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Operations Management at Lancaster Block

Submitted To:

Sir, Nayyar Butt

Course: Operations Management

Submitted By:

Nabeel Safdar



Parents, Family


All the praise is to Allah Alone, the Kind, the Aleem, and may He shower His blessings to Prophet Muhammad (Upon Him Be Peace). We wish to record our deep sense of gratitude to our supervisor Mr. Nayyar Butt, who through this works to encouraged us to read the available literature, think a new about the issues involved and innovate. We have enjoyed working with him & explored new ideas that he suggested from time to time. Nayyar Butt was very helpful through this work in various ways. We also wish to acknowledge the help, support and inspiration all the person who provide us support and guidance in our research. Last but not the least we must thank our parents and other family members who were all very kind and supportive for our adventure into our research report.

Table of Contents
Introduction Lancaster Block Library Computer Lab Performance Objective Layout Job Design References Page 1 1 1 3 4 7 8 9

Introduction: The Project is made on Lancaster Block of COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Lahore. At Lancaster process is to turns new students into knowledgeable and skilled graduates. As per plan 3 courses are offered in this semester with dual degree by Lancaster and COMSATS. According to COMSATS website news from August this year, 250 Pakistani undergraduate students at the CIIT Lahore campus will start the first dual degrees delivered in Pakistan. The courses are offered for three departments include Management Sciences, Computer Sciences and Electrical Engineering. Initially there are fewer students as every semester new students will be enrolled, so total number of students will increase gradually at block. The main focus of study is on following areas of operation: Part (a) will comprise of Evaluation of demand of the operation (in term of four Vs) and Comparison. Part (b) will outline how to interpret and measures the five performance objective. Part (c) will discuss the layout, process technology and job design appropriate for the demand made on the operation as discussed in part (a).

Part (a):
Lancaster Block: Lancaster Block of COMSATS is an educational Institute (related to services business). The process is informational transformation. Mostly skilled staff and simple technologies; complex flow and scheduling is involved in process. There are both Front-office and Back-offices in Lancaster. Front-office is highvisibility part of an operation. Back-office is low-visibility part of an operation. At Lancaster process is to turns new students into knowledgeable and skilled graduates. In this case there are two types of input resources (Transformed resources and transforming resources). Transformed resources include Students along with previous knowledge and skills. Whereas transforming resources include Staff and facilities. Staff comprises of faculty, clerks, guards, technical staff and all other supportive staff in block. Facilities comprise Premises, Extra Co-curricular activities, Library, Computer Lab, classroom and all other facilities. If we compare the Volume of Students to be enrolled with COMSATS it will be low. The Variety of course offered as compared to COMSATS is also low. We will take two operations at Lancaster for further studies in detail which is as follows; Library; and Computer lab. Library: The operation of library is to provide books and other study resources to students and faculty member. The transformed resources in library are information level of students and transforming resources includes staff and facilities (seating area, lending of books and library premises). There is some variation in demand and a continuous process. As for as Visibility is concerned, Library have both front office and back office. The front office is highly visible due to direct contact with students and faculty for enquires and issuance and return of books. Whereas back office has low visibility as compare to front office because they have low contact or either no direct contact with students. The mission of the Library is to support university students in their academic coursework. The library is a facility for students that have also discussion room, scanning, printing, photocopying facility and online access of Lancaster UK library via login and password of online library. Each student is also given library card which is made on his account and proper maintaining of library account in a database. Volume: When we look on volume we can measures volume on several dimensions e.g. in term of books, space, furniture, staff, students, or books issued during a period.

