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Updated Taxonomic Directory

Economic Plants of South Asia

All Entries Reviewed According to Current International Taxonomic System

Buddha's hands, an ornamental citron variety

Edited by

Muhammad Boota Sarwar

!irector "eneral #R$ %SC&R!

Agricultural Policies Research and A areness !enter (APRA!)

'(B City A)artment *irabad, *yderabad+ Email a)rac,-hotmail+com https"## $face%oo&$com#'ootaSar ar

Updated Taxonomic Directory

Economic Plants of South Asia

All Entries Reviewed According to Current International Taxonomic System

Edited by

Muhammad Boota Arain

!e)uty !irector %SC&R!

Agricultural Policies Research and A areness !enter (APRA!)

'(B City A)artment *irabad, *yderabad+ Email a)rac,-hotmail+com (e%site" $aprac$t&

All scienti0ic names and English names used in this document have been reviewed using resources available at International Taxonomic In0ormation System #ITIS$, "lobal Biodiversity In0ormation %acility #"BI%$, S)ecies .111, 2lant 3ame !atabase o0 4elbourne 5niversity and 4"B Research Asia, Inventory o0 the 2lants o0 2a/istan, whereas most o0 the vernacular names have been ta/en 0rom the boo/ 6Angios)erms7 by "+ 8+ Cho)ra+ In addition to above re0erred resources 6!ata 0rom "RI3 Taxonomy7 have been utili9ed to veri0y economic use o0 some )lants+ :ther resources were used to veri0y vernacular names+ ;aluable in0ormation regarding vernacular names o0 medicinal )lants )rovided by !r+ Abdul <ayyum Arain, :ncologist, 2a/istan Institute o0 4edical Sciences #2I4S$ Islamabad and !r+ 8al =han =ho/har, !irector Cereal !iseases Research Institute #C!RI$ Islamabad is hereby ac/nowledged with than/s+

This )ublication is dedicated to my teacher Professor (Retired) Shamsuddin Soomro) Sindh Agriculture Uni*ersity Tando +am) who ever remained to me a source o0 ins)iration 0or creative wor/+


No part of this publication may be reproduced stored in retrie!al system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic mechanical photocopyin" or other#ise #ithout prior permission of the author ho#e!er fair use of the material is encoura"ed #ith appropriate citation$

This wor/ is not o00icial document and hence does not re)resent o00icial )osition or o)inions o0 %ederal Seed Certi0ication and


Registration !e)artment or 4inistry o0 %ood, Agriculture and 8ivestoc/, "overnment o0 2a/istan+

Correct taxonomic nomenclature is /ey instrument 0or collection o0 0urther in0ormation regarding any bioty)e and is means o0 channeling research out)ut 0or diverse general consum)tion+ This document entitled 6Economic 2lants o0 South Asia7 containing ??1 )lants 0rom @@A 0amilies o0 4agnolio)hyta, has been )re)ared to 0acilitate sta/eholders in 2lant BreedersB Rights, Seed Certi0ication System, Biodiversity Conservation and Ex)ort o0 2lant materials+ Each entry o0 Scienti0ic 3ame, English 3ame and its taxonomic status has been chec/ed and reviewed according to current International Taxonomic System+ The scienti0ic names not acce)ted in International Taxonomic System have been dro))ed exce)t 0or two entries o0 )lants locally /nown as Tinda and ,a&ri, where scienti0ic names 0ormulated by 64"B Research Asia Inventory o0 the 2lants o0 2a/istan7 have been ado)ted+ The introduction o0 International Code o0 Botanical 3omenclature and source databases have been given in next )ages 0or assessment o0 Cuality o0 in0ormation )rovided in this directory+ *owever indication o0 com)osing and other errors will be highly a))reciated 0or im)rovement o0 the document+ "enus index is )rovided in the end to 0acilitate search o0 taxa+ Every e00ort has been made to sha)e the directory in a brie0, concise and com)rehensive document+ All acce)ted taxa o0 the "enus Brassica, Citrus, Gossypium and Nigella have been included in this document /ee)ing in view their economic im)ortance+ !ated .?D1ED.11> 4uhammad Boota !e)uty !irector %SC&R!



-nternational !ode of 'otanical .omenclature

(Saint /ouis !ode01222)
The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature is regulated by the .omenclature Section o0 an -nternational 'otanical !ongress+ Between congresses, Permanent !ommittees consider )ro)osals on conservation or reFection o0 names, re)orting to the 3eneral !ommittee on 'otanical .omenclature (3!) res)onsible 0or botanical nomenclature between Congresses+ PREAM'/E 1+ Botany reCuires a )recise and sim)le system o0 nomenclature used by botanists in all countries, dealing on the one hand with the terms which denote the ran/s o0 taxonomic grou)s or units, and on the other hand with the scienti0ic names which are a))lied to the individual taxonomic grou)s o0 )lants+ The )ur)ose o0 giving a name to a taxonomic grou) is not to indicate its characters or history, but to su))ly a means o0 re0erring to it and to indicate its taxonomic ran/+ This Code aims at the )rovision o0 a stable method o0 naming taxonomic grou)s, avoiding and reFecting the use o0 names which may cause error or ambiguity or throw science into con0usion+ 3ext in im)ortance is the avoidance o0 the useless creation o0 names+ :ther considerations, such as absolute grammatical correctness, regularity or eu)hony o0 names, more or less )revailing custom, regard 0or )ersons, etc+, notwithstanding their undeniable im)ortance, are relatively accessory+ 2+ The 2rinci)les 0orm the basis o0 the system o0 botanical nomenclature+ 3+ The detailed 2rovisions are divided into Rules, set out in the Articles, and Recommendations+ Exam)les #Ex+$ are added to the rules and recommendations to illustrate them+ 4+ The obFect o0 the Rules is to )ut the nomenclature o0 the )ast into order and to )rovide 0or that o0 the 0utureH names contrary to a rule cannot be maintained+ 5+ The Recommendations deal with subsidiary )oints, their obFect being to bring about greater uni0ormity and clarity, es)ecially in 0uture nomenclatureH names contrary to a recommendation cannot, on that account, be reFected, but they are not exam)les to be 0ollowed+ 6+ The )rovisions regulating the governance o0 this Code 0orm its last division+

7+ The rules and recommendations a))ly to all organisms traditionally treated as )lants, whether 0ossil or nonD0ossil, e+g+, blueDgreen algae Cyano!acteriaH 0ungi, including chytrids, oomycetes, and slime mouldsH )hotosynthetic )rotists and taxonomically related nonD)hotosynthetic grou)s+ 2rovisions 0or the names o0 hybrids a))ear in A))endix I "+ The International code of nomenclature for cultivated plants is )re)ared under the authority o0 the International Commission 0or the 3omenclature o0 Cultivated 2lants and deals with the use and 0ormation o0 names 0or s)ecial )lant categories in agricultural, 0orestry, and horticultural nomenclature+ #+ The only )ro)er reasons 0or changing a name are either a more )ro0ound /nowledge o0 the 0acts resulting 0rom adeCuate taxonomic study or the necessity o0 giving u) a nomenclature that is contrary to the rules+ 1$+ In the absence o0 a relevant rule or where the conseCuences o0 rules are doubt0ul, established custom is 0ollowed+ 11% This edition o0 the Code su)ersedes all )revious editions+

The rules that govern scienti0ic naming in botany #including )hycology and mycology$ are revised at 3omenclature Section meetings at successive International Botanical Congresses+ The )resent edition o0 the International code of !otanical nomenclature embodies the decisions o0 the I;I International Botanical Congress held in St 8ouis in @GGG and su)ersedes the &o'yo Code, )ublished six years ago subseCuent to the I; International Botanical Congress in Jo/ohama+ It is written entirely in #British$ English+ The (t )ouis Code does not di00er substantially in overall )resentation and arrangement 0rom the &o'yo Code, and the numbering o0 Articles and A))endices remains the same, although there have been a 0ew changes in the numbering o0 )aragra)hs, Recommendations and Exam)les+ In the &o'yo Code extensive renumbering had ta/en )lace, and there0ore its )re0ace included a tabulation com)aring the )lacement o0 its )rovisions with those o0 the )receding #Berlin$ edition+ This time, no such tabulation is included+ The text o0 the Code uses three di00erent si9es o0 )rint, the Recommendations and 3otes being set in smaller ty)e than the Articles, and the Exam)les and 0ootnotes in smaller ty)e than the Recommendations and 3otes+ The ty)e si9es re0lect the distinction between the rules which are mandatory #Articles$, com)lementary in0ormation or advice #3otes and Recommendations$, and ex)lanatory material #Exam)les and %ootnotes$+ A 3ote has binding e00ect but does not introduce any new )rovision or conce)t, rather, it ex)lains something that may not at 0irst be readily a))arent but is covered ex)licitly or im)licitly elsewhere in the Code+ Some Exam)les, which were deliberately agreed by a 3omenclature Section, contain material which is not 0ully, or not ex)licitly, covered in the rules+ Such Kvoted exam)lesK are )re0ixed by an asteris/ #L$+ I0, by a change o0 the

corres)onding )rovision in a subseCuent edition o0 the Code, a Kvoted exam)leK becomes 0ully covered, the asteris/ is removed+ As in the )revious edition, scienti0ic names under the Furisdiction o0 the Code, irres)ective o0 ran/, are consistently )rinted in italic type+ The Code sets no binding standard in this res)ect, as ty)ogra)hy is a matter o0 editorial style and tradition not o0 nomenclature+ 3evertheless, editors and authors, in the interest o0 international uni0ormity, may wish to consider adhering to the )ractice exem)li0ied by the Code, which has been well received in general and is being 0ollowed in an increasing number o0 botanical and mycological Fournals+ To set o00 scienti0ic )lant names even better, the use in the Code o0 italics 0or technical terms and other words in 8atin, traditional but inconsistent in )ast editions, has now been abandoned+ The 3omenclature Section met at the 4issouri Botanical "arden, St 8ouis, 4issouri, 5+S+A+, on .'D,1 Muly @GGG+ The St 8ouis Section was the best attended o0 any Congress so 0ar+ It had .G? registered members carrying >G> institutional votes in addition to their )ersonal votes+ The Section :00icers, )reviously a))ointed in con0ormitiy with !ivision III o0 the Code, were *+ 4+ Burdet #2resident$, %+ R+ Barrie #Recorder$, N+ "reuter #Ra))orteurDgOnOral$, and !+ 8+ *aw/sworth #;iceDRa))orteur$+ Biological nomenclature is the means o0 channeling the out)uts o0 systematic research 0or general consum)tion+ It is not only the taxonomists' concern but is o0 relevance 0or all who need to communicate about organisms+ 3omenclature Sections at )receding Congresses had been increasingly aware o0 this 0act and o0 the conseCuent need to ma/e organism nomenclature and the rules governing it subservient to the needs o0 the world at large+ !uring the )eriod in which we have been associated with the develo)ment o0 the Code, maFor changes have been im)lemented which )romote the stability o0 names and their a))lication, including conservation o0 s)ecies names, reFection o0 names at any ran/, introduction o0 the e)ity)e conce)t, and acce)tance o0 metabolically inactive cultures as ty)es+ The &o'yo Code, also /nown as the K)ur)le CodeK, 0oreshadowed the new and daringly modern idea o0 mandatory registration o0 0uture names and all but embraced the conce)t o0 stabili9ed lists o0 names in current use+ The Section in St 8ouis did not see 0it to move 0urther along that road, even reversing courses set at Jo/ohama six years be0ore+ :bviously, the )ace o0 develo)ment o0 the Code had been too ra)id 0or a hard core o0 nomenclatural )ractitioners to 0ollow+ The Section, in the )er0ectly sound logic o0 Reaction, there0ore denied im)lementation to a tested and 0unctional system 0or the registration newly )ro)osed names, re0used discussing the )rinci)le o0 )rotection o0 names in current use, and o))osed most suggestions aiming at a harmoni9ed terminology in biological nomenclature+ This is an understandable res)onse, not in itsel0 a cause 0or worry+ I0 one loo/s dis)assionately at the u)s and downs o0 Norld's history, and o0 biological nomenclature, one may sa0ely antici)ate that, a0ter a truce, the now de0eated )ro)osals, or similar ones, will 0ind 0avour at some 0uture Congress+

To you, the user, we now entrust the (t )ouis CodeH the Kblac/ CodeK, as you may call it i0 you 0eel that the cover colour has meaning+ Berlin and 8ondon, ,@ 4arch .111 UR/" $%iosis$org$u& Nerner "reuter !avid 8+ *aw/sworth

-ntegrated Taxonomic -nformation System (-T-S)

'ac&ground -nformation
The Nhite *ouse Subcommittee on Biodiversity and Ecosystem !ynamics has identi0ied systematics as a research )riority that is 0undamental to ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation+ This )rimary need identi0ied by the Subcommittee reCuires im)rovements in the organi9ation o0, and access to, standardi9ed nomenclature+ ITIS #originally re0erred to as the Interagency &a*onomic Information (ystem$ was designed to 0ul0ill these reCuirements+ In the 0uture, the ITIS will )rovide taxonomic data and a directory o0 taxonomic ex)ertise that will su))ort the system+ The ITIS is the result o0 a )artnershi) o0 0ederal agencies 0ormed to satis0y their mutual needs 0or scienti0ically credible taxonomic in0ormation+ Since its ince)tion, ITIS has gained valuable new )artners and undergone a name changeH ITIS now stands 0or the Integrated &a*onomic Information (ystem+ The goal is to create an easily accessible database with reliable in0ormation on s)ecies names and their hierarchical classi0ication+ The database will be reviewed )eriodically to ensure high Cuality with valid classi0ications, revisions, and additions o0 newly described s)ecies+ The ITIS includes documented taxonomic in0ormation o0 0lora and 0auna 0rom both aCuatic and terrestrial habitats+ The original ITIS )artners include

