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EE228 LAB EXPERIMENT #10 Spring 2007

Objective: Today we will learn about using the two-wattmeter method to measure threephase power. We will build up a circuit in Multisim, insert the proper instrumentation, then explore three-phase power factor correction.

Background: A wattmeter contains an AC voltmeter and ammeter. Using the angle between the two measured quantities, it then calculates the real power. In a three-phase system, we would normally require three wattmeters with the ammeters measuring the line currents and the voltmeters measuring the required line-to-neutral voltages. In the two-wattmeter method, the ammeter and voltmeter are configured as shown in Figure 1, where the indicated polarity of each voltmeter is integral.

Figure 1: Two-Wattmeter Method

Regardless if whether the system is balanced, the three-phase real power to the load is then found by adding the wattmeter readings PLoad ,3 P = W1 + W2 If the system is balanced, then it can be further shown that the three-phase reactive power can also be determined from the two wattmeter readings via QLoad ,3 P = 3 (W1 W2 ) Which wattmeter is called #1 or #2 is somewhat arbitrary (if you do not know the phase sequence a priori). Thus the sign on the reactive power might need to be determined based on knowledge of the load (is it leading or lagging). Once you know the real and reactive powers, then you can use the power triangle to find the apparent power.

2 Part 1: The circuit we wish to analyze is given in Figure 2, where we will consider a balanced 60Hz, abc-sequence source, with 120Vrms line-to-neutral voltages. Note that the line impedances and load impedances are balanced in this system.
Van
+ 10mH 2ohm 100mH

VAN
40ohm

Vbn Ia

10mH

2ohm

100mH

40ohm

Vcn

10mH

2ohm

100mH

40ohm

Load

Figure 2: Candidate System We wish to monitor: The a-phase line current I a The line-to-neutral load voltage VAN The three-phase load real and reactive powers

Build the circuit in Multisim. Use AC Sources for the voltage sources (make sure to change the phase angle), virtual inductors and resistors, multi-meters to monitor the current and line-to-neutral load voltage, and two wattmeters. Leave room for power factor correction capacitors to be inserted at the load. The circuit should appear as shown in Figure 3.
XMM1 XMM2
V1
5 16

XWM1
V
L1 10mH
6

I
8

R1 2

L4 100mH

R4 40
4

120 V 60 Hz 0Deg V2
13

L2 10mH

14

R2 2

15

L5 100mH

R5 40

120 V 60 Hz -120Deg V3
9

L3 10mH

10

R3 2

11

12

L6 100mH

R6 40

120 V 60 Hz 120Deg

XWM2

Figure 3: Multisim Implementation of Candidate System with Instrumentation

3 Run the simulation and record the four meter readings: XMM1: _________ XWM1: _________ XMM2:__________ XWM2:__________

Compute the three-phase real and reactive power into the load PLoad ,3 P = ____________ QLoad ,3 P = ______________

Compute the three-phase apparent power of the load using the power triangle

Compute the three-phase apparent power of the load using the multi-meter measured values

Part 2: Given the measured three-phase reactive power, compute the per-phase reactive power. Then, using the measured line-to-neutral load voltage, compute the required capacitance (line-to-neutral or Y-connected) that will correct the power factor to unity (1).

4 Modify your simulation to include the Y-connected capacitor bank (at the terminals of the load). Run the simulation and collect the meter readings: XMM1: _________ XWM1: _________ XMM2:__________ XWM2:__________

Compute the three-phase real and reactive power into the load PLoad ,3 P = ____________ Calculate the new power factor: pf = What must be true about the two wattmeter readings if we are operating at unity power factor? QLoad ,3 P = ______________

Part 3: By hand, analyze the original circuit shown in Figure 2 and calculate the theoretical line current, line-to-neutral load voltage, three-phase real and reactive powers, and compare your results with the simulation.