Sie sind auf Seite 1von 0

Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005

Lightning Protection System Design


Lightning Protection System Design
Harger Lightning & Grounding
2005
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
Lightning Protection System
Lightning Protection System
Design
Design
I. What is Lightning/Lightning Protection?
II. Basic Principles of Lightning Protection
III. Applicable Codes/Standards
IV. Lightning Protection Design Basics
V. Zone of Protection
VI. Basic Components
VII. Typical Roof Top Detail
VIII. Inspections
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
I. What is Lightning?
Consider Lightning a Gigantic Electrical Spark traveling between Consider Lightning a Gigantic Electrical Spark traveling between
Cloud to Cloud or Cloud to Earth containing an average Charge of Cloud to Cloud or Cloud to Earth containing an average Charge of
30 to 50 Million Volts and a Current of 18,000 Amps. 30 to 50 Million Volts and a Current of 18,000 Amps.
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2003
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
Lightning Damage Can Be Traced To
Lightning Damage Can Be Traced To
Inadequate (or no) direct strike protection
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
Risks Posed from a Direct Strike
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2003
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
Risks Posed from an Indirect Strike
Risks Posed from an Indirect Strike
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2003
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
What is Lightning Protection?
What is Lightning Protection?
NFPA 780
NFPA 780
-
-
A Complete System of Air
Terminals, Conductors, Ground
Terminals, Interconnecting
Conductors, Surge Suppression
Devices, and other Connectors
or Fittings required to complete
the System.
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
What is
What is
not
not
Lightning Protection?
Lightning Protection?
Early Streamer Emission ESE
Radioactive
Pulsed Voltage
Sparking Controlled Leader Trigger (CLT)
Lightning Elimination
Dissipation Array Systems (DAS)
Charge Transfer Systems (CTS)
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
Non Conventional Lightning Protection Systems
Non Conventional Lightning Protection Systems
These systems are not allowed by:
US National Fire Protection Association
(NFPA)
IEEE
IEC
US Military
Underwriters Laboratory (UL)
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
II. Basic Principles of Lightning Protection
II. Basic Principles of Lightning Protection
Intercept the Lightning Discharge
Safely Conduct the Lightning Currents
Dissipate the Lightning Currents in the Earth
Minimize the Effects of Lightning Currents
Proper Bonding & routing of down-conductors
Surge Suppression
Protect incoming power circuits
Protect incoming telephone/data circuits
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
III. Applicable Codes/ Standards
III. Applicable Codes/ Standards
NFPA 780
NFPA 780
UL 96A
UL 96A
UL 96
UL 96
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
NFPA 780
NFPA 780
Standard for the Installation of Lightning
Protection Systems (2004)
Most Active Standard Available
Not a Code, (not enforced)
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
UL 96 & 96A
UL 96 & 96A
UL96A - Installation Standard
Master Label
Independent Third Party Testing
UL96 - Manufacturing Standard for Listed
LP Components
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
UL Master Label Program
UL Master Label Program
Must be UL Listed to be Eligible
Materials must be UL Listed
System will be subjected to
Inspection by UL
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
UL Master Label Program
UL Master Label Program
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
IV. Lightning
Protection
Design
Basics
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
NFPA 780
NFPA 780
Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems
2004 Edition 2004 Edition
Chapter 3 Protection for Ordinary Structures
3-6 Strike Termination Devices. Strike termination
devices shall be provided for all parts of a structure that are
likely to be damaged by direct lightning flashes. Metal parts
of a structure that are exposed to direct lightning flashes and
that have a metal thickness of 3/16 in. (4.8 mm) or greater
shall only require connection to the lightning protection
system. Such connections shall provide a minimum of two
paths to ground. Strike termination devices shall not be
required for those parts of a structure located within a zone
of protection.
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
NFPA 780
NFPA 780
Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems
Continued Continued
3-6.1 Air Terminal Height. The tip of an air terminal shall
be not less than 10 in. (254mm) above the object or area it
is to protect. (See figure 3-6.1.)
Figure 3-6.1 Air terminal height.
A: 10 in. (254 mm). See 3-6.1.
24 in. (600 mm). See 3-6.2.
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
NFPA 780
NFPA 780
Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems
Continued Continued
3-6.2 Air Terminal Support. Air terminals shall be secured
against overturning by attachment to the object to be
protected or by means of braces that shall be permanently and
rigidly attached to the building. An air terminal exceeding 24
in. (600 mm) in height shall be supported at a point not less
than one-half its height.
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
NFPA 780
NFPA 780
Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems
Continued Continued
3-8.1 Strike termination devices
shall be placed at or within 2 ft
(0.6m) of ridge ends on pitched
roofs or at edges and outside
corners of flat or gently sloping
roofs.
Strike termination devices shall
be placed on ridges of pitched
roofs and around the perimeter
of flat or gently sloping roofs at
intervals not exceeding 20 ft
(6m).
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
NFPA 780
NFPA 780
Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems
