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Case Study for the David L.

Lawrence Convention Center


A Building in Operation [BiO] Study

prepared for

Green Building Alliance


prepared by

evolve environment::architecture
prepared with

CJL Engineering Carnegie Mellon University Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics Civil and Environmental Consultants, Inc.
funded by

The Heinz Endowments and The Sports and Exhibiton Authority of Pittsburgh
2011

THIS REPORT WAS FUNDED BY

The Heinz Endowments The Pittsburgh Sports and Exhibition Authority


PREPARED FOR

Green Building Alliance


PREPARED BY

evolve environment : : architecture


Christine Mondor, AIA, Stephen Hockley, David Deal, Marc Mondor, AIA, Cole Williams
WITH

CJL Engineering
Alan Traugott, Gaelyn Neely, Greg Laroca, Amy Ford

Carnegie Mellon University Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics


Vivian Loftness, FAIA, Azizan Abdul-Aziz, Jihyun Park, Erica Cochran, Jimena Serra, Craig Schiller

Civil and Environmental Consultants, Inc.


Geoff Nara, John Buck, Brad Hazelwood

Copyright 2011 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Building in Operation (BiO) Case Study | David L. Lawrence Convention Center November 2011

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BiO Case Study | David L. Lawrence Convention Center Table of Contents


IntroductoryMaterials Pages 1.1 IntroductoryMaterials|Overview1 1.2 IntroductoryMaterials|BusinessCaseforSustainability2 2 Benchmarking 2.1Benchmarking|Internal 4 2.2Benchmarking|External 6 3 BuildingPerformance 3.1BuildingPerformance|EnergyConservationMeasures 8 3.2BuildingPerformance|HVACandControls 11 3.3BuildingPerformance|Lighting 14 3.4BuildingPerformance|CommissioningReview 16 3.5BuildingPerformance|NaturalVentilation 18 3.6BuildingPerformance|PowerFactorCorrection 20 3.7BuildingPerformance|RenewableEnergy 21 3.8BuildingPerformance|WaterUseAudit 24 27 3.9BuildingPerformance|BlackwaterTreatmentSystem 4 SitePerformance 4.1SitePerformance|SiteReview 29 5 Operations 5.1Operations|WasteReview 31 5.2Operations|TransportationReview 33 5.3Operations|SustainablePurchasingPolicy 35 6 UserSatisfaction 6.1UserSatisfaction|Thermal,AirQuality,Visual&Acoustic37 7 SustainableOperatingSystems 7.1greenfirstReview 40 8 LEEDEBOM 8.1LEEDEBOM|SubmissionRecommendations 42 9 OngoingDataCollection 9.1OngoingDataCollection|Recommendations 44 10 Conclusion 10.1Conclusion46 1

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Building in Operation (BiO) Case Study for the David L. Lawrence Convention Center 1.1 Overview
Intheconventionindustry,PittsburghsDavidL.LawrenceConventionCenterisaleaderinsustainablepractices. Thisdocumentsummarizesanindepthstudyperformedin2010and2011thatexaminesexistingpracticesand proposedimprovementcyclesinoperations,maintenance,andmarketingthatarecriticaltomaintainleadership andcaptureregionaleconomicbenefits.

Uponitscompletionin2003,theDavidL.LawrenceConventionCenter(DLCC)receivedaGoldlevelcertification fromtheU.S.GreenBuildingCouncilsLeadershipinEnergyandEnvironmentalDesignforNewConstruction (LEEDNC)greenbuildingratingsystem,makingittheworldslargestgreenbuildingandthefirstLEEDcertified conventioncenterintheworld.TheDLCCwasconstructedwithpublicmoney,isownedbyapublicauthority, andisoperatedbyaninternationalvenuemanagementfirmdedicatedtosustainableoperationsthrough iterativeimprovements.TheDLCCscommitmenttosustainabilityhasbeenanexplicitattractionformanyhigh profileevents,includingtheU.S.GreenBuildingCouncilsGreenbuildConferenceandExpo(2003)andtheG20 Summit(2009).Becauseofitsproactiveapproach,theDLCCssuccesshasbeenanationalmodel.Itssuccesslikely influencedthestandardsforsustainablepracticesintheconventionindustry,suchasthoseinthesoontobe releasedAPEX/ASTMGreenMeetingsandEventsStandards.1

Tomaintainleadershipintherapidlychangingmeetingandconventionmarket,theDLCChasimplementeda cycleofconstantimprovement.ThisbuildingcasestudyanalyzestheDLCCsquantitativeandqualitativereturns oninvestmentandprovidesrecommendationsforhowimprovementscanbemadetoadvancefuture performance.ThispostoccupancyanalysiswasmanagedbytheGreenBuildingAllianceandperformedbya projectteamledbyevolveenvironment::architecture(evolveEA)withCJLEngineering,CarnegieMellon UniversitysCenterforBuildingPerformanceandDiagnostics,andCivilandEnvironmentalConsultants.This studysconclusionswillallowtheDLCCtocapitalizeontheoriginalsustainabledesignapproach,andconsider additionalimprovements.Inaddition,itwillsupporttheDLCCspursuitofLEEDExistingBuildingsOperations& Maintenance(EBOM)certification.


TheDLCCbuildingcasestudysummarizedhereanalyzestheDLCCsgreenfeatures,performance,andoperations withtwoprimarytasks:1)toreviewtheperformanceoftheDLCCagainstoriginalLEEDNCdesignandconstruction criteriaandfutureLEEDEBOMstandardsand2)tobenchmarkDLCCperformanceversusoriginaldesign expectationsandsimilarfacilitiesnationwide(bothLEEDandnonLEEDcertified).Analysesincludequantitative andqualitativeassessmentsofthefollowingsystems:energy,naturalventilation,water,site,transportation, waste,purchasing,andoccupantcomfort.Commissioning,internalgreeningefforts,andexistingdatacollection effortswerealsoexamined.BecausetheDLCCdoesntcurrentlyhavesubmeteringthatisadequatetofully understandongoingperformanceandutilityusage,datafrom1yearwastakenasabenchmark.Wherepossible thisreportattemptstoaveragedataovermultipleyearstoavoidanomalies.Thefullcasestudysupporting materialsincludedetailedinformationabouttheseanalysesofmajorbuildingsystems,afinancialanalysisofDLCC servicesandbuildingpractices,recommendationsforoperationalandcapitalimprovements,recommendationsfor ongoingperformancedatacollection,andkeyinformationinsupportoftheLEEDEBOMcertification.

Aswithallgreenbuildings,theDLCCsstoryisnotjustaboutthebuilding,butalsoaboutthepeoplewhorunand supportiteveryday,continuingtoinnovateintheirgreenpractices.

http://www.conventionindustry.org/StandardsPractices/GreenMeetings/APEXASTM.aspx
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1.2 The Business Case for Sustainability at DLCC


Evidencesuggeststhatagrowingpercentageoftheevents,meetingsandconventionsareseekingmore sustainableoptionsfortheireventvenuesandcities.WhiletheDLCChasbeenanationalleaderinsustainability practices,manyotherNorthAmericanconventioncentershavebeguntounderstandthefinancialopportunity thatgreeningtheirfacilitiesoffersintermsofadditionalbusiness.TocontinuetheDLCCsleadershipandtobea premiergreeneventspot,theDLCCshouldcontinuetoannuallyanalyzethecaseforsustainabilityandadjust strategiesaccordingly. Findings DuringinvestigationsintoDLCCssustainabilitybasedmarketing,the projectteamfoundthat: TheUSmeetingindustrysupports$106BinGDPand$263Bin directspending2. VisitPittsburghhasfoundthat23%oftheUSmeetingindustryis lookingforgreenevents.Thisaccountsfor$24.4BinGDPand $60.5Bindirectspending3.Upfrom5%in2004,thisrepresents anannualgrowthrateof4.5%,whichifcontinued,wouldmean Figure1.2a:TotalRevenue that100%ofthemarketwouldbedemandinggreeneventsby 2025. Fromthebeginningof2006throughtheendof2010,theDLCC hashosted94greenseeking4events,accountingfor $12,526,013inrevenue(38%oftotalrevenue)andatleast $143,823,698indirectspending(26%oftotal).Figures1.2aand 1.2billustratethesenumbers. FurtherinvestmentsintheDLCCsgreenfirst(g1)Program (definedinSection7.1|greenfirst)couldyieldamodest increaseinthenumberofgreenseekingeventsandhigh associatedreturnsintermsofrevenueanddirectspending. Duetoincreasingclientdemandforsustainableeventlocations andmetrics,leadingcentershavedevelopedandare aggressivelymarketinglocalgreennetworksofhospitality andotherserviceproviders.
Figure1.2b:TotalDirectSpending

Pricewaterhouse Coopers LLP, The Economic Significance of Meetings to the U.S. Economy. Convention Industry Council. 2 February 2011. Weblink Fulvi, Jason. VisitPittsburgh. Personal Interview. Pittsburgh, 8 November 2010. 4 The term green seeking means that the clients specifically asked about DLCCs green/sustainable initiatives during the sales process. Event planners were not directly asked whether they would have selected the DLCC without its sustainability initiatives.
3

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Recommendations Continuetodefinewhatconstitutesagreenevent.TheDLCCshoulddevelopcriteriaforgreeneventsand coordinatetrackingwithpartnersforamoredetailedtrackingsystemofeventimpact.Itshouldalignefforts withthesoontobereleasedAPEX/ASTMGreenEventsStandards. CreateaPittsburghgreennetworkofbusinesses.TheDLCCshouldusetheeconomicmetricstoleveragea coordinatedeffortwithregionalvaluechainandhospitalitypartnerstoimproveperformanceandtrackthe resultsofthisimpactwitheconomicmetrics. PromotethesustainabilityperformanceoftheDLCC.TheDLCCshouldleverageitshighlevelsustainability performancethroughregularmetricreporting,outreach,andpromotionofthePittsburghgreenevents supportnetwork. Betransparentwiththeimprovementprocess.TheDLCCshouldinstituteannualsustainabilityreportingto makeexplicitDLCCscommitmentandtheresultsofongoingimprovementcycles. Shapethefutureofthegreenindustry.TheDLCCshouldbeginworkingwithtradegroups,standard developersandotherconventioncentersthatarecreatingeventandfacilityperformancemetrics.

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2.1 Benchmarking | Internal


Thisanalysisreviewedthe2006BurtHillKosarRittelmanAssociates(BHKR)energymodel5andcomparedDLCCs historicalenergyperformanceoverthepastfewyearswithmodelpredictions.TheBHKRenergymodelprovidesa comparisonbetweenprojected,asdesignedDLCCannualutilitycostsandanASHRAE6codeminimumbaseline building.DLCCutilitybillsforyears2008,2009,and2010werethencomparedtotheASHRAEStandard90.1 minimumbaselinebuildinginordertoestimatetheextenttowhichtheDLCChasachievedpredictedsavings. Findings ThescopeforthisprojectincludedareviewoftheoriginalCTGenergymodel7(2003),theBHKRenergymodel (2006),andacomparisontoDLCChistoricalenergyperformancewhereappropriate.Itshouldbeunderstoodthat anenergymodelisafinancialtoolusedtoevaluaterelativepotentialenergyperformanceofarchitecturaland engineeringsystemcomponentsandapproximateestimatesofannualutilitycosts.Theoriginal2003CTGenergy modelwasbasedonafullbuildingoccupancyprofile(i.e.57day/weekfulloccupancy),whichisnot representativeofactualconventioncenterusage.Thefulloccupancymodelwouldoverstateenergysavings unrealistically,andasaresult,itwasnotconsideredforthisenergyevaluation.Therewasalsoaversionofthe 2006BurtHillmodelthatincorporatedfulloccupancyprofiles,whichwasalsonotevaluatedforthisreport. ThemodelthatwasmostrelevantforthepurposesofthisenergyevaluationwastheBHKRpartialoccupancy energymodel,whichincorporatedmorerealisticevent/setup/breakdownoccupancyschedules.TheBHKRpartial occupancymodelwascalibratedwith2005/2006DLCCeventsandutilitybilldatainordertoimproveits representationoftheconventioncentersprojectedannualenergyperformance.TheBHKRmodelprojectedthat DLCCwouldutilize16%lessannualenergythananASHRAEStandard90.1AppendixGbaselinemodel(basedon 240averageevents/yearutilization). TheresultsderivedfromcomparingactualDLCCenergyrecordswithaStandardASHRAE90.1baseline buildingmodelappearreasonable.Theresultsarealsoconsistentwithpercentagereductionstypically achievedforenergyefficientprojectswhencomparedtoASHRAEbaselinemodels. Energyusageinthebuildingappearstocorrelateprimarilywiththenumberandtypesofeventsandtoa lesserdegreewiththeweather. DLCCstaffhaveworkeddiligentlytoimproveoperatingproceduresandtoaddressbuildingdeficienciesto reduceannualenergyusage,suchaseventoperationalscripts,centralchillerplantoperationstocompensate forlowloadconditions,aggressiveheatingsetbackprogramsduringnoneventperiods,measurestoreduce buildinginfiltration,aggressivelightinganddaylightingcontrolstrategies,andenvelopeimprovements. TheBHKRenergymodelhadassumedanidealcoefficientofperformance(COP)forthecentralchillerplant. Theplantwassizedtoprovidechilledwaterforaconventioncenterheadquartershotel,whichhasneverbeen constructed.Althoughthechillerplantisoperatedasefficientlyaspossiblegiventheconditions,theplantis notoperatingatitsintendedCOP.CJLappliedacorrectionforthecoefficientofperformancetoaccountfor actualchillerplantperformanceduringthemodelsutilitycalibrationperiod,April2005toMarch2006. DLCCsactualoverallannualenergyconsumptionfor2008,whichserved248events,was20%betterwhen comparedtotheBHKRenergymodelbaselinepredictedenergyusage(theBHKRmodelpredicteda16% energysavingsovertheASHRAE90.1baselineandactualperformancewas4%betterthanthemodels prediction DLCCsactualoverallannualenergyconsumptionfor2008,whichserved248events,was20%betterthanthe BHKRenergymodelsASHRAEbaseline.TheactualbuildingwasperformingbetterthantheBHKRmodel originallypredictedby4%(modelpredictedtheDLCCwouldhave16%energysavings).2009and2010had fewereventsduetoeconomicconditionsandtheimpactoftheG20meeting,approximately180annual

5 6

BurtHillKosarRittelmannAssociates,DavidL.LawrenceConventionCenterEnergyStudy.26July2006. ASHRAE=AmericanSocietyofHeating,Refrigerating,andAirConditioningEngineers 7 CTGEnergetics,Inc,LEEDEnergy&AtmosphereCredit1:OptimizeEnergyPerformanceEnergyCostBudgetAnalysis.23June2003,updated 17September2003.


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events.SinceDLCCenergyusagevariesconsistentlywiththeannualnumberofevents,areducednumberof eventswouldresultinartificiallyinflatedsavingsincomparisontothebaselinemodel.Whenthenumberof eventsfor2009and2010arecalibratedtomatchthe248actualeventsfor2008,theannualenergysavings areconsistentlyover15%incomparisontotheBHKRbaselineenergymodel. DeviationbetweentheenergymodelandactualDLCCperformanceappearsduetovariationsinactualevent usageforlights,fans,equipmentplugloads,andpumpsincomparisontoanidealizedaverageusage representedinanenergymodel.Itisparticularlydifficulttoestimateeventequipmentplugloadvariations fordifferenteventtypes(sincetheDLCChaslittlecontroloverequipmentusedbyexhibitors). ThisanalysishasconcludedthatactualDLCCperformanceisconsistentwiththeBHKRmodelpredictedenergy savingsresults.TheDLCCismeeting,ifnotexceeding,forecastedenergysavingswhencomparedtoan ASHRAE90.12001baseline.