!e)artment o0 Commerce o 3ational :ceanic and Atmos)heric Administration #3:AA$ !e)artment o0 Interior #!:I$ o "eological Survey #5S"S$ Environmental 2rotection Agency #E2A$ !e)artment o0 Agriculture #5S!A$ o Agriculture Research Service #ARS$ o 3atural Resources Conservation Service #3RCS$ Smithsonian Institution o 3ational 4useum o0 3atural *istory #343*$

These agencies signed a 4emorandum o0 5nderstanding and have 0ormed a Steering Committee that directs two technical wor/ grou)s D the !atabase Nor/ "rou) #!N"$ and the Taxonomy Nor/ "rou) #TN"$+ The !N" is res)onsible 0or the database design @1

and overseeing develo)ment o0 the system to meet the reCuirements o0 the ITIS )artners+ The TN" is res)onsible 0or the Cuality and integrity o0 the database in0ormation+ In addition to the database, the wor/ing grou)s have created KTaxonomic Nor/benchK so0tware designed 0or easy entry and mani)ulation o0 taxonomic data+ 2rimary obFectives o0 the TN" include the review o0 data )rior to incor)oration into the ITIS and the establishment o0 a )rocess 0or )eriodic )eer review to ensure data Cuality+ The TN" has evaluated the taxonomic in0ormation )riorities o0 the agencies and is locating data sources 0or the highest )riority grou)s+ E00orts to gather data are hel)ing to identi0y ga)s in taxonomic coverage in both scienti0ic ex)ertise and available in0ormation+ The TN" ho)es to )romote collaboration among, and )rovide a )oint o0 0ocus 0or, taxonomists, scienti0ic institutions, and taxonomic in0ormation users+ %or each scienti0ic name, ITIS will include the authority #author and date$, taxonomic ran/, associated synonyms and vernacular names where available, a uniCue taxonomic serial number, data source in0ormation #)ublications, ex)erts, etc+$ and data Cuality indicators+ Ex)ert reviews and changes to taxonomic in0ormation in the database will be trac/ed+ "eogra)hic coverage will be worldwide with initial em)hasis on 3orth American taxa+ The TN" is coordinating its e00orts with several national and international biodiversity )rograms+ A Taxonomic Resources Ex)ertise !irectory #TRE!$ is an integral )art o0 the ITIS+ The TRE! 0acilitates the ITIS review )rocess and allows those in need o0 more detailed in0ormation to locate a))ro)riate taxonomic s)ecialists+ The TRE! will also hel) to identi0y ga)s in ex)ertise across the range o0 taxonomic levels+ Taxonomists will be able to enter their ex)ertise in0ormation 0or the TRE! database either on the Norld Nide Neb or through a )a)er 0orm+ The ITIS will be a signi0icant contribution to the scienti0ic in0rastructure that is 0undamental to the descri)tion, conservation, and management o0 the nation's biodiversity+ 5se o0 the ITIS and the taxonomic serial numbers will 0acilitate sharing o0 biological in0ormation among researchers and coo)erating agencies by )roviding a common 0ramewor/ 0or taxonomic data+ Agencies that ty)ically cannot a00ord to maintain taxonomic data will have access to high Cuality taxonomic in0ormation through ITIS+ This )roFect allows the coordination o0 e00orts among 0ederal agencies, thereby increasing )roductivity and saving resources+ Status re)orts on ITIS system develo)ment may be 0ound in the 6Nhat's 3ew7 section+ Jou can also contact !r+ 4ichael Ruggiero, !irector, Integrated Taxonomic In0ormation System #ITIS$ c(o Smithsonian Institution(343* 4RC D 1@A1 Nashington, !C .1E'1D 1@A1 )hone .1.D?A'D,@@? 0ax .1.D?A'D.G,>+ ruggiero+michael-nmnh+si+edu 8ast 5)dated .1D%ebD.11> UR/" $itis$usda$go*


3lo%al 'iodi*ersity -nformation 4acility

The mission o0 the "lobal Biodiversity In0ormation %acility #"BI%$ is to ma/e the world's primary data on %iodi*ersity 0reely and universally available via the Internet+ The "BI% vision is that it will contribute to economic growth, ecological sustainability, social outcomes and scienti0ic research by increasing the utility, availability and com)leteness o0 )rimary scienti0ic biodiversity in0ormation available on the Internet+ "BI% wor/s coo)eratively with and in su))ort o0 several other international organi9ations concerned with biodiversity+ These include #but are not limited to$ the Clearing *ouse 4echanism and the "lobal Taxonomic Initiative o0 the Convention on Biological !iversity , and regional biodiversity in0ormation networ/s+ 2artici)ants in "BI% have signed the 4emorandum o0 5nderstanding, and su))ort networ/ 3odes through which they )rovide data+ %unctionally, "BI% encourages, coordinates and su))orts the develo)ment o0 worldwide ca)acity to access the vast amount o0 biodiversity data held in natural history museum collections, libraries and databan/s+ 3ear term "BI% develo)ments will 0ocus on s)ecies and s)ecimenDlevel data+ Technically, "BI% is evolving to be an intero)erable networ/ o0 biodiversity databases and in0ormation technology tools using web services and "rid technologies+ In the near term, "BI% will )rovide a global metadata registry o0 the available biodiversity data with o)en inter0aces+ Anyone can then use it to construct thematic )ortals and s)ecilised search 0acilities+ Building on the contents o0 this registry, "BI% will )rovide its own central )ortal that enables simultaneous Cueries against biodiversity databases held by distributed, worldwide sources+ In the long term, molecular, genetic, ecological and ecosystem level databases can be lin/ed to the system+ These will 0acilitate and enable data mining o0 un)recedented utility and scienti0ic merit+ As its wor/ )rograms )rogress, "BI% will enable users to navigate and )ut to use the world's vast Cuantities o0 biodiversity in0ormation+ This in0ormation is vital to generating economic, environmental, social and scienti0ic bene0its 0rom the sustainable use, conservation and study o0 biodiversity resources+ UR/" $g%if$org


Species 5666
The names o0 organisms are the /ey to biodiversity communications and as such, )rovide access to the accumulated /nowledge o0 all li0e on Earth+ *owever, des)ite the obvious value o0 a catalogue, no com)rehensive indexing system yet exists 0or the @+?E million animals, )lants, 0ungi and microDorganisms named by science+ This lac/ o0 a widely accessible index, with inbuilt mechanisms 0or maintenance and u)dating, is a signi0icant constraint on all nations wishing to 0ul0ill their obligations under the Convention on Biological !iversity+ The S)ecies .111 2rogramme will enable users worldwide to veri0y the scienti0ic name, status and classi0ication o0 any /nown s)ecies+ The service will be made available as )art o0 the Clearing *ouse 4echanism under the 5nited 3ations Convention on Biological !iversity+ S)ecies .111 is a K%ederationK o0 database organisations wor/ing closely with users, taxonomists and s)onsoring agencies+ The thrust o0 the S)ecies .111 )lan is to create an array o0 )artici)ant global s)ecies databases covering each o0 the maFor grou)s o0 organisms+ Each such database will cover all /nown s)ecies in the grou), using a consistent taxonomic system+ The headCuarters o0 the )resent databases are widely distributed throughout the world, and this trend will continue as new databases are added+ The existing global s)ecies databases may )resently account 0or some >1P o0 the total /nown s)ecies, so substantial investment in new databases will be needed 0or 0ull coverage o0 all taxa to be achieved+ :n the @1thD@,th 4arch @GG', senior re)resentatives o0 @A taxonomic databases met in 4anila, 2hili))ines to give the 0ormal goDahead to the S)ecies .111 )rogramme+ The wor/sho) was s)onsored by the 5nited 3ations Environment 2rogramme #53E2$ and the "lobal Environment %acility #"E%$+ Some o0 the taxonomic grou)s being addressed by the organisations starting the S)ecies .111 )rogramme are as 0ollows ;iruses, Bacteria, Corals, 4olluscs, Crustacea, !i)tera, Ichneumon Nas)s, 4oths & Butter0lies, Curculionid Beetles, %ishes, Birds, 4ammals, %ungi, Cacti, 2alms, 8egumes, 5mbelli0ers and %ossil 2lants+ UR/" $sp5666$org


M'3" -n*entory of the Plants of Pa&istan

The %lora o0 2a/istan 2roFect
Stewart #@G?., @GA.$, *edge #@GG@$, and others have reviewed the history o0 botanical ex)loration in 2a/istan 0airly extensively+ Starting in @A.1 with an ex)edition to =ashmir by Nilliam 4oorcro0t, many Euro)ean #mainly British$ botanists visited 2a/istan, eventually collecting )lants 0rom virtually all )arts o0 the country+ The coverage was modest in the mountainous areas in the north, inhabited by o0tenDhostile tribes and naturally inhos)itable as the nexus o0 the *indu =ush, =ara/oram, and *imalayan ranges+ The results o0 these collecting activities contributed to the two great 0loras o0 the region, the +lora ,rientalis #Boissier @A'?D@AAA$ and the +lora of Britis- India #*oo/er @A?.D@AG?$+ Collecting continued in the early twentieth century, rendering much o0 those great @Gth century 0loras outDo0Ddate+ :ne im)ortant as)ect about the collections made in 2a/istan )rior to the country's establishment in @G>? is that virtually all o0 them were housed either in Euro)e #mainly B4, E, and =$ or in India, at Calcutta or !ehra !un, in both cases inaccessible to botanists in 2a/istan #Stewart, @G?.$+ The largest )lant collection in 2a/istan in @G>? was that develo)ed by Ral)h Stewart at "ordon College in Rawal)indi+ A com)rehensive and accessible 0lora o0 this region is essential to our understanding o0 the )lants o0 south Asia generally, and will be )articularly use0ul in relation to 0loristic )roFects such as the +lora of C-ina, the +lora .alesiana, and ongoing wor/ in India and in the central Asian region+ 4any local %loras exist 0or )arts o0 2a/istan #Stewart @GA.$, but these have been su)erseded by t-e +lora of /a'istan+ The +lora of 0fg-anistan #=itamura @G'1$ is actually a syno)tical chec/list in 0ormat, covering the results o0 ex)editions to the =ara/oram and *indu =ush by Ma)anese botanists in @GEE+ A later re)ort 0rom the same ex)edition #=itamura @G'>$ enumerated )lants 0rom the )art o0 the region in 2a/istan+ This region where the Nestern *imalayas meet the =ara/orams and the *indu =ush in northern 2a/istan and the northern Baluchistan region are rich in endemic )lants, and many genera o0 agricultural and horticultural im)ortance occur in 2a/istan, yet our /nowledge o0 them and access to in0ormation about them is limited at the )resent time+ 0000 7istory of the Flora of Pakistan Pro8ect 0000 As the new nation o0 2a/istan began to develo) universities and a scienti0ic in0rastructure, it became obvious that a 0irst )riority in the area o0 botany would be )roduction o0 a %lora 0or the country+ In @G'1, Stewart retired 0rom active wor/ at "ordon College, and turned over his herbarium, then numbering about E1,111 s)ecimens,


to his collaborator 2ro0+ E+ 3asir+ The KStewart *erbariumK was later )resented as a gi0t to the nation, and 0ormed the nucleus o0 the 3ational *erbarium o0 2a/istan #Ali & "ha00ar @GG@$+ This collection, and those established at other institutions, )articularly at the 5niversity o0 =arachi by S+I+ Ali, )rovided the necessary 0oundation 0or writing the %lora+ !uring the @G'1's, the 5+S+ !e)artment o0 Agriculture develo)ed a scheme to use 28>A1 0unds, which had to be s)ent within the country, to collect )lants in 2a/istan+ That )rogram ultimately did not survive, but the 0unds were still available and a new )ro)osal was develo)ed+ The +lora of /a'istan )roFect was initiated in @G'A, with 3asir and Ali a))ointed as Moint Editors+ They set to wor/ immediately, and in @G?1, the 0irst 0ascicle #%lacourtiaceae$ o0 the +lora a))eared+ Another o0 the early )ublications o0 the )roFect was the KAnnotated Catalogue o0 ;ascular 2lants o0 Nest 2a/istan and =ashmirK by Stewart #@G?.$, intended as a )reliminary chec/list o0 the )lants o0 the region and a guide to the develo)ing +lora )roFect+ Stewart included E,?A, s)ecies in his catalogue, and +lora treatments )ublished subseCuently have not changed that overall estimate a))reciably #Ali @GG@$, although new treatments 0or individual genera( 0amilies di00er, sometimes substantially, 0rom those by Stewart+ By @GGE the +lora )roFect had )roduced @G? treatments #one )er 0amily$, ranging in si9e 0rom a 0ew )ages to nearly E11 )ages #2oaceae$+ 3asir #re)laced by 4+ <aiser a0ter his death$ and Ali or their colleagues and students wrote many o0 these treatments, while others have been com)leted by s)ecialists worldwide wor/ing with them+ Even though the herbaria within 2a/istan have develo)ed accordingly, the authors have had to consult extensively with British and other 0oreign herbaria since they contain large historical collections and the ty)e s)ecimens o0 most s)ecies in 2a/istan+ The 5S!A 0unding su))orted the )ublication o0 most o0 these treatments, but the 28>A1 )rogram ultimately came to an end, and wor/ on the remaining volumes needed to com)lete the +lora since @GGE has been ham)ered by lac/ o0 0unding+ The total number o0 s)ecies included in the .1. )ublished treatments #see 8ist$ is about >,.11, which leaves some @,E11 s)ecies in @@ 0amilies #c+ .EP o0 the entire 0lora$ still to be treated+ 0000 The Flora of Pakistan" !urrent Status 0000 In @GGG, at the I;I International Botanical Congress, S+I+ Ali #5niversity o0 =arachi and )rinci)al editor o0 the +lora of /a'istan$ )ro)osed a )lan to 2eter *+ Raven #4issouri Botanical "arden$ 0or com)leting the +lora in 0ive years with the 4issouri Botanical "arden as coD)ublisher+ %ollowing negotiations, in %ebruary .111, the 5niversity o0 =arachi and the 4issouri Botanical "arden signed an agreement to coD)ublish the remaining volumes o0 the +lora of /a'istan over a )eriod o0 0ive years+ This initiative has several strong )ositive 0eatures @+ It will com)lete a %lora o0 an im)ortant and insu00iciently /nown regionH .+ It connects geogra)hically and 0loristically with the +lora of C-ina )roFect headCuartered at the "arden #many taxa in common, o0ten reCuiring a coordinated a))roach$H ,+ It )rovides the best o))ortunity to develo) a database o0 )lants 0or south Asia, which can connect with com)arable databases 0or China and elsewhere and can serve 2a/istan as an im)ortant biodiversity management toolH and


