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INDEX

Abraham, Edith May, on unionizing, 156 Abrahams, Ena on class and education, 812 on work and independence, 165 academic success, 80 acculturation 191839, 1719 acculturation assimilation, definitions, 1 challenges, 1921 East End, 1531 women and children, 611 Adler, Rev. Dr Herbert and Talmud Torah classes, 93 Consecration Classes for Girls, 103 and religious education, 1023 Adler, Nettie and LCC scholarships, 85 apprentices lunch scheme, 162 on choosing a trade, 163 on domestic service issues, 154 on education, 71 on school managers, 83 Adler, Rachel and day nurseries, 62, 63 adult education, 71, 879 evening schools, 879, 102 hygiene for, 478 see also education; training adults, absorb education from children, 71, 72 Alexander III and Jews, 22 aliens Alien Immigration Board, 21 Aliens Act 1905, 25 legislation, 58 America

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immigration, 150 labour leaders and, 157 migration from UK to, 22 Angel, Moses, 168 and JFS, 756 and Old Castle Street school, 76 anglicization and education, 7189 and Talmud Torah, 989 approaches to, 25 sanitized accounts, 45 social workers and, 61 Anglo-Jewish community and 1880s immigrants, 225 pre-existing, 1 anti-alienism, 234 combating, 25 on health, 33 post-WWI, 867 WWI, 85 Anti-Gambling Association, 113 anti-semitism 1930s, responses to, 128 Bernhard Baron Settlement and, 1256, 128 Anti-Sweater on philanthropists aiding sweaters, 155 on sexual exploitation, 158 on Solomons workshop, 153 apprenticeship, 1602 and need for paid work, 162 clubs as guardians, 114 Girls Apprenticing Sub-Committee, 16 JBG programmes, 114, 147, 1601 Argentinean Jewish community, assistance to women, 211n18

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Jewish Immigrants in London, 18801939 Blackwoods Edinburgh Magazine Foreign Undesirables, 178n57 The Alien Immigrant, 23 Blair, Sir Robert, and LCC scholarships, 85 Bloomsbury Trade School, 88 board schools Christian religious education, 93 English teaching, 79 immigrant community and, 7681 JREB and, 95t5.1, 967 religious education, 73, 104 welfare assistance, 834 Board of Trade Alien Immigration Report on the Volume and Effects..., 180n901 Reports on ... Recent Immigration..., 216n23; n28 report on the Sweating System 1887, 159 Boer War, 34 volunteers, 115 Booth, Charles Life and Labour of the People in London, 9, 15, 26 on husbands as sole breadwinners, 1501 Boy Scouts, 109, 112 boys and wages, 165 delinquent, provision for, 1457 JBG apprenticeship programmes, 161 roles, school socialization, 71 boys & girls clubs, 109129 and sexual development/ activity, 1267 and social welfare, 1234, 128 and sports, 11314, 116, 118, 123 and WWI, 11920 as apprentice guardians, 114 character forming, 11315 democracy, 11415 expansion, 11619 inter-war years, 1209 religion in, 11213, 11719, 1223 boys clubs and English masculinity, 11415 and muscular Judaism, 111 Boys Brigades, 112, 114 Brady Street Boys Club, 117 and physical fitness, 113

Artisans Dwelling Act 1875, 176n5 Ashkenazi early immigration, 2 synagogues, 91 assimilation/ acculturation, definitions, 1 Association for Jewish Youth (AJY), 122 Aylesbury Borstal Institution, visiting/ assistance to, 142 babies, JAPGAW and, 141 Barnett, Samuel, 176n5 and Toynbee Hall, 110 and Womens Protection and Provident League, 155 Baron, Bernhard, and St Georges Settlement, expansion, 124 Barrett Street Trade School, 88 Battersea, Lady (Constance Rothschild) and JAPGAW, 133 and JLSPRW, 132 Bearsted, Fanny E. and JAPGAW, 144 Bearsted, Marcus Samuel, Lord, 42 and St Georges Clubs, 120 Beatrice Club for Working Girls, 116 associating with Christian neighbours, 129 social welfare, 128 Beckman, Morris on sexual activity, 126 The Hackney Crucible, 69 Belgian refugees WWI, 667 JREB and, 101 ben Israel, Menasseh, 2 Bentwich, Norman, Jewish Educational Disorganisation in London, 978 Berg, Jack Kid see Harding and Berg Berner-Street School Happy Evenings, 65 Jewish Association, 83 Bernhard Baron Settlement, 31, 109, 1245 and depression years, 1256, 128 see also St Georges Jewish Settlement birth rates, 278 Black, Clementina Women and Work, 151 Black, Eugene on petty crime, 1456