The management of Lancaster Block initially plans to buy 5,500 books related to courses which include both text and reference books. Where as in COMSATS Lahore M.A Jinnah campus library have approximately 17,000 books for 4,500 students of different disciplines and faculty members. If we compare the volume of books at both libraries Lancaster Block have low volume of books. If we make comparison on base of students, plan of enroll students are 250 at Lancaster while 4,500 students are enrolled in COMSATS Lahore M.A Jinnah campus. Volume of students a Lancaster is also low. If we make comparison the opportunity of lending books availability is high at Lancaster block because number of books to users ratio at Lancaster is better than COMSATS Lahore M.A Jinnah campus. We can measure volume by number of books issued during a specific period say one day. As the library at Lancaster is not functional so yet volume is not known. If we see COMSATS Lahore M.A Jinnah campus library average issuance of books is approximately 100 and more daily. If we compare users of both libraries it will be estimated that average issuance of books will be 6 and more daily. So planning purpose 10 books may be issued per day and this figure will be increased as number of enrolled students will increase as new admissions will be offered each semester. If we see furniture the expected chairs and tables are 44 and 8 respectively. If we compare it with COMSATS Lahore M.A Jinnah campus library, the volume is low but for current students it is enough because there is also discussion room in library. The space of library is less than COMSATS Lahore M.A Jinnah campus library but as users are also low space is satisfactory now but when students increase it will need extension for better services. If we compare library with any public library volumes is low in all aspects. Variety: When we look on variety we can measure variety on several dimensions e.g. issuing of books, kinds of books, online library of COMSATS and Lancaster University, Scanning, photocopying, printing, Discussion rooms, study room, journals, magazines, CDs or book issuance method difference for faculty and students. In library there is variety of services provided to accomplish the mission of library. There will be six computers in library to provide online resources of Lancaster UK along with scanner and printer. Students can also get the facility of photocopy in library as well. Students can online access of Lancaster UK library via login and password. The students can also access online library of COMSATS. The online library facility enhances study resources volume. Along with online library Lancaster block have also physical library there will be also variety in book issuance, long run lending of book is for one month and short run duration is for 2 days. A student can loaned 5 books at time with maximum 2 books of short loan type. There are also variety of journals, magazines and CDs. Library card is needed for student to loan a books while faculty will not need card presentation. There is also discussion and reading room facility in library. Variation: Variation can be studied on the bases of demand fluctuation due to timings, variation in students visits, variation in staff, or variation in Library Timing. As library of Lancaster block is not functional yet so we can study trends of COMSATS library daily basis in the morning from (8:00am to 12:00 pm) Volume of students who come into library is low. However with the passage of time from (12:00 to 4:00 pm) No of students who visit the library gradually increase because of evening classes. From analysis of COMSATS library we can forecast that in slots breaks the volume of student visiting library will be high. Similarly if we consider the weather changes in winter season students use to sit in the sunlight rather than sitting in the library so in winter smaller no of students attend the library and in summers vice versa. We can also predict same pattern for Lancaster block. We also observe that library of COMSATS there are two shifts, in the morning staff is 9 and in evening staff is 4 numbers. From analyzing trend we can also engage more staff in morning and less in evening. To study demand fluctuation we studied COMSATS the demand for books during examination is increased as compared to normal days. In routine days normally 100 books are issued in one day while during examination approximately 200 books are issued. So we can predict that demand will rise in examination days and also in semester start because students need course related books at that time. Also demand in days of projects completion will also high.

