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Buy an Efficient Car

With the emergence of peak oil and climate change as hot issues, car makers have been focusing their engineers on fuel efficiency, aerodynamics and hybrid technology. So when youre next in the market for a new set of wheels consider buying an efficient car Cars are the primary mode of transport in Australia with most households having at least one. he current generation of cars emit greenhouse gases, which contribute to climate change. !or every litre of petrol used in a motor vehicle, ".# kilograms of carbon dioxide $C%"& is released from the exhaust. he new breed of efficient cars and hybrids are increasing fuel efficiency by significant margins and with electric cars about to emerge onto the market in the next few years, we will soon have cars with 'ero net carbon emissions. As one of the ma(or investments for most families, car efficiency also means lower running costs, better insurance rates and even green loans.

How to do it now!
he efficiency of the vehicle $design, engine, weight, etc.& determines the fuel consumption and the amount of greenhouse gases and air born pollution released per kilometre, so there are plenty of factors to consider to reduce the emissions you create. Buying a new efficient car !uel efficient cars have the following benefits)

hey produce fewer C%" emissions, lowering their impact on the environment and contribution to climate change. hey consume less fuel and are therefore less expensive to run, year in year out. With peak oil, carbon taxes, and climate change concerns pushing the price of fuel up, the savings derived from increased fuel efficiency will only increase. hey highlight and focus the economy and community on the value of our efficient use of energy.

As the following table demonstrates, an efficient car reduces both your annual C%" emissions and the amount of money you pump into your car at the petrol bowser. CO2 Tailpipe Emissions from Petrol Vehicles !uel Annual C%" Consumption *missions 6 73,..km ",.8.kg 9 73,..km ",86.kg Costs and Dollar Savings from Efficient fuel consumption +etrol cost per ,-.../0 Additional cost $5S $12,.-. 3litre& 4 ,. yrs most efficient& 2,#,-.. 2. 2,9,... 2:,-..

CO2 Tailpipe Emissions from Petrol Vehicles ,. 73,..km #,:-.kg ," 73,..km :,,:.kg

Costs and Dollar Savings from Efficient fuel consumption 2"",-.. 2;,... 2"8,... 2,#,-..

NOTE: Based on 15,000 kilometres annually he <reen 5ehicle <uide rates new Australian vehicles based on greenhouse and air pollution emissions. Anyone buying a car can use the guide to identify the vehicle which best meets their needs as well as one that reduces the impact on climate change and urban air =uality. >ou can use the !uel Consumption 7abel on new vehicles to compare the fuel consumption of different vehicles and estimate how much it will cost to run various models and makes. o give an indication of potential savings, a difference in fuel consumption of (ust one litre per ,.. kilometres will cost the average motorist about 2,;- a year. his is based on the motorist travelling ,-,... kilometres during the year with petrol costing 2,.#. per litre. ?f the price of fuel per litre increases by ,. cents, the difference in annual fuel costs increases by 2,-.

Emissions from different fuels


Click on the !ederal <overnment@s greenhouse gas emissions calculator to find our what your car is costing you and the environment. !uels differ in the amount of carbon and energy they contain as well as other characteristics, with implications for fuel economy and greenhouse emissions. he table below lists the amount of C%" emitted from the exhaust for each litre of a particular fuel covered by the calculator. otal C%" *mitted from 5ehicle *xhaust +er 7itre of !uel Consumed CO2 Tailpipe Emissions itre of !uel Consumed +etrol ".# kg 7+< ,.6 kg Aiesel ".8 kg he reason the weight of C%" emissions is greater than the weight of fuel is because of the addition of oxygen from the atmosphere to the fuel during combustion to form C%". ?ts also important to know, how much fuel is consumed to travel a given distance. 7+< has lower greenhouse emissions per litre of fuel consumed than petrol, but also has a lower energy content. herefore e=uivalent vehicles tend to consume more of 7+< than petrol to travel a given distance. ?n the case of diesel, its greenhouse emissions per litre

are higher than petrol, but engines designed to operate on diesel tend to be far more fuel4 efficient than petrol engines. o be sure that one vehicle has lower greenhouse emissions than another use the <reenhouse gas emissions calculator.

"y#rid Cars
A new generation of hybrid car technology is combining electric engine and battery technology with super efficient combustion engines to further reduce emissions and increase the effectiveness of hybrid vehicles. Bew hybrids are planned to go on sale in Australia in the next few years.

Electric Cars
?n the push to reduce our carbon emissions, the combustion of fossil fuels will eventually focus on a new way to power our cars. he most likely successor is the electric car, which is becoming increasingly popular. hey are fuelled by charging electric batteries or by using Cydrogen as a fuel and converting the hydrogen to electric power via a fuel cell. Combined with renewable electricity, an electric car is an emissions4free solution that is cheaper to run than fossil fuel varieties. Some of the issues to consider with electric cars include)

the distance the car will travel before re=uiring the batteries to be recharged the availability of =uick recharging stations the environmental cost of their construction the source of the electricity used to charge $does the power from burning coal or from renewable sourcesD& evolution speed of the electric car technology 4 how =uickly will the technology change and evolve and when is the best time to purchase an electric carD

0itsubishi, Conda, oyota, Bissan and many other car manufacturers will be rolling out electric cars over the next few years. o stay informed visit *5 World.