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Index and sports, 123 Anti-Gambling Association, 113 character forming, 113 secular, 112 Brady Street Girls Club and Settlement, 45 Brady Street Jewish Settlement, 110, 127 Brady Street play centre, 127 Bread, Meat and Coal charity, 168 Britain early Jewish population, 23 Irish migration to, 22 reasons for choosing, 22 Brodie, Marc, The Politics of the Poor..., 9 Bucks Row board school, evening classes, 88 Buckle Street Infants School, 84 Buckman, Joe, Immigrants and the Class Struggle..., 6 Butler Street girls club, 119 and education, 114 and religion, 123 Butler Street Settlement, 61

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children acculturation, 611, 20 and Jewish Free Reading Room ( JFRR), 106 charitable assistance, 63t3.2 demographics, 279 happy evenings, 645 home, Highbury House, 142 mental health services, 45 moral health, 13148 services for, 613 UJW and, 646 Christian missions, conversionist, 25, 48, 49, 502 Christian religious education, board schools, 93 Christian Street Junior Girls School, 1045 City Day Continuation School, 88 City of London schools, 81 class and education, 81 women and, 78 Carnegie Trust, 42 Clothing Society, 83 Catholic emancipation 1829, 2 clubs see boys and girls clubs; boys clubs; Census of England and Wales 1901, 267 girls clubs character forming Cobb, Cyril, and LCC scholarships, 85 boys & girls clubs, 11315 Cohen, Freddie, on Stepney Jewish Girls religious education and, 97, 98, 100 Clubs, 129 Charcroft House for unmarried mothers Cohen, Lionel L., and Eastern European ( JAPGAW), 133, 13842, 148 immigration limits, 22 after care, 142 Cohen, Mr ( JAPGAW) on white slavers, promoting independence, 141 141 charitable relief, JBG and Russo-Jewish Collet, Clara, Board of Trade work investigaCommittee, 57t3.1 tion, 1523 charity, extent of, 568 Collins, Kitty Rappaport Charity Organisation Society (COS), 5960 on family life, 10 Chassidim, 107 on going to dances, 1212 chedarim, 75, 912, 934, 956, 98, 99, 102, on neighbourly assistance, 69 104, 107, 169 Commercial Street Board School, 78, 83, attendance, JFS and, 75 84, 96 chevrot, 912, 923, 95, 102, 107 Commercial Street Talmud Torah, 98 Chicksand Street board school community Care Committee, 164 care, 3843 evening classes, 88 leaders/ workers, 17 childcare, 910, 445 networks, 5569 and infant mortality, 367 public image, 115 and emancipation, 3 provision, 613 reputation, 5569 UJW and, 64

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Jewish Immigrants in London, 18801939

solidarity, 9 sponsored education, development, 99 sponsored training, 1605 Conjoint Committee, Russo-Jewish and JBG, 57 Conscience Clause, board schools religious education, 93 Consecration Services, girls, 103 continuing education, 889 conversionist missions, 25, 48, 49, 502 Cooper, Mrs (of East End Mission), 132 Country Holidays Fund, 656 criminal activity increased, interwar years, 1445 JAPGAW on, 125 Cromwell, Oliver, 2 curricula, 7982

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compulsory in Britain, 71 evening schools, 879, 102 hygiene for, 478 for mothers, 39, 41 industrial schools, 1458 Christian, problems with, 146 post14 assistance, 846 scholarships, 847, 89 and naturalization, 856 EAC/ EAS, 85 immigrant children and, 85 schools grants, 187880, 778t4.34 managers, 83 meals, 823, 89 medical services, 834 philanthropy, 824 teachers dances, Collins on, 1212 JREB on, 102 Davenant Foundation School, 789, 81 recruitment for East End, 78 Davis, Dr Maurice, on cheder attendance, 75 technical education, JFS, 74 Davis, Noah, 24 Education Act 1870, 73, 76 day nurseries, 623 JFS and, 76 Deal Street School, 165 Education Act 1906, 82 Education Aid Committee (EAC), 846 demographics, 269 Eichholz, Dr Alfred depression years, 69 on child health, 44 Bernhard Baron Settlement and, 1256 Eichholz, Ruth domestic science classes, attitudes to, 80 and help for mothers, 41, 43 domestic service, 154 and UJW, 64 Domestic Training Home ( JAPGAW), 133 on assimilation, 72 Dundee women, wage increase after unionwork in wider community, 61 izing, 156 Eisenberger, Fanny, on sweatshop condiEast End tions, 158 acculturation, 1531 electric lighting factories, girls in, 161 housing, 256 emancipation, 23 and London Jewish Hospital AssociaEmanuel, Charles H. L., and LCC scholartion, 489 ships, 85 migration from, 31, 164, 168 Emanuel, Rev. G. J., on women and charity public health, 3353 visiting, 601 East London Fund for Jews, 51 emigration from UK, funding, 58 East London Industrial School, 147 employment patterns, 1534 East London Observer, on JFS, 75 English Eastern European immigration, Anglo-Jewry hospitality, and Anglicization, 3, 45 and, 22 Jewish education, immigrants and, 934 education, 7 language adult, 879 adult education, 87 and gender, 87 and anglicization, 7189