>+ It will )rovide a source o0 new collections 0rom that region, which is )oorly re)resented in American herbaria+ The 0amily treatments remaining to be )re)ared, com)rising c+ .EP o0 the s)ecies in 2a/istan and some include some notably com)lex and s)eciose grou)s, are as 0ollows #a))rox+ number o0 genera(s)ecies$ Cactaceae #.(?$, Cheno)odiaceae #.G(@@.$, Com)ositae #@,1('@E$, Crassulaceae #A(,?$, Cy)eraceae #G(@@A$, 8iliaceae #.E(',$, 4yrtaceae #?(@,$, 2olygonaceae #@.(@@1$, Rosaceae #.'(@EG$, Salicaceae #.(>1$, and Scro)hulariaceae #,?(@'.$+ :0 these, Cheno)odiaceae, 2olygonaceae, and Salicaceae are in various stages o0 revision or editing #as o0 @(@(.11@$ and will a))ear 0irst+ Treatments o0 Com)ositae tribes Anthemidae #?(AG$ and Inuleae #.,(AA$, Crassulaceae, and Cy)eraceae are in various stages o0 )re)aration+ The remaining treatments are as yet unassigned, and will be )re)ared by Ali and(or other authors 0rom 2a/istan or abroad+ This wor/ will reCuire 0ieldwor/ and travel to 0oreign herbaria #es)ecially such large holdings as B4, E, =, and N$ 0or viewing ty)es and im)ortant collections, as well as )re)aration and editing o0 treatments+ This )roFect calls 0or collecting ex)editions in order to @$ collect material directly relevant to 0inishing the remaining +lora of /a'istan treatments #es)ecially Cactaceae, 4yrtaceae, 8iliaceae, Rosaceae, Scro)hulariaceae, and Com)ositae$H .$ im)rove collections 0rom areas o0 2a/istan that are relatively underDcollected, ecologically signi0icant, or )articularly threatenedH and ,$ address s)eci0ic collecting reCuests 0rom botanists with interests in the region+ !e)ending on the needs o0 the 2a/istani botanists and institutions, the 0irst two sets o0 du)licates #and any holoty)es$ will be le0t in 2a/istan #=5* in =arachi and RAN in Islamabad$+ Additional sets o0 s)ecimens will be made available to American institutions and to s)ecialists wor/ing on )lants o0 the region+ ReCuests 0or Ks)ecialK collections #anatomical, molecular Q 0resh or in silica gel, living, etc+$ will be considered i0 time and resources allow, and in accordance with any )rotocols and(or )ermit reCuirements established by the 2a/istani government+ 0000 Checklist of the Plants of Pakistan ---The third K)roductK intended to derive 0rom this )roFect is the C-ec'list of t-e /lants of /a'istan+ Must as Stewart's #@G?.$ KCatalogueK was intended to summari9e existing data and stimulate new research, so too do we intend 0or the C-ec'list to be a stimulus 0or 0uture wor/+ The 0ormat o0 the C-ec'list will be similar to that o0 the recent Catalogue of t-e 1ascular /lants of 2cuador #MRrgensen & 8eSn @GGG$ and will )resent a syno)sis o0 the entire 0lora o0 2a/istan+ %or each acce)ted name, this 0ormat will include author and citation, synonyms, abbreviated distribution statement, one veri0ied voucher #and(or the ty)e s)ecimen, i0 0rom 2a/istan$, and re0erences to maFor literature on the taxon+ Introductory cha)ters will brie0ly summari9e in0ormation about 2a/istan's geology, )aleoclimate, geogra)hy, climate, vegetation, and history o0 ex)loration+ It will be based on the 2a/istan !atabase, and will be available both electronically and as a )ublished volume+ *owever, all treatments will be reviewed and com)ared with current taxonomy and nomenclature, es)ecially by re0erence to treatments in +lora Iranica, +lora of C-ina, and recent monogra)hs+ Nhenever )ossible, the 0amily treatments 0or the Chec/list will be sent to s)ecialists 0or review+ This ty)e o0 revision will be )articularly im)ortant 0or


0ascicles )ublished early in the +lora )roFect, and 0or grou)s in which current research is )articularly active+ 0000 Data%ase De*elopment 0000 The database 0or the +lora of /a'istan )roFect is being develo)ed on the same model as that 0or the +lora of C-ina )roFect #http"##flora$huh$har*ard$edu#china$+ Ali and colleagues will )rovide the remaining treatments #starting with Iridaceae$ as Nord documents, which will be )arsed #)aragra)hDdelineated$ and converted into an Excel database+ All earlier treatments will be scanned using an o)tical character reader #:CR$ and saved as Nord documents, edited 0or accuracy against the original, )arsed, and converted+ Each element o0 the +lora treatments Q 0amily descri)tions, notes, and /eysH generic descri)tions, synonymies, notes, distribution, and /eysH and s)ecies names, )lace o0 )ublication, ty)es, synonymies, notes, indigenous uses, distribution, )henology, cited s)ecimens, and illustrations Q will be included in this interactive database+ 5ltimately, users will be able to search the database using a variety o0 Cueries+ 4ore than hal0 o0 all s)ecies in the +lora of /a'istan are illustrated, and these drawings and )hotogra)hs will be scanned and made available electronically+ The s)ecimens cited in the +lora of /a'istan, which include 0ull available label data, are arranged according to a grid system #see ma) in !ATA, which is included at the 0ront o0 each volume o0 the +,/$ rather than by )rovince or district+ Each grid unit corres)onds to a KsCuareK measuring .T on each side+ As a result, every cited s)ecimen can be ma))ed to within @T accuracy by using the central )oint in each grid unit, even though very 0ew include latitude(longitude readings+ So a s)ecimen listed as K!DEK #corres)onding to ,1TD ,.T 3('ATD?1TE$ can be ma))ed to ,@T3('GTE+ Eventually we intend to have coordinates 0or all localities in 2a/istan, but until that system is in )lace, we already have a geogra)hical basis 0or the database+ The main database will be housed at the 4issouri Botanical "arden as it is being constructed, and the web site will reside on a "arden server, at least initially+ As soon as the 5niversity o0 =arachi has the ca)ability to host the site, a mirror site will be installed there, ma/ing the in0ormation much more readily available in 2a/istan and the surrounding region+


Taxonomic Status of -mportant 4amilies of 4lo ering Plants

1$ ,ingdom" Plantae Su%&ingdom" Tracheo%ionta (9ascular Plants) Di*ision" Magnoliophyta (4lo ering Plants) !lass" Magnoliopsida (Dicotyledons) Subclass Magnoliidae :rder Ranunculales %amily @+ Ranunculaceae %amily .+ Berberidaceae :rder 4agnoliales %amily ,+ 4agnoliaceae %amily >+ Annonaceae %amily E+ 4yristicaceae :rder 3ym)haeales %amily '+ 3ym)haeaceae %amily ?+ 3elumbonaceae :rder 2a)averales %amily A+ 2a)averaceae %amily G+ %umariaceae :rder 2i)erales %amily @1+ 2i)eraceae %amily @@+ Saururaceae :rder 8aurales %amily @.+ 8auraceae %amily @,+ 4onimiaceae :rder Illiciales %amily @>+ Illiciaceae Subclass Dilleniidae :rder !illeniales %amily @E+ 2aeoniaceae :rder Ca))arales %amily @'+ Brassicaceae

%amily @?+ Ca))araceae %amily @A+ 4oringaceae :rder ;iolales %amily @G+ ;iolaceae %amily .1+ Bixaceae %amily .@+ Cucurbitaceae %amily ..+ Tamaricaceae %amily .,+ Turneraceae %amily .>+ 2assi0loraceae :rder Theales %amily .E+ !i)terocar)aceae %amily .'+ Clusiaceae :rder 4alvales %amily .?+ 4alvaceae %amily .A+ Bombacaceae %amily .G+ Tiliaceae %amily ,1+ Sterculiaceae :rder Ebenales %amily ,@+ Sa)otaceae %amily ,.+ Styracaceae %amily ,,+ Ebenaceae :rder 2rimulales %amily ,>+ 2rimulaceae %amily ,E+ 4yrsinaceae :rder Salicales %amily ,'+ Salicaceae :rder Theales %amily ,?+ Theaceae :rder Ericales %amily ,A+ Ericaceae Subclass Car oph llidae :rder Caryo)hyllales %amily ,G+ Caryo)hyllaceae %amily >1+ Cheno)odiaceae %amily >@+ Amaranthaceae %amily >.+ 2ortulacaceae %amily >,+ Cactaceae %amily >>+ 3yctaginaceae :rder 2olygonales %amily >E+ 2olygonaceae

:rder 2lumbaginales %amily >'+ 2lumbaginaceae Subclass !osidae :rder 8inales %amily >?+ 8inaceae :rder Sa)indales %amily >A+ Rutaceae %amily >G+ 4eliaceae %amily E1+ Anacardiaceae %amily E@+ Sa)indaceae %amily E.+ Uygo)hyllaceae %amily E,+ *i))ocastanaceae %amily E>+ Burseraceae :rder Rhamnales %amily EE+ Rhamnaceae %amily E'+ ;itaceae %amily E?+ Elaeagnaceae :rder %abales %amily EA+ %abaceae :rder Rosales %amily EG+ Rosaceae %amily '1+ Saxi0ragaceae :rder 4yrtales %amily '@+ Combretaceae %amily '.+ 4yrtaceae %amily ',+ 2unicaceae %amily '>+ 8ythraceae %amily 'E+ :nagraceae :rder A)iales %amily ''+ A)iaceae %amily '?+ Araliaceae :rder Santalales %amily 'A+ Santalaceae %amily 'G+ ;iscaceae :rder Eu)horbiales %amily ?1+ Eu)horbiaceae %amily ?@+ Buxaceae :rder "eraniales %amily ?.+ Tro)aeolaceae %amily ?,+ :xalidaceae

%amily ?>+ Balsaminaceae :rder Celastrales %amily ?E+ ACui0oliaceae %amily ?'+ Celastraceae Subclass Asteridae :rder Rubiales %amily ??+ Rubiaceae :rder Asterales %amily ?A+ Asteraceae :rder Scro)hulariales %amily ?G+ :leaceae %amily A1+ Scro)hulariaceae %amily A@+ Acanthaceae %amily A.+ 2edaliaceae :rder "entianales %amily A,+ Ascle)iadaceae %amily A>+ A)ocynaceae %amily AE+ "entianaceae %amily A'+ 8oganiaceae :rder 8amiales %amily A?+ Boraginaceae %amily AA+ 8amiaceae %amily AG+ ;erbenaceae :rder Solanales %amily G1+ Convolvulaceae %amily G@+ Solanaceae %amily G.+ Cuscutaceae :rder !i)sacales %amily G,+ ;alerianaceae %amily G>+ Ca)ri0oliaceae :rder 2lantaginales %amily GE+ 2lantaginaceae Subclass "amamelidae :rder 5rticales %amily G'+ 4oraceae %amily G?+ Cannabaceae %amily GA+ 5rticaceae :rder 4yricales %amily GG+ 4yricaceae

:rder Muglandales %amily @11+ Muglandaceae :rder *amamelidales %amily @1@+ *amamelidaceae :rder %agales %amily @1.+ Betulaceae Subclass Arecidae :rder Arales %amily @1,+ Acoracea

5+ ,ingdom" Plantae Su%&ingdom" Tracheo%ionta (9ascular Plants) Di*ision" Magnoliophyta (4lo ering Plants) !lass" /iliopsida (Monocotyledons) Subclass #iliidae :rder 8iliales %amily @1>+ Iridaceae %amily @1E+ 8iliaceae %amily @1'+ Aloaceae %amily @1?+ !ioscoreaceae %amily @1A+ Smilacaceae %amily @1G+ 2ontederiaceae :rder :rchidales %amily @@1+ :rchidaceae Subclass $ingi%eridae :rder Uingiberales %amily @@@+ 4usaceae %amily @@.+ Uingiberaceae %amily @@,+ 4arantaceae Subclass Arecidae :rder Arecales %amily @@>+ Arecaceae :rder Arales %amily @@E+ Araceae :rder 2andanales %amily @@'+ 2andanaceae