Continued Continued
3-8.1 Strike
termination devices 24
in. (600mm) or more
above the object or
area to be protected
shall be permitted to be
placed at intervals not
exceeding 25 ft (7.6m).
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
NFPA 780
NFPA 780
Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems
Continued Continued
3-8.1.2 Flat or Gently
Sloping Roof Area. Flat
or gently sloping roofs
that exceed 50 ft (15m)
in width or length shall
have additional strike
termination devices
located at intervals not to
exceed 50 ft (15m) on
the flat or gently sloping
areas.
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
Down Conductor Placement
Down Conductor Placement
Minimum of
two per
structure
One per
every 100 of
perimeter
Average
spacing will
not exceed
100
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
NFPA 780
NFPA 780
Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems
Continued Continued
3-9.5 Conductor
Bends. No bend of a
conductor shall form
an included angle of
less than 90 degrees,
nor shall it have a
radius of bend less
than 8 in. (203mm).
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
NFPA 780
NFPA 780
Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems
Continued Continued
3-13 Ground Terminals.
Each down conductor shall
terminate at a ground terminal
dedicated to the lightning
protection system. The design,
size, depth, and number of
ground terminals used shall
comply with 3-13.1 through 3-
13.4.
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
NFPA 780
NFPA 780
Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems
Continued Continued
Connections to Building Steel
Connections to Building Steel
Clean to base metal
Bonding plates 8 in
2
minimum contact area
Welded
Brazed
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
V. Zone of Protection
V. Zone of Protection
A Zone of Protection is the space
adjacent to a lightning protection
system that is substantially immune to
direct lightning discharges. This can
be determined using the Rolling
Sphere Method.
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
Rolling Sphere Method
Rolling Sphere Method
3-7.3 Rolling Sphere Model.
3-7.3.1 The zone of protection shall include the
space not intruded by a rolling sphere having a
radius of 150 ft (46 m). When the sphere is tangent
to earth and resting against a strike termination
device, all space in the vertical plane between the
two points of contact and under the sphere are in
the zone of protection.
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
Rolling Sphere Method
A zone of protection is also formed when
such a sphere is resting on two or more
strike termination devices and shall include
the space in the vertical plane under the
sphere and between those devices, as
shown in Figure 3-7.3.1.
All possible placements of the sphere must
be considered when determining the zone of
protection using the rolling sphere model.
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
Rolling Sphere Method
Rolling Sphere Method
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
Rolling Sphere Formula
d = eh
1
(300 h
1
) - eh
2
(300 h
2
)
where:
d = horizontal distance (ft)
h
1
= height of the higher roof (ft)
h
2
= height of the lower roof (top of the object) (ft)
h
2
h
1
d
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
Rolling Sphere Formula
Use of this formula is based on a 150 ft.
(46-m) striking distance. For the formula to be
valid, the sphere must be tangent to either the
lower roof or in contact with the earth, and in
contact with the vertical side of the higher portion
of the structure. In addition, the difference in
height between the upper and lower roof or earth
must be 150 or less.
For Example...
For Example...
d
h
2
h
1
h
1
= 100
h
2
= 50
d = 20
Is the lower roof in the zone of protection?
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2003
For Example...
For Example...
d = 100(300 100) - 50(300 50)
-
20000
12500
d =
d =
141.42 - 111.80
d =
29.62
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2003
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
Rolling Sphere Formula
Rolling Sphere Formula
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
VII. Basic Components
Air Terminals
Lightning Conductors
Ground Terminals
Connectors/Fittings
Surge Suppression Devices
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
Types of Air Terminals
Plain Air Terminals
Safety Air Terminals
Flexible Air Terminals
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
Types of Lightning Conductors
Types of Lightning Conductors
UL Listed Lightning Conductors
Copper
Aluminum
Class I
Class II
Structural Steel
Framework
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
Types of Ground Terminals
Types of Ground Terminals
Ground Rods
Plain/Sectional Copper-Clad Steel,
Copper, Galvanized Steel,
Stainless Steel
Enhanced Ground Rods
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
Types of Ground Terminals
Types of Ground Terminals
Continued...
Continued...
Ground Plates
Ground Mesh
Concrete Encased
Electrodes
Reinforcing Steel
Copper Conductors
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
Connectors/ Fittings
Connectors/ Fittings
Functions
Functions
Bonds Conductors to Strike
Terminals and Ground
Terminals
Bond Metal Bodies to Provide
a Path to Ground
Alleviates Potential
Differences between System
and Metal Bodies
Helps Prevent Flashover
Potentials
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
Surge Suppression Devices
Surge Suppression Devices
Helps Prevent Surge Currents
from Entering the Structure
via Electrical, Data, Phone,
Cable Lines, etc.
Integral Part of Total
Protection Package
UL96A & NFPA Surge
Suppression Requirements
vague
Roof Top Detail
VIII.
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2003
Details
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2005
IX. Inspection and Maintenance
IX. Inspection and Maintenance
Inspection after Installation - UL
Master Label
Ongoing Inspection -
NFPA 780 Appendix B Recommends
Periodic (Annual) Inspections
Thank You
Harger Lightning & Grounding 2003