Index evening classes, LSPC and, 105 teaching, 79 lifestyles, education for, 712 masculinity, boys clubs and, 11415 eugenicists, 334, 46, 867 eugenics, 41 evening schools, 879, 102 hygiene for, 478 factory inspectors, on workshop hours, 159 Factory Acts, 1589 Fagan, Hymie, on family life, 10 Falk, Mrs (Montefiore House), 1478 families care, 910 demographics, 279 immigrant, 21 support, extended, 29 Fawcett, Millicent Garrett, on white slavery, 133 Federation of Synagogues, 912, 956 Feldman, David Englishmen and Jews..., 6 on immigrants and manufacturing, 151 Fineman, Mark, 21 his mothers stall, 165 on East End demise, 31 Finn, Ralph, Time Remembered, 9 foreignness, de-emphasizing, 24 foremen, sexual exploitation by, 158 Fowler, D., The First Teenagers..., 165 Franklin, Arthur, on Talmud Torahs, 98 Franklin, Ellis, and PJTS, 58 Franklin, Frederic, on London hospitals, 489 Free [Labour] Registry for Jews, 159

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garment industry, 1545 homeworkers, 150 labour subdivision, 154 postwar work decline, 165 wages, subsistence, 1513 workshops, infection concerns, 35 Gartner, Lloyd on wages, 153 The Jewish Immigrant in England..., 5, 26 Geffen, Rev. Lionel, on London hospitals, 48, 49

gender and Jewish studies, 611 and learning English, 87 Gerson, Phyllis and immigrant community, 128 and Stepney Girls Club settlement, 127 Gilam, Abraham, The Emancipation of the Jews in England, 3 Girl Guides, 109, 111 girls adolescent, JAPGAW and, 137 and wages, 165 and WWI war industries, 1634 apprenticeships 1904, 162 Adlers lunch scheme, 162 JBG programmes, 161 Consecration Services, 103 education, curricula, 7982 factory work, 163 leisure activities, post-war, 1212 religious education Consecration Services, 103 Hebrew alphabet, 94 JREB and, 97, 99 need, 93, 103 Talmud Torahs, 103 roles, school socialization, 71 training, JBG Industrial Committee and, 1605 travelling alone, JAPGAW and, 1334 unemployed, 66 Girls Apprenticing Sub-Committee, 16 Girls clubs, 109129 and Jewish womanhood, 116 and sweatshop workers, 159 outdoor activities, 118, 121 see also boys and girls clubs Girls Club Directory (1902), 112 Girls Industrial Committee ( JBG), summer holidays, 65 Girls Training Corps, 129 Glenn, S., Daughters of the Shtetl..., 150 Golders Green, movement to, 164 Goulston Street Hall, 105 Great Garden Street Talmud Torah, 98 Great Synagogue, 74, 91

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Jewish Immigrants in London, 18801939 homeworkers, garment industry, 150 Horsfall, of Manchester, 29 House of Lords, Select Committee on the Sweating System, 153, 159 husbands deserting, 21 unions, women workers and, 156 Hyam, Hannah and apprenticeships, 161 on LSPC, 51 on school managers, 83 Hyman, Paula Culture and Gender..., 7 Gender and the Shaping of Modern Jewish Identities, 6, 56 illegitimacy rates, 133 illiteracy, interwar years, 104 immigrants and manufacturing, 151 families, 21 journeys, 1920 leave-taking, 1920 legal status, 23 marital status, 28t1.2a-b popular objections to, 234 repatriation/ emigration funding, 58 Russian/ Russian-Poles ... 18711911, 26t1.1 sheltering, 589 women and education, 712 travelling alone, JAPGAW and, 1334 UJW and, 64 work habits investigations, 155 immigration 18801905, 1516 190518, 1617 limiting 1900, 578 industrial schools, 1458 Christian, problems with, 146 infant mortality, 33 and mothers employment, 378 causes, 367 rates, 29 Stepney, 18991933, 389t2.1 Infant Welfare Centres, 41

