r r a y h a d first b e e n p u b l i s h e d i n The Mankind Quarterly. H o w e v e r , this science has stood the test o f time, a n d M Q is still p r e p a r e d to p u b l i s h controversial f i n d i n g s a n d theories. O v e r t h e years, advances i n genetics a n d m e d i c a l science have s t i m u l a t e d n e w a p p r o a c h e s that are h e l p i n g to close the g u l f between the b i o l o g i c a l a n d social sciences. Sociobiology, n o w often described as evolutionary psychology, d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g a n d a r o u n d the 1970s as the science o f " h u m a n n a t u r e . " It gave us the c o n c e p t u a l tools that allow us to e x p l a i n h u m a n b e h a v i o r a n d social systems as the p r o d u c t s o f evolved cognitive systems. I n essence, s o c i o b i o l o g y tells us that social a n d i d e a t i o n a l systems t e n d to d e v e l o p to c o n f o r m with e v o l v i n g needs, p r e f e r e n c e s a n d cognitive biases. A n u m b e r o f the articles M Q publishes are d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n s o f s o c i o b i o l o g i c a l theory. B e h a v i o r a l genetics is a n o t h e r f i e l d that d e v e l o p e d i n t o a s o l i d b o d y o f k n o w l e d g e only d u r i n g the last three decades o f the 2 0 * century. B e h a v i o r a l genetics deals n o t o n l y w i t h
The Mankind Quarterly

genes. It also analyzes c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s o n h u m a n b e h a v i o r , b o t h f r o m the f a m i l y e n v i r o n m e n t a n d the wider society. O n e i m p l i c a t i o n o f the b e h a v i o r g e n e t i c a p p r o a c h is that to t h e e x t e n t that genes affect h u m a n b e h a v i o r , they are b o u n d to affect the belief systems, values, a n d social structures that a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s describe as " c u l t u r e . "

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concisely. Likewise, b o o k reviews s h o u l d d e a l with p u b l i c a t i o n s w h i c h w i l l be o f interest to a non-specialist audience.

Notes for Authors

T h e o r e t i c a l articles m a y b e speculative o r c o n t r o v e r s i a l o r b o t h , b u t must b e based o n s o l i d data. S u b m i s s i o n s are evaluated o n l y o n the basis o f scientific soundness, relevance, a n d interest. M a n u s c r i p t s s h o u l d be s u b m i t t e d e l e c t r o n i c a l l y to s o c e c o n @ a o l . c o m a l t h o u g h the p u b l i s h e r s may request a p r i n t e d c o p y o f any article w h i c h is a c c e p t e d f o r review by the journal's referees. The review process takes a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2-3 m o n t h s , a n d articles a r e p u b l i s h e d w i t h i n 6 m o n t h s after f i n a l a c c e p t a n c e : W h e n s u b m i t t i n g a m a n u s c r i p t e l e c t r o n i c a l l y , please i n d i c a t e t h e f i l e f o r m a t . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , a u t h o r s c a n s u b m i t three h a r d c o p i e s , t y p e d double-spaced Please n o t e the^ f o l l o w i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r m a n u s c r i p t s w h i c h have b e e n a c c e p t e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . Tabs and Columns If y o u n e e d to o r g a n i z e i n f o r m a t i o n into c o l u m n s e i t h e r use tabs o r create ' c o l u m n s ' a n d 'rows' u s i n g y o u r w o r d p r o c e s s i n g software's t a b l e - b u i l d i n g f u n c t i o n . Please d o n o t create c o l u m n s by p r e s s i n g the space bar a m u l t i p l e q u a n t i t y o f times. If vou are u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the m e t h o d s p r o v i d e d by y o u r w o r d processor's tab o r table b u i l d i n g f u n c t i o n s f o r a l i g n i n g n u m b e r s by their d e c i m a l p o i n t s t h e n please d o n o t a t t e m p t to d o so by p r e s s i n g t h e s p a t e b a r a m u l t i p l e q u a n t i t y o f times as this leads to a n excessive p o t e n t i a l f o r e r r o r d u r i n g typesetting. Instead we stiggest y o u specify to us what c o l u m n s y o u wish to be thus a l i g n e d a n d we w i l l h a p p i l y d o this f o r y o u . A l l o t h e r i n d e n t a t i o n s a n d gaps m u s t also b e created by tab f u n c t i o n s o f r a t h e r t h a n by t y p i n g m u l t i p l e spaces. .Footnotes K i n d l y note that M O uses footnotes a n d n o t e n d n o t e s . A l l footnote n u m b e r s i n s e r t e d i n the text m u s t be .superscript a n d mast, be digitally l i n k e d to the
Volume L, i\os. J & 2, fall/Winter 2009

