Sie sind auf Seite 1von 100

Voyager & Pager

What Do They Have In common

Is There Any Relationship between Space


&
Commercial Technologies

By: Mars Sprit


marsspirt@gmail.com
?What Is the Similarity Between these 2 Systems
Perhaps The Only Similarity Is That Both Are Now
Retired & Out Of service
But Before Any Judgment Lets Get
More Acquainted
with Both Technologies
Voyager Mission Design
The Backgrounds Of The Grand Tour

In 1965 Gary Flandro of the JPL Proposed a


Plan in which, with taking the advantage of a
once-every-175-year planetary alignment,
lunching the fastest spacecraft ever towards the
GAS Giants was conceived possible.
In his plan choosing a gravity assist trajectory,
in which the spacecraft exploited a planet's
gravitational field to increase its velocity and
alter its trajectory, thereby reducing both launch
power requirements and flight time , was
suggested. Later on the plan was called Grand
Tour.
The Voyager Program

Shrinking the NASA and


federal Budget cuts, Scaled
back the Grand Tour in to
the Voyager Program .
The Voyager Program
The Voyager program consists of a pair of
unmanned scientific probes, Voyager 1 and
Voyager 2. They were launched in 1977 to
take advantage of a favorable planetary
alignment of the late 1970s. Although they
were officially designated to study just Jupiter
and Saturn, however with Grand Tour in mind
their launches were timed to enable the Grand
Tour if desired . Because of this alignment,
Voyager could visit each of the Gas Giants in
just twelve years, instead of the 30 that would
usually be required.
The Voyager Program

Voyager 1 is the farthest human-made object from


Earth, traveling away from both the Earth and the
Sun at a relatively faster speed than any other
probe. Though its sister-craft, Voyager 2, was
launched one month earlier, Voyager 2 will never
pass Voyager 1. Neither will the New Horizons
mission to Pluto, despite being launched from
Earth at a faster speed than both Voyager craft,
since during its flight Voyager 1 benefited from a
number of gravity assisted speed boosts.
The Voyager Program – Voyager 1
Voyager 1 was launched on
September 5, 1977 by
NASA from Cape
Canaveral aboard a Titan
IIIE Centaur rocket, shortly
after its sister craft,
Voyager 2 on August 20,
1977. Despite being
launched after Voyager 2,
Voyager 1 was sent on a
faster trajectory so it
reached Jupiter and Saturn
before its sister craft.
The Voyager Program – Voyager 1
Trajectory & planetary science mission
Voyager 1s closest approach to Jupiter was on March 5, 1979. After completing the
mission using a gravity assist maneuver its course was changed towards Saturn.

Voyager 1's Saturn flyby occurred in November 1980. Because of the earlier discovery of a
thick atmosphere on Titan, the Voyager controllers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory elected
for Voyager 1 to make a close approach of Titan and terminate it’s Grand Tour. The Titan-
approach trajectory caused an additional gravity assist that took Voyager 1 out of the plane
of the ecliptic, thus ending it’s planetary science mission.
The Voyager Program – Voyager 2
Trajectory & planetary science mission

Voyager 2’s closest approach to Jupiter and


Saturn occurred on July 9, 1979 and August
26, 1981 respectively. After the Saturn flyby,
the camera platform on Voyager 2 locked
up briefly, putting plans to officially extend
the mission to Uranus and Neptune in
jeopardy. Fortunately, the mission team was
able to fix the problem caused by overuse
that temporarily depleted its lubricant and
the probe was given the go-ahead to
examine Uranus.
It's closest approach to Uranus and
Neptune occurred on January 24, 1986, and
on August 25, 1989 respectively .
Dr. Ed Stone, project scientist
for the Voyager mission
JPL's director 1991-2007
The Voyager Program - Discoveries
The very long list of discoveries & achievements of the
Voyager Program is beyond the scope of this presentation
however briefly:
The two Voyagers have explored
•more planets (four)
•more moons (22), than any other space flight
•have returned 80,000 high-resolution images,
•have returned 5000Gbits of scientific data
•At more than 14 light-hours, Voyager1 is the most distant
human-made object from Earth
•Voyager1 is the first human-made object that entered the
heliosheath, the termination shock region between the solar
system and interstellar space, a vast area where the Sun's
influence gives way to the other bodies in the galaxy
Scientific Instruments Onboard Voyager
instruments to support eleven scientific investigations