Subclass Commelinidae :rder Cy)erales %amily @@?+ 2oaceae %amily @@A+ Cy)eraceae

4amily -ndex
Acanthaceae Acoracea Aloaceae Amaranthaceae Anacardiaceae Annonaceae Apiaceae Apocynaceae A:uifoliaceae Araceae Araliaceae Arecaceae Asclepiadaceae Asteraceae 'alsaminaceae 'er%eridaceae 'etulaceae 'ixaceae 'om%acaceae 'oraginaceae 'rassicaceae 'urseraceae 'uxaceae !actaceae !anna%aceae !apparaceae !aprifoliaceae !aryophyllaceae !elastraceae !henopodiaceae !lusiaceae !om%retaceae !on*ol*ulaceae !ucur%itaceae !uscutaceae !yperaceae Dioscoreaceae Page ;5 ;2 <6 =< =2 5; >< ;5 >? <5 >@ <5 ;5 >2 >? 5> ;2 =6 == ;= 5? >6 >? =@ ;? =6 ;@ =; >? =< =5 >; ;; =1 ;@ <= <6 Page 4a%aceae >1 4umariaceae 5< 3entianaceae ;= 7amamelidaceae ;2 7ippocastanaceae >6 -lliciaceae 5@ -ridaceae ;2 +uglandaceae ;? /amiaceae ;= /auraceae 5@ /iliaceae ;2 /inaceae =? /oganiaceae ;= /ythraceae >< Magnoliaceae 5; Mal*aceae =5 <1 Marantaceae =2 Meliaceae 5@ Monimiaceae ;@ Moraceae =6 Moringaceae <1 Musaceae ;? Myricaceae 5; Myristicaceae =; Myrsinaceae >; Myrtaceae 5; .elum%onaceae =@ .yctaginaceae 5; .ymphaeaceae ;1 Aleaceae >< Anagraceae <6 Archidaceae >? Axalidaceae 5@ Paeoniaceae <5 Pandanaceae 5< Papa*eraceae =5 Passifloraceae


Page Poaceae <5 Polygonaceae =@ Pontederiaceae <6 Portulacaceae =< Primulaceae => Punicaceae >; Ranunculaceae 5> Rhamnaceae >6 Rosaceae >> Ru%iaceae >? Rutaceae =? Salicaceae =; Santalaceae >@ Sapindaceae >6 Sapotaceae => Saururaceae 5< Saxifragaceae >; Scrophulariaceae ;1 Smilacaceae <6 Solanaceae ;; Sterculiaceae => => Styracaceae =1 Tamaricaceae =; Theaceae => Tiliaceae =5 Turneraceae >? Tropaeolaceae ;? Urticaceae ;@ 9alerianaceae ;; 9er%enaceae >@ 9iscaceae =6 9iolaceae >1 9itaceae <1 Bingi%eraceae >6 Bygophyllaceae



Dipterocarpaceae E%enaceae Elaeagnaceae Ericaceae Euphor%iaceae

=5 => >1 =; >@

Pedaliaceae Piperaceae Plantaginaceae Plum%aginaceae

;5 5< ;@ =?

4amily" @+ Ranunculaceae
Sr$ Taxon @ Aconitum 0erox . , > E ' ? A G @1 @@ @. @, @> Aconitum na)ellus ACuilegia vulgaris Clematis cam)ani0lora Clematis orientalis !el)hinium elatum !el)hinium glaucum English name Indian aconite ;enus' chariot Columbine Clematis /ocal name Atis) 'esh molo) 'esh &asoor) Mittha telia 'achhnaa&) 'esh) Mittha telia 'erish) !hani !huntru& Use yield medicine, aconitina 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicine 0or madness 4edicinal :rnamental, medicinal :rnamental ,alon8i Ram gatti !ham%ul Condiment, medicinal 3erve tonic 4edicinal

Chinese clematis, 7usho&a al oriental virginsbower Candle lar/s)ur +ad ar) .apo %uma Ma&hoti

lar/s)ur, Sierra lar/s)ur, tower lar/s)ur *elleborus niger Blac/ *ellebore *ydrastis canadensis 3igella damascena 3igella his)anica 3igella sativa 2ulsatilla vulgaris Ranunculus arvensis "oldenseal !evil in the bush S)anish 0ennel Blac/ Cumin Euro)ean )asCueD0lower Corn buttercu)

4amily" 5$ 'er%eridaceae
Sr $ @ Taxon Berberis English name Beet, common barberry, /ocal name Darhald) Carish& Use 4edicinal .>

vulgaris . 2odo)hyllum hexandrum

e)ineDvinette, Euro)ean barberry, vinetteier *imalayan maya))le

-tchmaudai) Esmane) 'an ,a&ri


4amily" =$ Magnoliaceae
Sr $ @ . , > E Taxon 4ichelia I alba 4ichelia cham)aca 4agnolia grandi0lora 4agnolia macro)hylla 4agnolia I soulangiana English name Nhite cham)a 4ichelia Southern magnolia Biglea0 magnolia Chinese magnolia /ocal name !hina champa !hampa Dulee champa +auhri champa !hini champa Use :rnamental :rnamental, medicinal :rnamental, medicinal :rnamental :rnamental

4amily" >$ Annonaceae

Sr $ @ . , > E ' ? Taxon Annona muricata Annona reticulate Annona sCuamosa Artabotrys odoratissima Asimina triloba Cananga odorata Iylo)ia aethio)ica English name Sour so) Bulloc/Bs heart( Bastard a))le Custard a))le( sweet so)( sugar a))le Brown 2aw)aw ilangDilang Ethio)ian )e))er /ocal name Mamphal Ramphal Sharifa) Anannas) Sitaphal ,antli champa Use %ruit edible %ruit edible %ruit edible :rnamental %ruit edible 4acassar oil )er0ume S)ice, medicinal

4amily" ;$ Myristicaceae
Sr $ @ Taxon English name /ocal name Use

4yristica 0ragrans 3utmeg and 4ace +aiphal and +a*itri S)ice, medicinal

4amily" <$ .ymphaeaceae


Sr $ @


English name /ocal name


3elumbium s)eciosum Indian lotus

,an al) rhi9omeD'hen %ood

4amily" @$ .elum%onaceae
Sr $ @ Taxon 3elumbo nuci0era English name /ocal name sacred lotus .ilufar) padma) &amal) &an al Use 4edicinal

4amily" ?$ Papa*eraceae
Sr $ @ . , > E Taxon Argemone mexicana English name /ocal name Use 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal

4exican )ric/ly )o))y, Satyanasi yellow )ric/ly)o))y 2a)aver nudicaule Icelandic )o))y /ilo) /aila mindo: 2a)aver rhoeas Corn )o))y 3ull0e0/ala 2a)aver somni0erum :)ium )o))y Post Sanguinaria Canadensis Bloodroot

4amily" 2$ 4umariaceae
Sr $ @ . , > E Taxon Corydalis solida !icentra s)ectabilis Eschschol9ia cali0ornica %umaria o00icinalis %umaria )arvi0lora English name /ocal name Use 4edicinal :rnamental :rnamental 4edicinal 4edicinal

S)ring 0umewort Mamira BleedingDhearts Cali0ornia )o))y !rug 0umitory Pit papra %ineDlea0 0umitory Pit papra

4amily" 16$ Piperaceae

Sr $ @ . , > E Taxon 2i)er auritum 2i)er betel 2i)er cubeba 2i)er longum 2i)er nigrum English name ;era cru9 )e))er Betel lea0 Cubeb )e))er Indian long )e))er Blac/ )e))er /ocal name Paan ,a%a%0chini Pipli) Piplamool 3ol mirch) ,ali Use S)ice, medicinal 4edicinal, chewing 4edicinal, s)ice S)ice, medicinal S)ice, medicinal .'

mirch ' 2i)er retro0ractum Mavanese long )e))er Pipar) !ha%) !ha*i

#Blac/, white, green$ S)ice, medicinal

4amily" 11$ Saururaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon English name /ocal name Use ;egetable, medicinal

*outtuynia cordata *outtuynia, Chameleon

4amily" 15$ /auraceae

Sr $ @ . , > E ' ? Taxon Cinnamomum aromaticum Cinnamomum burmannii Cinnamomum cam)hora Cinnamomum tamala Cinnamomum verum 8aurus nobilis Sassa0ras albidum English name Cassia Indonesian Cinnamon, 2adang cassia Cam)hor laurel, cam)hor tree Indian BayDlea0, Indian bar/ Cylon Cinnamon sweet bay Sassa0ras /ocal name TeCpaat Te8pat ,aafoor Te8pat Darchini) .ag&esar #buds$ Use S)ice, medicinal S)ice, medicinal 4edicinal S)ice, medicinal S)ice, medicinal S)ice, medicinal S)ice, medicinal

4amily" 1=$ Monimiaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon English name /ocal name Use S)ice, medicinal

2eumus boldus Boldo

4amily" 1>$ -lliciaceae

Sr $ Taxon English name /ocal name Use


Illicium verum

Staranise tree

'adyan chini) Anasphal S)ice, medicinal

4amily" 1;$ Paeoniaceae

Sr $ @ . , Taxon 2aeonia emodi 2aeonia lacti0lora 2aeonia o00icinalis English name /ocal name Use 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal

Ud Salap Chinese )eony Common )eony Mame&hi) Udsalap

4amily" 1<$ 'rassicaceae

Sr $ @ . , > E ' ? A G @1 @@ @. @, Taxon Armoracia rusticana Brassica alboglabra Brassica carinata Brassica chinensis Brassica cretica Brassica elongata Brassica 0ruticulosa Brassica Funcea Brassica Funcea var+ Funcea Brassica na)us Brassica na)us var+ na)us Brassica na)us var+ )abularia Brassica narinosa English name *orseradish Chinese /ale, Chinese broccoli, Nhite 0lowering broccoli Abyssinian mustard 2a/ choi 4ustard Elongated mustard 4editerranean cabbage Chinese mustard, mustard green, Indian mustard Ra)e, turni) Rape Siberian /ale Broadbea/ed mustard /ocal name Use S)ice ;egetable ;egetable, oil ;egetable ;egetable %odder %odder Toria) Edible oil, Arhon) Asal medicinal rai Shalgam ;egetable Sarsoon :il, 0orage, medicinal ;egetable ;egetable


@> @E @' @?

Brassica nigra

@A @G .1 .@ .. ., .> .E .' .? .A .G ,1 ,@ ,. ,, ,> ,E

Brassica oleracea Brassica oleracea var+ botrytis Brassica oleracea 2ortuguese cabbage, Bed0ord var+ costata cabbage, Tronchuda /ale, Tronchuda ca%%age, 2ortuguese /ale, Sea/ale cabbage, 4adeira cabbage, NhiteD0lowered cabbage Brassica oleracea Broccoli, Winter cauliflower, var+ italica sprouting broccoli Brassica oleracea Cabbage, wild cabbage var+ oleracea Brassica oleracea Brussels s)routs var+ gemmi0era Brassica oleracea =ohlrabi var+ gongylodes Brassica %alse )a/ choi )arachinensis Brassica )erviridis Tender green Brassica ra)a Turni) ra)e, wild mustard, wild rutabaga, wild turni) Brassica ra)a var+ Bird's ra)e, mustard, ra)e ra)a Brassica ra)a var+ %ield mustard, ra)e, ra)e am)lexicaulis mustard Brassica ra)a var+ Toria dichotoma Brassica ra)a var+ Col9a silvestris Brassica ra)a var+ Jellow sarson, Indian col9a trilocularis Brassica ra)a ss)+ ra)a Brassica ra)a ss)+ sarson Brassica ru)estris Brassica ruvo Brassica se)tice)s Brassica sisymbrioides Ra)e mustard Brown sarson 4ustard Ruvo /ale Sevento) turni) Broadlea0 Chinese mustard

Blac/ mustard, short)od mustard Cabbage, /ale Broccoli, Cauli0lower

,ali rai

S)ice, medicinal ;egetable Phool go%hi ;egetable ;egetable

'and go%hi 'utton go%hi 3andh go%hi

;egetable, medicinal ;egetable ;egetable, medicinal ;egetable ;egetable

Shalgam Sarson Sarson ,ali Sarson Raai

;egetable ;egetable Edible oil Edible oil, vegetable Edible oil S)ice, oil, medicinal Edible oil :il, vegetable, medicinal Edible oil ;egetable ;egetable ;egetable, 0odder Edible oil, vegetable

Pili raai, Pili sarson, Raai sarson Sarson Sarson


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Brassica tourne0ortii Cardamine )ratensis Eruca vesicaria Erysimum cheiri *es)eris matronalis Iberis amara 8e)idium lati0olium

A0rican mustard, Asian mustard, wild turni), Tourne0ort's birdra)e Cuc/oo 0lower Roc/et salad Aegean Nall0lower !ame roc/et Candytu0t BroadDleaved )e))erweed, broadleaved )e))ergrass, )e))ergrass mustard, )erennial )e))ercress, )erennial )e))erweed, tall whiteto) "arden cress Sweet Alyssum Annual honesty 2erennial honesty Tenwee/s Stoc/ Radish Nater cress 8ondon roc/et, roc/etmustard Nhite mustard Nasabi, Ma)anese horseradish

4edicinal Male phunar Taramira 4edicinal :il

Todri :rnamental sur&h) todri Card :rnamental !handni :rnamental Dich 4edicinal

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8e)idium sativum 8obularia maritima 8unaria annua 8unaria rediviva 4atthiola incana Ra)hanus sativus Rori))a nasturtiumD aCuaticum Sisymbrium irio Sina)is alba Nasabia Fa)onica


Mooli ,hoo% &alan Sufed rai

%odder, 4edicine :rnamental :rnamental :rnamental :rnamental ;egetable S)ice 4edicine S)ice, medicinal S)ice

4amily" 1@$ !apparaceae

Sr $ @ . Taxon English name /ocal name Use

Ca))aris indica 8inguam Ca))aris s)inosa Ca)er

,arir %ood, medicinal ,iari) ,a%ra) ,udder S)ice, medicinal

4amily" 1?$ Moringaceae

Sr Taxon English name /ocal name Use


$ @ 4oringa olei0era *orseradishtree Sohan8na 4edicinal, vegetable

4amily" 12$ 9iolaceae

Sr $ @ . , > E Taxon *ybanthus concolor ;iola adunca ;iola canina ;iola odorata ;iola tricolor English name Eastern green violet Blue violet *eath dog violet Sweet violet Mohnny Fum)u), wild )ansy /ocal name Rattanpuru s 'anafsha Use 4edicinal :rnamental :rnamental 4edicinal :rnamental, medicinal, vegetable