Figure2.1a:ComparisonofDLCCEnergyPerformance20082010ActualandNormalizedvs.2006BHKREnergyModel**withCorrected 6 ChillerPlantCoefficientofPerformance(BTUx10 ) *LFPPLights,Fans,PlugLoad,Pumps **BHKRModelassumesCOP=3.COPcorrectedtoCOP=2.16tomatchhistoricalplantperformance4/05to3/06.

Recommendations EnergyusagerecommendationsarecoveredinSection3.1|BuildingPerformanceEnergyConservationMeasures.

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2.2 Benchmarking | External


Benchmarkinganalysesareaneffectivemethodforunderstandinghowanorganizationcomparestoother organizationsandwhatbestpracticesareinacompetitivemarket.Theprojectteamhasperformedindepth benchmarkingofotherconventioncenterstounderstandhowtheDLCCsgreenperformancecomparestoits competitors,andtoidentifyareasofcompetitiveadvantageandopportunityforimprovement. Findings Theprojectteamhastakenamultitieredapproachgatheringbenchmarkinginformation,andhaspooleddata from6cohorts:SMGfacilities,targetedcompetitorsofinterest,facilitiesthathavesharedperformance informationinEPAsPortfolioManager,facilitiesthatparticipatedintheIAVMs2010Sustainability CommitteeSurvey,facilitieswithindustryleadingwebbasedcommunications,andtheDLCCshistorical performance. Whilethiscasestudyhasmadeastrongattempt,itisverydifficulttofullybenchmarktheconventioncenter energyusebecauseconventioncentershavelargevarianceinspacetypes,usagepatterns,climateand mechanicalsystems.Consequently,thiscasestudyidentifiedtotalBTU/ft2/visitorasthebestmeasurement fortrulycomparingconventioncenterenergyuse. Energybenchmarkingconsistedoftworoutes:(1)adetailedsurveytotheSMGandtargetedcompetitorsof interest,and(2)acomparisontoacohortinENERGYSTARPortfolioManager(PM). o 13facilitiesofvarioussizeandlocationpartiallyorfullyrespondedtoourbenchmarkingrequest.Findings include:theDLCCisperformingrelativelywellintermsofenergyusage(0.102BTU/ft2/visitorin2009, whichis28%belowthecohortaverageof0.141BTU/ft2/visitor),butnotsowellintermsofcost(the DLCCpaid$1.44perft2in2010,whichisapproximately29%higherthantheENERGYSTARPortfolio Managercohortaverage).

WaterbenchmarkingcomparedperformanceamongtheSMGandtargetedcompetitorsofinterest.In2010, theDLCCspotablewaterusagepervisitorwas5.5gallons,75%lowerthanthecohort2009averageof22 gallonspervisitor.In2009,DLCCsusagewas4.4gallonspervisitor,80%lowerthanthecohortaverage.2010 cohortdatawasnotavailable. WastebenchmarkingcomparedperformanceamongtheSMGandtargetedcompetitorsofinterest.The DLCCisperformingverywellintermsofwastemanagementcomparedtoitscohortofsurveytakers. o o DLCCs2009diversionratewas49%16percentagepointsabovecohortaverage. Although2ofthe13conventioncentershadhigherdiversionrates,evidencesuggeststhattheserates arearesultoflessreductionatthesource.These2centersproduced4.7and8.3poundsofwasteper visitor,whichissignificantlyhigherthantheDLCCs1.6poundspervisitor;theyalsoeachlandfilledalmost 1.7poundsofwastepervisitor,morethantwiceasmuchastheDLCCs0.8pounds.

TransportationbenchmarkingcomparedperformanceamongtheSMGandtargetedcompetitorsof interest.45%ofrespondentshademployeealternativetransitincentives.TheDLCCdoesnot. WebBasedCommunicationsbenchmarkingreviewedfacilitieswithindustryleadingwebbased communications.Itfoundthathighperformingconventionfacilitiesnurturedemandforsustainableoptions withearlyengagement,greeneventmenus,andthoroughlydevelopedsustainableserviceprovidernetworks. o Only1facilityoutoftheentirecohortperformscarbonmeasurementandreporting. RenewableEnergybenchmarkingreviewedtheresultsofa2010surveybytheInternationalAssociationof VenueManagers(IAVM)of405eventfacilities(29%ofwhichwereconventioncenters).Itshowsthatmany facilitieshaverenewableenergysystemsinstalled:33%havesolaronroofs,1%havesolarhotwater,3%use hydroelectricpower,and4%havewindpower8.

Mercado,HayleeUecker,comp.2010IAAMSustainabilityCommitteeSurveyResults.Rep.IAAMSustainability&TechnologyTaskForce,2010. Print
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Recommendations TheDLCCshouldfullymarketitsstrengths.Theseincludelowwaterusage,lowlandfilledwastepervisitor,and overallwalkabilityofthefacility.Thoughnotdiscussedpreviouslyhere,theDLCCalsoexcelsatitspursuitof occupantcomfortmeasures,andtheseshouldbepromotedwidely. TheDLCCshouldalsolooktoimproveinareasofweakness.Theseinclude:providingemployeepublic transportationincentives,installingrenewableenergysourcesinvisibleareas,performingindepth communicationsbenchmarkingtofullyunderstandhowtheconventioncenterindustryiscommunicatingits sustainabilityeffortstoeventplanners,andworkingwithitslocalvaluechaintobuildandmarketasustainable networkofproviders(seereportSection7.1|greenfirstReviewformoreinformation).

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3.1 Building Performance | Energy Conservation Measures


TheenergyauditperformedaspartofthiscasestudyprocessisthefirststepindevelopingaDLCCEnergyMaster Plan.TheMasterPlanallowstheSEAtoevaluateandprioritizepotentialEnergyConservationMeasures(ECMs), pursuepotentialfundingsourcessuchasAct129,andschedulepotentialimplementation.Somemeasureswere consideredandeliminatedduringtheevaluationphaseduetocost,technicalcomplications,orpoorreturnon investment(ROI).Recommendedimprovementstothefacilityaresummarizedintheenergyconservationmeasures (ECM)tablebelow(Figure3.1c). Findings Ingeneral,theDLCCsbuildingsystemswereoriginallydesignedtobeenergyefficientandhavebeen diligentlyoperatedbyDLCCstafftominimizeenergyusage.ThefollowingEnergyConservationMeasures primarilyreflecttheintroductionofnewmoreefficienttechnologiessincetheoriginalbuildingwas constructed,suchasLEDlighting,aswellasretrofitsthataddresswearandtearafteralmost10yearsof operation.BecausetheDLCCdoesntcurrentlyhavesubmeteringthatisadequatetofullyunderstandthe detailsofongoingperformanceandutilityusage,datafrom1yearwastakenasabenchmark.Wherepossible thisreportattemptstoaveragedataovermultipleyearstoavoidanomalies. ToassesstheDLCCscurrentperformanceandpossibleareasforimprovement,theteam: o o o o o reviewedmonthlyenergyutilitybillsfor2008,2009,and2010; attendedmultipleDLCCeventstoobserveoperations; surveyedandinventoriedmajorbuildingsystems; mappedenergyusagebyarea,includingexhibithalls,meetingrooms,ballroom,andparkinggarage; used2009asarepresentativeyearbecauseagreaterlevelofeventdetailswereavailable.

Buildingsystemsreviewedincludedairhandlingsystems;pumps;buildingautomationsystem(BAS)controls; naturalventilation;chillerplant;steamheatingsystem;interiorandexteriorlighting;kitchenequipment; conveyancesystems;IT/AVsystems;blackwatertreatment;waterfeature;andservicehotwater.Inaddition, renewableenergyopportunitieswereidentifiedforpotentialfutureimplementation. AssummarizedinSection2.1,whencomparedtothecalibrated2005/2006BurtHillKosarRittelman(BHKR) ASHRAEStandard90.1AppendixGbaselineenergymodel9,theDLCCisperforming15%20%better10foryears 2008,2009,and2010.Thispercentageof energyefficiencyperformanceisconsistent withtheperformanceoriginallyprojectedby themodel(16%). Foryears20082010,approximately27 30%oftheDLCCstotalannualenergyusage issteamforheatingand7073%is electricityusage.Inaddition,HVACsystem operations(heating,cooling,ventilation, fans,pumps)represent55%(in2009)of annualtotalDLCCenergyuse.Interiorand exteriorlightingsystemsrepresent19%of annualtotalDLCCelectricalenergyuse. Figure3.1a:EnergyBreakdown2009 Thesetwoareaswereidentifiedasthe greatestopportunitiestoimproveenergyperformance.SeeFigure3.1afortotalenergyandelectricalusage breakdownsfor2009. DuetotheeventdrivennatureofDLCCenergyuse,in2009approximately34%ofelectricityuseisdirectly associatedwithevents,exhibition,andmeetingactivities.

9 10

BurtHillKosarRittelmannAssociates,DavidL.LawrenceConventionCenterEnergyStudy.26July2006. Whennormalizedforannualnumberofevents.
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Onaverage,theDLCCsannualenergyuseisequivalentto0.102BTU/ft2/visitor/year.Especiallyinthe conventionindustry,BTU/ft2/visitor/yearisanimportantmeasurebecauseitprovidesacrossfacility benchmark.AsshowninFigure3.1b,comparedtothecohortof13facilitiessurveyedforthisanalysis,the DLCCisbelowaverageinitsenergyuse.

Figure3.1b:BTU/SquareFoot/Visitor/YearforSurveyedConventionCenterCohort

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Recommendations ECMsrecommendedforfurtherconsiderationbytheDLCCaresummarizedbelow.
PotentialECMs NaturalVentilation LouverRepairs BASandControls CorrectiveAction ChillerShutDownin WinterMonths [IDF/MDF] CapacitorforPower FactorCorrection ParkingGarageLighting Upgrades InternalCCLighting Upgrades WaterFeatureLighting Annual Energy Savings 1,8632,262 MMBTU 3,783 MMBTU 550,000 650,000kWh n/a 192,002 kWh 521,605 kWh 528,528 kWh %oftotal2009 annualenergy usage 2.6%3.3% 5.5% Estimated AnnualUtility Savings $54,000 $65,000 $94,000 O+M Savings n/a n/a InitialCost $100,000 11 $150,000 $250,000 $400,000 $150,100
12

Payback(yrs) 23 2.54.5

2.7%3.2%

$55,000 $65,000 $84,000 $18,298 $49,709 $50,369

n/a

23

n/a 1.0% 2.4% 2.6%

n/a $5,367 $2,400 $42,680

$305,000 $155,955 $335,943 $725,663

3.6 6.2 6.8 7.7

Figure3.1c:RecommendedEnergyConservationMeasures

TheSEAhaselectedtoproceedimmediatelywiththeimplementationofseveraloftheECMs,includingthe backofhousecorridor,stairwell,loadingdocklightingretrofitsandwinterchillershutdownwith independentMainDistributionFrame/IntermediateDistributionFrame(MDF/IDF)roomdedicatedcooling units.ThesetwoECMsareestimatedtoresultinapotentialannualelectricalenergyreductionofover1 MillionkWhsorapproximately7%ofannualelectricaluse. DLCCisalsoimplementingNaturalVentilationdamperrepairinadvanceofthispeakheatingseason,which willreduceannualheatingenergylossesbyanestimated10%,equalto$54,000$65,000annualheatingcosts. TheSEAwilldevelopamoredetailedBASretrofit/upgradeplaninthenearfuture. TheSEAiscurrentlyintheprocessofevaluatingParkingGarageLEDlightingalternatives,waterfeature lightingLEDfixturereplacements,ballroomLEDlampreplacements,andexhibithalllampupgrades. Duringthecourseoftheelectricalenergysurvey,itwasalsodiscoveredthatDLCCwassubjecttoexcessive utilityPowerFactorcharges,whichareduetothenatureofthebuildingsmajorequipmentandtheirelectric powercharacteristics.TheSEAelectedtoproceedwithanextensiveengineeringstudyandtheinstallationof aPowerFactorCorrectionCapacitor,whichremediatedtheutilitylevelinefficienciesandtheresultant charges.Thisinstallationwillresultinannualutilitysavingsofapproximately$84,000.Section3.6|Power FactorCorrectioncoverstheDLCCspowerfactorcorrectionindetail. AnnualheatingenergyrepresentssignificantcostsfortheDLCC.TheSEAshouldcontinuetheireffortsto minimizethermallossesandmonitorcurrentandfuturePACTsteamcosts,inconsiderationofalternative energyoptionstominimizesteamusageandlowersteamcostsasoptionsmaybecomeavailable. Aspartofthisanalysis,ECMsthatwerenotrecommendedincludedwatersidefreecooling,heatrecoverycoils intheballroomairhandlingunit,andtheinstallationofvariablefandrivesonhallsupplyfans.Ingeneral,they wereconsideredtobelessthancosteffective.Moredetailedexplanationsonthedecisionstoexcludethese ECMsfromcurrentconsiderationareprovidedinSection3.2|HVACandControls.

11&12

Estimatedimplementationcostin2011dollars.Doesnotincludecontingenciesordesignfees.

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3.2 Building Performance | HVAC and Controls


TheanalysisreviewedtheDLCCsexistingHVACsystems,BuildingAutomationSystem(BAS),andsystemoperating procedurestoidentifypotentialopportunitiestosaveadditionalenergy,improvethermalperformance,and optimizesystemefficiencies.Theteamevaluated20082010utilitybills,recordsofoperatingandperformance data,andpreviousenergymodelstoidentifypatternsofenergyuse.Theteamobservedthebuildinginuseduring severalevents,aswellassetupandbreakdowndays,inbothheatingandcoolingseasons.Systemsevaluated includedmajorairhandlingunits,theBASandtemperaturecontrols,naturalventilation,chillerplantactivity,PACT steamusage,andkitchenandservicehotwater.