• Medium& high resolution television


cameras
• spectrometers
• Photometric instruments for
atmospheric and other analyses
• radio receivers to measure planetary
radio emissions and plasma waves
• numerous sensors to measure fields
and charge particles
• high precision Earth/spacecraft radio
link for communication, navigation,
and science purposes
The role of telecommunication in voyager mission
No deep space missions would be possible without a
reliable telecommunication system and Voyager was
not an exclusion . The Voyager telecommunication
system consists of two parts, the system onboard
spacecraft and the systems on Earth. At the launch
time Significant parts of the ground-system
technology in use for the Uranus and Neptune
encounters were simply unavailable however, it had a
decade and a half to continue to develop to meet the
needs associated with steadily decreasing received
signal strength and also to improve navigation
techniques in the face of the increasing round-trip
light time to the spacecraft .
The telecommunication system onboard voyager

• A large 3.66 m antenna with dual X-band /S-band


(8.5 GHz/2 GHz) feed
• The antenna Gain: 48.2 dB in X-band
• 1+1 20 W X-band transmitter that provides downlink
telemetry (high resolution Images and other scientific
data)
• 1+1 S-band transmitter
• At Neptune the data rate was 21,600 bits/sec
• Bit rates from 40 b/s to 115,200 b/s were used at various
times
The ground-system

DSN 70-m Antenna goldstone


In different occasions different Earth Station
facilities were contributing to the mission.

•The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN)


•Very Large Array (VLA), San Agustin, Socorro,
New Mexico
•Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences (ISAS),
Usuda, Japan
DSN

The NASA Deep Space Network - or DSN - is an international


network of antennas that supports interplanetary spacecraft
missions. The DSN currently consists of three deep-space
communications facilities placed approximately 120 degrees apart
around the world: at Goldstone, in California's Mojave Desert; near
Madrid, Spain; and near Canberra, Australia. This strategic
placement permits constant observation of spacecraft as the Earth
rotates, and helps to make the DSN the largest and most sensitive
scientific telecommunications system in the world.
NASA Deep Space Network
Three 64-m DSN antennas
X-band (8.5 GHz) receiving system
noise temperature:
20.9°K at 90 degrees elevation
25.5° K at 30 degrees elevation
(in clear dry weather)

Main 70-m Antenna, DSN


Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico

27 X 25m antennas in a Y-shaped


configuration equivalent to a single
130 m diameter antenna
Officially the voyager 2 mission was supposed to be terminated
after Jupiter encounter however the outstanding system design
including the computer control which in many occasions
guaranteed the system recovery from a wide range of
malfunctions, encouraged the mission control to assign the new
mission:
Exploring the Uranus and the Neptune
Mission Impossible

Exploring the Uranus and the Neptune


The role of telecommunication in voyager mission

The effect of the distance on the space mission is very clear:


The more the distance of the space probe the less the strength
of the received signal in the earth station, more over with
Uranus as the subject of the photographic imaging the problem
was not only the 6dB degradation of the signal (the power of the
received signal would be weaker by a quarter) but also it’s black
rings that is darker than the coal and the weaker the sunlight in
comparison to the sunlight at the Saturn makes the situation
tougher than one may think.
The above condition would be severer when encountering
Neptune.
The Solution

A glance @ the Miracle of Digital Communication


In 1948, Claude
Shannon published
his paper
“A Mathematical
Theory of
Communication”
in the Bell Systems
Technical Journal
tion
a

Po
rm

we
Shannon
Info

r
Theory

Noise
Channel Coding

In his paper he showed that in the presence of the


Noise (or what he called noisy channel), to transmit a given
amount of information there is a trade off between
channel bandwidth and the signal power (i.e.
If the bandwidth is minimum to overcome the noise,
the signal level should be increased or if there is no
limitation on bandwidth the signal power could be kept low)
He also showed that in a band limited communication
system by using an appropriate mathematical algorithm
(or what he called coding) there is a minimum power level
that can satisfy the error free communication.
Source Coding