4amily" 56$ 'ixaceae

Sr $ @ . Taxon English name /ocal name Use

Bixa orellana Annatto, 8i)stic/ tree Color Cochlos)ermum gossy)ium "olden sil/ cotton 3ond0&atira 4edicinal

4amily" 51$ !ucur%itaceae

Sr $ @ . , > E ' ? A G Taxon Benincasa his)ida Bryonia alba Citrullus colocynthis Citrullus lanatus Cucumis melo Cucumis melo ss)+ melo var+ 0lexuosus Cucumis sativus Cucurbita digitata Cucurbita 0ici0olia English name Nax gourd Bryony Colocynth Nater melon 4elon, cantalou)e Cucumber %inger lea0 gourd %inger lea0 gourd /ocal name Petha Tumma) -ndrayn Tar%ooC ,har%ooCa Tar) ,a&ri ,hira Use ;egetable 4edicinal 4edicinal %ruit %ruit, medicinal ;egetable, medicinal ;egetable ;egetable, 0orage ;egetable, 0orage ,@

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Cucurbita maxima Cucurbita maxima var+ maxima Cucurbita mixta Cucurbita moschata Cucurbita )e)o 8agenaria siceraria 8u00a acutangula 8u00a aegy)tica 8u00a o)erculata 4omordica balsamina 4omordica charantia 4omordica dioica 2raecitrullus 0istulosus Trichosanthes anguina Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes dioica

Ninter sCuash SCuash 2um)/in Croo/Dnec/ sCuash ;egetable 4arrow Bottle gourd Ribbed gourd S)onge gourd 8u00a Southern Balsam)ear Bitter gourd, Balsam )ear Balsam )ear Sna/e gourd Sna/e gourd 2ointed gourd

(alaiti &addu ,addu

;egetable ;egetable, medicinal Petha ;egetable 7al a &addu) ;egetable, ,anshi phal medicinal 3hia &addu ;egetable, medicinal /au&i ;egetable ,ali tori) mongi tori ;egetable 3hia tori ;egetable Tori ;egetable ,a&ora ;egetable, medicinal ,arela ;egetable, medicinal +angli &arela) dhar ;egetable, &arela medicinal Tinda ;egetable !hichinda) Parol ;egetable !hichinda) Parol ;egetable Pal al) Par al ;egetable

4amily" 55$ Tamaricaceae

Sr $ @ . Taxon Tamarix a)hylla Tamarix dioica English name Athel, Athel tamaris/, saltcedar, tamaris/, tamarix saltcedar, tamaris/, tamarix /ocal name Use

3haCC) 4edicinal ,o an +hau) turfah 4edicinal

4amily" 5=$ Turneraceae

Sr $ @ Taxon Turnera di00usa English name /ocal name Use !amiana 4edicinal

4amily" 5>$ Passifloraceae

Sr $ @ Taxon 2assi0lora incarnata English name 2ur)le )assion0lower /ocal name Use 3ul0e0SaEat 4edicinal


4amily" 5;$ Dipterocarpaceae

Sr $ @ . , Taxon !ryobalano)s aromatica Shorea robusta ;ateria indica English name Borneo (Sumatra cam)hor Indian Sal Nhite dammar /ocal name ,afoor Sal Safed damma) Dhopadamara Use Cam)hor :il, resin Nax, medicinal

4amily" 5<$ !lusiaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon *y)ericum )er0oratum English name Common St+ Mohn's wort, common St+ Mohnswort, =lamath weed /ocal name Use 4edicinal

4amily" 5@$ Mal*aceae

Sr $ @ . , > E ' ? A G @1 @@ @. Taxon Abelmoschus esculentus Abutilon indicum Alcea )allida Alcea rosea Althaea o00icinalis "ossy)ium arboreum "ossy)ium barbadense "ossy)ium herbaceum "ossy)ium hirsutum "ossy)ium la)ideum "ossy)ium sturtianum "ossy)ium English name :/ra 4on/eybush Alcea "arden *ollyhoc/ Common marshDmallow Tree cotton Creole cotton 8evant cotton 5)land cotton /ocal name 'hindi 3ul0e0,angi 7allo) !hama 3ul0e0,haira Tu&hm0e0 &hitmi) gul0e0 ,hairu Desi ,apas Misri ,apas Desi ,apas American ,apas Use ;egetable 4edicinal 4edicinal :rnamental 4edicinal %iber %iber %iber, medicinal %iber "ene source Sturt's desert rose "ene source "ene source


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thuberi "ossy)ium thurberi "ossy)ium tomentosum "ossy)ium tormentosum *ibiscus canabinus *ibiscus mutabilis *ibiscus rosaD sinensis *ibiscus sabdari00a 8avatera arborea 4alva )arvi0lora 4alva sylvestris 2avonia hastata 5rena lobata

Thurber's cotton, wild cotton *awaii cotton

"ene source "ene source "ene source

4adras hem) !ixie rosemallow Chinese rose Roselle Tree mallow Cheeseweed cheeseweed mallow, smallDwhorl mallow 4allow S)earlea0 Swam)mallow Aramina, Caesar weed, Caesarweed, hibiscus burr, Fute a0ricain

Sanu&ra) 3ul0 e0Am%ari 3ul0e0a8u%a 3arhal 3ul0e0Sa%drofa

%iber, oil, ;egetable, medicinal :rnamental :rnamental, medicinal 4edicinal

Resha0i0&hatme 4edicinal Soanchal) Panira& ,hu%aCi 'acita 4edicinal 4edicinal :rnamental 4edicinal

4amily" 5?$ 'om%acaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon English name /ocal name Use %iber, medicinal

Bombax ceiba Sil/ cotton tree Sim%al

4amily" 52$ Tiliaceae

Sr $ @ . , Taxon English name /ocal name Use Patsann Patsann Patsann %iber %iber %iber

Corchorus alitorius Mute Corchorus aestuans Mute Corchorus ca)sularis Mute



"rewia asiatica




4amily" =6$ Sterculiaceae

Sr $ @ . Taxon English name /ocal name Use Stimulant Stimulant

Cola acuminata Cola Theobroma cacao Cocao

4amily" =1$ Sapotaceae

Sr $ @ . , > Taxon English name /ocal name Use Mahua Mulsari !hi&u 3utta 4edicinal 4edicinal %ruit 8atex yield gutta )ercha

4adhuca indica 4oa tree 4imuso)s elengi S)anish cherry 4anil/ara 9a)ota Sa)odilla 2alaCuium gutta "utta )ercha

4amily" =5$ Styracaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon Styrax ben9oin English name /ocal name Use Styrax 4edicinal

4amily" ==$ E%enaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon !ios)yros ebenum English name /ocal name Ebony Use

A%nos) Tendu 4edicinal

4amily" =>$ Primulaceae

Sr $ @ . , Taxon English name /ocal name Use 4edicinal 4edicinal :rnamental

Anagalis arvensis 2im)erose 'illi %ooti Cyclamen )ur)urascens Cyclamen 2rimula vulgaris English )rimrose


4amily" =;$ Myrsinaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon English name /ocal name Use

Embelia )aci0ica =ilioe

'ao0%arang) *ao0*arang 4edicinal

4amily" =<$ Salicaceae

Sr $ @ . , > Taxon Salix alba Salix ca)rea Salix 0ragilis Salix )entandra English name "olden willow, white willow "oat willow Crac/ willow Crac/ willow /ocal name 'ed Mush& Use 4edicinal :rnamental, aromatic water :rnamental, yield salicin, ingredient o0 as)irin

4amily" =@$ Theaceae

Sr $ @ . Taxon English name /ocal name Use !haie !haie Stimulant Stimulant

Camellia sinensis Tea Camellia sinensis var+ assamica Assam tea

4amily" =?$ Ericaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon Rhododendron canescens var+ canescens English name 4ountain a9alea /ocal name .ichni) Susar) TaCa& tusum) ,aiCa%an Use 4edicinal

4amily" =2$ !aryophyllaceae

Sr $ @ . , > E ' ? Taxon !ianthus barbatus !ianthus caryo)hyllus !ianthus chinensis "y)so)hila )aniculata 8ychnis alba 8ychnis al)ina Silene conoidea English name /ocal name Use :rnamental :rnamental :rnamental :rnamental :rnamental :rnamental 4edicinal

Sweetwillium Carnation Rainbow 2in/ BabyBs breath Nhite coc/le Red Al)ine Cam)ion Need silene Pauper) Dardiri


4amily" >6$ !henopodiaceae

Sr $ @ . , > E ' ? A G @1 Taxon Beta vulgaris Cheno)odium album ss)+ album Cheno)odium ambrosioides Cheno)odium ambrosioides var+ abrosioides Cheno)odium 0oliosum Cheno)odium murale Cheno)odium Cuinoa Salsola soda S)inacea oleracea Suaeda esteroa English name Beet, Sugar beet "oose0oot 4exican tea, e)a9ote 4exican tea, Normseed 8ea0y goose0oot <uinoa Russian thistle, Saltwort S)inach Seablite /ana Pala& Saloona& %uti /ocal name !hu&andar 'athu) 'ath a Use Sugar, vegetable ;egetable, medicinal S)ice 4edicinal 4edicinal ;egetable Seeds used as 0ood %orage, soda ;egetable Sa88i ,haar

!handan 'ath a 'athu) ,unah ,urund

4amily" >1$ Amaranthaceae

Sr $ @ . , > E ' ? Taxon Achyranthes as)era Aerva lanata Amaranthus blitum Amaranthus cruentus Amaranthus tricolor Amaranthus viridis Celosia cristata English name !evilBs horsewhi) Aerva 2ur)le amaranth Red amaranth Mose)hBsDcoat slender amaranth Crested coc/'s comb /ocal name Puth&anda) !harchita !hulai !hulai !hulai !horoo) !haulai 3ul0e0Alsana Use 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal, vegetable 4edicinal, vegetable 4edicinal, vegetable 4edicinal 4edicinal

4amily" >5$ Portulacaceae

Sr$ Taxon English name /ocal Use


2ortulaca oleracea

name a/uli/uliD/ula, common )urslane, duc/weed, ,hurfa) garden )urslane, little hogweed, littleD &ulfa hogweed, )urslane, )ursley, )usley, wild 2ortulaca


4amily" >=$ !actaceae

Sr $ @ . Taxon :)untia monacantha :)untia stricta var+ dillenii English name Common )ric/ly)ear Erect )ric/ly)ear /ocal name .agphani !hapal) .ag phana Use 4edicinal 4edicinal

4amily" >>$ .yctaginaceae

Sr $ @ . Taxon Boerhavia di00usa 4irabilis Fala)a English name Red s)iderling Common 0our o'cloc/, marvel o0 2eru /ocal name (alla&ah) (aso)3hetulli) Thi&ri) sant 3ul0e0A%%as) ,rishna &ali Use 4edicinal 4edicinal

4amily" >;$ Polygonaceae

Sr $ @ . , > E ' ? A Taxon %ago)yrum esculentum %ago)yrum tataricum 2olygonum chinese 2olygonum hydro)i)er 2olygonum ne)alense 2olygonum )lebeium 2olygonum vivi)arum Rumex cris)us English name Buc/wheat Tartary Buc/wheat Chinese /notweed Nater 2e))er, smartweed 3e)alese smartweed Tang merci) Pa&armul 'araoo Raniphal) /arhanoo 'aro:) !hapdeh) Marsi Mindo: ,hatti 'uti) /ocal name Use %ood %ood Indigo S)ice, medicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal

Al)ine bistort, ser)entDgrass, vivi)arous bistort Curley doc/, curly doc/,

4edicinal ,A

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Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatulus Rumex vesicarius Rheum )almatum Rheum rhabarbarum

narrowlea0 doc/, sour doc/, yellow doc/ Toothed doc/ *eartwing sorrel !oc/ Chinese rhubarb "arden rhubarb

chur&i RheirhiComa 4edicine, rhubarb ;egetable 4edicinal 4edicinal

Re*and chini) +aro !huntal

4amily" ><$ Plum%aginaceae

Sr $ @ . Taxon 2lumbago indica English name Indian leadwort /ocal name Use 4edicinal 4edicinal

Shetra8 7indi 2lumbago 9eylanica Nild leadwort, Ceylon leadwort Shetra8 7indi

4amily" >@$ /inaceae

Sr $ @ . , Taxon English name /ocal name Use :rnamental :rnamental :il, 0lax 0iber, medicinal

8inum grandi0lorum %lowering 0lax Phool alsi 8inum )erenne Blue 0lax 8inum usitatissimum 0lax( linseed Alsi

4amily" >?$ Rutaceae

Sr $ @ . , > E ' ? A G @1 @@ Taxon Aegle marmelos Citrus auranti0olia Citrus aurantii0olia Citrus aurantium Citrus aurantium ss)+ bergamia Citrus Fambhiri Citrus limetta Citrus limon Citrus I limonia Citrus maxima Citrus medica English name Indian bael 8ime 8ime Sour orange Bergamot orange Rough lemon Bitter orange 8emon 4andarin lime Shaddoc/ Citron /ocal name 'ael) Shri phal ,hatta ,hatti Sangtara Use %ruit, medicinal %ruit, medicinal %ruit, medicinal %ruit , gra0t stoc/ 4edicinal "ra0t stoc/ %ruit, ornamental %ruit, medicinal %ruit, medicinal, gra0t stoc/ %ruit %ruit, medicinal

Mittha ,agCi0nim%oo) .im%oo Shar%ati) Sur&h nim%oo /emon0e0hindi 3algal) Turan8) cha&otra


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Citrus nobilis Citrus I )aradisi Citrus reticulata Citrus sinensis Citrus tachibana Citrus I tangelo Cus)aria 0ebri0uga %eronia lemonia 4urraya exotica 4urraya /oenigii 2ilocar)us Faborandi Ruta graveolens Uanthoxylum 0lavum

Tangor, =ing orange "ra)e0ruit, )aradise citrus Tangerine :range, sweet orange Tachibana orange Tangelo Cus)aria