Findings TheDLCCsEnergyUtilizationIndex(BTU/ft2/yr)usagefor years20082010canbefoundinFigure3.2a.For comparison,typicallargeofficebuildingscanbeintherange of50,000100,000BTU/ft2/yr. Becauseoftheuniquenatureofeveryconventioncenter event,itismoreeffectiveandefficientfortheDLCC 2 Figure3.2a:DLCCEnergyUtilizationIndex(BTU/ft /YR) engineeringstafftousetheBuildingAutomationSystem (BAS)inasemiautomatic/manualmodetooperatethe buildingforeachevent.TheDLCCengineeringandeventmanagementstaffcreateresumesforeachevent, whichidentifyschedules,areasinuse(suchasballroom,exhibithallsandmeetingrooms,aswellascorridors, verticaltransportandprefunction/receptionareas),lightinganddaylightingrequirements,powerforexhibitor equipmentloads,andheating/coolingsetpoints. TheDLCCengineeringstaffusetheeventresumerequirementstosettheIndoorEnvironmentalConditionsfor eacheventandthenmanually/semiautomaticallyusetheBAStoturnonappropriatesystemstomeetthe IndoorEnvironmentalConditions.Atthesametime,theDLCCengineeringstaffdiligentlykeepHVAC,lighting, kitchen,waterfeatureandtransportsystemsoffortoaminimumforareasnotinuseforanevent,during eventsetupandbreakdowndays,andduringnoneventdaystoreduceoverallenergyconsumption. CJLobservedthatDLCCengineeringstaffhavemadenumerousefforts,suchasplacingplasticsheetingover escalatorflooropenings,toreduceairinfiltrationthroughthebuilding,particularlyinwinter.BasedonaCJL recommendation,theyalsocloseblackoutshadesinthewinterinanefforttoreduceheatlossesthroughroof glazingandtoreducesolarcoolingloadsonwarmdays. CJLobservedthatduringsetupandbreakdowndays,loadingdockgaragedoorstypicallyremainopenfor extendedperiodsasequipmentandvehiclesmovebackandforthfromtheloadingdock/utilitycorridorinto exhibithallareas.Thisresultsinsignificantinfiltrationofuntreatedoutsideair,particularlyinthecoldestand warmestoutdoorconditions. CJLobservedmanyoftheDLCCHVACsystemsinoperationinordertoevaluateexistingconditions,control sequences,andperformance.Itwasnotedthatmanycontrolsanddamperactuatorsareoutofcalibration andalignment,whichleadstooverallcontrollabilityandenergyperformanceinefficiencies. TheoriginaldesignoftheDLCCHVACsystemsforareasotherthantheexhibithallsincludelowtemperature coolingprimarysupplyairanddedicatedoutsideairsystems,workinginconjunctionwithFanPoweredVAV boxesorsinglezoneAirHandlerUnits.LowtemperatureHVACsystemsuselowertemperaturechilledwater thanistypicallyprovidedforcooling.Sincethesamecoolingeffectcanbeaccomplishedwithlesswater, pumpingenergyisreduced.Atthesametime,HVACairhandlingsystemscanbesizedsmallerwithreduced airflowandsmallerductworktomeetcoolingloads,whichinturnresultsinreducedfanenergy.Thenet resultisthatwhilethecentralplantworksalittlehardertoproducecolderchilledwater,becauseofpumping andfanenergysavings,theoverallsystemuseslessenergy. Duringwinter/fall/springmonths,whentemperaturesfallbelowapproximately40F,theDedicatedOutdoor AirHVACsystemscanpotentiallyuseoutdoorairinlieuofcentralplantchilledwatertoenablefreecooling.

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Thecentralchillerplantwassizedinanticipationoftheadditionofaconventioncenterheadquartershotel, whichhasnotbeenconstructed.SeveralHVACsystemsintheconventioncenterweredesignedassuming thatthechillerplantwouldbeinoperationthroughouttheyearbecauseofhotelloadrequirements.The centralplantcurrentlyoperates24/7/365toprovidechilledwaterforrelativelysmallloadsintheconvention center,inparticulartheIT/AVequipmentloadslocatedinMainDistributionFrame/IntermediateDistribution Frame(MDF/IDF)equipmentrooms,whichresultsinsignificantplantoperationalandenergyinefficiencies. Duringnoneventdarkdays,theDLCCengineeringstaffturnofflights,HVACsystems,escalators,etc.to minimizeenergyconsumption.Thespacetemperaturesinunoccupiedareas,suchastheexhibithallsare allowedtodriftupordown.TheHVACsystemsremainoffduringexhibithalleventsetupandbreakdown days,sometimeswithdiscomfortfortheexhibitors.ThestaffwillengagetheNaturalVentilationsystem duringtheseperiodstoprovidesomecoolingandairmovement. Theballroomairhandlingunitshaveanissuewithsupplyairshortcircuitingtothereturnairpath.Ona June2010surveythefollowingconditionswereobservedviatheBuildingAutomationSystem(BAS) colorgraphics:Undernormaloperations,thereturnairtemperatureisequivalenttotheroomtemperature withafewaddeddegreesfortheheatoflights,peopleandequipment.However,inthisinstance,thereturn airtemperaturewasatleast12Fcolderthantheroombelow,indicatingthatasignificantpercentageof supplyairwasgoingdirectlytothereturnairstreamwithouthavinganyimpactontheroombelow.This conditionoftencausestheoperatorstoruntheairhandlingunitsatexaggeratedcoolingtemperaturesin ordertoprovidesatisfactoryconditionsinthespacebelow.Supplydiffuserchangestopunchtheairdown lowerintothespacearehamperedbytheneedtoavoiddraftsandmaintainoccupantcomfort. Theballroomalsopresentedanopportunitytoevaluateheatrecoverybecauseoftheproximityofthe outdoorairandexhaust/reliefairductwork.Thefourballroomairhandlingunitsshareacommonoutdoorair supplyductandacommonexhaust/reliefduct.However,thepartialoccupancy(figuredat1040hoursper year)utilizationofthespaceandincreasedstaticpressureconcernsand modificationsresultedinanunacceptablepaybackperiod. Theexhibithallsexperiencesignificantstackeffect,inwhichwarm conditionedairbecomesmorebuoyant,risestowardstheexhibithall roofpeaks,andexfiltratesfromthetopofthebuilding.Thewarmair exhaustingfromthebuildingcausesunconditionedoutsideairtobe drawninthroughlowerlevelbuildingopenings,suchasloadingdock andlobbydoors.Inorderforstackeffecttooccur,theremustbe uncontrolledopeningsatthetopofthebuilding,whichcaninclude leakydampersorpoorwallandwindowseals.BasedonCJLs observation,stackeffectrepresentsasignificantadditionalheatingload fortheDLCCinwinter.ItwasdeterminedbyCJLthroughphysical inspectionattheexhibithallroofpeaksthatthenaturalventilation dampersareleakingandwereprovidingtheexfiltrationairpath. Damperseals,actuators,rods,anddamperbladeshavebeenimpacted bysnowandicebuildup.

TheDLCCsHVACsystems(includingPACTsteam,chillerplant,HVACfans, andpumps)accountfor55%ofthetotalDLCCannualenergyuseand38%ofthetotalelectricity(basedon 2009)onanannualbasis.In2009,heatingrepresentedapproximately50%oftheDLCCsHVACsystemenergy consumptionandthechillerplantrepresented20%(SeeFigure3.2b). Thenaturalventilationsystemresultsinanestimatedaverageannualenergysavingsof333,000KWH,which representsapproximately6%ofannualHVACelectricalusage,15%of2009annualcoolingplantelectrical energy,andapproximately2.53%ofoverallannualHVACenergyusage(basedon2009utilityfigures includingheating,cooling,andHVACequipment).Thenaturalventilationsystemisoftenusedtoimprove conditioningforsetupandteardowndays,whenmechanicalconditioningisnotinuse.

Figure3.2b:HVACEnergyConsumption,2009

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Recommendations CJLevaluatedmultiplewintercoolingoptions,includingasmallaircooledchiller,watersideeconomizerfree coolingandindividuallocalcoolingunitsfortheMDF/IDFequipmentrooms.BasedonCJLsevaluationof wintereventsandoperationalrequirements,thelocalcoolingunitsprovidedthemostcosteffectivesolution. DLCCisaddingindividualcoolingunitstoservetheIT/AVequipmentintheMDF/IDFrooms,whichwillallow forafullchillerplantshutdowninthewintermonths.TheshutdownwillsavetheDLCCanestimated550,000 650,000kWhannually,whichtranslatestoanaverageannualcostsavingsof$55,000$65,000.Basedonan installedcostof$150,100,thisrepresentsapproximatelya23yearsimplepayback.Thewintershutdown providesmaintenanceandoperationalbenefitsaswell. Thenaturalventilationdamperslocatedatthetopoftheexhibithallroofshouldberetrofittedtoreduceair leakageandstackeffectlossesinheatingseason.Heatingenergylossesareestimatedat$54,000$65,000 and1,8632,262MMBTUperyear,whichrepresentsapproximately10%oftheannualheatingenergyusage. BasedonCJLfieldobservations,itisrecommendedthatDLCCconsiderupgradingandretrocommissioningof theBASsystem,controls,sensors,meters,actuators,etc.,toenableimprovedbuildingHVACsystemcontrol andperformance,naturalventilation,heatingandchillerplantcontrol.After10yearsofoperation,theBAS technologyisseveralgenerationsoutofdateandthecontrolsareoutofcalibrationandalignment.Additional submeteringshouldbeconsideredtoimproveDLCCsabilitytobreakoutandtrackdetailedenergyusagefor lighting,HVAC,exhibithalls,watertreatment,etc.ThisBASupgradeisestimatedtocostintherangeof $250,000to$400,000,dependingontheextentoftheretrofit.Itisestimatedthatthisupgradecouldreduce theDLCCstotalenergyconsumptionby5.5%(or$94,000annually)fora2.5to4.5yearpayback. PerCJLsrecommendation,thedaylightingblackoutshadesfortheexhibithallsareclosedduringcold weather,particularlyatnight,toreduceheatlossesthrutheroofglazing. DLCCisevaluatinghighspeedgaragedoorsintheexhibithallsfromloadingdockandutilitycorridortoreduce heatingandcoolinglossesandstackeffectcontributionsduringheatingseason.DLCCshouldalsoevaluateair curtainsasapotentialalternative,sincetheywouldallowtrafficthroughthedoorswhilekeepinginfiltration toaminimum. DLCCshouldevaluateheatingseasonsetbacktemperaturesinlieuofexhibithallsystemshutdownduring noneventdaysthatoccurduringthecoldestwinterdays.Duringextendedcoldspells,thebuildingmass servesasacoldthermalstoragemass,whichcausesoccupantdiscomfortandmayoffsetenergysavings realizedbykeepingsystemsoff.Thisapproachmaymaintainmoremoderatesetbacktemperaturesand minimizetemperatureswings,whichwillavoidhighheatingdemandspikestorecoverthespaceforevents. DLCCshouldevaluatenightpurgeeconomizeroperationstoprecooltheeventhallsandmeetingrooms duringappropriateambient(coolanddry)conditions.Thisapproachusestheconcretefloorsasthermal massstoragetoprecooltheeventspacespriortooccupancy.

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3.3 Building Performance | Lighting


Inordertoquantifytheelectricalusageofsystemsandtoidentifypotentialenergysavingmeasures,thisanalysis assessedtheDLCCsexistinglightingandlightingcontrols.Todeterminetheimpactofpotentialretrofitsand upgrades,theteamcomparedexistingDLCClightingsystemstoproposedupgradesintermsoflightlevels,cost, andenergyusage.Manyoftheproposedupgradesarenewtechnologiesthatwerenotavailableduringthe originalconstruction. Findings In2009,lightingsystemsused26%ofannualelectricityand19%ofannualtotalenergy(electricityandsteam) attheDLCC.Figure3.3ashowsusagebyspaceforthe2009calendaryear.Theproportionusedbyeach buildingareaisvariablebasedonthenumberofeventsinagivenyear. Existinglightingfixtureswereinventoriedandphotometricallyaccuratelightingmodelsweredevelopedto identifypotentialimprovementstolighting efficiencyandperformance,andtoreduce maintenance. Theanalysisevaluatedlightingpower densities(watts/SF),usagepatterns,and potentialareasforlamp/fixture replacements. Inordertomodelanddemonstrateproposed lightlevelandqualitychanges,replacement lampsandfixturesweretestedwithmockup demonstrationsandlightingmodels. Existingincentiveprogramsandpaybacks wereincludedinfeasibilityanalyses. Figure3.3a:LightingEndUseConsumption,2009 Generally,themostcosteffectiveapproach toupgradeDLCClightingsystems(forcostandenergyreduction)islampreplacementwithnewtechnologies (i.e.,reducedwattagelamps,lightemittingdiodes(LEDs),etc.).

Recommendations LightingRecommendationscanbefoundinFigure3.3bonthenextpage.

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DLCCLighting Lampor System/Location Fixture Replacement? ServingCorridors Lamp PrefunctionArea Lamp LinearDirect CeilingLights PrefunctionArea Lamp WallWashers ExhibitHallsAC Lamp Downlights ExhibitHallsAC Lamp Arches UtilityCorridor Ballroom c Stairwells LoadingDock ParkingGarage d Lighting WaterFeature
c d c

InitialCost Calculated Annual Electricity Savings $2,990 $5,093 $2,534 $4,315

Calculated Annual Energy Reduction (kWh) 26,589 45,282

%Reduction Payback e (Years)

Payback InitialCost a withAct Differential 129Credits e (Years) 0.55 0.55 $810 $1,379

Paybackof InitialCost Differential a,e (Years) 0.32 0.32

Paybackof ACT129 InitialCost Credit Differential Eligibility withAct129 a,e Credits (Yrs) ** ** 6/kWh 6/kWh

Potential Act129 Cost Savings $1,595 $2,717

22% 22%

1.18 1.18

$748 $810 $32,423 $23,962 $57,400 $23,606 $76,852 $155,955 $725,663 $112,059

$189 $176 $4,773 $5,499 $8,896 $5,161 $12,545 $18,298 $50,369 $5,621

1,982 1,847 50,086 57,698 93,346 54,156 131,633 192,002 528,528 58,986

19% 21% 9% 58% 71% 37% 52% 60% 86% 64%

3.96 4.60 6.79 4.36 5.08 4.57 6.13 6.19 7.80 19.93

3.33 3.97 6.16 3.37 4.59 4.09 4.66 5.88 7.46 16.82

$195 $216 $10,544 $23,805 $45,920 $22,542 $76,280 $150,335 $714,553 $111,279

1.03 1.23 2.21 4.33 4.07 4.37 6.08 6.04 7.68 19.80

0.40 0.60 1.58 3.34 3.57 3.88 4.61 5.73 7.34 16.69

6/kWh 6/kWh 6/kWh $123.00per fixture 6/kWh $16.50per occsensor $133.50per fixture 6/kWh 6/kWh

$119 $111 $3,005 $5,412 $5,601 $2,508 $18,423 $11,520 $31,712

Lamp Lamp Fixture Fixture Fixture Fixture

ExhibitHallsD& Fixture E

$103.00per $17,484 fixture

Figure3.3b:LightingRecommendations Notes: aTheinitialcostdifferentialindicatesthedifferenceincostbetweentheproposedlightingupgradeandmaintenance/relampingcostsfortheexistinglighting. bTheinitialcostlistedisformaterialsonlyanddoesNOTincludethecostassociatedwithcontractormarkuporlaborforinstallation,unlessotherwisenoted. cThecostassociatedwithcontractormarkupandlabor/installationisincludedforthisproposedupgrade. dAnnualsavingsinoperations/maintenancecostsarealsoincludedinthispaybackcalculation. eTheutilityrateusedforthesecalculationsis$0.0953perkWh.RefertosupportingmaterialsinfullreportandLightingAppendix2forpaybackcalculationsusingvariedutilityrates.

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3.4 Building Performance | Commissioning Review


ThisanalysiscomparedtheDLCCscurrentperformancetoitsoriginalLEEDdesignandconstructioncriteria,with specialattentiontothebuildingsfinalcommissioningreport.13Severalrecommendationsfromtheoriginal commissioningreportmaystillbeapplicabletosupportcurrentoperationalimprovementeffortsandtheDLCCs LEEDEBOMpursuit. Findings AsbuiltdrawingsandthecommissioningreportwerereviewedtodeterminetheDLCCsHVACsystemdesign intent,HVACscheduledperformance,capabilitiesandcapacitiesofinstalledsystems,andperformanceissues identifiedbytheinitialcommissioningeffort.TheDLCCscurrentoperationwascomparedtothese documentsviaonsiteobservations. TheDLCCisstillexperiencingsymptomsreflectiveofissuesdocumentedbythefinalcommissioningreport. TheDLCCsbuildingautomationsystem(BAS)isexperiencingsomeoperationalissues.ToovercomeBAS softwareshortcomings,DLCCoperatorsundertakesignificantmanualadjustment. Additionally,BASsensorreadingshavealargenumberofinconsistencyissues,indicatingthatsensordataused forcontroldecisionmakingmaynotbeaccurate. Itislikelythatinadditiontosensorinconsistencies,HVACsystemairflowsareoutofbalance. TheDLCCssignaturenaturalventilationsystemreducesannualenergycosts,butitsdampersattheexhibit hallroofpeakhavesignificantleakageissues.TheDLCCsnaturalventilationsystemisdiscussedingreater detailinSection3.5. Duringlowandpartialloadconditions,theDLCCschilledwaterplantexperiencespoorkW/tonperformance. Theengineeringstaffworkaroundthelowloadconditionstotheextentpossible,buttheadditionofan adjoiningconventioncenterheadquartershotelservedbythechillerplantwouldincreaseefficiencies. SeveralDLCCspaceshaveperformanceissuesuniquetothespaceorinstalledsystems,includingairflowand airvolumeissues,airflowshortcircuiting,reheatcapabilities,andparallelsignalingtounits.