In his paper he also showed that by removing the


redundancy in the information it is possible to make
the message smaller. This way a loss-less method of
compressing the data at the source is possible (source
coding) .
Matured & well defined
Yet Dead
At that time the theory was not understood,
however, gradually the mathematical base of
theory was developed by other engineers and
mathematicians. Days in days off a new coding
algorithm was introduced. At last the most
powerful coding scheme the Convolutional codes
which is the base of today’s most popular codes
was invented, however, the complexity of the
decoding procedure was still prohibitive. In 1957
this problem was solved effectively, a Sequential
decoding scheme that was really a breakthrough
was invented.
In 1959 the field which then was known as ”Information
Theory” or “Coding Theory” was matured and well defined
however because of the prohibitive price of the needed
computational power, and the complexity of error-correcting
schemes (decoder), implementation was not possible,
hardware technology was far behind, that was why in 1960’s
Coding was declared dead.
You Are My Destiny
You Are My Love
Once an Information scientist Called Deep
Space Communication and Coding a

“Marriage Made in Heaven”


Now Lets see why ?
•Power is Very Expensive in Space

•The Communication Channel in space is a prefect


match of the noisy channel

•Bandwidth is plentiful in space, so in the trade off


between free bandwidth and expensive power
the winner is the bandwidth

•The Expenses of a the computational power in a


space mission comparing to the overall Expenses
of the mission is pea nuts, in other words in 1960’s
for each 1dB of reduction in the power due to the
application of the Coding Scheme 1000,000 $ Could
have been saved
The Decade Of
the Coincidences
The Voyager Program

Voyager Mission Design Coincided the:

once-every-175-year planetary alignment

Shannon’s Coding Theory

Introducing the Integrated Circuits


A Picture Is Worth
Than
one thousand
Word
The Impact of Coding
Evolution on the
Space Missions

Mars, Mariner IV, 1964 Mars, Mariner VI, 1969


using no coding using Reed-Muller coding

Saturn, Voyager, 1981 Neptune , Voyager, 1989


using Golay coding using Reed-Solomon
The Coding Performance could be seen not only
in the sample amazing pictures in the Previous Slide but
also in many others which are chosen as the background
of the entire Presentation. Specially please note the darker
than the coal Neptune’s rings. The coding performance
could be judged by the very fine contrast between the rings
and the background. The dark rings could be distinguished
very easily from the dark background of the space.
Voyager has used 2 encoding schemes in it’s entire
mission. Lets hear the story and find out how it was
possible. It is an other amazing aspect of this interesting
mission.

A mission which was first in many aspects


A closer look into the role of
telecommunications in the
Voyager Mission
For the first phase of the mission, encountering the Jupiter
and the Saturn, because Voyager was enabled for
transmitting color images the information comparing to the
earlier mission was growing by three times so, Golay
Coding scheme was chosen. Golay coding comparing to
previous chosen coding schemes was:

•Stronger in terms of error correction


•Faster in terms of channel capacity

For the rest of the mission, encountering the Uranus and


the Neptune and with the steadily weakening the received
signal some modifications should have been applied to
telecommunication system onboard the spacecraft and to
the Ground system as well.
Encountering the Uranus

How 6dB Decrease of the received Signal


Level Was Compensated?
Remote Configurable Structures

Over-The-Air Programming

Redesigning the spacecraft and its instrument


data systems in flight via uplinked software
4 dB Compensation

Applying a new Channel Coding and


a new Source Coding Scheme
Applying a new Channel Coding Scheme
In April 1985, with a hardware encoder included in the
Spacecraft, an 8-bit (255,223) Reed-Solomon code with
“interleaving depth 4” was applied to the X-band link, as an
outer code . The inner code remained the 7, 1/2
convolutional code. The Reed-Solomon encoder was
originally included on the spacecraft for compatibility with
image compression, which needs low error probability but
efficient power use. The encoder was available at launch,
but the corresponding ground decoder was available only
later, in time for the 1986 Uranus encounter.
Applying a new Source Coding Scheme
The low error probability provided by the concatenated
Reed-Solomon/convolutional coding enabled the use of a
lossless image-compression algorithm (a compression
factor of 2.5) which was not available at the beginning of
the mission. The spacecraft’s backup prime flight data
computer was assigned to carry out the data compression
algorithm via software which was uplinked to the
spacecraft.
This was a very important contribution to the high imaging
rates achieved at Neptune. The algorithm was essentially a
universal source code on the differences between
successive pixels on a scan line.
2 dB Compensation

The CSIRO Parkes Observatory, 64-m Antenna

Real Time Arraying of Remote Antennas


Real Time Arraying of Remote Antennas
The additional 2dB
improvement of the
receiving signal was
attained by real time
arraying of a 64-m radio
telescope antenna
operated by CSIRO at
Parkes with its 320-Km
distant pairs(2X34-m +
1X64-m) in DSN facility at
Canberra, Australia via
ground microwave link. Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex
Encountering the Neptune
A New Challenge