Visibility: Visibility can be studied by number of students served by a staff member. Library have both front office and back office. The front office is highly visible due to direct contact with students and faculty for enquires and issuance and return of books. Whereas back office has low visibility as compare to front office because they have low contact or either no direct contact with students. In the front office there is Help desk for guidance and a circulation desk for issuance of books. If students want to get any information about library services or found any inconvenience in finding the books, he can get help from the Help desk. For issuing the books student have to go to circulation desk. Other responsibility of front office is to maintain decorum of library. Back office generally deals with special complaints which are not in jurisdiction of front office. The responsibility of back office is to manage the books in proper shelves, maintain back end accounts of library, requisition of new books demanded and intimating students about there status online. Computer Lab: The operation of computer lab is to provide computer, internet facilities and other online study resources to students. The transformed resources in computer lab are information level of students and transforming resources includes facilities (Printer, Scanner, Computers, Internet facility and lab premises). There is some variation in demand and a continuous process. Volume: When we look on volume we can measures volume on several dimensions e.g. in term of Computers, space, furniture, staff, students, frequency of usage during a period. We can measure volume by frequency of usage during a specific period say one day. As the Computer lab at Lancaster is not functional so yet volume is not known. For estimation we can compare it with COMSATS Lahore computer labs. As comparing number of students at both places 30 computers are enough initially for students to fulfill their needs. Variety: When we look on variety we can measure variety on several dimensions e.g. difference in computer system specifications, Scanning, printing or Softwares. Varity in user by the user login whether the user is students, faculty members or lab staff. Students can online access of Lancaster UK library via login and password. The students can also access online library of COMSATS. There is also facility of scanner and printer in Lab for ease of students and helpful in accomplishing mission of Lab. Variation: Variation can be studied on the bases of demand fluctuation due to timings, variation in students visits or variation in Lab Timing. As Computer Lab is not functional we can not Study variation so for this reason we have to study COMSATS Lahore Computer Lab. If we see COMSATS Lahore the variation level in the labs is very high. Comsat Lahore offered the Morning as well as evening classes also there for the user vary from time to time. The high variations come to see between to 11am to 4 pm in first 5 days of a week .the computer lab open for user from 8.30am to 7.30 pm for first 6 days in a week while lab C is available till 11pm for hostile students. So we can predict that variation exists also in Lancaster Block Lab. Visibility: Visibility can be studied by number of students served by a staff member. As there is no staff in lab visibility is very low all is self help but server room has help desk which is geographically dispersed. If we compare it with COMSATS Lahore Lab visibility is low. To enhance visibility in computer lab a Lab Assistant can be hired so enquires related to lab affairs and problems ca be discussed with him. If we see COMSATS Lahore campus we will find that there is a Lab Assistant at each Lab to facilitate students matter related to computer lab.

Part (b):
Performance objectives: Quality: The quality of a Service is defining as whether it fulfils its stated and implied specifications. Quality plays a vital role in the progress of any business regardless it is small or large scale. Quality level is a major factor which can increase or decrease the business worth. So quality is the main ingredient of success to any business. Quality is a major factor of business that plays a central role on business growth but on the other hand, poor quality not only effect on business name but also caused to lose the reputation in the market. The cost of poor quality is very high which take long time to recover and regain the market share. Cost to be bear if the Lancaster fails to provide the good quality are increase internal cost and increase external cost. The increase external cost includes Customer-incurred cost, Customer-dissatisfaction cost, Lostopportunity cost and Loss-of-reputation cost. Quality at Library: The mission of the Library is to support university students in their academic coursework. A well-equipped and managed library can play a vital role in academic and research activities of any university. The main function of a university library is to provide up-to-date information to the academic community. For this reason Lancaster block library provides variety of services along with collection of books. Quality is the consistent conformance to students expectation. The quality of library depends upon several dimensions for study resources there should be variety of books and volume should also be high. There should be availability of online library at every time with no breakdown of links to enhance quality. The required books should quickly available to students and specified books by students should also be readily available to them on demand. For quality there should be proper lighting, staff should courteous, space of library should enough for students with proper conditioning and environment temperature should be feasible for work and study. To maintain quality library should be silent zone so readers cannot disturbed, this is duty of staff to maintain decorum of library. Quality at Computer Lab: The mission of the Computer Lab is to support university students in their academic coursework and prepare students for a variety of workplace opportunities. The Learning Skills Center Computer Lab provides students with technology and quality computer equipment that helps them to prepare for a variety of educational, workplace and personal needs. Speed: Speed means the elapsed time between customers requesting products or services and their Receipt of them The main benefit of speedy delivery of goods and services to the operations customers lies in the way it enhances the operations offering to the customer. Quite simply, for most goods and services, the faster customers can have the product or service, the more likely they are to buy it, or the more they will pay for it or the greater the benefit they receive (Naresh 2005) Speed at library: Speed can enhance quality we can check speed of system by analyzing how quickly books are arranged after students used them and how students are guided y sign board or proper numbering of books along with references to shelves. The speed depends upon how quickly a student locates a book of his interest. Each type of books should keep in a separate shelf and every book will have a unique number. The help sheet will be attached on every shelf, which makes it easy to find the book and save the time. If the students still face a problem in finding the books they may get help from the help desk. The student can ask for the book which they want, by checking the book in the system the librarian tell them the place and number of