Green, Rev. A. L. on chedarim, 94 on value of training, 160 Grunshaw, Leie, 21 Hampstead Hospital, 61 Harding J., and J. Kid Berg, Jack Kid Berg..., 18, 19, 20, 58 Hayes industrial school for boys, 1467 health and race, 33 disease and overcrowding, 356 care, immigrant initiatives, 4850 hazardous work environments, 15760 Hebrew schools, hygiene for, 478 Henriques, Basil, 11 and JAPGAW, 136 and Oxford and St Georges Clubs, 11617, 11920, 1201 and rescue work, 1423 and Whitechapel Gallery services, 123 on Bernhard Baron St Georges Jewish Settlement, 124 on COS, 5960 on JAPGAW, 148 on religion in clubs, 1223 on verminous children, 445 Henriques, Rose and St Georges Settlement, expansion, 124 and Oxford and St Georges Clubs, 117, 120, 1201 Fifty Years in Stepney, 34, 1201 on verminous children, 45 Hertz (Chief Rabbi), on boys and girls clubs, 119 Hertz, Rose, and Belgian refugees WWI, 66, 67 Highbury House childrens home, 142 higher education, assistance, 856, 89 Hirsch, Broche, 21 historiography, 46 Hitler/ Nazism, Bernhard Baron Settlement and, 1256 Hochberg, Severin, on immigration limiting, 58 Holloway Prison, inmates, visiting/assistance to, 142

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Index Interdepartmental Committee on Physical Deterioration 1904, 12, 29, 44 International Congress of Women, 65 International Tailors, Machinists and Pressers Union, 156 interwar years boys and girls clubs, 1209 poverty/prostitution, 1434 religious education, 1015 investigation vs. sympathy, COS and, 5960 Irwell, voluntary work in wider community, 61 JADRK, 77 classes, 91, 92, 93, 945 Samuel Montagu and, 92, 95 Janner, Lady, and Brady Club, 123 JAPGAW see Jewish Association for the Protection of Girls and Women JBD see Jewish Board of Deputies JBG see Jewish Board of Guardians Jew Bill 1753, 2 Jewish Association for the Diffusion of Religious Knowledge ( JADRK), 77 classes, 91, 92, 93, 945 Samuel Montagu and, 92, 95 Jewish Association for the Protection of Girls and Women ( JAPGAW), 69, 119, 131, 132 and JREB, 97 and marriage counselling, 136 and National Union of Women Workers (NUWW), 145 and sexually transmitted diseases, 144 Charcroft House unmarried mothers home, 13842, 148 drop-in centre for wayward girls, 1445 founding, 1325 Gentlemens Committee, rescue work, 135 girls entering domestic service, 154 Highbury House childrens home, 142 immigrant boats meeting, 1345, 135t7.1 interwar years problems, 1435 on criminal activity, 125 on Montefiore House, 147 on procurers, 1345

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on Sabbath classes, 95 on work for girls 1920s, 164 on worsening employment conditions, 162 preventive work, 1357 Sara Pyke House (SPH), 1378 Visiting Committee, destination checking, 135 Jewish Athletic Association, 11819 Jewish Board of Deputies ( JBD) and emancipation, 3 and scholarships, 856, 86t4.5 Grimsby: Schwartz Case, 20 on population, 26 Jewish Board of Guardians ( JBG), 12, 21 and apprentices, 114 and Eastern European immigrants, 225 and immigrants sheltering, 589 and Russo-Jewish Conjoint Committee, 57 and SRHS, 40 and tuberculosis, 35 and WWI refugees, 667 apprenticeship programmes, 1601 and industrial school boys, 147 charitable relief, 568 emigration/repatriation funding, 58 Health Committee, 34 and nutrition, 45 and phthisis, 45 immigration limiting 1900, 578 Industrial Committee, 166 and girls training, 1605 ladies committee, 161 JAPGAW and, 136 no involvement in workplace issues, 159 on community reputation, 55 on postwar suffering, 143 refers young men to Public Assistance 1930s, 69 Sanitary Committee, 35 Visiting Committee, and Russian immigrants, 23 workroom expansion, WWI, 164 Jewish Childrens Penny Dinners, 63 Jewish Chronicle, 5, 12, 1921 and Eastern European immigrants, 225 on education for mothers, 41

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Jewish Immigrants in London, 18801939 Jews Infant School, 34, 77, 83 Jews Temporary Shelter, 55 Joseph, N. S., on immigration limiting, 578 Joseph, Rev. Morris and Belgian refugees WWI, 66 and Whitechapel Gallery services, 123 Joynson-Hicks, Sir William, on sheltering refugees, 58 Jdischer Frauenbund, 132 Kadish, Sharman, A Good Jew and a Good Englishman, 7 King Edward Hospital Fund, 42 LJH and, 50 Kishinev pogrom, 22 Knutsford, Lord, 49 Kushner, Tony The Persistence of Prejudice..., 56 Kuzmack, Linda, Womans Cause..., 7 Labour Party, 61 on women and work post WWI, 164 Lady Magnuss Club, religion in, 11213 Lancet Infantile Mortality..., 38 Report of the Lancet Special Sanitary Commission..., 30 Special Sanitary Commission on Polish Colony of Jew Tailors, 34, 1578 Landau, Annie, and SPH, 138 Landau, Hermann, and PJTS, 58 landsmanshaften, women workers and, 156 League of Nations Committee on Traffic in Women and Children, 145 leave-taking, 1920 leisure activities, 109 industry, 18 post-war, 1212 Leman Street Club religion in, 11213 PJTS, 58 Levi, Miss (Charcroft House), 139 Levine, Phillipa, The White Slave Trade..., 140 Levy, Abraham, and Old Castle Street school, 76, 94 Levy, Mrs, urges unionizing, 155