A Further 3.5-dB Drop In Signal


Strength
Solutions to this new problem were found
in several modifications:

•The 64-m DSN antennas were upgraded to 70-m


ones
•All of the 27 antennas at VLA was equipped with X
band receivers and newly invented HEMT amplifiers
•Real-time arraying of 27 X 25-m antennas of VLA
with the 70 m and 34 m antennas at the Goldstone
Complex at the distance of 1920 Km via satellite. The
array was equivalent to a fully steerable
151-m aperture .
some times
I feel like a motherless
child
a long way from home

Voyager Beyond The Solar System


Frontiers
Both Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 are
still functioning. Periodic contact
has been maintained with both
probes to monitor conditions in the
outer expanses of the solar
system. The crafts' radioactive
power sources are still producing
electrical energy, fuelling hopes of
locating the solar system's
heliopause. It is now believed that
Voyager 1 has crossed the
termination shock in December
2004, with the heliopause an
unknown distance ahead.
Voyager 2 is at a distance of around 89.76 AU
(approximately 13.42 terameters or 12.43 light
hours) from the Sun, deep in the scattered disc,
and traveling outward at roughly 3.28 AUs a year. It
is more than twice the distance from the Sun as
Pluto.
Powering down
•As of the present date, the Voyager 2 and Voyager 1 scan
platforms including all of the platform instruments, has
been powered down.
•Only the Ultra Violet Spectrometer (UVS) of Voyager 1 is
still functioning.
•The UVS data is transmitted at 160 bits/s via X band
transmitter.
•Gyro operations will end in 2010 for Voyager 2 and 2011
for Voyager 1. Gyro operations are used to rotate the probe
360 degrees six times a year to measure the magnetic field
of the spacecraft, which is then subtracted from the
magnetometer science data.
Powering down

The two Voyager spacecraft continue to operate,


with some loss in subsystem redundancy, but
retain the capability of returning scientific data.
Both spacecraft also have adequate electrical
power and attitude control propellant to continue
operating until around 2020, when the available
electrical power will no longer support science
instrument operation. At this time, science data
return and spacecraft operations will cease.
References .
I) AFTAB, CHEUNG, KIM, THAKKAR, YEDDANAPUDI, “INFORMATION
THEORY & THE DIGITAL REVOLUTION”,6.933 Project History,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology , p.p. 17-18
II) Edward C. Posner, Lawrence L. Rauch ,Boyd D. Madsen , “ Voyager
Mission Telecommunication Firsts “, IEEE Communications Magazine, P.P.
22-27 , Sept 1990
III) http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/mission/didyouknow.html
PAGER
Pager, mostly, is a single channel packet radio receiver
which has a unique built in address (Cap Code) and is
used in radio paging or messaging networks.

Pager as a simple and cost effective communication tool,


enables the user to receive, tone, tone & voice, calling
party phone number or textual message, based on the user
needs or preferences.
A glance @ the history of Pager

Invented as nurse calling system by Alfred J. Gross in


1949, pager was not welcomed by medical staff members
at first

The early pagers were analog tone and


tone & voice pagers and the target market was
hospitals and factories with a small coverage
area, usually in-building coverage

The first commercial use was licensed by FCC in 1952

Entering big companies, like Motorola, to the pager


business gave the pager a new lease of life
Paging as public Telecommunication Service

The main problem of the analog pagers was:

•The limited code capacity


The pager’s Cap code was dependent on the combination
of 2 tones out of 30 different tones (total capacity 870
Cap code) (a metro extended version with 5000 Cap code
was available later)

•The false Cap code decoding thus false alerting


•The voice message was an other limiting factor that
limited the paging service to an on-site private service
Paging as public Telecommunication Service

The first solution was emerged as 5 tone system


with:
•A very short address transmission time (0.2 S,
comparing to 4 S of 2 tone)
•A rather large Code capacity of 100,000 codes
•Moderate false alerting protection

However the voice traffic issue, in tone & voice


pager was still a limiting factor of channel capacity
A Brief Look Into Mobile Radio Communication
Environment and Wave Propagation