A s a peer-reviewed aca/demic j o u r n a l o f a n t h r o p o l o g y , The Mankind Quarterly p u b l i s h e s articles o n a l l aspects o f the science of man, r a n g i n g f r o m c u l t u r a l a n d physical a n t h r o p o l o g y , a n d psychology a n d b e h a v i o r a l genetics, to d e m o g r a p h y , m y t h o l o g y a n d t h e history o f r e l i g i o n . H o w e v e r , the editors are especially interested i n articles r e l a t i n g to c u l t u r a l a n d b i o l o g i c a l e v o l u t i o n , a n d to the i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n b i o l o g y a n d c u l t u r e . S u c h topics i n c l u d e (1) t h e h i s t o r i c a l o r i g i n s o f present-day c u l t u r a l a n d biological diversity using approaches from history, a r c h a e o l o g y , l i n g u i s t i c s , m y t h o l o g y , a n d p o p u l a t i o n genetics; (2) the study o f c u l t u r a l a n d b i o l o g i c a l trends i n c o n t e m p o r a r y societies i n c l u d i n g cross-cultural studies o f personality, i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d c u l t u r a l l y transmitted beliefs a n d values, as w e l l as the study o f d e m o g r a p h i c trends a n d trends i n p h y s i c a l characters a n d gene frequencies over t i m e ; a n d (3) the i m p l i c a t i o n s of c u r r e n t trends f o r f u t u r e h u m a n evolution. I n c l u d e d i n these areas o f special interest are articles d e a l i n g w i t h the e v o l u t i o n o f personality, its expression i n v a r y i n g c u l t u r a l , e c o l o g i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s , a n d its implications f o r future cultural a n d biological evolution. I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p r o a c h e s that integrate f i n d i n g s f r o m h i s t o r i c a l l y separate d i s c i p l i n e s a n d subdiscip lines a r e especially e n c o u r a g e d . M Q p u b l i s h e s research reports, theoretical articles, datad r i v e n reviews, b o o k reviews, a n d short c o m m u n i c a t i o n s o n new discoveries o r critical c o m m e n t s o n p u b l i s h e d papers, either i n the M Q or elsewhere. Because M Q is read bv i n d i v i d u a l s f r o m diverse 'backgrounds, the authors o f Ivifhlv s p e c i a l i z e d o r t e c h n i c a l articles a r c -asked to present the b a c k g r o u n d a n d significance o f their work clearly a n d
The Mankind Quarterly

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Notes for Authors

c o r r e s p o n d i n g s u p e r s c r i p t n u m b e r i n the f o o t n o t e u s i n g the m e c h a n i s m p r o v i d e d by y o u r w o r d p r o c e s s i n g software. A l s o please see note o n .Footnotes u n d e r References below. References In the Text T h e names o f b o o k s , j o u r n a l s a n d acts o f l e g i s l a t i o n i n the text s h o u l d be i t a l i c i z e d , a n d w h e n m e n t i o n e d i n the text f o r the first time s h o u l d be a c c o m p a n i e d by the year o f publication (in parentheses). In Footnotes I n footnotes, the n a m e s o f articles s h o u l d be i n s i d e d o u b l e q u o t a t i o n marks, a n d the n a m e s o f b o o k s , j o u r n a l s a n d acts o f l e g i s l a t i o n i n italics Al the End of an Article A r t i c l e s m u s t n o r m a l l y have a list o f r e f e r e n c e s i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r by a u t h o r , o r , i n the case o f an a u t h o r ' s n a m e n o t h a v i n g b e e n p u b l i s h e d , by the n a m e o f publication. T h e i n f o r m a t i o n must b e s e q u e n c e d w i t h the f o l l o w i n g typography; Author,</v>' Para<rrabh>I>-M& of Publication< Tafe>Title ...
' o jt

etc..

T h e names o f articles s h o u l d be i n s i d e d o u b l e q u o t a t i o n m a r k s , the names o f j o u r n a l s a n d acts of l e g i s l a t i o n s h o u l d be i n italics. T h e n a m e o f books however s h o u l d be i n s t a n d a r d type. Hyphens Please d o n o t m a n u a l l y h y p h e n a t e w o r d s at the ends o f lines n o t even w h e n p r e p a r i n g tables. Abstracts and Keywords A l l m a n u s c r i p t s s h o u l d be a c c o m p a n i e d by a b r i e f abstract a n d suggested k e y w o r d s (as a n aid to i n d e x e r s ) .

Tim Mankind

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