Recommendations RecommendationslistedherearesimilarinscopetoBuildingAutomationSystem(BAS)retrofitandupgrades presentedundertheHVACandControlssection. DLCCsdefectiveoroutofcalibrationBASterminaldevicesshouldberepairedorreplaced.Thedevices shouldhaveapointtopointcheckoutandberecommissioned,recalibrated,andrebalanced. Existingdirectdigitalcontrol(DDC)panelsshouldbereprogrammedtomorecloselyreflecttheDLCCs operationalneeds. TheDLCCsexistingBASnetworklevelcontrollersshouldevaluatepotentialreplacementwithnewcontrollers thatsupportwebaccess.TheDLCCBAScomputerinterfaceshouldbereplacedwithanewwebbased colorgraphicspackage.TheimprovedmanmachineinterfacewouldenhancetheoverallBASandHVAC systemsperformance,improveengineeringstaffoperationalefficiencies,andimproveenergyefficiency. Inanefforttocontinuetoimproveontheoriginaldesignintent,reduceenergyuse,andtoprovidehealthy, comfortableindoorspaces,theDLCCshouldalsoconsiderperiodicscheduledrecommissioningand rebalancingofHVACsystemsandassociatedcontrols. HVACandBASretrainingsessionsshouldbeconsideredtohelprefreshtheDLCCoperationsstaffregarding designintentandsystemoperationalcapabilities.

13

DavidL.LawrenceConventionCenter:CommissioningFinalReport,BurtHillProject99010.00,November2004,BurtHillRittelman Associates.
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Lightinganddaylightharvestingcontrolsystemsorupgradesshouldalsobeevaluatedtodetermine whethernewcontroltechnologieswouldprovideenhancedlightingsystemperformanceandenergy efficiencytracking.

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3.5 Building Performance | Natural Ventilation


ThearchitecturalintegrationoftheDLCCsnaturalventilationsystemcontinuestobeoneoftheDLCCssignature elements.Outdoorairlouversontheriversideofthebuildingbringoutdoorairdirectlyintotheexhibithallfloor levels.Exhaustlouversatthepeakoftheslopedroofintheexhibithallsenableanaturalchimneyeffecttodraw airintothehalls,whichthenexhaustsatthetopofthehalls.NaturalventilationisoperatedbyDLCCengineering staffasasemimanualprocessbasedontheirjudgmentofappropriateoutdoorconditionsandcoincidentevent schedules.Theseconditionstypicallyoccurinspringandfallseasonswhenoutdooraircanprovidecoolingwithout theassistanceofthecentralcoolingplant. Findings TheCJLteamevaluatedDLCCasbuiltdrawingsandtheoriginalCTGenergymodelfortheDLCCsnatural ventilation(NV)systemfordesignintent,intendedoperation,andestimatedsavings.Additionally,thenatural ventilationsystemsoperationsandequipmentconditionswereobservedduringeventsandarepresentative sampleofNVdamperswasexaminedtodetermineoperationalefficacy.Figure3.5belowillustratesthe operationsoftheNVsystem.

Figure3.5a:NaturalVentilationSchematic

Whilelimitedsubmeteringdidnotallowdirectmeasurementofenergysavings,CJLreviewednatural ventilationlogskeptbyDLCCstaff,conductedinterviewswithengineeringstaff,andobservedmultipleevent operationstodevelopestimatesofnaturalventilationuse,controlstrategies,andeffectivenessforvarious eventandnoneventperiods.BasedonCJLsobservations,itisestimatedthattheNVsystemisoperated between100225eventhoursperyear,dependingonthecoincidenceofappropriateoutdoorconditions andeventschedules.CJLhasestimatedthat200eventhoursrepresentapproximately333,000kWhinannual coolingplantandfansystemenergysavings.Thisisequivalenttoapproximately$32,000inelectricutility savingsandrepresentsapproximately13%ofannualcoolingplantenergyconsumption. BasedontheexperienceofthestaffoperatingtheDLCCHVACsystemsoverthelastfewyears,itwas determinedthatthenaturalventilationsystemcanbeoperatedinawiderbandoftemperaturesthanwas originallyrecommendedbythedesignteam.TheoriginalCTGenergymodelsuggestedthatnatural ventilationcouldbeusedeffectivelywhenoutdoortemperatureswereinarangefrom48oto58oFahrenheit (F).However,DLCCsystemoperatorshaveextendedthenaturalventilationsystemoperationalrangefrom 45oto64oF.Thisresultsinadditionalcoolingplantandfanenergysavings.Thesystemisalsoutilizedduring eventsetupsandteardowntoincreasethevendorcomfort.Theeventhallsarenotconditionedduring thesetimesbecausethelargeaccessdoorsbetweenthehallsandtheloadingdockdoorsareopentothe outsideconditions. AnecdotalexperienceandmeasuredairqualitytestsindicatethattheDLCCsnaturalventilationsystemalso providesindoorairqualitybenefitsintermsofreducedCO2andvolatileorganiccompounds(VOC)levelsin theexhibithalls. Theexhibithallsexperiencesignificantchimneyeffectduringtheheatingseason,whichrepresentsthesame thermalprinciplesasnaturalventilation,exceptthatitisunintentional.Warmconditionedairinthehall

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becomesbuoyant,risestowardstheexhibithallroofpeaks,andexfiltratesfromthetopofthebuilding.The warmairexhaustingfromthebuildingcausesunconditionedcoldoutsideairtobedrawninthroughlower levelbuildingopenings,suchasloadingdockandlobbydoors.Inorderforstackeffecttooccur,theremustbe uncontrolledopeningsatthetopofthebuilding,whichcanincludeleakydampersorpoorwall/windowseals. BasedonCJLsobservation,stackeffectrepresentsasignificantadditionalheatingloadfortheDLCCinwinter. ItwasdeterminedbyCJLthroughphysicalinspectionattheexhibithallroofpeaksthatthenaturalventilation dampersareleakingandwereprovidingtheexfiltrationairpath. CJLconductedafieldinspectionofNVexhaustdamperslocatedatthepeakoftheexhibithallroof,together withDLCCengineeringandfacilitiespersonnel.Asignificantportionofthenaturalventilationdampersthat wereobservedduringtheinspection(62%ofthoseobserved)displayedproblemsthatcontributetoair leakagelossesdamperseals,actuators,rods,anddamperbladeshavebeenimpactedbysnowandice buildup.Exfiltrationofwarmairfromtheleakyexhibithallroofdamperswouldcauseachimneyeffect, whichwoulddrawunconditionedcoldairintotheDLCCbuildingthroughdoors,loadingdockdoors,andother leakydampers.IncreasedDLCCsteamheatingutilitycostsresultingfromdamperleakageareestimatedtobe inarangeofapproximately$3060,000annually. CJLwasnotabletoinspecttheNVintakelouvers/damperslocatedontheFortDuquesneBlvdsideofthe exhibithalls.Theyshouldalsobeinspectedforproperfunctionandpotentialleakage.

Recommendations Defectivenaturalventilationsystemcomponentsandterminaldevicesshouldberepairedorreplacedinorder toreducesteamheatingutilitylosses.Repairsorreplacementsshouldbeconfiguredandspecifiedsothat theyareeasytomaintain(e.g.,easytoaccessand/oroperatewelldependingonwheretheyarelocatedon thebuilding). SincemanypartsoftheDLCCsnaturalventilationsystemneedtoworkinconcerttobeeffective,ongoing preventivemaintenance,pointtopointcheckoutsandregularlyscheduledrecommissioningofthenatural ventilationsystemcontrolsshouldbeconsideredtoensureongoingsavingsfromitsuse.

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3.6 Building Performance | Power Factor Correction


Powerfactorrepresentstheefficiencyofabuildingspowerrequirementsfromtheutilitiesstandpoint.Power factorinabuildingisnotameasureofenergyefficiency.Powerfactorisimpactedbythetypesandcombinations ofelectricalloadsfrombuildingsystemsandequipment,includingfluorescentlights,largemotors(chillers,pumps, fans,escalators,elevators,etc.).Itisnotunusualforlargecommercial,institutionalandindustrialbuildingsto haveloworlessefficientpowerfactors. Findings Inanelectricpowersystem,aloadwithlowpowerfactordrawsmorecurrentthanaloadwithahighpower factorforthesameamountofusefulpowertransferred(i.e.,alossofefficiencyfromtheutilitystandpoint). Thehighercurrentsincreasetheenergylostinthedistributionsystem,andrequirelargerwiresandother equipmenttodeliverthesameamountofpower.Becauseofthecostsoflargerequipmentandwasted energy,electricalutilitieswillusuallychargeahighercost(DuquesneLightCompanycallsitapowerfactor multiplier)toindustrialorcommercialcustomerswherethereisalowerpowerfactor. DuringthecourseofevaluatingDLCCenergyperformance,CJLnotedthattheDLCCsutilitybillsfrom2008 through2010includedmonthlypowerfactormultiplier(PFM)chargesrangingfrom1.16to1.45times demandcharges.ThesefeesresultinincreasedannualutilitycoststoDLCCatanaverageof$84,000peryear (for2011utility rates,$7.53/kW). Thepowerfactorofanelectricpowersystemisdefinedastheratiooftherealpowerflowingtotheloadto theapparentpowerinthecircuit.Ideally,thepowerfactormultiplieris1.0,butitisverycommonforittobe 1.2orhigherinlargecommercialandindustrialbuildings. UnderstandingandcorrectingthepowerfactorforabuildingofthesizeandcomplexityoftheDLCCrequires rigorousengineeringanalysis.Powerfactoranalysisandcorrectionistypicallynotdoneatthebeginningofa buildingsoperations,becausethepowerfactorprofiledoesnotbecomeclearuntilthebuildingbeginsto operateconsistentlyoverseveralyears. Five(5)fieldinvestigationswereundertakenfromOctober2010throughJanuary2011toachievethe conclusionsdetailedinthesupportingmaterialsprovidedinthefullreport. Thelargescalecapacityandhighvoltageofthecapacitormadethisafairlyuniqueproject,requiring considerableengineeringeffortonthepartofDLCCelectriciansandstaff,DuquesneLightCompany,CJL Engineeringandthecapacitormanufacturestofigureouthowtointegratethehighvoltagecapacitorsinto theDLCCinfrastructuretoensurethatthecorrectionbenefitswouldbeachieved,whileavoidingrisksof substantialdisruptionstoDLCCoperations,risktopersonnelsafety,andpotentialdamagetoDLCCelectrical infrastructure. Previously,DLCChadinstalledanumberofsmallercapacitorsinanefforttoaddresssomeofthepowerfactor issues. Tocorrectthepowerfactorpenalties,twonewhighvoltage,largescalecapacitorswereinstalledinAugustof 2011toeliminateDuquesneLightspowerfactormultipliereachmonththroughouttheyear.Thisstateof thearttechnologyhasbeencustomizedtomeettheDLCCselectricaloperatingcharacteristics.The capacitorsareworkingtoreduceDLCCutilitycosts,andatthesametime,willalsoimproveDuquesneLight Companysgenerationefficiencies. CapacitorinstallationontheDLCCstwo4,160voltelectricallinesshouldresultinanaverageannualutility savingsof$84,000/yearat2011demandrates($7.530/kW).

Recommendations

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3.7 Building Performance| Renewable Energy


Renewableenergytechnologiescanpotentiallygenerateelectricalpowerforbuildinguse,whilehelpingtoreduce fossilfueluseandGreenhouseGas(GHG)emissions.Renewabletechnologies,incombinationwithFederaland Stateincentiveprograms,arebecomingmoreaffordablesolutionsforreducingenergycostswhilealsoreducing buildingowner/operatorriskandfutureexposuretoenergypricefluctuations.Theteamevaluatedfourpotential typesofrenewables(photovoltaics,solarhotwater,windturbines,andwaterturbines),includingtechnologies, incentives,siteconditions,andappropriatematchingofloadsandgenerationcapacities. Findings Multiplerenewabletechnologieswereevaluatedforenergygenerationperformance,cost,constructabilityand ReturnonInvestment(ROI). Photovoltaics(PV) TheDLCChassouthfacingroofexposureforPVinstallation,butareasappropriateforPVsmaybeshadowed byadjacentbuildings.TheflatsectionofthelargerroofareafacingAlleghenyRiver,andthebalconyviewing area(asashadeprovider)providegoodpotentiallocationsforPV. TheDLCChasaconsistent24/7baseelectricload,whichmeansthatalloftheenergyproducedbythePVs wouldbeconsumedbythebuilding.ThisenablesthemostcosteffectivePVsystemconfiguration. CurrentlyPVsystemcostsareatahistoriclowpoint,whilePVpanelenergyproductionefficienciesare improving.Additionally,incentiveprogramsareavailabletohelpoffsetinitialPVcapitalcosts. TheDLCChas22electrichotwatertanks(50gallon)servingthetoiletroomclusterslocatedthroughoutthe building.Manyoftheselocationsareverticallystackedonmultiplefloors.Toiletroomsservingthe administrativeoffices,HallsAandB,A/Bprefunctionareas,theballroom,andadjacent3rdfloormeeting roomsarethemostactivelyused. Coderequiresthathotwatertanksmustmaintainminimumwatertemperaturesof125F.Duringperiodsof nonuse,theinsulatedtankscycleon/offtomaintaintemperatures,asasmallpercentageofheatislost throughcopperpipingandtankopenings.Thesestandbylossesrepresentasignificantportionoftheannual servicehotwaterenergyusageduetothenatureofaconventioncenterseventdrivenschedule. Thereisanoticeabledelaybetweenturningonahotwaterfaucetandthearrivalofhotwater,particularlyin thebeginningofeventoccupancy.CJLfoundthatthisisduetooversizedsupplypiping,whichresultsina longerdelaybeforethecoolerwaterinthepipeisdischargedandwarmwaterreachesthefaucet. TheCJLteamevaluatedthepotentialofusingsolarhotwatertooffsetexistingservicehotwaterstandby losses.Thegreatestimpedimentstotheuseofsolarhotwaterarethescaleofthebuildingandthedistances betweenthedistributedlocationsofthehotwatertanks.Acentralsolarhotwatersystemwouldbecost prohibitivefromthestandpointofstorage,pipingdistributionandcontrols.Duetotheintermittentnatureof eventschedules,itisestimatedthatacentralsolarhotwatersystemcouldonlybesizedtohandle1520%of theDLCCshotwaterload,whichwouldreducehotwaterelectricityusagebyupto45,00060,000kWhper year(orapproximately$6,000).Capitalcostsforasystemthissizewouldbesignificant,particularlyforpiping distributionandcontrols,representinganextendedpaybackperiod. Smallerdistributedsolarhotwatersystemslocatedinproximitytotheirenduse,suchasaverticallystacked toiletroomcluster,shouldbegivenfurtherconsideration.