Government Rebate - LPG gas vehicle conversion


he 7+< 5ehicle Scheme offers grants of 2",... towards the purchase of a new vehicle already fitted with 7+< or a grant of 2,,-.. for the 7+< conversion of a new or used vehicle. o check your eligibility and download an application form visit the Aus?ndustry 7+< 5ehicle Scheme website. >ou can also ring the Aus?ndustry Cotline on ,# "9 :6 or email hotline1ausindustry.gov.au

!or more information on rebates check our rebates and assistance page or visit the Australian <overnment 7iving <reener website.

Additional resources

<reen 5ehicle <uide When buying an older vehicle check the !uel Consumption <uide. Aon@t forget to check the fuel consumption label on all new vehicles. Car *fficiency Smart +rinciples Arive Smarter

Why this action is important?


ransportation vehicles produce most of the key chemicals that pollute the air, causing smog and health problems. <lobal warming is also related to automotive exhaust emissions. <reenhouse gases trap heat and contribute to global warming by keeping a significant percentage of infrared radiation from escaping into space. We can all do our part to help reduce climate change by purchasing a vehicle with higher fuel economy and taking on board some of the aforementioned tips for fuel efficient driving.

Environment
!or every litre of petrol used in a motor vehicle, ".# kilograms of carbon dioxide $C%"&, is released from the exhaust. he Australian transport sector accounts for around 86 million tonnes of Australia@s total net greenhouse gas emissions, representing ,#.- per cent of Australia@s total emissions.

Wellbeing
Car emissions contribute to climate change and are responsible for much of our air pollution and the respiratory ailments that result $asthma, fatigue, chest infections, etc.&. Ariving an efficient car will also make your feel that you are taking a positive step toward living sustainably.

Cars$ Truc%s$ &ir Pollution and "ealth


Epdate Aug ".,#) FCumans crave oilF

he only certainty is that the future should look very different from the past. When we consider air pollution in cities from burning fossil fuels as the main source of energy for electricity production, transportation, home heating and industrial production, then the entire infrastructure of industrial countries must change. Climate change from burning fossil fuels is occurring with destructive forces that will continue to increase and interfere with expectations of a FnormalF life and economy. Ariving a car is the most air polluting act an average citi'en commits. Air pollution is not a good idea for a variety of reasons, large and small. he right ideas for remediation of environmental degradations involve unselfish and compassionate behavior, a scarce commodity. he right ideas involve long4term planning, conservation and a deep commitment to preserving the natural world. Without a healthy natural environment, there will be few or no healthy humans. To understand air pollution you can consider a simple schematic that divides a big problem into components. ,. 7ocal effects 4e.g. poisoning humans breathing bad air. ". Gegional effects 4 fallout from airborne pathogens 4 infections, particles, chemicals. #. <lobal effects 4 changing interactions between the atmosphere, oceans and the sun, weather effects, effects on plants and the ocean biosphere. Aevelopments in the media made Fgo greenF the slogan for action to limit the adverse effects of air pollution. <reen refers to the color of chlorophyll in plants. Chlorophyll is the basis of photosynthesis that allows plants to turn the sun@s energy into life energy. Cuman action destroys plants and replaces healthy ecosystems with concrete and asphalt. Another slogan that emerged was Fsave planet earth.F Cumans will not save the planet. he task for humans is to stop destroying the environments that sustain themselves. ?f we fail, the planet will do (ust fine without humans. The deepest pro#lem for humans is that we cannot predict the future with any accuracy' *ven the best informed scientist with the most recent data cannot know what is going to happen next. When we talk about prudence, we refer to methods of minimi'ing risk and preparing to deal with events beyond our control which can in(ure or kill us. Gecovery from extreme weather events, earth=uakes, natural catastrophes, in(ury and disease will consume an increasingly large chunk of our resources. Smart humans notice adverse changes and take action to minimi'e adverse conse=uences. Hut not all human are smart or prudent. he year "..9 will be remembered as the near4collapse of capitalist economies. Among the corporations in trouble in the ES and Canada were <eneral 0otors and Chrysler. All the ES3Canada car and truck manufacturers had promoted their larger vehicles on customers by exploiting the innate human tendency to seek domination over others. Higger is better. ?n "..;, <0 and Chrysler refurbished their operations and offered