Shah turan8 3rape fruit Santara Mosam%i) Malta) .arangi +apani malta

%ruit %ruit, medicinal %ruit, medicinal, gra0t stoc/ %ruit, medicinal, bee )lant %ruit %ruit, gra0t stoc/ Citron oil, medicinal 4edicinal :rnamental S)ice :il o0 Faborandi S)ice, medicinal Ma)anese )e))er

Chinese Box Currylea0 tree Maborandi Rue Nest Indian Satinwood

Tuhfatul0fil) ,ath %el Marua) ,amni Mittha neem) ,atnim) ,itha neem Satari) Pissumar Te8%al

4amily" >2$ Meliaceae

Sr $ @ . Taxon English name /ocal name .eem Dhre&) 'a&ayen Use 4edicinal, )esticide 4edicinal

A9adirachta indica 4argosa 4elia a9edarach 2ersian lilac

4amily" ;6$ Anacardiaceae

Sr$ Taxon @ Anacardium occidentale . 4angi0era indica , 2istacia lentiscus > 2istacia terebinthus English name Cashew nut 4ango 4astic tree Cy)rus tur)entine /ocal name ,a8u Aam Rumi mastagi) &undari 'in8u Use 3ut, caustic oil %ruit, medicinal 4astic resin Tur)entine, medicinal >1

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2istacia vera Rhus coriaria Rhus chinensis Schinus molle Schinus terebinthi0olius Semecar)us anacardium Toxicodendron )ubescens Toxicodendron radicans ss)+ radicans

2istachio nut Sumac Chinese sumac 2eruvian )e))ertree Bra9ilian )e))erD tree 4ar/ingDnut 2oisonous ivy(oa/ 2oisonous ivy(oa/

Pista ,a&rasingi ,a&rasingi

3ut S)ice, medicine S)ice, medicine S)ice S)ice

'hila a

4ar/ing 4edicinal 4edicinal

4amily" ;1$ Sapindaceae

Sr $ @ . , Taxon English name /ocal name Use /ongan %ruit /itchi %ruit Ram%uttan %ruit

!imocar)us longana !imocar)us 8itchi chinensis 8ychee 3i)helium la)aceum 3e)helium

4amily" ;5$ Bygophyllaceae

Sr $ @ . Taxon %agonia )achyacantha 2eganum harmala Tribulus terrestris English name stic/y 0agonbush, stic/y 0agonia A0rican rue, harmal )eganum, harmal shrub, harmel, isband, o9allai/, )eganum, ste))enraute, Syrian rue bullhead, caltro), goathead, 4exican sandbur, )uncture vine, )uncturevine, Texas sandbur /ocal name Das &uno) Dhamasa 7armal) -spand 3o&hru) %ha&ra) tri&antah Use 4edicinal 4edicinal


4amily" ;=$ 7ippocastanaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon Aesculus hi))ocastanum English name /ocal name *orse chestnut 3hudoom) ,anor) 'an&hor Use 4edicinal


4amily" ;>$ 'urseraceae

Sr $ @ . , Taxon English name /ocal name Use 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal

Boswellia serrata Indian 0ran/incense 3ugul Commi)hora habessinica Abyssinian myrrh 3ugul Commi)hora o)obalsamum 4ecca myrrh 3ugul

4amily" ;;$ Rhamnaceae

Sr $ @ . , > Taxon =rugiodendron 0erreum Ui9i)hus mauritiana Ui9i)hus nummularia Ui9i)hus 9i9y)hus English name 8eadwood /ocal name S)eci0ic gravity @+, Use

*ardest and heaviest wood Indian FuFube Una%) pitni0%er 4edicinal MuFube ,o&an 'er# Malah %ruit Common FuFube 'er %ruit

4amily" ;<$ 9itaceae

Sr $ @ . , > E ' ? A G @1 @@ @. @, @> @E Taxon ;itis aestivalis ;itis amurensis ;itis I bourCuina ;itis cinerea ;itis girdiana ;itis labrusca ;itis I labruscana ;itis monticola ;itis mustangensis ;itis I novaeD angliae ;itis )almata ;itis ri)aria ;itis ru)estris ;itis vini0era ;itis vul)ina English name summer gra)e Amur gra)e "ra)e "raybar/ gra)e, sweet gra)e !esert wild gra)e %ox gra)e "ra)e Sweet mountain gra)e 4ustang gra)e 2ilgrim gra)e Catbird gra)e RiverDban/ gra)e Sand gra)e "ra)e vine %rost gra)e /ocal name Use Angur Angur Angur Angur Angur Angur Angur Angur Angur Angur Angur Angur Angur Angur Angur "ene source :rnamental :rnamental "ra0t stoc/ :rnamental %ruit, ornamental %ruit, ornamental "ra0t stoc/ "ra0t stoc/ :rnamental :rnamental "ra0t stoc/ "ra0t stoc/ 4ruit %ruit, gra0t stoc/

4amily" ;@$ Elaeagnaceae


Sr $ @ . ,

Taxon Elaeagnus angusti0olia Elaeagnus umbellata *i))o)hae rhamnoides

English name :leaster Russian olive autumn olive, oleaster Seabuc/thorn

/ocal name Shun8oor) Sin8it) SanCalai 3ehain) Sarmindo:) See&ham) sarsing MirghiC) 'uru

Use 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal

4amily" ;?$ 4a%aceae

Sr $ @ . , > E ' ? A G @1 @@ @. @, @> @E @' @? @A @G Taxon Abrus )recatorious Acacia catechu Acacia modesta Acacia nilotica Aeschynomene indica Aeschynomene as)era Albi9ia lebbe/ Albi9ia )rocera Alhagi maurorum Arachis hy)ogaea Astragalus anisus Bauhinia )ur)urea Bauhinia variegata Butea monos)erma Butea su)erba Caesal)inia )ulcherrima CaFanus caFan Canavalia ensi0ormis Cassia 0istula English name CarbBs eye Blac/ cutch Blac/wood "um Arabic tree Indian cor/ )lant Indian cor/ )lant Siris tree Tall Albi9ia Camelthorn "round nut "unnison mil/vetch Butter0ly tree CamelBs 0oot tree, butter0ly tree, mountain ebony Bengal /ino !war0 )oinciana, 0lower0ence, )rideDo0D Barbados 2igeon )ea Nonder bean "olden shower, /ocal name Ratti ,atha Phulahi 'a%ul) ,i&ar !or& !or& ,ala Sirin Safed Sirin +a ain) Turan8%in Moong phali ,hasmar ,hair al ,achnar Dha&) Palas 3ul0e0Teesu 3ul0e0tura Arhar 'ara0sem Amaltas Use 4edicinal S)ice Nood, medicinal 4edicinal Cor/ Cor/ :rnamental :rnamental 4edicinal 3ut, oil 4edicinal 4edicinal ;egetable 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal 2ulse ;egetable 4edicinal


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Cicer arietinum Clitoria ternatea Crotolaria Funcea Cullen coryli0olia Cyamo)sis tetragonoloba !albergia sissoo !elonix regia !erris indica !esmodium gangeticum !i)teryx odorata "lycyrrhi9a glabra "lycine max Indigo0era tinctoria 8ablab )ur)ureus 8athyrus a)haca 8athyrus odoratus 8ens culinaris 8otus corniculatus

Indian laburnum "ram(Chic/)ea Asian )igeonwings *em) 4alaysian scur0)ea Cluster bean Indian rosewood Royal 2oinciana 2ongame oiltree Indian tic/tre0oil Ton/a bean Sweet wood, licorice Soybean Indigo !olichos bean Jellow)ea Sweet )ea 8entil bird0oot deervetch, Birds0oot tre0oil, bloom0ell, cat's clover, crowtoes, garden birds0oot tre0oil, ground honeysuc/le Al0al0a Bur clover Jellow al0al0a Indian clover Shame )lant Sieva bean =idney bean, %rench bean 2ea 4esCuite Mand

!hana Apara8it) MaCarin0e0 7indi Sunn 'a%chi 3uar Shisham) Tahli 3ul0e0Mohar 3ul0e0,aran8 Shal parni) Sari*an Malatthi 'hatta .eel Sem +angli matar Phool matar Masoor ,ashapo

2ulse 4edicinal %iber 4edicinal ;egetable, %odder, gum Nood, medicinal :rnamental, medicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal S)ice 4edicinal 2ulse, oil Indigo ;egetable ;egetable :rnamental 2ulse 4edicinal

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4edicago sativa 4edicago )olymor)ha 4edicago sativa ss)+ 0alcata 4elilotus alba 4imosa )udica 2haseolus lunatus 2haseolus vulgaris 2isum sativum 2roso)sis Fuli0lora 2roso)is cineraria

/ucern Maina Methi Sen8i !hhui mui) /a8 anti Sem Ra8manh

0odder %odder, weed ;egetable %odder, weed :rnamental ;egetable 2ulse

Matar vegetable (alaiti ,i&ar %uel +andi) ,andi Nood, medicinal


>A >G E1 E@ E. E, E> EE E' E? EA EG '1 '@ '. ', '> 'E '' '? 'A 'G ?1 ?@ ?. ?,

Saraca asoca Saraca indica 2terocar)us santalinus Senna alata Senna alexandrina Senna italica Senna obtusi0olia Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Sesbania cannabina Sesbania grandi0lora Sesbania sesban So)hora gy)so)hila Tamarindus indica Tri0olium alexandrinum Tri0olium )ratense Tri0olium re)ens Tri0olium resu)inatum Trigonella caerulea Trigonella 0oenumDgraecum ;icia 0aba ;igna aconiti0olia ;igna mungo ;igna radiata ;igna unguiculata ;igna unguiculata ss)+ cylinderica

Aso/a, Aso/aDtree #"RI3$ Aso/a, Aso/aDtree #"RI3$ 2terocar)us Em)eror's candlestic/s Alexandrian senna 2ort Royal senna MavaDbean, sic/le)od Se)ticweed Siamese cassia Sesbania ;egetable hummingbird Egy)tian riverhem) "uadalu)e 4ountain nec/lace)od Tamarind Egy)tian clover Red clover !utch clover, ladino clover, white clover 2ersian clover Blue 0enugree/ Sic/le 0ruit 0enugree/ %aba bean, horse bean 4oth bean Blac/ gram 4ung bean Cow )ea *orse gram, catFang

Asho&a Asho&a Sandal sur&h) lalchandana Dadmardan Sanna 7indi sena) Sena ma&&i Pan ar) !ha&ar mard ,asundi ,asood +antar 3ul0e08aunti +antar ,athi) 'eshu -mli 'arsin) 'arseem Trepatra 'ul%u&soo&) Shatala) Shaftal Shatala) Shaftal Methe 'a&la Moth Mash) Urd Moong /o%ia) Ra anh ,ulthe

4edicinal 4edicinal Santalin dye 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal %odder, 0iber 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal S)ice %odder %odder, medicinal 4edicinal 0odder S)ice ;egetable, medicinal 2ulse 2ulse 2ulse 2ulse 2ulse ;egetable

4amily" ;2$ Rosaceae


Sr $ @ . , > E ' ? A G @1 @@ @. @, @> @E @' @? @A @G .1 .@ .. .,

Taxon Crataegus monogyna Cydonia oblonga Eriobotrya Fa)onica %ragaria vesca 4alus baccata 4alus sylvestris 2otentilla atrosanguinea 2runus armeniaca 2runus avium 2runus cerasus 2runus domestica 2runus dulcis 2runus mahaleb 2runus )ersica 2yrus communis 2yrus )yri0olia Rosa I damascena Rosa 0oetida Rosa gallica Rosa indica Rubus 0ruticosus Rubus idaeus Rubus rosi0olius

English name :neseed hawthorn, singleseed hawthorn <uince 8oCuat Noodland strawberry Crab a))le A))le Ruby cinCue0oil A)ricot Cherry Nild cherry 2lum Almond 4ahaleb Cherry 2each 2ear Indian )ear !amas/ rose 2ersian yellow rose, AustrianDbrier %rench rose Cyme Rose Blac/ berry Ras)berry Ras)berry

/ocal name

Use 4edicinal

'igi) 'i%i) Safar8al /o&at +angli Me a !hhota Se% Se% 4olling) 4orus chai) 'urs gas ,hurmani) Bardalu 3alas# !herry !herry Alucha 'adam) 'adam tal&h Aru .ashpati) 'agogosha Desi na&h) Pathar na&h 3ul0e0Sur&h 3ul0e0'riar

4edicinal %ruit, medicinal %ruit, medicinal %ruit %ruit 4edicinal %ruit %ruit %ruit %ruit 3ut %ruit , s)ice %ruit %ruit %ruit 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal


:rnamental, medicinal %ruit %ruit %ruit

4amily" <6$ Saxifragaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon English name /ocal name Use 4edicinal >'

Saxi0raga caes)itosa Tu0ted al)ine saxi0rage 'esa%ur

4amily" <1$ !om%retaceae

Sr $ @ . , Taxon English name /ocal name Use

Terminalia bellirica Bastard myrobalan 'ahera) 'aleela 4edicinal Terminalia cata))a Indian almond Ar8un 3ut, medicinal Terminalia chebula Blac/ myrobalan 7arar 4edicinal

4amily" <5$ Myrtaceae

Sr $ @ . , > E ' ? A G @1 Taxon Eucaly)tus camaldulensis Eucaly)tus citriodora Eucaly)tus globulus Eugenia )olyantha 4yrtus communis 2sidium guaFava 2imenta dioica Sy9ygium aromaticum Sy9ygium cumini Sy9ygium Fambos English name Eucaly)tus Eucaly)tus Eucaly)tus Indonesian BayDlea0 4yrtle "uava Alls)ice, )imento Clove Mambolan )lum RoseDa))le /ocal name Safeda Safeda Safeda Use