SolarHotWater

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WindTurbines Pittsburghwindprofilesarevariable,withwindvelocitiesthatareunfavorableforsmallscalepower generation.However,theDLCCroofareabetweentheexhibithallsactslikeanaturalcanyon,"squeezingthe airthroughanarrowchannel,whichincreasesvelocities.Thiscanyoneffectcouldalsoincreasetheduration andavailabilityofhigherwindvelocities,whichcouldprovideastronglocationforawindturbine.Theflag mastheadsshouldalsobeconsideredforafuturewindproject.Evaluationbeyondthescopeofthisprojectis requiredforfurtherpursuit. DLCCsproximitytotheAlleghenyRiverprovidesapotentialopportunityforawaterturbine,orawatergate (newtechnology)togeneratepowerfromtheriverscurrent.Giventheriversconsistentcurrent,arelatively smallturbinecoulddevelopsignificantpower.However,thedistancefromtherivertothebuildingselectrical infrastructureinordertoconnectandusethepowerwouldlikelyresultinsignificantinstallationcosts. Severalturbinetechnologiesshouldbefurtherevaluated.

WaterTurbines

Recommendations Photovoltaics(PV) PVisthemoststraightforwardrenewableenergyoptionfortheDLCC.Thebuildingsconsistentbaseelectric loadandampleroofspaceprovideafavorablecombinationforimplementation. PotentiallocationsforPVsincludemechanicalpenthouserooftops(cityside)andtheriversideflatportionof themainroof.PVsontheriversidewouldgainadditionalreflectedlightfromthecurvedroofsurface (resultinginapotentialpoweroutputincreaseof1020%).PVpanelscouldalsoserveasshadecanopiesalong thefourthfloorriversideterrace,whichwouldprovideavisiblerenewableenergydemonstrationfor attendeestoexperience.

Figure3.7a:PotentialSitesforSolarPV

CalculatingthesavingsandROIofaPVsystemdependsoncurrentandfutureprojectedelectricitycosts,the saleofSolarAlternativeEnergyCredits(SAECs),andtheapplicationofseveralstateandnationalincentive programstohelpoffsetcapitalcost.ItshouldbenotedthattheFederalrenewableenergygrantprogram, whichwouldoffsetupto30%oftheinitialsystemcost,isduetoexpireattheendof2011.Seethesupporting materialswithinthefullreportformoreinformation. TheDLCCcouldpotentiallytakeadvantageofathirdpartypowerpurchaseagreement(PPA)foraPVsystem. Thethirdpartywouldbuy,install,andmaintainthePVsystemandprovideaguaranteedpowerrateperkWh fora1020yearperiod.ThePPAwouldobtainthetax,SAECandincentiverevenues,aswellastheenergy


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revenuesfromDLCCtopaybacktheirinvestment.Thisapproachwouldeliminatethesystemscapitaland maintenancecoststotheSEA,whileprovidingrenewableenergypowerfortheDLCC.However,in transferringtheSAECstothePPA,theDLCCcouldnotclaimtobesolarpowered.Instead,theywouldbe consideredashostingasolarpowerprovider. SolarHotWater Furtherinvestigationisneededtodeterminefeasibilityandcosteffectivenessformultipledistributedsolar hotwatersystemslocatedtoserveindividualverticaltoiletroomstacks.Thiswouldavoidsignificantpiping distributionandcontrolscostsandenablesystemstobesizedmorecloselytomatchadjacentloadsandusage schedules.Solarhotwaterforthekitchenandlaundryhotwateruseshouldalsobeinvestigated.Solarhot waterisalsoeligibleforSolarAlternativeEnergyCredits,andmanystateandfederalincentiveprograms. Furtheranalysisisrequiredtodeterminethetechnicalfeasibilityofthesetechnologies.Itisrecommended thatawindanemometerandtrendingdataloggerbelocatedinthegapbetweentheexhibithallstotrack windvelocities.Also,itissuggestedthatapotentialcollaborationwithawaterturbinemanufacturermight enableademonstrationofthistechnology. WaterandwindturbinesareonlyrecommendedastechnologydemonstrationprojectsfortheDLCCdueto technologylimitationsandextendedpaybackperiods.

WindandWaterTurbines

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3.8 Building Performance | Water Use Audit


TheDLCCusespotable,nonpotableandreclaimedwatertomeettheirneeds.Thisanalysisincludedawateruse auditinordertounderstandhowefficientlywaterisusedforthisfacility,incomparisontoexpectationsforaLEED certifiedfacility.Thewateruseauditalsoprovidestheopportunitytoevaluateeconomicsavings,resource reductionopportunities,andwaystobestmatchwaterendusestosourcequality. Findings TheDLCChasthreewatersources(primaryusesarelistedinparentheses): o o o PotablewaterfromPittsburghWaterandSewerAuthority(PWSA)(domesticuses); NonpotableaquiferwaterfromtheWisconsinGlacialFlowaquifer,whichflowsbeneathPittsburgh(used fortheDLCCscoolingtower,waterfeature,andonsiteirrigation); Blackwater,(i.e.wastewaterfromtoilets,lavatories,mopsinks,kitchen,andlaundry)thatisprocessedby theDLCCsonsitetreatmentplant(reusedonsitefortoiletflushing).

Theteamreviewedasbuiltdrawings,attendeerecords,centralplantrecords,kitchenandlaundryrecords, fixtureinventories,pumpflowmeterrecords,andutilitybillstodeterminereclaimedandpotablewater flowandusagerates.Logsforthewaterfeatureandchillerplantwerealsoreviewedtoevaluateaquifer wateruse. TheDLCCsservicewaterusagedependsonthenumberandtypesofeventsitholds.Anumberofwater conservationstrategieswereimplementedatDLCC,thefirstandmostcosteffectiveofwhichwasthe installationoflowflowplumbingfixtures.ThesecontributetoareducedwaterusageprofileandmeetLEED EBOM2009requirements.Itshouldbenotedthatthelatestfixturetechnologieswouldofferadditional reductionsinwaterusage.

Figure3.8a:DLCC'sDomesticHotWaterSystem

ThelackofimmediatehotwaterforhandwashinghasbeenidentifiedasanissueattheDLCC.Thistimelagis duetotheDLCCsoversizedhotwaterpipingandthedistancebetweenthelavatoriesandthehotwater heaters(seeFigure3.8a).Thereisnohealthcodeviolationwithrespecttothewatertemperature,only occupantcomfortconcerns.Unfortunately,thereisnoquick,easyorinexpensivewaytosolvetheproblem.


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TherecentapplicationofafilterthatallowsaquiferwatertobeusedfortheTenthStreetWaterFeature,has enabledtheDLCCtouseanonpotablewatersourcewithanappropriateenduse.In2010,useofaquifer waterfortheDLCCwaterfeaturereducedpotablewaterdemandbyalmost1.5milliongallons. Asanadditionalgreenstrategy,DLCCusesaquiferwaterinsteadofpotablewaterfortheircentralplant coolingtowermakeupwater,avoidinganestimatedrangeof3,000,0005,500,000gallonsofpotablewater demandeachyear.DLCCabsorbssomeenergyandmaintenancecostsforpumping,filtration,andchemical treatmenttoreduceironcontent,althoughthereisnoutilitycostfortheaquiferwater. BasedonPWSAwaterutilitybills,DLCChasreducedannualpotablewaterdemandintherangeof5477% overthelastseveralyears.SeeFigure3.8bforannualestimates.Byusing100%aquiferwaterinthewater feature,theconventioncentercanpotentiallyreachannualreductionsinpotablewaterof8085%. Reclaimedwaterrepresentsanestimated3040%oftotalDLCCannualwaterusage.
PWSAPotableWater PWSAInteriorWaterUse PWSAWaterFeature

2008

2009

2010

2,128,000 5,333,779* 7,461,779

2,192,000 1,176,270 3,368,270

2,086,000 440,410+ 2,526,410

PWSAPotableWaterSubtotal
AquiferWater AquiferWaterFeature AquiferCoolingTower

AquiferWaterSubtotal
0 3,349,363 3,349,363 5,323,489 16,134,631 8,672,852 54%*

0 3,173,900 3,173,900 4,273,200 10,815,370 7,447,100 69%

1,455,100+ 3,814,104 5,269,204 3,006,195 10,801,809 8,275,399 77%

WastewaterTreatmentPlant ReclaimedWater

ReclaimedWaterSubtotal
TOTALGallonsUsed TotalPotableWaterSaved (aquifer+reusedwastewaterpotable) PercentofTotal Figure3.8b:DLCCWaterUsage

* Amechanicalmalfunctionresultedinunusuallyhighwaterusageinthewaterfeature. + Waterfeatureoperatedpartialyearonpotablewaterandpartialyearonaquiferwater,movingforwardthewaterfeatureis exclusivelyaquiferwateruse.

Recommendations DLCChasoptimizedwatersourcesandenduseswithinthebuildingtominimizeitsimpactoninfrastructureby 7080%.Theirhighestdemanduses,includingthecoolingtowers,toiletsandwaterfeature,utilize reclaimedblackwaterornonpotableaquiferwater.However,asashowcaseforwaterconservationand stewardship,DLCCmaywanttoconsiderupgradingsomeoftheirplumbingfixtures,includingdualflushvalves andpressureassisted1gallon/flushtoilets;waterlessorultralow(1pint)flushurinals.SinceDLCCrecycles theirtoiletflushingwaterthroughtheblackwatertreatmentplant,thesetechnologieswouldprimarilyprovide ademonstrationfornewtechnologies. Thereisnolowcostsolutionforusercomplaintsregardingtheservicehotwatersupplyattheeventhall lavatories.Potentialsolutionsincludereplacingexistingpipingwithsmallerdiameterpipes,installingahot waterrecirculationloop,instantaneousheaters,orinstallingatemperaturemaintenanceheatingcableonthe existingpiping.

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Duetovaryingeventschedules,asignificantportionoftheenergyusedtoprovidehotwaterisexpendedas standbylosses.However,thehotwatertankscannotbeturneddownoroffbecauseofpotentialhealthcode violationsandpublicsafety.Thismightrepresentapotentialopportunityforsolarhotwaterpanelsto providehotwatertooffsetsomeormostofthestandbylosses.Adistributedapproachforverticallyaligned toiletroomstacksshouldbefurtherevaluated.

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3.9 Building Performance | Blackwater Treatment System


TheDLCCsblackwatertreatmentplantwasdesignedandconstructedtorecycleeffluentfromboththeDLCCanda futureadjacenthotel.ThisanalysisreviewedtheDLCCblackwatertreatmentplantsprocess,capacity,andenergy intensity. Findings Aprimarysustainabledesignmeasurethatwasincorporatedintheconventioncenteristheonsite blackwatertreatmentsystem(BWTS),whichisusedtotreatthesanitary(toilet,lavatory,kitchen,laundry, floordrains)wastewatergeneratedattheconventioncenter.Thiswastewaterisprocessedinstepssimilarto asewagetreatmentfacilityusingmicrobestobreakdownanddigestwastematerials.Wateristhenreclaimed throughspecialfiltrationandultravioletpurification,storedintanks,andthenrecycledintheconvention centerbuildingtoflushtoiletsandurinals,thusreducingtheamountofpotablewatertheownermust purchasefromthePittsburghWaterandSewerAuthority(PWSA). TheBWTShelpstoreducethesewageloadsonthesewersystemandAlleghenyCountySanitaryAuthority (ALCOSAN)treatmentplant.ItalsohelpstooffsetPittsburghmunicipalcostsbyreducingimpactonthe potablewatersupplyinfrastructure.Wastewaterandpotablewatertreatmentandtransportrepresent significantenergydemandsatthemunicipallevel.Inaddition,bytreatingwastewateronsiteandthroughthe incorporationofadedicatedstormwatersewer,DLCCavoidscontributingtoasignificantissueinPittsburgh, CombinedSewerOverflow(CSO).TheDLCCisoneofthefirstmajorbuildingsinPittsburghtoaddressthis issue.SeeSection3.9ofthereportssupportingmaterialsformoreinformation. AspertheannualBWTSpumpmeterlogsfor20082010,theBWTSreducesDLCCpotablewaterdemandby3 5.3milliongallonsperyear,whichisequivalenttoanaverage1623,000gallonsofpotablewatersavedper event.SeeFigure3.9abelow. BlackwaterRecycled NumberofEvents AverageGallonsperEvent
Figure3.9a:BlackwaterUsage

2008 5,323,489 248 21,465

2009 4,273,200 183(G20) 23,349

2010 3,006,195 180 16,701

TheprojectteamreviewedBWTSasbuiltdrawingsandthe2010WastewaterTreatmentPlantCondition AssessmentReportproducedbyApex,awastewatertreatmentconsultant14.TheDLCCsblackwaterplant energyintensitywasestimatedbasedonasurveyofequipmentsizes,nameplateinformationandwater meterdata. ItshouldbeunderstoodthatanonsiteBWTSshiftstheenergytypicallyexpendedbythemunicipality,aswell asoperatingandmaintenancecosts,totheDLCC.For2009,annualenergycostsfortheBWTSwereestimated atapproximately$75,000.Thereareadditionalmaintenancecosts,whichhavenotbeenincludedforthis study.For2009,theequivalentcostsof4,273,000gallonsofreclaimedwater,ifpurchasedfromtheutility wouldhavebeenapproximately$51,000.However,thereducedloadsonALCOSANandPittsburgh infrastructureandthedemonstration,education,andresearchvalueofwaterconservationandonsite treatmentareimmeasurable. AdditionalsubmeteringofDLCCblackwaterandreclaimedwatercouldprovidebettermeasurementand verificationofenduse.Recommendationsareprovidedbelow. Thecapacityoftheplantisoversizedbasedoncurrentbuildingusageandexperiencessignificantload variationsduetotheeventdrivenschedulesoftheconventioncenter.Theplantwassizedtoaccommodatea

14

DavidL.LawrenceConventionCenterWastewaterTreatmentPlantConditionAssessmentReport.October,2010.APEXCompanies,LLC.
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headquartershotelaswellasDLCC.Withtheadditional24/7loadsfromanadjacenthotel,therewouldbe moreconsistentwasteflows,thetreatedwaterinthestoragetankswouldbeturnedovermorefrequently, andingeneraltheplantwouldoperatemoreefficiently.Duringslowtimesoftheyear,thebioreactorstageof thesystemiscurrentlyfedsugarwatertomaintainthepopulationsofwastedigestingmicrobes.SeeFigure 3.9bbelowforaschematicdiagramoftheDLCCsblackwatertreatmentsystem. Recommendations Tobettermonitorusageofreclaimedwater,DLCCshouldconsidertheinstallationofasubmetertotrack waterleavingthestoragetanks;thissubmeterwouldhelptrackhowmuchreclaimedblackwaterwateris beingreusedwithinthebuilding.Additionaltrackingofreclaimedwater,whichdoesnotenterthe ALCOSANsewagetreatmentplant,providestheopportunitytocontinuetalkswithALCOSANonsewage feespaidbyDLCC. Theelectricitynecessarytoruntheblackwatertreatmentplantisnotcurrentlymetered.Itisrecommended thatsubmetersbeinstalledsothattheenergyintensityoftheplantcanbetracked. Ifanadjacentconventioncenterhotelisbuilt,thewastewatershouldbetiedintotheDLCCsblackwater treatmentplanttohelptheplantbecomemoreoperationallyefficient. TheDLCCshouldconsiderbestpracticerecommendationsfromthe2010APEXReportandtheManagers MonthlyOperationsReportsbyConstellationEnergythatincluderecommendationsforregularmaintenance andimprovementstothefiltrationprocesstoincreaseequipmentlife.