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on husbands as sole breadwinners, 150 on sanitary issues, 30 Jewish Domestic Training Home, 142 Jewish Free Reading Room ( JFRR), 106 Jewish Graphic, on missions, 52 Jewish Health Organisation, 468 and evening schools sanitation, 102, 1034 Jewish Historical Society of England, Transactions..., 4 Jewish Infant Welfare Centre, 43 Jewish Ladies Society for Prevention and Rescue Work, 132 see also JAPGAW Jewish Lads Brigade ( JLB), 7, 109, 114 Jewish Maternity Hospital, 402 Jewish MPs, JBG on, 17 Jewish Religious Education Board ( JREB), 77, 968, 99101 and LCC schools RE, 1045 classes, 91, 92, 93, 945, 95t5.1, 968 WWI decline, 99101 on declining interest, 1024 on teachers, 102 Jewish voluntary schools, 723, 7482 welfare assistance, 824 Jewish War Memorial, 1012 and girls Consecration Services, 103 and religious education, 1012, 103 Comforts Fund, 128 Jewish World, on exemplary maternal care, 44 Jews College, 1012 Jews Free School ( JFS), 7, 746, 94 and Consecration Services, 103 and extra-curricular lives, 89 and Talmud Torah classes, 93 clothing supply, 83 English teaching, 79 girls curricula, 81 happy evenings, 65 mothers and teachers union, 89 welfare assistance, 84 Jews Hospital and Orphan Asylum ( JHOA) Norwood House, 35, 55, 82, 151 after-care committee, work placements, 165 and apprenticeships, 1623

Index Levy, Rev. S., Problems of Anglicization, 72 Liberal Jewish movement, 7, 116, 123 Limehouse, mothers and factory work, 378 Lipman, V. D. Mass Immigration..., 5 Social History of the Jews in England, 5 literacy rates, 29 living conditions, 301 Livshin, Ros, The Acculturation of the Children..., 7 Lloyds Bank, and East End, 17 London board schools, Jewish children and, 723t4.12, 74 London County Council and day nurseries, 62 classes, continuing education, 889 Education Committee, JAPGAW and, 136 health inspector, on workshop overcrowding, 159 Housing Committee, 35 scholarships, 89 and naturalization, 856 London Day Training College, 85 London Federation of Infant Welfare Centres, 61 London Hospital, 39 Hebrew Wards, 48, 49 London Jewish Hospital Association, 17, 4850 London Needlework Guild, 83 London School Board, JADRK on, 77 London Society for Promoting Christianity (LSPC), 501, 1057 London voluntary schools, Jewish children and, 723t4.12, 74 Lower Chapman Street School, 83 Lucas, Helen, 168 on girls clubs, 111 on sympathy in charity, 60 religious instruction for industrial trainees, 160 Lyons, Lewis, on unionizing, 156 Lyons, Mrs, on unionizing, 156 Manchester demographics, 29

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Manchester and Salford Sanitary Association, 29 Manchester Hotel, 66 Manson, Rev. T. W., 52 manufacturing, immigrants and, 151 Marks, Lara Dear Old Mother Levys..., 8 The Experience of Jewish Prostitutes..., 8 The Luckless Waifs and Strays..., 8 marriage counselling, JAPGAW and, 136 marital status non-Russian/ Russian-Pole immigrants, 28t1.2b Russian/ Russian-Pole immigrants, 28t1.2a patterns, 278 maternal care/ education, Jewish community, 3843 medical missions, conversionist, 25, 48, 49, 502 medical services, schools, 834 Medical Officer of Health (MOH), on birth rates, 27 melamedim, 94 men and military life, 168 Talmudic study vs. English classes, 88 young after care, 68 sheltering, 679 see also boys Mendoza, Mr & Mrs, and Samuel and Myer Home, 68 mental health services, children, 45 Metropolitan Hospital, 48 Metropolitan Police and Piccadilly women, 145 Metropolitan Water Board, 34 Micholls, Mrs, Henriques on, 136 Mile End Guardians, on exemplary maternal care, 44 Mile End Old Boys Club, 18 Mile End Old Town, demographics, 279 milk quality issues, 367 Milk Act 1914, 36 Milk and Dairies (Consolidation) Act 1915, 36