smaller, more fuel efficient vehicles for sale. !ord appeared to be unscathed by the recession. Car design has changed radically and fuel efficiency as been increased and sales have increased. he explosion of a a deep sea oil rig in the <ulf of 0exico is a reminder that gas and diesel consumers are partners in causing environmental degradation and disasters. While H+ gets most of the blame, two ES companies who built and operated the oil rig actually caused the problem. Among the most angry H+ critics are consumers of H+ products. Surely the blame should be widely distributed and must include the consumers of petroleum products. When cars and trucks are the focus, manufacturers are the chosen culprits, but the people who buy and drive vehicles are really responsible for creating a better future for themselves and their children. he immediate challenge for vehicle users is not only to replace existing vehicles with more fuel efficient versions, but to reduce use and participate in a new vision of car4free living environments. Citi'ens and not governments must end the madness of traffic, gridlock, superhighways, smog and lethal accidents. !riendly or ethal( Cars have two opposite personalities. %ne is friendly and attractive the other is destructive and can be lethal. he desire to own a car is linked to pleasure, sexuality, convenience and freedom. 0en lust for big, prestigious cars they way they lust for women and women desire men with big, prestigious cars. 0en are also interested in power, performance and want to know something about the engine, although modern engines are sufficiently complex to discourage even the professional mechanic. Some of the engine complexity electronic monitoring and ad(ustment of engine performance under different operating conditions. Several devices are added to the engine to handle air flow in, fuel delivery and exhaust out. Computers have been added to monitor and control engine, brake and transmission operation. he design of new hybrid vehicles involves even more complexity with electronic sensors feeding data to computers that manage every system. he cost of repairs will increase as will the demand for new sophistication from mechanics. he most advanced designs use only black box modules that cannot be repaired at the local garage but can be replaced with new or rebuild modules. his might be a wonderful solution, but only if you can afford it. E)travagant Car *se *missions from passenger vehicles increased in Canada and the ES despite attempts to make engines more fuel efficient and despite the addition of antipollution devices. he two main reasons were) ,. vehicle use increasedI ". in the ES and Canada, cars got biggerI pick4up trucks, vans and sports vehicles often replaced smaller, lighter passenger cars. An average new vehicle in "..# consumed more fuel that its counterpart in ,;99. ?n the ESA in ,;98 cars averaged "-.; miles to the gallon. !uel efficiency dropped to ":.6 miles3gallon by ,;;9 and it dropped further as larger vehicles replace smaller ones. he decision to drive cars long distances to work was common among people in Borth America and *urope in the past 6. years. ?n retrospect, it is clear that commuters made a mistake. hey should now stop commuting by cars. heir mistake had health and economic conse=uences for them personally and for every other inhabitant of planet earth.

Despite compelling evidence of climate change, governments in many affluent countries have avoided their responsibility to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. he ESA is the biggest emitter of greenhouse gases worldwide. ES emissions increased to 8 billion tones of C%" in "..:, ,6J higher than emissions in the late ;.@s. he E/ did better reducing their emissions to about ..6 billion tons, ,:J below ,;;. levels. An accurate analysis of total greenhouse gas emission is difficult or impossible to achieve since there many variable and unknowns. ake the ES estimates, for example, and pursue the argument that the ES is also responsible for some emissions from other countries, which provide raw materials and manufacturing for the ES economy. Gomm argued)
"U.S. businesses have off-shored more and more of the U.S. economys and CO2 emissions to parts of the world where the carbon intensity is higher but labor is cheaper. he U.S. has essentially off-shored its emission problem to the rest of the world! turning their economies into dumping grounds for our own air pollution. "

Car e)haust is to)ic at ground level *xhaust from all combustion engines combine to produce local adverse effects on the health of car users and all innocent bystanders. Cities have become islands of toxic chemicals from the unrestrained use of vehicles burning fossil fuels. Cars are noisy, ugly, often dangerous and dominate the experience of modern living. We are now used to the carnage on roads and highways4 attempts to reduce death and disability from our motori'ed containers have not substantially altered the negative impact on society. he adverse health effects of car exhaust are pervasive and difficult to measure. See *xhaust Chemicals. &dvertising and Delusions elevision Ads for sports and recreation vehicles show solitary, impeccable machines in wilderness locations. %ne 5 ad shows a couple making a mad dash to escape the city core in their expensive, luxury upholstered clone of the land4rover. he ads are selling a fantasy of wilderness, fresh air and escape. ?s the consumer is completely deludedD hese vehicles are mostly found in suburban driveways and in the traffic (ams of polluted cities. hey have nowhere to go to escape the environmental degradation they help to create) :x: drives and large tires are rarely useful in cities and are not suited to highway driving. >ou see these machines, submerged in suburban driveways by the floods they helped to create. he latest car advertising has switched to styling, crash protection, interior comforts and fuel efficiency as the main selling points. While these improvements are welcome, reduced vehicle use is the most essential remedy and is seldom mentioned. Ethanol Combustion engines contribute to greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere and are responsible for climate changes. A sane, sober revision of vehicle use is long overdue. While ethanol has been championed as an alternative to petroleum fuels, it mainly helps to reduce dependency on oil producing countries. *thanol or methanol can be blended with gasoline to reduce petroleum dependency. <asoline engines can use up to ,.J ethanol without modification. Bew FflexF engines can use higher percentages of ethanol up to ,..J. Borth American and *uropean flex4fuel vehicles are optimi'ed to run on a maximum blend of ,-J gasoline with 9-J ethanol $*9- fuel&. he production of flex engine vehicles has increased, but the supply of flex fuel is limited. *thanol no longer looks like a solution to fossil fuel dependency.