Figure3.9b:DLCCBlackwaterTreatmentSystemDiagram

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4.1 Site Performance | Site Review


TounderstandopportunitiesforimprovementandcurrentcompliancewithLEEDEBOM,thisanalysisexamined existinggreenspaceattheDLCCandassociatedirrigationsystems.LEEDEBOMencouragesperviousopenspaces andonsiterainwatermanagementwithoutadditionalirrigation. Findings Aspartofthisanalysis,theDLCCsexistingandproposedplantedareaswerequantifiedtodetermineifthe buildingqualifiesforLEEDEBOMopenspacecredits.WiththeadditionofthenewgreenroofoutsideRooms 309322,theDLCCwillexceedthedesiredLEEDthresholdof5%openhabitat. o o ThetotalDLCCsiteareais624,000ft2,withtheexistinglandscapedareatotaling28,850ft2,or4.6%ofthe totalsitearea. Thethirdfloorgreenroofthatiscurrentlyunderconstructionwilladd11,950ft2ofvegetation,whichwill increasethetotalDLCClandscapedareato40,800ft2or6.5%.Thisincreaseputstheprojectoverthe desired5%thresholdforLEEDEBOMSustainableSitesCredit5(SSc5):SiteDevelopmentProtectand RestoreOpenSpace.

TheDLCCsirrigationmethodsforplantedareaswereevaluatedtoseeifthebuildingqualifiesforLEEDwater efficiency(WE)credits(e.g.,WEc3:WaterEfficientLandscaping).Includingthenewgreenroof,thecurrent designoftheDLCCsirrigationsystemisestimatedtobe53%moreefficientthanthesitespecificLEED baselineascalculatedbyCivilandEnvironmentalConsultants,makingtheDLCCeligiblefor1pointunderLEED EBOMWEc3. DuetosanitationconcernsandstrictpermittingrequirementsbythePennsylvaniaDepartmentof EnvironmentalProtection,reuseoftreatedblackwaterforirrigationisnotfeasibleinareaswherethereisany potentialforhumancontact(evenwhenthewateristreatedanddisinfected,asisdoneviatheDLCCsonsite blackwatertreatmentplant).Thus,intermsofLEEDcompliance,theDLCCcouldbegintousecaptured rainwaterinirrigationsystems(insteadofpotablewaterfromthelocalwaterutility).Thoughitwillnotassist thebuildingspursuitofLEEDEBOMcertification,theDLCCalreadyusesaquiferwaterforirrigationneeds; thiswatersourceisnotrecognizedbyLEEDEBOMasnonpotable,butreduceswatercostsandtheassociated infrastructuredemands. TherearetwooptionsfortheDLCCsplantedareaonEleventhStreetthatcouldaffectthebuildingspotential LEEDEBOMpointsforirrigationsystems: o IftheDLCCweretoswitchirrigationattheEleventhStreetplantingareatodripirrigation,theDLCCs irrigationefficiencywouldbe62%(complyingwith1LEEDEBOMpoint,whichincludesthegreenroof). GiventhatirrigationisalreadyinstalledonEleventhStreet,removinginfrastructureiscostprohibitive. IftheDLCCweretoeliminateirrigationoftheEleventhStreetplantingarea(itiswillingtocommittonot usingtheirrigationtoachieveLEEDcompliance)itsirrigationefficiencywouldbe83%for3points,which includesthegreenroof).ToreceiveLEEDcreditforSMGspledgetoonlyirrigateduringdrought conditions,aformalpolicyshouldbewrittenaboutproceduresthathighlightsnativeplantings.

Recommendations

IfachievementofpointsintheLEEDEBOMsystemaresoughtforirrigationreduction,theirrigationand plantingdesignofthegreenroofwillplayasignificantroleinthefinalcalculations.Becausethegreenroofis inaveryvisiblearea,eliminatingirrigationdoesnotseemtobeaviableoption.Forthisreason,theprojectis usingnativeandadaptedplantsthatrequireminimalwaterandusingefficientirrigationoptions.Theproject teamrecommendsdeterminingifrainwaterharvestingisfeasible.Ideally,thenumberofdesiredLEEDEBOM waterusereductionpointswillaffectthesiteirrigationdesignrequiredtomeetthedesiredreduction.

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Giventhelarge,slopingroofinherenttotheDLCCsdesign,thereissignificantroofareafromwhichtocollect rainwater,thus,rainwaterharvestingpresentsagreatopportunity.However,storageofcollectedrainwater wouldrequireappropriatelocationsforstoragetanks,pumps,andpipinginfrastructure.Ifrainwater harvestingwereinvestigatedinthefuture,suchasystemwouldbebestimplementedwiththecollectionand storagesourceincloseproximitytoenduse.

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5.1 Operations | Waste Review


Duetothevariednatureofevents,conventioncentersmustbepreparedtodealwithpulsedandvoluminouswaste streams.Aspartofthisanalysis,awasteauditoftheDLCCwasperformed;itentailedaprocesswalkthrough,a preeventsort,amideventsortfocusedoncompost,aposteventanalysis,anddatatrending. Findings Onsiteauditfindings(performedduring3eventsin2010)indicatethatofthe27,500poundsofwasteaudited attheDLCC,8,500poundswererecyclable;16,000poundswerecompostable;and3,000poundswere unrecyclable.Oftheunrecyclablewaste,1,500poundswascarpeting;1,000poundswasmixedplasticwrap; and500poundswasmiscellaneouswaste. ComparedtotheDLCCsoriginallydesignedwastemanagementprocess,theDLCCscurrentwaste managementprocessissubstantiallydifferentduetomanyissues(e.g.,efficiencyupgrades,training,andthe dynamicrecyclingindustry). TheDLCCswasteauditresultssuggestthatdiversionratesexceeding70%arepossible,butareafunctionof laborhoursandcost. TheDLCCs2010wastediversionratewas56%;for2009,theDLCCswastediversionratewas49%.Compared tootherfacilities,theDLCCfellbehindtwootherwastereductionleaders,whohad64%and80%waste diversionratesin2009.However,comparedtoitssurveyedcohort,theDLCCwasmuchmoreeffectiveat sourcereduction(reducingwastebeforeitwasmade),yieldingonly1.6poundsofwastepervisitor(versus4.7 and8.3poundspervisitor,respectively,atthefacilitieswiththehigherdiversionrates). TheDLCChasanuntappedopportunitytorecycle10to20tonsofplasticwrap(6to12%ofitsunrecycled materialsstream)and20to25tonsofcarpetscraps(10to15%ofitsunrecycledmaterialsstream)annually. Pittsburghslocalbuildingmaterialssalvager,ConstructionJunction(CJ)acceptsintactrollsofcarpet,butnot smallscraps.SomeDLCCshowdecoratorsarealreadydonatingrollsofcarpettoCJ.Asaresultofthisstudy, theDLCChasalsobegundirectlydonatingcarpettoCJ. Additionally,theDLCCscaterer,LevyRestaurantsCatering,hasbeendonatingcookingoiltoberecycled elsewhere.NeitherofthesediversionsareincludedintheDLCCdiversionratecalculatedhere.

Recommendations TheDLCChasthefollowingwasterelatedopportunities,dependingonitsgoals: Reducedlaborcosts:Movesignificantlytowardsinglestreamrecyclingandmanagementapproachesfor materialsotherthanfoodandcardboard.Thisshiftwouldreduceonsitesortingtime,butcouldhaveupfront costs,theDLCCwouldhavetolocateanacceptablevendor,anditcouldhaveanadverseaffectonthepublic perceptionoftheDLCCsoverallsustainability. HigherDiversionRates,possiblelaborcostsavingsandorpossiblecommoditysale:Movetowardadditional onsitesortingandseparationofexistingwastestreamsandadditionalmaterialsidentifiedforsaleas commoditiessuchasbaledplastic. Unchangedorlowerlaborcosts/higherdiversionrate/possiblecommoditysale:Maintainbutoptimizecurrent infrastructureandprocesses.Focusonincreasingvalueofseparatedmaterialsbydeterminingifexisting relationshipswithwasteprocessorsand/orhaulerscanbeimprovedfrombothaperformanceandfinancial perspective.Continuetodivertadditionalmaterialsusingpilotapproaches. Areastooptimizethecurrentsysteminclude: o Contactlocalmaterialhaulersandprocessorstounderstandifexistingwasteagreementsstillreflectbest practicesandeconomicbenefitsforbothparties.Certainmaterialprocessorsmaybewillingtopickup baledmaterials

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Toincreaseefficiency,resiteexistinghorizontalbalerincentralrecyclingareaonfirstfloorloadingdock (estimatedcostsavingsare$1,000+inannualoperatingcostefficiencies,aswellasbetteroverallspace utilization);OR,toincreasespaceavailabilityandpotentiallybeabletobaleothermaterials,purchasea verticalmultimaterialbalerfor$12,000to$20,000. Iftheverticalbaleroptionischosen,saleoftheexistinghorizontalbalercouldgenerate$5,000in revenue,plus$4,000inannualoperatingcostsavings,andaddpotentialforthesaleofadditional commoditiesthattheDLCCcouldbale.Itisimportanttonotethatanysaleofthehaulerwouldneed tobediscussedwithAlleghenyCountybecauseitwaspurchasedthroughagrantprogram.

o o o o

IftheDLCCplanstobaleplasticsinthefuture,itwillneedtopurchase10to15gaylordbinsfortemporary storage.Theupfrontcostforthegaylordsisestimatedtobe$4,000to$8,000. Ensurethatallrecycledanddonatedoil,food,andcarpetarecatalogedaswastedivertedfromtheDLCCs wastestream. IncreasethenumberofeventsheldattheDLCCthatarededicatedcompostingevents.TheDLCCshould onlycompostwhenvolumesareexpectedtobesufficientenoughtodecreasebackofhousesortingtime. Updatethewasterelatedsignageinkeywastedisposalareastomakewastesortingstraightforwardfor visitors.Considerdisplaysthatshowtheactualmaterialsthatgointoeachbin,andensurethat compostablebinsareavailableforeventswithhighanticipatedamountsoffoodwaste.Increasedsorting onthefrontendwillleadtolessbackofhousesorting. Ifclearcompostablebagscanbesourced,theDLCCshouldbeginusingthemtodecreasesortingtimeas well.Thesebagswouldhavea$500to$1,000annualpremium. AltertheDLCCswastemanagementpolicytoreflectitscurrentprocessesandreviewannually.

o o

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5.2 Operations | Transportation Review


Transportationofemployees,exhibitorsandattendeestoandfromaconventioncenterisoneofthelargest environmentalimpactsofthefacility.Throughthisanalysis,anindepthauditofthetransportationpatternsof DLCCsstakeholderswasundertakentounderstandcurrentbehaviorandopportunitiesforimprovement. Findings Twotypesoftransportationpatternswereconsidered,full/parttimeemployeetransportationandlocal/non localvisitortransportation. Three(3)employeesurveyswereconductedtounderstandthepercentageofweeklyemployeecommutes thatusealternativetransportation.Thethirdsurveyhad62fulltimerespondentsand68parttime respondentsforatotalof130surveytakers. o Withparttimersincluded,approximately37%oftheemployeetripsduringtheweekinquestionused alternativetransportation.Thislevelofemployeeparticipationinalternativetransportationmakesthe facilityeligiblefor8pointsintheLEEDEBOM2009system. Withparttimersexcluded,approximately20%oftheemployeetripswereintheformofalternative transportation,makingthefacilityeligiblefor5pointsintheLEEDEBOM2009system.

TheemployeesurveysindicatedthattheirregularityoftheDLCCsscheduleandtheeliminationofandservice cutstolocalbusroutesmakesitdifficultforfulltimerstoregularlyridethebus. Visitorsurveysshowedthat: o o o o 39%ofallvisitorssurveyedwalkedtotheDLCC; 44%ofnonlocalvisitorsflewtoPittsburghand50%drove; 51%offlyerstookataxifromtheairporttodowntown,23%tookabus,and22%droveacar;and 75%ofvisitorsfoundthepublictransitoptionsaroundDLCCtobeadequate,while55%ofvisitorsfound thecommunicationofpublictransitoptionstobeinadequate.

Recommendations Transitoptionsforemployeesandvisitorscouldbeimprovedwithafocusonanalysisandcommunication. TheseDLCCshould: o o o Facilitateacommunicationnetworkforridesharingbylistingemployeesbyzipcode. Usedemographicdatafornonlocalvisitorstopromotepublictransitespeciallyfortheairportroutes. Provideinformationaboutthe28Xbusroutedirectlytoalleventplannerssothattheycandisbursethis informationtoalleventattendees.Informationonthe28Xairportflyerbusrouteshouldalsobe availableonlineatboththeDLCCwebsitesandtheg1website. LinktheDLCC15andgreenfirst16(DLCCssustainabilityprogramseesection7.1|greenfirst)websitesto VisitPittsburghs17website.Forvisitorconvenience,allthree(3)websitesshouldlinkdirectlytothePort AuthorityTripPlannerwebsite. IncludeaPortAuthoritysectionthatprovidesbusinformationandmapsattheVisitPittsburghbooththat issetupatmanyevents. ProvidealistofthemostcommonPittsburghvisitorattractionsthatincludesinformationregardingthe busroutesthatservicetheseattractions.Thiscrossreferencedlistshouldbeprovidedinprinteitherin theDLCClobbyorattheVisitPittsburghbooth,onall3websitesmentionedabove,aswellasina downloadableformonline.Similarinformationshouldbeprovidedforthemostcommonlyusedhotels.

o o

TheDLCChasdonethreeemployeesurveys.IftheDLCCdecidestoincludethethirdsurveyintheLEEDEBOM performanceperiod,thentheresultscanbesubmittedforLEED.Ifitisnotincludedintheperformance

15 16

SMGSite:http://www.pittsburghcc.com/cc/,SEASite:http://www.pghsea.com/conventioncenter.htm. g1Site:http://www.greenfirst.us/index.html. 17 VisitPittsburghSite:http://www.visitpittsburgh.com/.


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period,orifSEAwouldliketopursuebetterresults,itshouldprovidebetterinformationandincentivesfor employeesregardingalternativetransportationandthenresurveyaccordingly.

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5.3 Operations | Sustainable Purchasing Policy


Purchasingoffersanopportunitytoimprovesustainabilityperformance,supportagrowingmarketofsustainable productsandservices,andprovideaveryvisibleexampleoftheDLCCssustainabilitycommitment.Thisanalysis hasmeasuredtheeffectivenessoftheDLCCsexistingsustainablepurchasingpoliciestoidentifyopportunitiesfor improvementandprovidesupportforthebuildingspursuitofLEEDEBOMcertification. Findings TheanalysisoftheDLCCssustainablepurchasingincludedavisitaimedatreviewingcurrentinventoryand two(2)interviewsregardingsustainablepurchasingproceduresusedattheDLCC.Theresultingdata collectionreviewedongoingconsumables(officesupplies),durablegoods,renovationmaterials,lightbulbs, andfood. FoodserviceisalargeamountofDLCCspurchasesandisoftenoutsideofthedirectcontrolofthefacility orLevy,thevendor.Itscurrentcateringpracticeisdrivenbytheeventclientsbudget,visionandnumber ofvisitors,althoughalldisposabledishware,silverwareandotherfoodrelatedproductsarecompostable. WhiletheDLCCdoesmakemanysustainablepurchasesforbothongoingconsumables(officesupplies)and greencleaningmaterials,noformalsustainablepurchasingpolicyexists. AformalsustainablepurchasingpolicyfortheDLCCshouldincludeperiodicproductreview,minimum performancecriteria,acceptablecostpremiumsforswitchinggreeneroptions,alistofexistingsustainable products,andaprocessforspecifyinggreenproductpreferencestovendors. TherecycledcontentoftheDLCCsofficepaperaloneallowstheDLCCtocomplywithLEEDEBOM,butfurther opportunitieshavebeenfoundtoenhancecomplianceandsustainablepurchasingcommitment.TheDLCC shouldconsiderpurchasingrecycledcontentfolders,notepads,andotherpapersupplies;purchasing remanufacturedtonercartridges;andshouldincludeg1purchasesinthesustainablepurchasingpolicy, practice,andrecordkeeping. IntermsofcompliancewiththeLEEDEBOM2009ratingsystem,theDLCCstandsasfollows: o TheDLCCshouldbeabletoachieveMRc1:OngoingConsumables,MRc2DurableGoods,MRc3 RenovationMaterials,andEQc3.3GreenCleaningSupplies.Purchasingintheseareasduringthe PerformancePeriodwillultimatelydeterminecompliance. CompliancewithMRc4:LightBulbswilldependonthelightingpurchasesthatresultfromthecasestudy; howevertheweightedaverageoftheDLCCsaveragemercurycontentperlumenhourisbetween6070 picograms,whichfallsbelowthe90picogramperlumenhourthreshold. MRc5:FoodisnotlikelyduetolimitedpurchasesthatfallwithintheLEEDcriteria. ItisnecessarytocraftandadoptaSustainablePurchasingPolicytocomplywithMRp1:Sustainable PurchasingPolicyPrerequisite.

o o

Recommendations TheDLCCshouldwriteandinstituteaformalsustainablepurchasingpoliciesthatwillgovernfuture sustainablepurchasingpracticesattheDLCC.TheDLCCshould: o o o o WriteimprovementopportunitiesintoAdministrative,Repair&Maintenancebudgets. Maintainafileofproductdatasheetsforallsustainablepurchasingcompliantmaterials. DevelopspecsforapplicationofEnergyStarandgreenrenovationmaterials. Coordinatewithallpurchasingstakeholders(e.g.,LevyRestaurantsCateringandDLCCoperationsstaff)to spreadawarenessofsustainablepurchasingcomplianceopportunities,developinternalDLCC specificationsforsustainablepurchasingrequirements,andsharethesespecificationswithvendors beforeproductselection.