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Jewish Immigrants in London, 18801939 mortality rates, 29 Moses, Miriam, voluntary work in wider community, 61 Mosley, Oswald, marches, Bernhard Baron Settlement and, 126 mothers club, Bernhard Baron Settlement, 125 employment, and infant mortality, 378 schools for, 39, 41, 612 Mothers and Babies Welcome (SRHS service), 403 Moul, Margaret (eugenicist), 46, 867 Mrs Levys Lying-In Home, 40 Mundella, A. J., on JFS, 76 Murphy, Shirley, MOH report 1901, 35 Myer, Denzil, 67 on East End religious decline, 100 Myrdle Girls Club, and religion, 118 Nathan, H. L., and Brady Club, 117 Nathan, Mrs, and day nurseries, 63 National Anti-Sweating League, Living Wages for Sweated Workers..., 37 National Organisation of Girls Clubs, 66 National Relief Fund, 66 National Union of Women Workers (NUWW), 145 naturalization, and LCC scholarships, 856 needlework classes, JBG and, 160 neighbourly assistance, 69 Netherton reformatory, 146 North London, movement to, 18 Norwood House, 35, 55, 82, 151 after-care committee, work placements, 165 and apprenticeships, 1623 nutrition, 44 JBG Health Committee and, 45 Old Castle Street Board School, 767, 94 evening classes, 88 Old Montague-Street Council School, 64 open-air school movement, 84 ophthalmic committee, JSO, 47 Orthodox Judaism, 11, 18, 48, 912, 97, 100, 102, 106, 107 evening schools, 48 synagogues, 912

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millennialism, and historiography, 4 millinery business, 161 missionaries and education, 1057 services, Commercial Street children and, 96 Mocatta, Ben, and Whitechapel Gallery services, 123 Mocatta, Frederic and Womens Protection and Provident League, 156 on abandoned families, 21 Model, Alice and day nurseries, 62, 63 on vice, 136 on voluntary work, 61 public health involvement, 403, 45 Montagu, Lily, 7 and West Central Jewish Club and Settlement, 112 and Whitechapel Gallery services, 123 girls clubs, 66, 111 on single-sex activities, 1267 on unionizing, 157 The Girl in the Background, 31 Montagu, Samuel and Federation of Synagogues, 912, 956 and JADRK, 92, 95 and PJTS, 58 and religious education, 956 and Talmud Torah Trust, 96 Montefiore, Claude and JAPGAW, 132 and West Central Working Lads Club, 114 on JREB, 97 on public image, 115 on school meals, 83 Montefiore, Emma, and West Central Working Lads Club, 114 Montefiore House industrial school for girls, 131, 146, 1478, 148t7.2 and parents, 1478 Montefiore, Robin, 11 moral health, womens and childrens, 13148 Morris, Nathan, and LCC schools RE, 104

Index overcrowding, 301 and disease, 356 and sanitation, 345 Oxford and St Georges Clubs, 11617, 11920 Settlement, 34, 1201 see also Bernhard Baron ... Settlement Pale of Settlement, 22 Pappenheim, Bertha, 132 Pearson, Karl, 867 and Moul, The Problem of Alien Immigration, 46, 867, 87t4.6 philanthropic services, 5569 philanthropy, scientific, 5961 phthisis concerns, 356 JBG Health Committee and, 45 Piccadilly women, NUWW and, 145 pogroms, 22 Poland, Russian, living conditions, 22 Police Court Magistrates, JAPGAW and, 144 Poor Jews Temporary Shelter (PJTS), 25, 589, 137 and Belgian refugees WWI, 66 English classes support, 88 Poor Law relief, 39 takeup, 56, 57 population demographics, 269 Portland Street mens hostel, 66 post-war economic challenges, 164 Potter, Beatrice and Amalgamated Tailors club, 111 East London Labour, 30 on demand for Jewish women, 159 on married women in sweatshops, 150 Poulsen, Charles, Scenes from a Stepney Youth, 34, 162 Prag, J., on exemplary maternal care, 44 Presbyterian Mission to the Jews, 52 prison inmates, visiting/ assistance to, 142 prostitution interwar years, 1434 rescue work, 13145 trafficking JAPGAW on, 132 risks, Eastern European women, 1317 Public Health Committee, 61 public health, East End, 3353