here are problems in the bigger picture of carbon consumption and emission. When ethanol is made from corn, some its energy value $up to 8.J in the least efficient plants& must be spent on its production. While innovations in production technologies continue, there will be an ongoing re=uirement to invent new methods of production. ?nvestment in new technologies will re=uire government policy changes, subsidies and research grants. Climate change with extreme weather events may reduce corn production in the ES, where for decades corn surpluses were common. he new competition between ethanol plants and food production suddenly in "..9 became an international issue. ?f you are an optimist, you might argue that improved technologies will save the day 444 corn yields per acre have been increasing mostly because of genetic engineering, so that food and ethanol production need not compete in the future. he ethanol industry uses only the carbohydrate fraction of the cornI the protein and oil fractions are used as animal feed to be consumed by humans as dairy products, eggs and meat. ?f you are a pessimist, you might point to the recurrent droughts in recent years in the ES corn producing regions and predict more crop failures in years to come. %ther non4food vegetable sources of carbon will become alternative sources of raw materials. $See Hiofuels&. "ydrogen he ultimate cars burn hydrogen in fuel cells, but despite working prototypes, a hydrogen fuel infrastructure is a distant fantasy. %ne problem is the low energy density of li=uefied hydrogen that re=uires larger tanks than the e=uivalent gasoline tank. Another problem is that producing hydrogen re=uires a large amount of energy. ?n Canada, there are opportunities to dam more rivers and produce electricity with falling water, a non polluting, renewable energy resource. A science fiction fantasy might include a novel way of splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen with less energy consumed but no4one knows how to do this in ".,,. *ven if new non4polluting energy sources are developed, hydrogen storage and distribution re=uires investment in a very expensive infrastructure. An innovative use of hydrogen added in small =uantities to gasoline and diesel engines4 has been achieved by the h"gogo CGB# Cydrogen <enerator he generator produces hydrogen from distilled water and is retro4fitted to regular engines. he hydrogen input results in more efficient fuel burn, in reduced emissions and improved engine efficiency and power output. he Ceathrow Airport in *ngland retrofitted hydrogen generator units to a range of vehicles and reported up to :.J reduction in carbon dioxide, particulates, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbon emissions. *nderstanding Comple) Ecosystems %ur ability to monitor and understand the atmosphere has taken a =uantum leap in recent years. We have gone beyond naKve linear models and now appreciate that if complex systems such as the atmosphere, the oceans, and land ecosystems change, they may become unstable and more unfriendly. *xtra heat will cause more turbulence, and weather patterns will change in unpredictable ways. While climate models are interesting, they have have limited to no predictive abilities. Gather than playing with unreliable, long4term predictions, a sober assessment of what is happening right now should motivate action to change human behavior. Actions, such as driving cars whenever and wherever we please, do pollute the air, change the atmosphere

and cause more extreme weather events. Smart humans notice adverse changes and take action to minimi'e adverse conse=uences. Hut not all human are smart or prudent. +hat Can , do( Drive ess Hoth local and global pollution would be reduced if each car4driving person pledged to use their car #.J less starting immediately. his is a responsible, individual contribution to a global problem. At least #.J of vehicle use is optional 4 either recreational or la'y driving when walking, cycling or public transit would be a better choice. Cities can reduce vehicular traffic by more than #.J over the next # to - years by improving public transportation. Commuter trains are a model of urban access for suburban residents who drive their cars short distances, park in terminal lots and ride the train into town. Cities can create car free 'ones and develop park4like corridors that would allow movement through the city by walking, cycling and limited use of small, light electric vehicles in vehicle corridors specially designed to be safe and efficient. he rising cost of crude oil is altering driving habits and big auto companies closed plants that produced SE5s and pickup trucks. ?f you are interested in longer term human survival, then high cost oil is a real benefit. With or without higher fuel prices, each person can drive less and resist the temptation to buy larger, heavier cars, trucks and sports vehicles. ?f you really need a :x: to drive off4roads in wilderness settings, you need a rugged clunker that@s already got scratches, dents and mud on the tires. Carry a shovel, axe, chain saw, and a come4along in the back. ?f you can afford it, add a heavy duty winch up front. Stay off city streets and highways. See Aisease *ffects, Car *xhaust

Solutions: Reduce Air Pollution by changing the design and use of motor vehicles
he use of cars must be re4defined. Car use has to be considered a privilege, not a right. he cost of environmental damage and reclamation has to be added to the cost of owning and operating a car. 5ehicle use should no longer be subsidi'ed. Geduce number of 5ehicles 4 Erban areas need to set vehicular =uotas and issue permits to limit the number of vehicles to control regional traffic congestion and air pollution. Small hybrid or ,..J electric cars are desirable, but make their occupants specially vulnerable when they collide with much larger vehicles. A sane city would separate small, efficient passenger vehicles from buses and trucks. ?mprove efficiency of vehicles 4 reverse the trend to larger vehiclesI engineering solutions to emissions of combustion engines. !lex fuel and hybrid cars are a step in the right direction but in small numbers will not have a significant impact on air pollution. Geduced vehicle use and traffic reform can be a bigger and more immediate remedy for urban air pollution. ?mproved efficiency of traffic is important. *xamples are) dedicated bus lanes and priority for car4pools and vehicles with # or more passengers. raffic can

be scheduled to optimi'e road usageI e.g. commercial traffic at nightI large companies can stagger working hours and decentrali'e administrative operations. Commuting long distances in cars to work needs to be phased out. Single passenger commuting to work should be strongly discouraged. The most accessi#le measure of air pollution contri#ution is the amount of fossil fuel #urned' Gecreational driving can be reduced immediately. Car owners need to pay for miles driven and fuel burned on an escalating scale. *ach person can have a Ffree drivingF allotment per year and pay increasing insurance and3or taxes on fuel consumption beyond this limit. -overnments can encourage the reduction of vehicular use #y.