Unlike Deep Space Communication which is simply


a Gaussian noise channel the mobile radio
communication environment modeled by Rayleigh-fading
is much more chaotic & complicated and decreases
pager sensitivity thus causes false alerting.
A Step Towards Digitalization

an evolutional approach

The First step


Addressing Digitalization
In 1977 Motorola finds the solution in
Coding Theory

A variant of Golay Code which was selected as the


source coding in Voyager Mission and was used for
sending error free images from Saturn and Jupiter was
considered as a potential nominee

That’s why once, one said the history of Pager is part of


the history of Motorola
A Space Proof Technology
By choosing Golay code :

•Larger Code Capacity


•More Fade Protection
•More Sensitivity and Reliability
•More Addressing per Second
•Smaller False Alarming Probability
was attained.
Although the low-cost digital integrated circuits was not available
yet, Motorola paved the way towards a fully digital pager
In 1980, Motorola introduced the
first full digital Numeric capable
pager.
The address coding was based on
Golay (23,12) which could correct 3
errors per Codeword and the message
coding was based on BCH(15,7) which
could correct 2 errors per codeword.
The excellent performance of the
pager in the metropolitan area
raised the public demand, however there
was a serious fear:

Pager was likely to be sacrificed by


it’s own success
A Highly Competitive Environment
The matter of death or life

The pager boom brought about some other important and


crucial issues. Manufacturers were concerned about
Issues like:

•Time to market
•The necessity of reducing production cycle
•Demand for variety & for stylus models
•The Last but not least , Innovation, Innovation, Innovation
The Secrets of Survival
The Wave of Change

In 1979 the top management of Motorola realized that,


with their high-quality products, Japanese pager makers
will winthe competition. The Motorola chairman Robert
W. Galvin launched a company
wide drive to:
•Accelerate new product development
•Drastically improve product quality
•Reduce the production line defects by tenfold before
1986. This aim led to the invention of “6 sigma quality
program” in 1986, which means reducing defects to 3.4
per million parts.
Creating a Knowledge Based Corporation

Galvin, also

• Initiated a top-to-bottom employee education and


retraining
•Developed one of the best and largest corporate-training
in the United States

To show the corporation’s commitment to training, a top-


echelon policy committee mandated a minimum
budgeting of 1.5% of payroll for training
The inescapable necessity of change
The conventional production philosophy then, was based on
offshore production, however it had some hidden &
unexpected costs, like
•The separation of the design engineering function from
manufacturing function
•The execution of engineering changes
•Building to customer order
•Keeping quality and reliability at an accepted level

To find a solution Motorola executives began an extensive


program of visiting manufacturing operations around the world in
search for techniques which could be adapted for company’s
own use.
Project Bandit
Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)
In 1985, the solution was found in Computer
Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) and paging
products group was selected to verify the
values of automated process in comparison
to intrinsic difficulties and intangible costs of
off-shore Production and then to adapt the
knowledge to other
manufacturing operations . The team's
willingness to "steal" good ideas wherever
found, was the reason why they called the
new pager production facility in Boynton
Beach Florida, the Bandit Operation or the
Bandit Factory.
Project Bandit
Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)

Promising Results
Accelerating new product development

The CIM production line was prepared to design,


develop, and produce Bravo pager within 18 months
rather than 3 to 5 years for traditional Bravo.

The CIM system supporting the data base driven factory


allowed over 21 million combinations of product to be
manufactured individually, one at a time and to be
shipped to the customer in a matter of hours compared
to days using traditional method.

The bandit factory proved that the idea of CIM was cost
effective. Bravo, the world's
best-selling pager
Produced in 1986
The Results of Bandit's CIM implementation
by 1988

Inventory reduction 68%


Cycle time reduction 99%
Failure rate reduction 50%
Factory cost reduction 29%
Parts reduction 25%
Defect reduction 67%
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality
Award

In 1988 Motorola (Bandit Factory)


received the first National Quality
Award which earlier was established by
the congress.
A Customized, High Quality, Online
Production Line

Inventing 6 Sigma Quality Program


Fusion, A New attitude to manufacturing
To attain 6 sigma, Motorola proposed a new manufacturing
policy, “The Fusion”, through:

•Enhancing the environment for developing new products,


not just for manufacturing them faster.
•Agile manufacturing system, enabling physically different
products to be assembled on the same line with no tooling
changeover.
•Intertwining development, engineering, and manufacturing
It allows engineers to create (not just manufacture) future
new products right on line.
Paradigm Shift

From “Economy of Scale”

To

“lot size of one”