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Raines School, 80, 81 Ramsay, Edith, and Womens Evening Institute, 88 recreational programmes, 109 settlements, 110 Reform synagogues, anglicized, 92 refugees, 589 from Nazis, 69 religion in boys & girls clubs, 11213, 11719, 1223 women and, 78 religious education, 91107 Chief Rabbis curriculum, 102 interwar years, 1015 Jewish education gender in, 611 spreading, 934 new initiatives, 1035 Sabbath classes, 95, 95t5.1 JREB, 99100 supplementary classes, 935, 95t5.1 repatriation funding, 58 resettlement (1650s), and millennialism, 2, 4 Robert Montefiore Senior Girls School, 104 continuing education, 889 roles, school socialization, 71 Roseneath, 66 Ross, Ellen Love and Toil..., 9 Rothschild Buildings, 15 Rothschild Emma, and JAPGAW, 133 Rothschild, Lady and day nurseries, 63 on value of training, 160 Rothschild, Lionel de on sheltering refugees, 589 Parliament seat, 3 Rothschild, Lord and London Jewish Hospital Association, 49 and Talmud Torah classes, 93 on sanitary issues, 30 school philanthropy, 82, 83 Rothschild, Major Lionel de, and Jewish War Memorial, 101

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Jewish Immigrants in London, 18801939 Samuel, Marcus, 42 Samuel, Sir Stuart and LCC scholarships, 85 refutes anti-alienism, 25 sanitation issues, 30 and overcrowding, 345 sanitary movement, 33 Sara Pyke House (SPH), 1378 Sassoon, Lady, 43 scholarships, 847, 89 and naturalization, 856 EAC/ EAS, 85 immigrant children and, 85 schools grants, 187880, 778t4.34 managers, 83 meals, 823, 89 medical services, 834 philanthropy, 824 Schools Boot Fund, 63, 83 Schwab, Anna, and Stepney Girls Club settlement, 127 Schwartz, Zali, immigration experience, 1920 science, in curricula, 81 scientific philanthropy, 5961 Sebag, Joseph, and London Hospital, 48 Sebag-Montefiore, Ida, 67 and Brady settlement, 127 Sebag-Montefiore, Muriel, 67 secretarial work, Sabbath issues, 163 Sephardi early immigration, 2 elders, and emancipation, 3 settlement movement 1930s, 127 houses, 10911 objectives, 10910 see also specific settlements Settles Street board school, evening classes, 88 sexual development/ activity, boys and girls clubs and, 1267 sexual exploitation, and sweatshops, 158 sexually transmitted diseases, interwar years, 144 Short, Geoffrey, Accounting For Success..., 7 Sick Room Helps Society (SRHS), 403

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Sabbath classes, 95, 95t5.1, 99100 JREB, 99100 Sabbath issues apprentices, 162 secretarial work, 163 Sabbath services, Myer and, 100 Sadlers Wells teachers, and St Georges girls club, 120 St Georges Clubs, 45 and religion, 1223 during WWI, 119 Girls Training Corps, 129 post-war expansion, 1201 St Georges in the East, demographics, 279 St Georges Settlement expansion, 124 on poor living conditions, 164 see also Bernhard Baron Settlement St Pauls Industrial School, 146 Salaman, Redcliffe, on conversionist missions, 50, 512 Samuel and Myer Home, 679 Samuel, Gerald, 67 Samuel, Ida on club non-members, 122 on girls and war industries, 164

Royal Commission on Alien Immigration 1903, 12, 25 Royal Free Hospital, hostel for girls with STDs, 144 Ruppin, Arthur, The Jews in the Modern World, 149 Russia, living conditions, 22 Russian and Russian-Polish women, employment 1890s, 1534 (1921 census), 164 in garment trade 1901, 154 Russian Revolution, attitudes to, 16 Russian/Russian-Poles immigrants, marital status, 28t1.2a immigration ... 18711911, 26t1.1 Russo-Jewish Committee adult education classes, 71 and JBG Conjoint Committee, 57 emigration/ repatriation funding, 58 English classes, 88

Index sight problems, Jewish children, 467 smallpox control, 356 Smith, Dr, on exemplary maternal care, 44 Smith, Sally, Sex, Leisure and Jewish Youth Clubs..., 126 Smith Street Evening Institute, 88 social welfare services, 5569 boys and girls clubs and, 1234, 128 socialization, education and, 71 Society for the Distribution of Jewish Literature, 106 Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, 52 Solomons, Samuel, on boys clubs, 117 Sourasky, A., on unsuitable school rooms, 102 Spector, Cyril, Volla Volla Jew Boy, 15 Spence, Jean, Working for Jewish Girls, 112 Spielman, Gertrude, and day nurseries, 63 sports, boys and girls clubs, and, 11314, 116, 118, 123 Stamford Hill, movement to, 18, 164 Stein, Jack and wages, 165 on family life, 11 Steinber, D. B., on religious decline, 100 Stepney, 15 demographics, 279 Stepney Central Foundation Schools, 79, 80, 81 medical services, 834 Stepney Girls Club settlement, 127 Stepney Jewish Club Chronicle, 115 Stepney Jewish Lads Club, 36, 11920 and democracy, 11415 and patriotism, 115, 119 and religion, 112, 123 Anti-Gambling Association, 113 as apprentice guardians, 114 members in forces, 119 post-war, 120 Stepney Jewish school, 745, 94 and Consecration Services, 103 Stepney Jewish Settlement, 110 Stern, Leonard, on boys clubs and religion, 117 Stern, Rev. (of East London Synagogue), on religion in clubs, 118