+romoting 5oluntary abstention ?ncrease +ublic ransit 4 diversify options and limit access to existing roads. Separate commercial and private traffic to increase efficient use of roads Stop building car4oriented roads and highways Geplace #.J of the existing roads designed for cars with park4like corridors ?n cities, build more walking paths, bicycle routes and roads for small electric vehicles Geduce commuting 4 link residence and business activities by re'oning and rebuilding cities. Geward car4pools and car4sharing plans Gedefine road use by defining access privileges 4 no longer a right Goad olls and increased gasoline and vehicle registration taxes Hase car license fees on fuel consumption in the previous year. Ese exponential fee rate increase for high fuel consumption individuals. +rovide generous development grants and tax incentives for all non4polluting transportation alternatives.

-overnments can use a com#ination of


5oluntary and Geward Schemes Compulsory and +enalty Schemes ?ncentives for Bew echnology and Changes in ?ndustrial !uel Consumption

ong term solutions re=uire that vehicles use less polluting energy sources such biofuels, propane and natural gas. ? am sorry to say that the marketing of Fgreen solutionsF to global warming is becoming yet another scam. %ne problem is that producing alternate fuels and hybrid cars often re=uires C%" emissions that offset or cancel the benefits of improve vehicular design. See Hiofuels Electric Cars are on the road, under development and promise to become vehicles of choice for urban transportation. he new cars represent advances in technology that link

computers, electric motors and batteries into systems that drive well, self4regulate, and re=uire little maintenance. he main components are modules that are removed to be refurbished in speciali'ed factories and recycled. %ne limitation is battery technology. Hatteries are heavy, wear out =uickly with repeated recharging and re=uire expensive, rather scarce materials such as lithium. Another more severe limitation is obtaining electricity from a non4polluting power source. *ven if all the technical problems of building reliable electric cars were solved, there remains a daunting list of infrastructure problems yet to be solved. While electric cars produce little air pollution, generating electricity continues to #e a ma/or source of air pollution. ?f an electric car is recharged with electricity produced by a fossil fuel burning generator, there may be no net benefit to the atmosphere. A real solution for car technology would reduce air pollution beginning at source materials and would continue through the use cycle of the vehicle. While is it feasible to use fossil fuels in generation plants with all the latest techni=ues of emission control and C." recycling, these plants are uncommon. Hefore more people plug in electric vehicles, a new infrastructure of non4polluting, affordable electricity production will have to be built. >ou might imagine new residential and commercial buildings that conserve energy and generate their own electricity with solar panels and wind generators that also charge their own electric vehicles. he cost of constructing new, more autonomous buildings is so great that only the wealthiest citi'ens can afford the capital costs. ,n the immediate future reduced car use is the #est solution' A gas4inefficient clunker driven twice a week for ". km is a better choice than a new expensive hybrid car driven everyday for ,.. /m. Bo solution is better than fewer vehicles and reduced vehicle use.

Car E)haust 0 &ir Pollutants


?n cities across the globe, the personal automobile is the single greatest polluter, as emissions from a billion vehicles on the road add up to a planet4wide problem. Ariving a private car is a typical citi'en@s most air polluting activity. he negative effects of automotive emissions are maximum when you sit in traffic surrounded by cars, their engines idling. *veryone sitting in a traffic (am is getting poisoned. -reenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons $C!Cs&. hese gases act like the glass covering a greenhouse, letting sunlight in but blocking some of the infrared radiation from the earth@s surface that carries heat back into space. he gases act like a blanket wherever their concentration increases. 7ocal concentrations increase local heat and increased differences between hotter and colder regions drives weather events into more extreme ranges. %ver many years, the total amount of greenhouse gases accumulates and the average temperature of the whole planet is increasing. he planet@s thermostat had been set at a pleasant average temperature of -; degrees $!& for the last ,. thousand years or so and is now rising.