:il, resin, gum :il, resin, gum :il, resin, gum S)ice Menhdi Cosmetic Amrood %ruit S)ice /aung S)ice +amon %ruit, medicine 3hula% 8amon %ruit, medicine

4amily" <=$ Punicaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon English name /ocal name Use Anar %ruit, medicinal

2unica granatum 2omegranate

4amily" <>$ /ythraceae

Sr $ @ Taxon English name /ocal name Use

8awsonia inermis *enna

7enna) Menhdi Cosmetic

4amily" <;$ Anagraceae

Sr $ @ Taxon :enothera biennis English name Common evening )rimrose, hoary evening )rimrose, /ing'sDcureDall /ocal name 7ali8i phunar Use 4edicinal

4amily" <<$ Apiaceae


Sr $ @ . , > E ' ? A G @1 @@ @. @, @> @E @' @? @A @G .1 .@ .. ., .>

Taxon Anethum graveolens Angelica archangelica Anthriscus cere0olium A)ium graveolens A)ium graveolens var+ ra)aceum Bunium bulbocastanum Carum carvi Carum verticillatum Centella asiatica Conium maculatum Coriandrum sativum Cuminum cyminum !aucus carota !orema ammoniacum Eryngium 0oetidum %erula assaD0oetida %erula narthex %oeniculum vulgare 8evisticum o00icinale 4yrrhis odorata 2im)inella anisum 2etroselinum cris)um Selinum carvi0olia Trachys)ermum co)ticum

English name !ill 3orwegian angelica Chervil Nild Celery Celeriac, turni) rooted celery Blac/ Cumin Caraway, wild caraway S)adelea0 *emloc/ o0 classic "reece Coriander Cumin Carrot Ammonia/um 8ong Coriander Asa0etida %erula %ennel 8ovage Cicely Anise burnet saxi0rage 2arsley selinum AFowan caraway

/ocal name Soya

Use 4edicinal 4edicinal S)ice

A8mud) (al0 a8 ain) ,arfas Shahi 8eera ,ala Ceera Safed Ceera 'rahmi %ooti

;egetable, medicinal ;egetable S)ice, medicinal S)ice, medicinal S)ice 4edicinal 4edicinal, )oison S)ice S)ice, medicinal ;egetable 4edicinal S)ice 4edicinal 4edicinal S)ice S)ice S)ice S)ice S)ice, medicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal

Dhania Safed Ceera 3a8ar Usha& 'andhania 7ing Sap Saunf Anisun) 'adyan romi !horo A8 ain

4amily" <@$ Araliaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon 2anax ginseng English name /ocal name Use 4edicinal >A

Chinese ginseng +insing

4amily" <?$ Santalaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon English name /ocal name Use

Santalum album Sandalwood

!handan) Sandal 4edicinal, aromatic

4amily" <2$ 9iscaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon ;iscum album English name Euro)ean mistletoe /ocal name Use 4edicinal

4amily" @6$ Euphor%iaceae

Sr $ @ . , > E ' ? A Taxon Croton tiglium Matro)ha curcas English name Croton Barbados nut /ocal name +amal ghota Rattan 8ot) Safed arind Roli# Raim !assa*a !assa*a Amla Arind) 'aid An8eer Use 4edicinal 4edicinal ,amila, 4edicinal, :range dye %ood %ood Rubber 4edicinal 4edicinal, oil

4allotus )hili))ensis =amala tree 4anihot angustiloba 4anihot davisiae 4anihot gla9iovii 2hyllanthus emblica Ricinus communis 3arrow lea0 cassava Ari9ona cassava Ceara Rubber Tree Emblic Castor

4amily" @1$ 'uxaceae

Sr$ Taxon @ Buxus sem)ervirens English name Common box /ocal name Papri) Shamshad) Sanad) !hi&ri Use 4edicinal

4amily" @5$ Tropaeolaceae


Sr $ @


English name /ocal name Use S)ice

Tro)aeolum maFus 3asturtium

4amily" @=$ Axalidaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon :xalis corniculata English name cree)ing oxalis, cree)ing woods, cree)ing woodsorrel, oxalis, yellow oxalis, yellow wood sorrel /ocal name Miaradian Use 4edicinal

4amily" @>$ 'alsaminaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon Im)atiens balsamina English name /ocal name Use 4edicinal

S)otted sna)weed Mehndia

4amily" @;$ A:uifoliaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon Ilex )araguariensis English name /ocal name Use 4ate 4edicinal

4amily" @<$ !elastraceae

Sr $ @ Taxon English name /ocal name Use

Celastrus )aniculatus Celastrus, oriental bittersweet Maal &angni 4edicinal

4amily" @@$ Ru%iaceae

Sr$ Taxon @ Ce)haelis i)ecacuanha . Cinchona o00icinalis , Co00ea Arabica > Co00ea liberica E "alium boreale ' Ixora coccinea ? :ldenlandia corymbos English name I)ecac <uinine Co00ee Co00ee 3orthern bedstraw Scarlet Fungle0lame 0latDto) mille graines, 0latto) mille graines /ocal name Duinine !offee !offee ,araCeh 3uta Shahtra) Papra) Pitpapra) Damanpapra Use 4edicinal 4edicinal Stimulant Stimulant 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal



Rubia tinctoria Rubia tinctorum

4adder 4adder

Ma8eeth) Mun8eet Ma8eeth) Mun8eet

Red dye, medicinal Red dye, medicinal

4amily" @?$ Asteraceae

Sr $ @ . , > E Taxon Achillea mille0olium Ana)halis margaritacea Arnica montana Artemisia abrotanum Artemisia absinthium var+ absinthium Artemisia cina Artemisia dracunculus Artemisia gmelinii Artemisia maritima Artemisia sco)aria Artemisia vulgaris Aster ciliolatus var+ maccallii Calendula o00icinalis Carthamus lanatus ss)+ baeticus Carthamus oxyacantha Carthamus tinctorius Chrysanthemum English name Bloodwort, car)enter's weed, common yarrow 2early everlasting 4ountain arnica Southernwood Absinth sagewort, absinth wormwood, 0amous %rench intoxicant Santonica Tarragon "melin's wormwood Sea wormwood Redstem wormwood 4ugwort 4acCall's aster 4arigold Sa00ron thistle, smooth dista00 thistle, woolly dista00 thistle Meweled dista00 thistle, wild sa00lower Sa00lower !aisy ,asro Coon !ron, Tar/ha, ,irmala, 9oon, Mhan, Afsantin Dona 8han) ,hismar Maloom 3ul0e0Ashrafi) 3enda Patiling Afsantin) &irmala /ocal name 'rin8asif ,utta ghas Use 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal S)ice 4edicinal

' ? A G @1 @@ @. @, @>

Santonin, medicine S)ice, medicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal S)ice 4edicinal :rnamental, medicinal 4edicinal

@E @' @?

Pohli) ,antiari ,usum%a) Durtum 3ul0e0daudi

4edicinal Edible oil :rnamental,


@A @G .1 .@ .. ., .> .E .' .? .A .G ,1 ,@ ,. ,, ,> ,E

carinatum Chrysanthemum cinerarii0olium Catharanthus roseus Cichorium endivia Cichorium intybus Echino)s s)haeroce)halus Ecli)ta )rostate "rindelia cam)orum *elianthus annuus *elianthus tuberosus *elichrysum 0oetidum Inula salicina 8actuca indica 8actuca sativa 8actuca serriola 4atricaria recutita Saussurea costus Scor9onera laciniata Silybum marianum

2yrethrum 4adagascar )eriwin/le Chicory Chicory, co00eeweed, succory "reat globethistle Ecli)ta, 0alse daisy "reat ;alley gumweed Sun0lower Merusalem articho/e Stin/ing Straw 0lower willowlea0 yellowhead Indian lettuce 8ettuce China lettuce, )ric/ly lettuce, wild lettuce "erman chamomile, mayweed Saussurea, =uth Cutlea0 vi)ergrass Blessed mil/thistle, mil/ thistle, s)otted thistle, variegated thistle 2aracress 2aracress A9tec marigold 4exican tarragon blowball, common dandelion, dandelion, 0acecloc/ coc/lebur, coc/leburr, common coc/lebur, rough coc/lebur

3ul0e0daudi Sada%ahar ,asni) &ashti Mundi) gul0i0 mundi 'hangra Sora8mu&hi) 3ul0 e0Afta% 7athicha& 'odo&i Sirfo aalu Salad) Tu&hm0e0 &ahu Salad) Tu&hm0e0 &ahu) Singhara ,ahu 'a%oona ,uth) Menal Dandole

medicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal ;egetable ;egetable 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal Edible oil, medicinal %ood 4edicinal 4edicinal ;egetable ;egetable 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal, s)ice 4edicinal 4edicinal

,' ,? ,A ,G >1 >@

S)ilanthes acmella S)ilanthes oleracea Tagetes erecta Tagetes lucida Taraxacum o00icinale Ianthium strumarium

3enda Shantha) Dudal) &anpgul) Rasu& !heero) !hhota go&hru

S)ice S)ice 4edicinal S)ice 4edicinal 4edicinal


4amily" @2$ Aleaceae

Sr $ @ . , > E ' ? A G @1 Taxon %raxinus ornus English name /ocal name Use :rnamental, Jield saccharine :rnamental :rnamental :rnamental :rnamental :rnamental 3ul0e0!ham%eli Ar%i Fasmin) Motia Baitun :rnamental, medicinal :rnamental Edible oil :rnamental

4anna Ash, %lowering Ash Masminum elongatum Earlea0 Fasmine Masminum mesnyi Ma)anese Fasmine Masminum Star Masmine multi0lorum Masminum nitidum Angelwing Masmine Masminum Ninter Masmine nudi0lorum Masminum o00icinale 2oetBs Masmine Masminum sambac :lea euro)aea :smanthus 0ragrans Arabian Masmine :live Sweet osmanthus

Fasmin +apani Fasmin

4amily" ?6$ Scrophulariaceae

Sr $ @ . , > E ' ? Taxon Baco)a innominata Baco)a monnieri !igitalis )ur)urea 8agotis glauca 8imno)hila aromatica Scro)hularia )eregrina ;erbascum tha)sus English name Tro)ical waterhysso) Baco)a, moneywort /ocal name +al neem) 9atar %acan Adha0%irni) 'rahmi) Safed chamni Use 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal S)ice 4edicinal 4edicinal

2ur)le 0oxglove Neaselsnout ,hapi pato Rice 2addy *erb, %inger grass 4editerranean 0igwort 4ullein 3idder tam%a&oo Tama&usa&)

4amily" ?1$ Acanthaceae

Sr Taxon English name /ocal name Use


$ @ . ,

Androgra)his echioides Androgra)his )aniculata Musticia adhatoda

%alse waterwillow 4alabar nut ,iryat) mahatita) &almegh 'asa&a) 'he&&ar) Arusa

4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal

4amily" ?5$ Pedaliaceae

Sr $ @ . , Taxon English name /ocal name Use Til Til Til Seeds edible, oil Seeds edible, oil Seeds edible, oil

Sesamum alatum Sesamum Sesamum orientale Sesame Sesamum radiatum Sesamum

4amily" ?=$ Asclepiadaceae

Sr $ @ . , > E ' Taxon Calatro)is gigantea Calatro)is )rocera Cry)tostegia grandi0olia 4arsdenia elli)tica 2eri)loca graeca 2ergularia daemia English name "iant mil/weed Calatro)is Rubbervine Mungle netvine Sil/vine 2ergularia /ocal name A&) Mudar A&) Mudar Use

4edicinal, 0iber 4edicinal, 0iber Rubber Sil/y 0iber 'arri) 'urya 4edicinal Sago ani 4edicinal

4amily" ?>$ Apocynaceae

Sr $ @ . , > E ' ? A G Taxon Alstonia scholaris Carissa carandas *olarrhena antidysentrica 3erium oleander 2lumeria rubra Rauvol0ia nitida Rauvol0ia ser)entina ;inca maFor ;inca minor English name !evil tree Tellicherry bar/ :leander Tem)le or 2agoda tree Rauwol0ia Ser)entine wood, sna/ewood Biglea0 )eriwin/le, greater )eriwin/le, )eriwin/le 2eriwin/le /ocal name Shaitan ,aranda ,urchi ,aner Asrol Sarapgandh a Sada 'ahar Sada 'ahar Use 8atex yield caoutchouc %ruit =urchi, medicinal :rnamental :rnamental 4edicinal 4edicinal :rnamental, medicinal :rnamental, medicinal


4amily" ?;$ 3entianaceae

Sr $ @ . Taxon "entiana lutea Swertia )erennis English name Jellow gentian Al)inebog swertia, 0elwort, star gentian !hirayita) :asa%uC0 Carira /ocal name Use 4edicinal 4edicinal

4amily" ?<$ /oganiaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon Strychnos nuxDvomica English name /ocal name Use 4edicinal Strychnine tree ,uchla

4amily" ?@$ 'oraginaceae

Sr $ @ . , > E ' ? A G Taxon Borago o00icinalis Cordia angusti0olia Cordia dichotoma Cordia myxa Cordia obliCua *eliotro)ium indicum 4yosotis asiatica :nosma echioides Sym)hytum o00icinale English name Borage Basora %ragrant manFa/ Assyrian )lum Clammy cherry Indian heliotro)e al)ine 0orget me not, Asian 0orgetDmeDnot onosma Common com0rey /ocal name 3aoCa%an Sapistan) %ara0lasora /asuri /asuri /asura Unth chara) ,ali %uti) 7athi sondi /uput Ratan 8ot) Pusu& Use 4edicinal 4edicinal %ruit %ruit %ruit 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal

4amily" ??$ /amiaceae

Sr$ Taxon @ Clino)odium vulgare . Coleus barbatus , > E ' Coleus )umilus Coleus scutellarioides !racoce)halum moldavica !racoce)halum English name Nild basil coleus dwar0 coleus common coleus 4oldavian dragonhead thymeDlea0 /ocal name Tunolo A8 ain A8 ain A8 ain Shu%dun +angli podina Use 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal EE