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Stern, Rev. F. C., and Jewish War Memorial, 101 Stern, Rev. J. F., on JBG, 59 suffrage/ feminist movements, 7 summer holidays, 656 Swaythling, Lord, and Jewish War Memorial, 101 sweated industries, 1545 married women and, 1501 sweaters, sexual exploitation by, 158 sympathy vs. investigation, COS and, 5960 Talmud Torah Trust, 969 schools amalgamation, 104 Talmud Torahs, 478, 75, 88, 91, 937, 1014, 107, 169 declining support, 1034 for Girls, 98 modernizing, 989 Tawney, R. H., on women and wages, 160 teachers JREB on, 102 recruitment for East End, 78 technical education, JFS, 74 Tower Hamlets Evening Schools, 87 Toynbee Hall, 110 Henriques and, 116 Trade Boards Act 1909, 160 trades unions, women and, 1557, 164 trafficking JAPGAW on, 132 risks, Eastern European women, 1317 training, community-sponsored, 1605 Tribune, on East End, 25 tuberculosis, JBG and, 35 Tzedakah, 556

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ultra-Orthodox Judaism, 16, 123 Union of Jewish Women (UJW), 61, 646 and Belgian refugees WWI, 66 and Consecration Services, 103 and EAC, 85 and school managers, 83 on surplus women, 153 unionizing efforts, 1557 United Synagogue, 912, 102, 136, 147 United Synagogue, JAPGAW and, 136

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Jewish Immigrants in London, 18801939 Eastern European, trafficking risks, 13145 immigrant acculturation, 20 journeys, 1920 travelling alone, JAPGAW and, 1334 UJW and, 64 labour extent, pre-immigration, 14951 leisured and girls clubs, 116 and Jewish rescue association, 13145 moral health, 13148 sexually transmitted diseases, interwar years, 144 work during WWI, 66, 67 Womens Evening Institute, 88 Womens Liberal Federation, on wages, 153 Womens Protection and Provident League, 155, 156 Woolfe, L. H. Jr, 1920 work environments, hazardous, 15760 workhouses, low usage, 39 workplace post-war diversification, 1645 post-war economic challenges, 164 women and, 14966 World Jewry, 18, 53 World War I and boys and girls clubs, 11920 attitudes to, 16 refugees, 667 Wormwood Scrubs, inmates, visiting/ assistance to, 142 World War II, preparing for, 129 Yiddish language, 15, 17, 18, 20, 21, 31, 36, 39, 4751, 72, 75, 79, 83, 87, 91, 94, 96, 98, 107, 135, 138, 156 decline, 72 literature/ culture, 12, 17, 42, 53, 88, 122, 136 youth clubs see boys and girls clubs; boys clubs; girls clubs youth, religious decline, 1001, 1023 Zborowski and Herzog, on work in Eastern Europe, 149 Zionism, attitudes to, 16

Victor, Lilian, on Sabbath sports, 118 Victoria Boys Club, 109 Virsof, Miss, on Sabbath sports, 118 voluntary work, 5961 women and, 5963 and schools, 82 wages, subsistence, 1513 Waley-Cohen, Robert, and Jewish War Memorial, 101 water supply, 34 Webb, Beatrice see Potter, Beatrice welfare assistance, schools, 824 West Central Girls Club, 7, 66 West Central Lads Club, 11314 and religion, 112 Settlement, 31, 110, 112 West End Jews, and JHO, 50 white slavery see prostitution Whitechapel demographics, 279 mothers and work, 38 Whitechapel Gallery, 88 services, 123 Williams, Bill, The Making of Manchester Jewry, 6 women acculturation, 611 and class, 78 and clubs/ settlements, 110 and Jewish Free Reading Room ( JFRR), 106 and learning English, 87 and philanthropic services, 55 and Reform synagogues, 92 and religion, 78 and trades unions, 1557 and voluntary work, 5963 and wage earning, 160 and workplace, 14966 and WWI war industries, 1634 as community leaders/ workers, 17 classes, LSPC, 105 continuing education, 889 criminal activity, increased, interwar years, 1445 demographics, 279 earnings, garment industry, 1523t8.12

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