?n our view, the main concern should be the effect of heat retention on local climates right now. ?t is possible to imagine increasingly anomalous weather and increasing loss of life and property from greenhouse gas accumulation with little or no change in the average temperature of the planet, although, we do expect slow progressive increase in average temperatures. The Com#ustion Process <asoline and diesel fuels are mixtures of hydrocarbons $made of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon atoms.& Cydrocarbons are burned by combining with oxygen. Bitrogen and sulphur atoms are also present and combine with oxygen when burned to produce gases. Automotive engines emit several types of pollutants. Typical Engine Com#ustion. !uel L Air MN Cydrocarbons L Bitrogen %xides L Carbon Aioxide L Carbon 0onoxide L water Cydrocarbon emissions are fragments of fuel molecules, only partially burned. Cydrocarbons react in the presence of nitrogen oxides and sunlight to form ground4level o'one, a ma(or component of smog. %'one irritates the eyes, nose, throat and damages the lungs. A number of exhaust hydrocarbons are also toxic, some with the potential to cause cancer. 1itrogen O)ides Ender high pressure and temperature conditions in an engine, nitrogen and oxygen atoms react to form nitrogen oxides. Catalytic converters in car exhaust systems break down heavier nitrogen gases, forming nitrogen dioxide $B%"& 4 #.. times more potent than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas. B%" makes up about 8." percent of the gases that cause global warming. 5ehicles with catalytic converters produced nearly half of that B%". B%" also originates from nitrogen4based fertili'ers and manure from farm animals. Car#on 2ono)ide Carbon monoxide $C%& is a colorless, odorless, poisonous gas, a product of incomplete burning of hydrocarbon4based fuels. Carbon monoxide consists of a single carbon atom and a single oxygen atom linked together $C%&, the product of incomplete combustion of fuel. 0ost C% is produced when air4to4fuel ratios are too low in the engine during vehicle starting, when cars are not tuned properly, and at higher altitudes, where thin air reduces the amount of oxygen available for combustion. wo4 thirds of the carbon monoxide emissions come from transportation sources, with the largest contribution coming from cars. ?n urban areas, the passenger vehicle contribution to carbon monoxide pollution can exceed ;.J. Gead more about Carbon 0onoxide Car#on Dio)ide E.S. *nvironmental +rotection Agency $*+A& originally viewed carbon dioxide as a product of FperfectF combustion, but now views C%" as a pollution concern. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that traps the earth@s heat and contributes to Climate Change

Evaporative Emissions Cydrocarbon pollutants also escape into the air through fuel evaporation 4 evaporation causes significant hydrocarbon pollution from cars on hot days when o'one levels are highest. *vaporative emissions occur several ways) Diurnal. <asoline evaporation increases as the temperature rises during the day, heating the fuel tank and venting gasoline vapors. 3unning oses. he hot engine and exhaust system can vapori'e gasoline when the car is running. Sitting Evaporation. he engine remains hot for a period of time after the car is turned off, and gasoline evaporation continues when the car is parked. &dding !uel. <asoline vapors are always present in fuel tanks. hese vapors are forced out when the tank is filled with li=uid fuel. $See Cars and +ollution ES *+A !act Sheet %0S4-& Ben4ene is the main toxin in the hydrocarbon fraction of exhaust. Hen'ene and other less known hydrocarbons are produced in petroleum refining, and are widely used as solvents and as materials in the production of various industrial products and pesticides. Hen'ene also is found in gasoline and in cigarette smoke. %ther environmental sources of ben'ene include gasoline $filling& stations, underground storage tanks that leak, wastewater from industries that use ben'ene, chemical spills, and groundwater next to landfills containing ben'ene. *xposure to ben'ene can cause cancer, especially leukemias and lymphomas. Hen'ene has a suppressive effect on bone marrow and it impairs blood cell maturation and amplification. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocar#on 5P&"6 +ACs are a group of chemicals that are formed during the incomplete burning of coal, oil and gas, garbage, or other organic substances. +ACs can be man4made or occur naturally. A few of the +ACs are used in medicines and to make dyes, plastics, and pesticides. hey are found throughout the environment in the air, water and soil. here are more than ,.. different +AC compounds. Although the health effects of the individual +ACs vary, the following ,- +ACs are considered as a group with similar toxicity) acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, ben'anthracene, ben'opyrene, ben'ofluoranthene, ben'operylene, ben'ofluoranthene, chrysene diben'anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, indenopyrene, phenanthrene, pyrene. ong term solutions re=uire reduced combustion of all kinds. While vehicles with new energy sources such ethanol, biofuels, propane and natural gas can contribute to reduced air pollution, their benefit is limited if vehicle use continues at current intensities. ?f you pay more money to buy a hybrid car, but drive it more, you have contributed little to solving air pollution problems. ?f you buy a gas gu''ling clunker and use only one gallon of gas to go ,- miles each week, you have contributed more to the solution.