AlthoughmanyofthecurrentpurchasesmeettheLEEDthresholds,furtheropportunitieshavebeenidentified thatmaysavemoneyand/orincreasebrandvalue.Foodserviceshould:
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o o o o

Challengethebroadlinefoodproviderandallothersupplierstoprovidegreenoptionsthathavebroad application(fairtradecoffee). Negotiatelowermarkupsforsustainableoptionssopremiumsarenotmultiplied. Usechoiceeditingtomakegreenproductsabaselinepurchase(i.e.coffee,hotdogs). Addseasonalmenuitemsandmarketthemearlyintheengagementprocess.

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6.1 User Satisfaction | Thermal, Air Quality, Visual & Acoustic Environments
Aspartofthisanalysis,quantitativemeasurementsoftheDLCCsthermal,airquality,lightingandacoustic environmentsweretaken.AdditionalsurveyingofvisitorsandstaffintheDLCCexhibithalls,ballroom,meeting rooms,andofficeswasalsoperformedtoobtainqualitativeusersatisfactiondata. Findings Theprojectteamtooksitemeasurementsduringeventsandcomparedmeasureddatarecordedbythe buildingmanagementsystems.Theteamalsosurveyedoccupantsofthosespacestojudgesatisfactionlevels andresponsestoindividualenvironmentalstimuli.Targetedeventsoccurredinwarm,coldandswingseason outdoortemperatures. ExhibitHalltemperatureswerefoundtobeexcellentinthesummerandfall,buttoocoldinwinter.Airquality asmeasuredbyCO2,particulates,totalvolatileorganiccompounds(TVOC)andCOwerefoundtobeexcellent inallseasonswithover90%vendorandvisitorsatisfaction.Daylightwasfoundtobeveryeffectiveforhigh satisfactionandenergysavingswithelectriclightsoftenoffduringthedaytime.Acousticswerefoundtobe adequatelymanagedexceptforconstructionnoiseontheriverandhighdensitypostersessions.Overall satisfactionwiththeindoorenvironmentwasfoundtobe93%.Temperaturewasfoundtobethemost importantenvironmentalcharacteristicrelatedtovendoreffectiveness. Ballroomtemperatureswerelowduringthefalleventstudied,with45%ofvisitorsexpressingsomelevelof dissatisfactionwithtemperature.Airqualitywasfoundtobeexcellentwith100%satisfaction.Whilelight levelsarelowforreading,96%weresatisfiedwithlightingconditions.11%weredissatisfiedwiththe presentationvisualclarityduetothesmallscreensizecomparedtothesizeoftheroom.Acousticswerefound tobeveryeffective,minimizingacousticdistractionandbackgroundnoise.Satisfactionwiththeenvironment was81%,withtheonlycomplaintsduetothecoldnessandoveralldarkaesthetics. MeetingRoomtemperaturesmetASHRAE552004coderequirementsduringthesummerandfallevents, thoughwereonthewarmsideinsummerbyrequest,andcoolerinthefall,with80%satisfaction.Meeting roomsmetrecommendedASHRAE62.12007ventilationlevels,althoughafewroomshadhighCO2andfine particulatelevelsduringtheEcologicalSocietyofAmerica(ESA)conferencewhenconstructionwasongoing outside.Lightlevelsinmeetingroomsweresetbyspeakerpreference,with93%oftheattendeessatisfied. However,complaintswerestatedrelatedtolightingglareontheprojectionscreens.Soundlevelsinthe meetingroomswerefoundtobelow,withover92%satisfaction.Noisefromadjacentprefunctionareaswas anissue,aswastheloudclickingofthedoors.Environmentalsatisfactionwas100%inriversiderooms,and 96%incitysiderooms. Officetemperaturesweretoostratifiedwithfloorleveltemperaturesbelowcomfortconditions,andlarge variationsbetweenmorningandafternoontemperatures.41%reporteddissatisfactionwithtemperatures, 82%duetotoocoldconditions.Theofficeventilationandairqualitywasfoundtobeexcellent.Perimeter officeswerefoundtoreceivealotofdaylight,withoccasionalglarethatcanbemanagedwithblinds. Employeesininteriorcubicleswerefoundtohavehigherlevelsofdissatisfactionwithviewsanddaylight.The acousticenvironmentintheopenandclosedofficeswasfoundtomeetcoderecommendations,however35% ofworkersinopenstationscomplainedaboutdistractionfromconversations.Thestaffwerefoundtobe94% satisfiedwiththeoverallindoorenvironmentandfeelthattheofficeisagoodplacetowork.

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Recommendations ExhibitHalls Forthehighestoccupantsatisfactionrates,theDLCCshouldraisesummertemperaturesintheExhibitHallsto themidtoupper70s,unlesseventplannersrequestotherwise. DLCCExhibitHalltemperaturesforthewintershouldbeincreasedtoatleast68oF(whichmightbeeasierto achieveatalowercostafterrecommendedchangestothenaturalventilationsystemaremade). TheDLCCshouldtakeadvantageoftheDLCCsriverviews,orbiophilicadvantage(atermcoinedbyE.O. WilsonatYaletocapturemansloveofnatureandtheimportanceofongoingphysicalconnectionstonature). Withitsgrandviewsovertheriverandthecity,theDLCCchangestheparadigmforconventioncentersaslinks tothecity.TheDLCCshouldencourageeventplannerstousetheriversideprefunctionspacesforexhibits andpostersessions.Additionally,theDLCCshouldassignthehallswithbestviewsfirst,startingwithHallA.

Ballroom Insummer,theDLCCshouldmaintaintheBallroomtemperatureatthemidtohighendofcomfortlevels(75 to78oF). Fortheballroomandotherhighoccupancyspaces,theDLCCshouldintroduceexhaustheatrecoveryfor warmertemperatureswithoutenergypenaltyinwinter.TheCJLteamreviewedthisoption,andfoundthat althoughitwouldsavesignificantenergy,thecapitalinvestmentandROIarecostprohibitive. EspeciallygiventhedarknatureoftheBallroom,theDLCCshouldconsiderbrighteningtheroomthrough modificationsinlighting,finishes,oreventfeatureswhenneeded. Givenoccupantcomplaintsregardingscreensize,theDLCCshouldencourageeventplannersthatselectthe Ballroomtoincreasescreensizeforpresentationsand/orchooseprojectorsthatprovidebrighter presentations.Guidelinesforthisspaceshouldrecommendascreenofadequatesizeforthescaleofthe roomandthefarthestdistanceoftheaudience. TheDLCCshouldincreasethevisualconnectionwiththedaylitprefunctionspaceandprovidemoreaccessto electricoutletstoallowlaptopusersmeanstochargetheircomputers. MeetingRooms TheDLCCshouldverifythatmeetingroomdefaultsetpointsareat74oFinthewinterand76to77oFinthe summer,andsuggestthatclientskeepthemeetingroomsatthesetemperatures. Toaddressfineparticulateissuesinafewofthemeetingrooms,replacethefilterswiththehighest compatibleMERV(MinimumEfficiencyReportingValue)ratingstofilterfineparticulates. Toreduceglareonprojectionscreens,theDLCCshouldconsidereitherresettinglightingoptionstoturnoff therowoflightsclosesttotheprojectorscreenineachroomordelampingthatrowoflights.Additionally,if possible,theDLCCshouldhaveaudiovisualcontractorsraisethescreenheighttohelpreduceglare. Giventhebiophilicadvantage,theDLCCshouldencourageeventplannerstousetheriversideroomsasmuch aspossible. TheDLCCshouldassignrooms310311lasttoavoidnoisedistractionatthe"crossroads". Toavoidnoiseinfiltrationintomeetingroomsfromadjacentcirculationspace,eventorganizersshouldbe encouragedtopositiondisplaytablesawayfrommeetingrooms. Ifpossible,theDLCCmeetingroomdoorsshouldbemodifiedtoeliminateorreducetheclickingnoiseupon closingthem.

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Offices GiventhecoldandstriatedtemperaturesintheDLCCoffices,wintersetpointtemperaturesshouldbe increased.Radiantheatersshouldbeconsideredforthecoldestoffices.Additionally,aftertheweekend, heatingstartupshouldcommenceearlier. TheDLCCshouldreduceanyincidenceofTVOCbymorecarefullyscreeningproductsthatpotentiallycontain themfrombeingbroughtintotheoffices(thisistheassumedsource,notmeasured). Toaddressnoiseconcerns,theDLCCshouldsetofficeprotocolsto:avoidconversationincertainareas, relocatecoffee/water/printers,eliminatespeakerphones,organizecirculationaislestominimizedistraction, andsituatechairssoworkersarenotfacingeachother.

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7.1 Sustainable Operating Systems |greenfirst Review


greenfirst(g1)istheDLCCsinternalandexternalsustainabilitycommunicationsandmarketingprogram,whose nameoriginatedfromthemindsetsharedbythestaffattheDLCC.Whenmakingdecisionstheyalwaysthinkgreen first.Thisanalysisevaluatedg1svisibilitytostakeholders,effectivenessincommunicatinggreeninitiativesand drawingbusiness,opportunitiesforimprovingbuildingandeventperformance,andthevalueofgreeninitiatives totheDLCC.

Findings Thisanalysistookamultiprongedapproachatevaluatingthegreenfirst(g1)program,whichincluded:surveying externalstakeholders(i.e.,visitors,eventplanners,andexhibitors),interviewinginternalstakeholders(i.e., employeesandmanagement),reviewingthelargestimpactareasofatypicalevent,andreviewingg1related marketingmaterialscomparedtovariousDLCCcohorts. Theexternalsurveyresultsindicatethefollowing: o Visitorsparticipateingreenactivitieswhileonsite.Ahighpercentageofexternalrespondents participateing1activitieswhileonsiteattheDLCC,butmostdontassociatetheiractionswiththeg1 program.Awarenessofg1islowamongexternalstakeholders(15%ofrespondentsrecognizedg1). Environmentalinitiativesattractbusiness.29%ofeventplannersreportedthattheDLCCsLEEDNC certificationpositivelyaffectedbookingdecisions;82%reportedmarketingoftheDLCCsenvironmental initiativespositivelyimpactedtheirdecisions;and62%ofeventplannersidentifiedgreenoperationsas importanttotheireventprocess. g1iseffectiveinguidingDLCCemployeesactions.MostDLCCemployees(94%)areawareoftheg1 programandareimpactedbyitatwork.ManyDLCCemployees(67%)followsimilarprinciplesathome. Themajorityofemployees(82%)feelthattheg1programisimplementedsuccessfully. WheneventsaredecidingaboutwhethertochoosePittsburghasavenue,VisitPittsburghandSMGwork closelyintheclientengagementprocess. Customerdesiresoftenaffectthelevelofsustainabilityinitiativesintegratedintoanevent. TheDLCCoperator(SMG)managesg1marketingandtheSportsandExhibitionAuthorityofPittsburgh andAlleghenyCounty(SEA)(whichownstheDLCC)ownstheg1trademark. g1ispartofthelargerDLCCmarketingstrategyanddoesnothaveitsownstrategicplanorbudget.Its fundingcomesfromthelargermarketingbudgetforDLCC. Thelargestobstacletoadvancingtheg1programasaninternaltoolandexternalrecognitionprogramis lackofresources. TheDLCCssustainabilitycommunicationsarefragmentedacrossitsmultiplestakeholders.TheSEA, SMG,andVisitPittsburghhavedecisionmakingcontroloverhowtheDLCCismarketedonbothalocal andnationalstage. Amongconventioncenters,LEEDcertificationisbecomingmoreprevalent(14othersarecertifiedinthe U.S.,oneVancouverhasaLEEDPlatinumratingintheLEEDforNewConstructionratingsystem).18 Highperformingconventionfacilitiesnurturedemandforsustainableoptionswithearlyengagement, greeneventmenus,andthoroughlydevelopedsustainableserviceprovidernetworks.

InterviewswithinternalDLCCstakeholdersrevealedthat: o o o o o

AreviewandbenchmarkingoftheDLCCssustainabilitycommunicationsrevealedthat: o

o o

ThelargestimpactareasofaneventhostedattheDLCCincludethefollowing:transportation,visitor hospitalityneeds(hotelaccommodationsanddiningout),foodandbeveragedemand,eventwaste generation,andonsiteenergyandwateruse.

18

U.S.GreenBuildingCouncil.(2011).LEEDProjectsandCaseStudyDirectory:CertifiedProjectDirectory. http://www.usgbc.org/LEED/Project/CertifiedProjectList.aspx.
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Recommendations Aspartofthisanalysis,ithasbeendeterminedthatthemaingoalsoftheDLCCsg1programshouldbe formalizedasfollows:(1)IncreaseBusinessand(2)ImprovePerformance.TheevolveEAteamhasproposed thatthesetwogoalscanbeachievedwithtwostrategicactions:(1)Buildingsustainabilityintoitsvaluechain, and(2)Formallyreportingitssustainabilityperformance.KeyDLCCtacticalinitiativestosupportthesegoals andstrategicactionsinclude: o o o o o Developandimplementastrategicplanfortheg1program(adraftisincludedinthesupportingmaterials sectionofthereport). HireaSustainabilityCoordinatortofocusong1organization,communications,andpublicrelations. DevelopmarketingmaterialsthatsummarizetheDLCCssustainabilityinitiativesinclearterms(andmake surethismessageisusedconsistentlybySEA,SMG,andVisitPittsburgh). ProvideaGreenEventMenuforeventplannersthatcoversallaspectstheyshouldconsider(andthat theDLCCalreadyaddresses)inplanningasustainableevent. Buildalocalg1ServiceProviderNetwork.