Fusion, A New attitude to manufacturing

•Dynamically configurable workflow paths, enabling the


orders of the dealers to be translated directly to unique
bill of materials and manufacturing process, even for a
single pager

•Technical Innovations,
In the agile world-class manufacturing, new designs that
are created in the engineering lab, are transmitted to the
factory floor, and produced without a prototype.
Fusion, A New attitude to manufacturing

Flexible assembly line, enables the Fusion Factory to build


virtually any portable electronic product from calculators
to personal digital communicators -as long as the design
is represented on the computer system and parts are available
to the assembly robots. Many of Fusion’s concepts have been
applied to Motorola factories worldwide.
A Programmed Approach

Towards 6 Sigma
6 Sigma

Despite receiving the quality award


Motorola continued it’s struggle to
attain to Zero- Defect Manufacturing
through 6 Sigma Quality Program.
The Aims of
6 Sigma

The 6 Sigma quality program not only aims


•Zero-Defect Manufacturing (3.4 defects per million part)
but also quality in :
•Decision Making
•Clerical Work
•Shipping, and
•Customer Service
An Organizational Support
for 6 Sigma Quality Program

•The Educational support is provided by


Education Center
•Bonus incentive performance reviewing
•Intention to diffuse the program through it’s
supplier network
•6 sigma was a continuously improving campaign
supporting with a $100 million yearly education
and training effort in addition to management’s
total commitment.
Achieving 6 Sigma

•In 1993 the first product with the quality of 6 Sigma was
produced

•By 1989, only 3 days were required from receipt of an


order to shipping for two-way radios, it was a substantial
improvement to the 18 months required a year and a half
earlier.
References
I) SELECTIVE SIGNALLING FOR PORTABLE APPLICATIONS
Leonard E. Nelson Motorola, Inc.
Ft. Lauderdale, Florida
Proceedings of The 28th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference 1978
II) OPERATION BANDIT, CIM FROM A USER PERSPECTIVE
Russell A. Strobel, P.E., Motorola, Inc., Paging Division, Boynton Beach,
Florida
III) Pocket pagers in lots of one
Russ Strobel and Andy Johnson, Motorola Inc.
IEEE SPECTRUM SEPTEMBER 1993
IV) Improving Organizational Effectiveness Through Transformational
Leadership
Edited By Bernard M. Bass & Bruce J. Avolio
Center For Leadership Studies, State University Of New York, Binghamton
The Last Word
The Similarities
•Both Voyager & Pager are products of
“Knowledge based Organizations”
•Voyager was the “Test Bed” for proving the performance
of “Coding and Noisy Channel Theory”, the base of digital
Communication
•Scientists learned Many lessons from “antenna arraying”
through Voyager encounters with Uranus and Neptune
•Pager was a test bed to understand the “mobile radio
communication Environment” and “wave propagation
Models”
•Recalling that the decoder is the much more complex part
of a digital communication system, pager was the first pocket
sized “Digital Decoder”
Vital role of error correction code

•The telemetry system of voyager is a one way communication


system, hence a kind of forward error correction was used, because at
a distance of 4 light hours, ARQ, Automatic Repeat Request (asking a
signal retransmission to make corrections to the errors) has no sense
& is not practical

•Pager as a receiver, as well as voyager has no ARQ


This results in, other benefits, like Saving in energy & in weight

•Both Voyager and Pager could be Programmed “Over The Air”


Space Missions a Key Path
To Commercialization
Space Technology The Catalyst
Space technology as a leading edge technology, is mainly
dependent on basic sciences that rooted deeply in 19th & the first
half of 20th centuries. As an example the Reed-Muller coding
which was used in Mariner VI mission was based on “Hadamard
Matrices” found in 1893.

CommercialTechnologies

Space Technology

Basic Sciences
Mathematics & Physics

Space Technology as the catalyst for commercializing


Basic Sciences to our daily life
From Heavens Down To The Earth
Simply, If the telemetry of Voyager mission, for any reason, was
not dependent on coding theory, the evolution path of digital
communication was much slower than what we witnessed, and
definitely even a cost effective, simple but efficient technology -In
terms of frequency utilization- like paging was not available as
soon as we experienced. Now a days we just simply use car anti-
burglar small and power efficient encoder/decoders unconsciously
and do not know what a long history of development, lies behind it
and do not know the role of knowledge based progressive
organizations, like Motorola, in the field.
Thank You

By: Mars Sprit


marsspirt@gmail.com