he problem with all alternative fuels is that the manufacture of fuels re=uires energy, distribution with a manufacturing infrastructure that consume energy, often derived from burning fossil fuels. Bo alternative fuel is ideal. See Switch to Hiofuels "ydrogen Eltimately cars might burn hydrogen in fuel cells, but despite working prototypes, a hydrogen economy is a distant fantasy. here are many problems to be solved before hydrogen can replace fossil fuels as a portable energy source. he biggest problem is that producing hydrogen re=uires a large amount of energy. ?n Canada, there are opportunities to dam rivers and produce electricity with falling water, a non polluting, renewable energy resource. A more problematic energy source would be be nuclear reactors that FburnF uranium or plutonium. *ven if new non4polluting energy sources are developed, hydrogen storage and distribution re=uires a new, very expensive infrastructure that could replace gasoline and diesel fuels. With once rich countries such as the ESA on the verge of bankruptcy and facing the extensive repairs of already aging, derelict infrastructures, adding a new, unprecedented development costs seems unlikely. Enless, of course the priorities in the ES shift dramatically. he ES, for example, could adopt a sane, smart strategy, reduce its military budget by -.J and invest the money and skills in rebuilding the country@s infrastructure with new sustainable energy sources. O. What is a catalystD A. A catalyst helps substances react together but remains unchanged in the process. ?n an automobile catalytic converter, the catalyst helps the pollutants $unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic fraction of particulates& react with each other and other components of the exhaust gas to form non4toxic compounds $water, carbon dioxide and nitrogen&. O. Ao catalytic converters spoil the performance and driveability of cars and increase fuel consumptionD A. 0odern catalytic converters do not reduce vehicle performance significantly under most driving conditions because they are designed with low backpressure as an integral part of the exhaust system. With the advances incorporated in todays engines, they perform significantly better both in terms of power and fuel economy than their pre4 catalyst ancestors. O. ?s it true that catalytic converters don@t work on a short (ourney such as the Fschool runF or a visit to the shopsD A. Bo. While catalytic converters do need a moderately hot exhaust to start working, it is a myth that catalytic converters do not work on short (ourneys. *mission control systems become operational as soon as the engine conditions permit. ?n fact modern catalytic converters fitted to passenger cars start working in a few seconds and Aiesel +articulate !ilters remove particulates under all conditions.

O. What is the effect of sulfur4free fuel on exhaust emissionsD A. *xhaust emissions will be lower 4 particularly from catalyst4e=uipped cars. Sulfur in petrol and diesel fuel has a ma(or negative impact on catalyst performance, especially for B%x catalysts and adsorbers. he effect of sulfur on catalyst performance becomes more critical as lower tailpipe emissions are targeted for the very low emission levels now re=uired. Sulfur strongly competes against pollutants for FspaceF on the catalyst surface limiting the efficiency of catalyst systems to convert pollutants at any sulfur concentration 4 so the lower the sulfur levels in fuels the better the catalyst performance that can be obtained. he conversion of sulfur to a sulphate aerosol can cause net increases in diesel particulate emission. O. What are the differences in toxic emissions from diesel and petrol enginesD A. Hecause maximum power production from diesel engines is fuel and not air limited it is still the only engine that is Flean burnF across the full power3speed range. his brings real fuel and carbon dioxide emission savings 4 good for the global environment. Hut it challenges the catalyst chemist to control nitrogen oxide and particulate emissions at low exhaust temperatures with excess oxygen. ?n parallel to low sulfur diesel fuel introduction, Aiesel +articulate !ilters $A+!& are now fitted on passenger cars and Selective Catalytic Geduction $SCG& catalysts and B%x traps are being progressively introduced. his will help the diesel engine to reach the exhaust emission levels of the petrol engine. op O. Cow can toxic particles from engines be avoidedD A. he best way is to use a particulate filter. hese systems consist of a filter positioned in the exhaust line and designed to collect solid and li=uid particulate matter $+0& emissions while allowing the exhaust gases to pass through the system. ?ncreasing numbers of diesel cars, trucks and buses are now being fitted with Aiesel +articulate !ilters $A+!&. O. Ao all filters have the same efficiencyD A. Bo, based on engine technology and engine management, different filter technologies may be used to meet the prescribed emission standards. ?t is possible with advanced filter technology $wall4flow filters& to almost completely eliminate the carbon particulates, including fine particulates of less than ,.. nanometres $nm& diameter with an efficiency of N;-J in mass and N;;J in number. he removal of ultra4fine particles is very important since health experts believe that they are carried deep into the lungs and are thought to be the most dangerous si'e of +0. +artial4flow filters operate with the bypass flow principle. he overall filtration efficiency of these partial4flow filters is #.46.J in mass depending on application and operating conditions.

O. Aoesn@t the A+! become plugged with particulate material after a whileD A. +articulate filters retain all particles) soot, lube4oil ashes, engine wear products and, when applicable, !uel Horne Catalyst $!HC& ashes. %n4board catalytic soot burning allows automatic regeneration of the A+!@s efficiency. Aepending on the application, this can be done through passive regeneration $continuous oxidation of particulates by B%"&, the use of a !HC which lowers the soot burning temperature, or, active engine control strategies periodically increasing the exhaust temperature. Any residual ash can be cleaned during maintenance if re=uested by the car manufacturer but most passenger car systems are now designed to last for the lifetime of the vehicle without maintenance. O. ?s the catalyst helpful to health and the environmentD A. >es, the average family car would emit ,- tons of the toxic and harmful polluting gases $carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides&, over a ,.4year life, if catalytic converters were not fitted to all new cars to remove ;9J of pollution as re=uired by current regulations. O. Catalytic converters produce C%". ?s this adding to the greenhouse effectD A. All the carbon contained in fossil fuels is ultimately converted to C%" in the atmosphere. Hy accelerating that conversion, and removing other dangerous pollutants in the process, catalytic converters do not increase overall C%" levels. he only way to reduce C%" emissions is to burn less fossil fuel. op O. What is retrofitD A. ypically, retrofit involves the addition of an emissions control device to remove emissions from an existing vehicle. Getrofits can be very effective at reducing emissions of the legacy fleet, eliminating up to ;. percent of pollutants in some cases. Some examples of emissions control devices used for diesel retrofit include diesel oxidation catalysts, diesel particulate filters and selective catalytic reduction systems. 0ore information on Ceavy4duty Aiesel retrofit in *urope can be found here. O. Are catalytic converters fragileD Ao they need replacing fre=uentlyD A. he modern catalytic converter is robust, one of the most reliable elements in the engine management system and corresponds to the lifetime of the car. Ender *uro : emissions legislation, it is re=uired that the emissions remain below the legal limits for at least ,.. ... km. his will increase to ,6. ...km with the new *uro - legislation as of "..;. O. ?s more pollution emitted in the mining and refining of precious metals than the pollution they remove from engine exhaustD