Additionalpersonnelandfinancialresourceswillhelpleverageincreasedbusinessandbrandvaluefromthe DLCCssustainabilityefforts.AfulltimeSustainabilityCoordinatorpositioncouldhelpdevelopaservice providernetworkthatmorebroadlyleveragestheDLCCSexistingandfutureefforts,makingPittsburghand theDLCCamoreattractivesustainableeventsvenue.ItisestimatedthatthecoststoaddaDLCC SustainabilityCoordinatorpositioncouldbecoveredwiththeattractionofasingleadditionaleventperyear. Becausecustomerdecisionsgreatlyaffectoverallbuilding,operational,andeventperformance,event plannersshouldbeengagedinsustainabledecisionmakingearly.

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8.1 LEED EBOM Submission | Recommendations


TheDavidLawrenceConventionCenter(DLCC)iscontinuingtosetthestandardforbuildingperformanceand excellencebypursuingLEEDforOperationsandMaintenanceExistingBuildings(EBOM)GoldCertification.The projectteamhascontributedinformationthatwilldirectlysupporttheachievementofspecificcredits,andhas advisedtheDLCCteamonothers. Findings LEEDcertificationisbecomingpopularamongleadingconventioncenters,asmanyareaspiringtomeetgreen buildingcertifications.Althoughnumerousfacilitieshaveregisteredforcertification,thereareonlyseven(7) LEEDEBOMcertifiedconventioncentersintheworld;allareintheU.S.andonly2ofthose(VirginiaBeach andLosAngeles)achievedLEEDEBOMGold.NoconventioncenterhasachievedLEEDPlatinumcertificationin theEBOMratingsystem,andonly1hasintheLEEDforNewConstructionratingsystem(Vancouver). TheevolveEAteamhasmetwiththeDLCCteamthroughoutthecasestudyprocesstoupdatecreditand prerequisitecomplianceanddiscussadministrativeissuessuchaswhentobeginandendtheformal performanceperiod,how,andwhentosurveyemployees,etc. TheDLCCisaspiringforLEEDEBOMGold,whichrequirestheachievementofatleast80LEEDpointsunder the2009LEEDEBOMratingsystem.TherangeforLEEDGoldcertificationis6079points. o o TheDLCCsoriginaldesignstrategiescontributetotheachievementof3prerequisitesand20points. TheDLCCiscurrentlytargetingtheachievementof72creditsandhasthepotentialtoachieveanother18 creditsforatotalof90creditspursued.

ThisprojectteamhasbeendirectlyinvolvedwiththeaccomplishmentofmanyLEEDEBOMprerequisiteand creditstrategies,including,butnotlimitedto: o o o o o o o o SSc4:AlternativeCommuterTransportation; SSc5:SiteDevelopmentProtectorRestoreOpenHabitat; WEc3WaterEfficientLandscaping; EAp1,EAp2,&EAc1:EnergyEfficiencyBestManagementPractices,MinimumEnergyPerformance,and OptimizeEnergyEfficiencyPerformance; EAc2.1:BuildingCommissioningandInvestigation; MRc1,MRc2.1,MRc2.2,MRc3,MRc4,MRc5,&EQc3.3:SustainablePurchasing; MRc6:SolidWasteManagementWasteStreamAudit;and, EQc2.1:OccupantComfortOccupantSurvey.

TheprojectteamisalsoadvisingtheDLCConstrategiestopursueforotherLEEDEBOMprerequisitesand credits.DeliverablesofthiscasestudyalsoprovidestrategicguidanceforeventualsubmittalofDLCCLEED EBOMdocumentation,creditrequirements,andcreditcomplianceapproaches. Whencomparedtothecohortofconventioncentersexaminedforthisanalysis(seeSection2.2onExternal Benchmarking),theDLCCisamarketleaderinmanyoperationalsustainabilitycategories.Thebenchmarking processundergoneforthisstudywillalsoserveasfurtherevidenceofLEEDEBOMcreditcomplianceor exemplaryperformance. TheDLCChasavarietyofoptionsfordocumentingminimumenergyperformancecompliance(EAc1).The recommendationresultingfromthisanalysisistobenchmarkthefacilityonasquarefootbasisagainstother cultural/entertainmentfacilitiesdataprovidedinENERGYSTARPortfolioManager. o TheDLCChasanenergyutilizationindex(EUI)for2010of154;thenationalEUIaverageforculturaland entertainmentvenuesis265.Thus,comparedtotheENERGYSTARcultural/entertainmentbenchmark, theDLCCoperatesata30%betterEUIthannationalmedianresults,makingtheDLCCeligiblefor9LEED pointsintheLEEDEBOM2009ratingsystem.

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Recommendations TheDLCCneedstofinalizeitsLEEDEBOMperformanceperiod(s)andcreateafinaltimelineforapplication. FortechnicallycomplexcreditstheDLCCispursuingwhichhavenotbeenfullyaddressedbythiscasestudy (i.e.EQc3:OccupantComfortThermalComfortMonitoring),theDLCCteamneedstobetterunderstandthe feasibilityofcreditachievement(e.g.,compliancewithASHRAE62.12007). TheDLCCLEEDprojectmanagershould: o o o o ProactivelymeetwithkeySEAandSMGpersonneltoclarifyrelevantcreditsandassociatedrequirements forcomplianceanddocumentationpriortothestartoftheperformanceperiod(s). BepreparedtoprovideguidancetoDLCCinternalstakeholdersregardingLEEDEBOMdocumentation requests. Gatheranddevelopdocumentationrequiredforsubmittals(includingprerequisitepolicies). ContinuetoupdatekeyLEEDEBOMperformancemetricssummarizedaspartofthisreport(e.g.,energy performance,wastemanagement,andsustainablepurchasing).

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9.1 Ongoing Data Collection | Recommendations


ThroughoutthisanalysisoftheDLCC,severalopportunitiesforimprovingandcontinuingcurrentdatacollection practiceswererecorded. Findings EnergyReviewfoundthattheDLCCmaintainsdetailedutilitylogsthattracksteam,potablewater,aquifer water,electricity,andchillerenergyconsumption.Datacollectionisnotcurrentlyavailablebyareaor individualsystemssuchasHVAC,lighting,watertreatmentplant,etc. NaturalVentilationsystemusageistrackedmanuallyduringeventhours.Thelogincludesthetime,date,and outsideairtemperature.Thenaturalventilationsystemisusedduringsetupandbreakdown,foroccupant comfort,thoughthosehoursarenotalwaystracked. BuildingWaterandSewagedatacollectionfindingsshow: o Via3PWSAwatermeters,theDLCCtracksthebuildingspotablewatersupply. o TheDLCCalsohassubmetersonitsaquiferwateruse,allowingittotracktheaquiferwaterusedinthe waterfeatureandthecoolingtowersseparately. o TheDLCCtrackstheamountofeffluentthatismovedthroughthefiltersintheblackwatertreatment plant. WasteReviewdatacollectionfindingsshow: o ThemethodsusedbytheDLCCtotrackthecostofmanaginganddivertingwasteandcomposthave variedovertheyears. o TheDLCCtrackscost/laborhourinformationforwaste.Asofthiswriting,2009datawasavailable,but 2010datawasstillbeingprocessed. o TheDLCCscurrentwastediversionratedoesnotincluderecycledcookingoilordonatedcarpet. o TheDLCChastrackedtheamountoffooditdonatedtolocalfoodpantriesandfoodbankssince2009. TransportationReviewdatacollectionfindingsshow: o SMGcurrentlytracksdemographicinformationforupcomingevents,butdoesnottrackwherevisitorsare comingfromorhowtheyaretravellingtoandfromtheDLCC. o TheDLCCdoesnotcollectinformationaboutwhichlocalbusroutesservicethebuilding(orarewithina walkabledistancefromit). g1Reviewdatacollectionfindingsshow: o SMGcurrentlytrackswhicheventsvaluegreenpractices,butneitherSMGnorVisitPittsburgh, respectively,tracksassociatedrevenueordirectspendingfromtheseeventsseparately. o TheDLCCdoesnothavealistofsustainableserviceprovidersinDowntownPittsburgh. o TheDLCCscurrentsustainabilitybestpracticestrackingisdoneinformallybyDLCCexecutives,butthere isnodatabasewheretheyareformallyandregularlytracked. o TheDLCCdoesnottrackoroffsetitsowncarbonemissionsorthoseofitsvisitors.

Recommendations Energyongoingdatacollectionrecommendationsinclude: o TheDLCCshouldcontinuetoregularlytrackitsenergysourcesandusessothatthisdatacanbeusedfor regularinternalandexternalbenchmarking. o TheDLCCshouldconsiderinstallingenergysystemsubmeterstotrackenergyuseatafinerlevel. o TheDLCCshouldupgradetheexistingbuildingautomationsystem(BAS)anditsBAScontrols.Thissystem improvementwouldallowtheDLCCtodorealtimedatatrackingandanalysisofenergyconservation measures,whilealsoidentifyinganybuildingoperationalissuesmorequickly.

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NaturalVentilationongoingdatacollectionrecommendationsinclude: o Inadditiontotheinformationitcurrentlycollectsaboutthenaturalventilationsystemsoperation,the DLCCshouldalsonotetheoutdoorhumidity.CollectionofthisinformationwillhelptheDLCCidentify whetherornotthenaturalventilationsystemcouldbeutilizedmorefrequently.Additionally,theDLCC alreadycollectsgeneraleventinformationthatcouldinformnaturalventilationdecisionsincludingspaces utilized,numberofattendees,andmale/femalebreakdown. o InstallingtheBASandcontrolupgradeswillallowforrealtimetrackingofthenaturalventilationsystem, whichwillincreaseitsalreadysubstantialbenefitstotheDLCCsoperations. o Giventheuniquenatureofthenaturalventilationsystem,oncethenaturalventilationsystemlouvers havebeenrepaired,anannuallouvermaintenanceprogramshouldbeinstitutedandanyrepairsshould betrackedtodocumentthepatternofwearandanyrepetitivemaintenanceissues. Waterongoingdatacollectionrecommendationsinclude: o TheDLCCshouldcontinuetoregularlytrackitswateruseandsupplysothatthisdatacanbeusedfor regularinternalandexternalbenchmarking. o TheDLCCshouldinstallasubmetertotracktheamountoftreatedblackwaterreenteringthebuilding. Currentlythereisnowaytomonitorhowmuchofthetreatedblackwaterisbeingreusedwithinthe DLCC. o IfaconventioncenterheadquarterhotelisbuiltadjacenttotheDLCCinthefuture,itshouldtieintothe DLCCsblackwatertreatmentplanttoincreasetheefficiency. Wasteongoingdatacollectionrecommendationinclude: o TheDLCCshouldcontinuetousethewastetrackingmethodsitusedin2009forfutureyearssothatthis datacanbeusedforregularinternalandexternalbenchmarking. o TheDLCCshouldincludethefollowingdivertedwastesinitsregularlycalculatedwastediversion percentages: Recycledcarpet, Recycledcookingoil,and Donatedfood. Transportationongoingdatacollectionrecommendationsinclude: o Tobetterunderstandeventtransportationneedsandsatisfaction,theDLCCshouldcollectinformation regardingthenumberandpercentageofvisitorsthatwillbeflyingintoPittsburghforeachevent. o Tobetterservevisitorstransportationneeds,theDLCCshouldcollect,regularlyupdate,andbeproactive aboutprovidingeventplannersandvisitorswithinformationaboutthe28XAirportFlyerandotherlocal busroutesthatservicethebuilding(orarewithinawalkabledistancefromit). g1ongoingdatacollectionrecommendationsinclude: o TheDLCCshouldtrackavarietyofdatapointsaboutgreenseekingevents,including: Thenumberandsizeofeventsthatpursuegreenpractices. Whatspecificgreenofferingseventplannersrequestanduse. WhetherornoteventstheywouldhaveselectedtheDLCCastheirvenueiftheDLCCdidnot havegreenpractices,wasnotLEEDcertified,etc. o AscoveredinSection7.1|greenfirst,theDLCCshouldcollectinformationonandpromotelocal sustainableserviceproviders. o TheDLCCshouldregularlyperformbenchmarkingofhowitsgreenpracticescomparetoindustrybest practicesinsustainability.Thiswillinvolvedeterminingthebeststandardsformeasurementand verificationofitsenvironmentalperformance.Thiswillevolveastheindustryprogresses. o TheDLCCshouldconsideradoptingasystemthatallowsfordisparatemetricstobecomparedsuchas wasteandenergy,andtotakepartinlargerclimateefforts,suchastheCityofPittsburghsclimateaction plan.Themetricthatismostwidelyacceptediscarbon.TheDLCCshouldcalculateandmanageits carbonfootprintusinganacceptedcarbonaccountingmethodologyliketheWorldResourcesInstitute (WRI)GHGProtocolCorporateStandard.

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With CJL Engineering Carnegie Mellon University Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics Civil and Environmental Consultants 2011

Building in Operation (BiO) Case Study | David L. Lawrence Convention Center November 2011

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10.1 Conclusion
Assustainabilityhasbecomeamarketingpointforeventdestinationsandconventioncentersacrossthecountry, greenbuildingshavebecomeamainstayfortheseinstitutions,servingastactilerepresentationsofeach destinationscommitmenttosustainability.Thisisaninspiringtrend,especiallynowthatmoreeventsare demandingsustainablevenues,buttoooftentheseprojectsarefocusedonmeetingcertainratingsystem thresholds(i.e.LEED)andimplementingthemostadvancedsustainabledesignsystemspossiblewithout understandingthefullbusinesscasefordoingthemorhowtosustaintheperformanceofthesesystemsinthe longrun.Afterall,thisiswherethetruesustainablevalueofagreenbuildingisrealized. ThevisionaryleadershipexhibitedbyHeinzEndowmentsandSportsandExhibitionAuthorityofPittsburghand AlleghenyCountyhasledtheseorganizationstotherealizationthatthereisextremevalueinunderstandingthis importantinformation.Asaresult,theyhavefundedthisanalysisoftheDLCCsgreenfeatures,performance,and operations,past,present,andfuturetocapitalizeontheoriginal,longterm,andongoingsupportofthe ConventionCenteroperation.InadditiontostudyingtheDLCCscompliancewithLEEDforExistingBuildings OperationsandMaintenance,thisanalysishasdugdeepertounderstandkeybuildingcharacteristicsandthefull businesscaseforpursuingsustainableculture,operations,buildingsystems,andmarketingfortheDLCC.The findingsshowthatthiscasewasinitiallystrong,andcontinuestobesoforcurrentandrecommendedinvestments. PerformingastudyofthismagnitudeillustratestheDLCCsprogressivenature,whichwasfirstevidentuponits completionin2003,whenitreceivedLEEDNCGoldCertification,andwastheworldslargestgreenbuilding.Given theDLCCsfirstmoverstatusintheconventionindustry,itsleadershiphasplayedasignificantroleinpushing therestoftheconventionmarketforwardtoitscurrentpointofgreeneventdemand.Asaresult,thenumberof LEEDcertifiedeventfacilitiesnationallyareeasilyinthedoubledigitsandover20%ofeventsareseekinggreen facilities. Thistypeofstudyisnotcommon,andinadditiontobeingamarketingopportunityinandofitself,itpositionsthe DLCCforevengreateroperationalsuccess,costsavings,andfuturebusiness.ItalsoplacestheDLCCinaunique positiontousetheknowledgeithasgainedthroughthisprocessforthegreatergoodoftheconventionindustry, andthecommunitiesinwhichtheindustryoperates.ThisisNOTjustacasestudyofasinglebuilding,butcan serveasademonstrationforotherprojectsabouthowtosystematicallyapproachsimilarevaluationsofhigh performancebuildings,andgainmultipletypesoforganizationalvalue.Sharingthisprocessandtheresultsthatit hasproducedwillonlyfurtheritslegacyasasustainabilityleader.

For

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With CJL Engineering Carnegie Mellon University Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics Civil and Environmental Consultants 2011