the book. This system reduced the time for finding and issuing the books. The elapsed time between student requesting books or services and receiving them should be minimizing. Speed at Computer lab: Speeds in computer lab provide the assistance user to resolve their issue at a time. Let if a user have a problem with its user name and password, lab attended assist him him/her and directed him to go to the control room or to DCO where after a short inquiry provide him a new login. And also if he /she have a problem related to their computer and any environmentally problem like notice etc he simply ask to lab attended about this to resolve the issue. In speed we also discuss about the computers which a user use all are they full up dated and with high processing speed and internet speed allow user to spend extra time in the labs. Dependability: Dependability means being on time. In other words, customers receive their products or services on time. In practice, although this definition sounds simple, it can be difficult to measure. Is it when the customer needed delivery of the product or service? Is it when they expected delivery? Is it when they were promised delivery? Is it when they were promised delivery the second time after it failed to be delivered the first time? Again, it has external and internal affects Externally (no matter how it is defined) dependability is generally regarded by customers as a good thing. Certainly being late with delivery of goods and services can be a considerable irritation to customers. Especially with business customers, dependability is a particularly important criterion used to determine whether suppliers have their contracts renewed. So, again, the external affects of this performance objective are to increase the chances of customers returning with more business. Internally dependability has an effect on cost. The chapter identifies three ways in which costs are affected by saving time (and therefore money), by saving money directly, and by giving an organization the stability which allows it to improve its efficiencies. (Kamauff 2010) Dependability at Library: Dependability in library is very high whole process is dependent lets analyze the situation if books are not placed properly after usage. The quality of library is highly dependant on arranging of books by staff after a pre defined time span. Operations at library are highly dependent. The sitting condition is also dependable on weather in summer there will be more visitor as compared to winter. Dependability at Computer lab: Dependability in Computer lab is very high it include in recovery of computer softwares as well as hardwares, for this purpose a special department which assist the computer lab staff and also help to working order. Internet service and employee performance is also effect on the operation of the labs effective and trained staff with have a great communication skill interact the user. User is also depended on their performance. Computer lab has a stand by generator which keeps the operation in short fall of electricity also. User friendly environment having at least two AC two keep temperature more feasible. Flexibility: This is a more complex objective because we use the word flexibility to mean so many different things. The important point to remember is that flexibility always means being able to change the operation in some way. Different types of flexibility (product/service flexibility, mix flexibility, volume flexibility, and delivery flexibility). It is important to understand the difference between these different types of flexibility, but it is more important to understand the affect flexibility can have on the operation. Guess what! There are external and internal affects.

Externally the different types of flexibility allow an operation to fit its products and services to its customers in some way. Mix flexibility allows an operation to produce a wide variety of products and services for its customers to choose from. Product/service flexibility allows it develops new products and services incorporating new ideas which customers may find attractive. Volume and delivery flexibility allow the operation to adjust its output levels and its delivery procedures in order to cope with unexpected changes in how many products and services customers want, or when they want them, or where they want them. There are several internal affects associated with this performance objective. The chapter deals with the three most important, namely flexibility speeds up response, flexibility saves time (and therefore money), and flexibility helps maintain dependability. (Kumar and Suresh 2009)

Flexibility at library: Product/service flexibility: The library can arrange for new books any time in the year which recommend the teachers and approved the directors. Volume Flexibility: As the demand for issuing books in normal days and in the examination is different, so when demand for issuing books in exam is increased the library has the following options. Arrange the needed books from other branches of the comsats. Outsourcing the books from FAST and LUMS university libraries. Delivery Flexibility: When there is more demand for issuing one book then the librarian can issue the reference book. They make a photocopy of the required pages. They issue the books on Saturday. To handle the rush there are two persons for issuing the books Flexibility at Computer Lab: Flexibility in computer lab depends upon on the various situations in computer labs. When the demand of the user is high and lab controller may take step and make decision to increase in computer and printer also. We can say it volume flexibility. The timing should be flexible for achieving mission.