A. Gesearchers$,& have calculated that after the first : ;.. km of the vehicle@s life there is a net benefit to the environment. his is based on the acidification potential of nitrogen oxides $B%x& emissions removed from exhausts by autocatalysts and the sulfur oxides $S%x& emitted in precious metal refining. (1) Hagelcken, Hoc !eld, "ediga, #utoa$gaskatalysatoren, %001& O. Are there enough precious metals for catalytic convertersD A. he precious metals, including platinum $+t&, have been recycled since long before this became a necessity to conserve our resources. !rom the onset of their use in cars, catalytic converters have been removed from end4of4life $*%7& vehicles and the platinum, palladium $+d& and rhodium $Gh& recovered. ?n *urope, autocatalysts platinum recycled share increased from - to ,.J between ,;;8 and "..8 whilst that for palladium went from essentially 'ero to ##J over the same period. %n a worldwide basis, ",J of +t, +d and Gh demand for automotive catalyst was met by recovered precious metals in "..8$"&. he share of recycled precious metals continues to grow as the first generation of cars e=uipped with catalysts are reaching the end of their useful lives. Although highly efficient refining processes are available and used to recover +<0s from autocatalysts with more than ;-J yield, significant inefficiencies still exist in the end4of4life phase of cars. *specially old *uropean cars are increasingly exported to developing countries where for various reasons no proper recycling takes place at the final end4of4life. ?n total this leads to considerable losses from the autocatalyst lifecycle, thus a more sound management of *%74cars as well as to create a global recycling infrastructure is needed. he current leakages in the autocatalyst lifecycle are not a real threat from the reserve base, but better recycling rates would mitigate price volatility and environmental impact of the +<0 supply. (%) 'o nson (att ey )latinum %00* +nterim ,e-ie. O. Cow are used catalytic converters recycledD A. 0odern car dismantlers, scrap yards and workshops remove used catalytic converters from end4of4life vehicles according to the *uropean *nd4of47ife 5ehicle Airective which specifies minimum levels of recycling for scrapped vehicles. Specialist companies collect them and accumulate bigger lots at central warehouses. he converters are decannedI i.e. the ceramic or metallic catalyst is removed from the steel can by special cutting devices. he steel is sorted by =uality and sold as secondary scrap to steel plants. he catalyst with the precious metals is delivered to precious metals refiners, specialised in the recovery of +latinum <roup 0etals $+<0& to generate high purity platinum, palladium and rhodium identical to newly extracted +<0 from the mines. op O. Cow are pollutants regulated worldwideD A. *uropean and American emission limits are used in other continents. !or example, in ?ndia, passenger cars and commercial vehicles met Hharat stage ? $e=uivalent to *uro ,&

nation4wide in "... and Hharat stage ?? $e=uivalent to *uro "& in "..-. ?n ,, ?ndian metropolitan areas, Hharat stage ??? $*uro #& has to be met since "..-. his Hharat stage ??? is now planned nation4wide in ".,. except for ,, ma(or cities where the tougher Hharat stage ?5 $*uro :& limit will be re=uired. !or "4# wheelers, Hharat stage ?? norms are applicable from "..- and Hharat stage ??? will come into force between ,st April "..9 and ,st April ".,.. ?n China, *uro ,4based legislation was introduced in "... $<H stage ,& followed by a *uro "4type limits in "..#4"..: $<H stage "&, a *uro #4type limits were introduced in "..8 $<H stage #& and *uro : is planned for ".,. $<H stage :&. Specific emission limits are to be progressively introduced in big cities such as <H stage : in Hei(ing at the beginning of "..9. !uel =uality standards enhancement is now re=uired to move to more stringent legislation on emissions. O. ?f a catalytic converter is damaged in an accident how can one be sure that the replacement catalyst fitted on my vehicle is functioning as effectively as the original e=uipmentD A. A converter supplied from a franchised dealer for the car is the most reliable way to ensure this. Bew converters supplied by reputable, specialist exhaust suppliers should be produced in accordance with strict rules, developed by the *uropean Commission, to ensure similar performance to the original e=uipment part. he use of second4hand converters, from for example a car involved in an accident, is not recommended. *ven if the si'e of the converter fits the catalyst may have been developed for a different engine or poisoned or otherwise damaged in its former life.