Part (c):
Layout: We can use process layout for both library and Computer lab. Process layouts are that produce customized low-volume products that may require different processing requirements and sequences of operations. Process layouts are facility configurations in which operations of a similar nature or function are grouped together. As such, they occasionally are referred to as functional layouts. Their purpose is to process goods or provide services that involve a variety of processing requirements. A manufacturing example would be a machine shop. A machine shop generally has separate departments where general-purpose machines are grouped together by function (e.g., milling, grinding, drilling, hydraulic presses, and lathes). Therefore, facilities that are configured according to individual functions or processes have a process layout. This type of layout gives the firm the flexibility needed to handle a variety of routes and process requirements. Services that utilize process layouts include hospitals, banks, auto repair, libraries, and universities. In a process layout, similar processes or processes with similar needs are located together because It is convenient to group them together or the utilization of the transforming resource is improved. Different products of customer have different requirements therefore they may take different routes within the process. The flow in a process layout can be very complex. The advantage of process layout is that there is high product and mix flexibility, relatively robust in the case of disruptions and easy to supervise

Source: Nigel, Johnston 5e chapter 7

We can use function layout. Functional layout is so called because it conforms to the needs and convenience of the functions performed by the transforming resources which constitute the processes. (Confusingly, functional layout is also referred to as process layout but this term is being superseded.) In functional layout, similar resources or processes are located together. This may be because it is convenient to group them together or the utilization of transforming resources is improved. It means that when products, information or customers flow through the operation, they will take a route from activity to activity according to their needs. Different products or customers will have different needs and therefore take different routes. Usually this makes the flow pattern in the operation very complex. Job Design: Job design refers to the way that a set of tasks, or an entire job, is organized. Job design helps to determine: what tasks are done, how the tasks are done, how many tasks are done, and in what order the tasks are done. Work arrangement (or rearrangement) aimed at reducing or overcoming job dissatisfaction and employee alienation arising from repetitive and mechanistic tasks. Through job design, organizations try to raise productivity levels by offering non-monetary rewards such as greater satisfaction from a sense of personal achievement in meeting the increased challenge and responsibility of one's work. Job enlargement, job enrichment, job rotation, and job simplification are the various techniques used in a job design exercise. Librarian: The Campus Librarian oversees the library system and is responsible for developing the collection, interpreting policy, and maintaining a high quality of collection of relevant print and electronic educational materials that support Keiser's academic offerings. Typical duties include but are not limited to: Reference Services Collection and database development and management Identifying and reviewing materials for addition to the collections Coordinating with other campuses and various programs to determine library needs Attending Faculty convocations and Faculty meetings with Deans and Program Directors and Service on various University committees. Tasks may include selecting, acquiring, cataloguing, classifying, circulating, and maintaining library materials; and furnishing reference, bibliographical, and readers' advisory services. May perform in-depth, strategic research, and synthesize, analyze, edit, and filter information. May set up or work with databases and information systems to catalogue and access information. There are three main areas of work related to a librarian job. Theses three areas are user services, administrative services, and technical services. Librarians who might specialize in one these areas still will perform additional duties. Librarians specializing user services, like reference or childrens librarians, assist visitors in locating the material they are looking for. As part of the job such a librarian must determine the patrons needs and decide what information best fulfills those needs, and then provide assistance in the search for and acquisition of such material. They might also serve in an instructional way, demonstrating to patrons how to find and acquire information. For instance, librarians routinely assist patrons in navigating the internet as they look for quality information. Those working in technical services, like acquisitions and cataloguing, have the responsibility of acquiring and preparing materials that will be used and typically do not work directly with patrons. Librarians employed in administrative services administer to the management and planning of libraries. They are also involved in the negotiation of contracts for services, materials, and equipment, supervision library workers, set budgets, oversee all activities so that the institution is running sufficiently, and carry out public-relations and fundraising related responsibilities.

References: 1. 2.Kamauff, J. (2010) Managers Guide to Operations Management, the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 3.Kumar, A. S. and Suresh, N. (2009) Operations Management, New Age International Publisher, India. 4.Naresh, R. (2005) A Modern Approach to Operations Management, New Age International Publisher, India. 5.Slack, N., Chambers, S. and Johnston, R. (2007) Operations management 5th ed. FT prentice Hall Financial Times.