? A G @1 @@ @. @, @> @E @' @? @A @G .1 .@ .. ., .> .E .' .? .A .G ,1 ,@ ,. ,,

thymi0lorum *ysso)us o00icinalis 8allemantia )eltata 8avandula angusti0olia 8avandula stoechas 8eonurus cardiaca 8eucas as)era #"RI3$ 8eucas martinicensis 4elissa o00icinalis 4entha arvensis 4entha I )i)erita 4entha s)icata 3e)eta cataria 3e)eta mussinii :cimum basilicum :cimum canum :cimum gratissimum :cimum /ilimandscharicum :cimum tenui0lorum :riganum maForana :riganum vulgare 2erilla 0rutescens 2ogostemon cablin Rosmarinus o00icinalis Salvia o00icinalis Salvia )lebeian Salvia sclarea SatureFa hortensis Thymus )raecox

dragonhead, *ysso) 8ionBs heart English lavender %rench lavender 4otherwort Nhitewort #ITIS$ 8emon Balm %ield mint, wild mint 2e))ermint S)ear mint, bush mint catmint, catni), catwort, 0ield balm 2ersian catmint Sweet Basil *oary basil A0rican basil *oary basil *oly Basil 4arForam :regano, 4arForam 2erilla 2atchouli Rosemary Sage Euro)e sage Savory 4other o0 thyme

Bufa) Cufa0ya%is Tu&hm0e0'alangu Ustu&hudus Tum%a Podina Podina Pahari Podina) Purchan& !harchumur) Mutrich) 'adran80 %oya) %illi0lotan !hirchiCo) ,urolo ,ali tulsi) Tulsi) .iaC%oo) Rehaan 'an Tulsi Ramtulsi ,afoor Tulsi MirCam 8osh 'han8ira, 'an tulsi

S)ice, 4edicinal 4edicinal 2er0umeDlavender 2er0umeDlavender 4edicinal 4edicinal S)ice, medicinal 4edicinal S)ice, 4edicinal S)ice, 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal :rnamental, medicinal 4edicinal, yields Tu&hmalanga :rnamental, medicinal 4edicinal, yields cam)hor :rnamental, medicinal S)ice S)ice S)ice 2er0umeD )atchouli oil, medicinal 2er0umeD rosemary S)ice, medicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal S)ice 2er0umeDthymole

E&lil &uhi 'hui0tulsi ,amar&as 'an A8 ain


,> ,E

Thymus )raecox ss)+ arcticus Thymus vulgaris

Cree)ing thyme Thyme

Masho) Tumuro Tum%uroo

4edicinal 2er0umeDthymole

4amily" ?2$ 9er%enaceae

Sr $ @ . , > E Taxon Aloysia tri)hylla English name lemon beebrush, 8emon verbena /ocal name Use S)ice 4edicinal 4edicinal S)ice 4edicinal

3yctanthes arborDtristis 7aar Singhar ;erbena o00icinalis *erb o0 the cross ;itex agnusDcastus Chaste Tree ;itex negundo 3egundo chastetree Mar an) .irgundi

4amily" 26$ !on*ol*ulaceae

Sr $ @ . Taxon Argyreia nervosa Convolvulus arvensis English name Ele)hant cree)er cree)ing Fenny, Euro)ean bindweed, 0ield bindweed, morningglory, )erennial morningglory, small0lowered morning glory Scammony Sweet )otato Entirelea0 morning glory Mala) St+ Thomas lid)od /ocal name Samandar so&h /ehli) .aro) 7aran &huri) (an *erhi Sa:monia Sha&ar &andi ,aladana +alapa Tur%ad) nisoth Use 4edicinal 4edicinal

, > E ' ?

Convolvulus scammonia I)omoea batatas I)omoea hederacea I)omoea )urga :)erculina tur)ethum

4edicine, Scammoniae Radex %ood 4edicinal 4edicine, Mala) 4edicinal

4amily" 21$ Solanaceae

Sr $ @ . Taxon Atro)a bellaD donna Ca)sicum annum English name !eadly nightDshade 2e))er(Chili /ocal name Suchi Mirch Use 4edicinal S)ice


, > E '

Cestrum nocturnum !atura innoxia !atura inoxia !atura stramonium

<ueen o0 the night Angel's trum)et, desert thorna))le, sacred datura 2ric/ly datura, )ric/lyburr Mamestown weed, Fimsonweed, mad a))le, moon0lower, stin/wort, thornD a))le *enbane *enbane Tomato

Raat &i rani Dhatura ,ala Dhatura Dhatura

:rnamental 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal

? A G

*yoscyamus niger *yoscyamus muticus 8yco)ersicon esculentum var+ esculentum 3icotiana tabacum 3icotiana rustica 2etunia I at/insiana 2etunia axillaries 2etunia integri0olia 2hysalis )eruviana Solanum lyco)ersicum Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum )tychanthum Solanum surattense Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum

,hurasani a8 ain ,ohee%hand Tamatar

4edicinal 4edicinal ;egetable

@1 @@ @. @, @> @E @' @? @A @G .1 .@ ..

Cultivated tobacco Tobacco 2etunia 8arge white )etunia violet0lower )etunia 2eruvian groundcherry "arden tomato Egg )lant Blac/ night shade Blac/ nightshade, Eastern blac/ nightshade, nightshade, Nest Indian nightshade 3ightshade 2otato

Tam%a&u Desi tam%a&u

Stimulant Stimulant :rnamental :rnamental :rnamental

Ras0%hari Tamatar 'engan Ma&o Ma&oi) Ma&o ,ateli Aloo Ma&oi #yellow(orange 0ruit$

%ruit ;egetable ;egetable 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal %ood 4edicinal



Nithania somni0era


Asgandh) Aa&san


4amily" 25$ !uscutaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon Cuscuta re0lexa English name /ocal name "iant dodder Use

Bar%ooti) Aftimoon) Am%er%el 4edicinal

4amily" 2=$ 9alerianaceae

Sr $ @ . , Taxon ;aleriana columbiana ;aleriana Fatamansi ;aleriana o00icinalis English name Nenatchee valerian Indian valerian "arden heliotro)e, garden valerian /ocal name Mush& 'ala) 3aneshpa ro%ati .eetar %ala) Asaroon Tagar) sugandh ala) sum%ul0ut0tee% Use 4edicinal 4edicina 4edicinal

4amily" 2>$ !aprifoliaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon Sambucus nigra English name Euro)ean blac/ elder, Euro)ean blac/ elderberry, Euro)ean elderberry /ocal name Uthi ,aman Use 4edicinal

4amily" 2;$ Plantaginaceae

Sr $ @ . Taxon 2lantago debilis 2lantago lanceolata 2lantago maFor 2lantago ovata English name Nea/ )lantain buc/horn )lantain, English )lantain, lancelea0 Indianwheat, lancelea0 )lantain, narrowlea0 )lantain, ribgrass, ribwort Broadlea0 )lantain, buc/horn )lantain, common )lantain, great )lantain, ri))le seed )lantain !esert Indianwheat /ocal name !i%egil: -spaghol) Shilete -spaghol) 'o:na -spaghol) 'artang Use 4edicinal 4edicinal

, >

4edicinal 4edicinal


4amily" 2<$ Moraceae

Sr $ @ . , > E ' ? A G @1 @@ @. @, @> @E @' @? Taxon Artocar)us altilis Artocar)us hetero)hyllus Artocar)us incisa Brosimum utile Broussonetia )a)yri0era Castilla elastica %icus benghalensis %icus carica %icus elastica %icus )almata %icus racemosa %icus religiosa 4orus alba 4orus nigra 4orus rubra 4orus micro)hylla 4orus tictoria English name Bread 0ruit Mac/ 0ruit Bread 0ruit Cow Tree 2a)er 4ulberry 2anama Rubber Tree Indian Banyan Edible %ig Indian Rubber )lant 2unFab 0ig Clustertree 2ee)al tree Nhite mulberry Blac/ mulberry Red mulberry Texas mulberry 4ulberry /ocal name ,attar) ,atthal) Pannas Use %ruit %ruit %ruit 8atex, sweet, nutritious 2a)er Rubber 'orh) 'argad) 'arr An8eer Ru%%er Phaguri) Phag ara 3ular Pipal Sufed Tut ,ala Tut /al Tut Tut Tut :rnamental, medicinal %ruit Rubber %ruit, medicinal %ruit :rnamental %ruit %ruit %ruit %ruit %ruit

4amily" 2@$ !anna%aceae

Sr $ @ . Taxon Cannabis sativa *umulus lu)ulus English name *em) Common ho), common ho)s, ho)s /ocal name 'hang) 3an8a 3ul0e0+un8ul Use 3arcotic, medicinal 4edicinal

4amily" 2?$ Urticaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon 5rtica dioica English name Cali0ornia nettle, slender nettle, stinging nettle, tall nettle /ocal name Use 4edicinal


4amily" 22$ Myricaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon English name /ocal name Use S)ice

4yrica gale Sweet gale

4amily" 166$ +uglandaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon English name /ocal name Use A&hrot %ood, medicinal

Muglan regia Nalnut

4amily" 161$ 7amamelidaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon *amamelis virginiana English name NitchDha9el, witchha9el /ocal name Use 4edicinal

4amily" 165$ 'etulaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon Corylus avellana English name Common 0ilbert /ocal name 4anda:) 'adam ,ashmiri) 'adam &ohi Use 4edicinal

4amily" 16=$ Acoraceae

Sr $ @ Taxon English name /ocal name Use 4edicinal

Acorus calamus Calamus, sweet0lag 'ach) 9ach

4amily" 16>$ -ridaceae

Sr $ @ . , Taxon English name /ocal name Use ,esar S)ice, medicinal 4edicinal :rris, medicine

Crocus sativus Sa00ron Iris 0oetidissima Stin/ing iris Iris germanica "erman iris

4amily" 16;$ /iliaceae

Sr $ Taxon English name /ocal name Use


@ . , > E ' ? A G @1 @@ @. @, @> @E @' @? @A

Allium ascalonicum Allium ce)a Allium )orrum Allium sativum Allium schoeno)rasum As)aragus adscendens As)aragus o00icinalis As)aragus racemosus Chloro)hytum arundinaceum Colchicum autumnale Crinum asiaticum Curculigo orchioides Curculigo scor9oneri0olia "loriosa su)erba 3arcissus )oeticus Tuli)a gesneriana Tuli)a sylvestris 5rginea maritima

Nild onion :nion 8ee/( Nild Chives "arlic Nild Chives Indian as)aragus As)aragus As)aragus Chloro)hytum #"RI3$ Autumn crocus 2oisonbulb "olden eyeDgrass "orgoFo %lame lily 2oetBs narcissus !idierBs tuli) Nild tuli) Red sCuill

+angli piaC PiaC 3andna) Poogat /assan# Thom Moosli sufaid Sha:a:ul) sata ar Sat Mosli) Sata*ri) Sha&a&ul Moosli Sufaid Suran8an Su&hdarshan Moosli siah Moosli &and ,ulhari .argas Tulip Tulip +angli piaC

4edicinal S)ice S)ice S)ice 4edicinal 4edicinal ;egetable, medicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal Colchicine 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal :rnamental :rnamental :rnamental 4edicinal

4amily" 16<$ Aloaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon English name /ocal name 3hi &a ar) ,an ar gandal Use 4edicinal

Aloe vera Aloe

4amily" 16@$ Dioscoreaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon !ioscorea villosa English name /ocal name Nild yam ,nis) &ildri) &irta) &un8 Use 4edicinal

4amily" 16?$ Smilacaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon Smilax English name /ocal name Sarsa)arilla Use

+angli0ush%ah) guti 4edicinal



4amily" 162$ Pontederiaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon Eichhornia crassi)es English name Common water hyacinth, 0loating water hyacinth, water hyacinth /ocal name 3ul0e0'a&auli Use 4edicinal

4amily" 116$ Archidaceae

Sr $ @ . Taxon E)i)actis helleborine ;anilla )lani0olia English name /ocal name Use 4edicinal S)ice

Broadlea0 helleborine .ar mada ;anilla

4amily" 111$ Musaceae

Sr $ @ . , > Taxon 4usa acuminate English name /ocal name Use Banana ,ela ,ela ,ela %ruit, vegetable %ruit, starch %ruit %iber

4usa balbisiana Banana 4usa I )aradisiaca var+ )aradisiaca Banana 4usa textilis Abaca, 4anila hem)

4amily" 115$ Bingi%eraceae

Sr $ @ . Taxon A0ramomum melegueta Al)inia galanga English name "rains o0 2aradise "reater "alangale ,ulin8an) Punnagchampa /ocal name Use S)ice S)ice


, > E ' ? A G @1

Amomum com)actum Amomum gracile Boesenbergia )andurata Curcuma amada Curcuma aromatica Curcuma angusti0olia Curcuma longa Curcuma 9edoaria

Round cardamom Ser//om %ingerroot, Chinese ginger mango ginger curcuma East Indian arrowroot Turmeric Nhite turmeric, Uedoary Cardamom 8esser "alangale "inger

'ari Elaichi Moran 7anchi Am%a 7aldi !urcuma 7aldi Arra rot 7aldi ,achur) .ar&achur) Am% halad) 3andhmul !hhoti Elaichi A%huyicampa Adra&

S)ice S)ice S)ice, medicinal S)ice, medicinal S)ice, medicinal Starch S)ice, medicinal S)ice, medicinal S)ice, medicinal S)ice S)ice, medicinal

@@ @. @,

Elettaria cardamomum =aem)0eria galanga Uingiber o00icinale

4amily" 11=$ Marantaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon 4aranta arundinacea English name /ocal name Use Arrowroot 4edicinal

4amily" 11>$ Arecaceae

Sr $ @ . , > E ' ? A G @1 @@ Taxon Areca catechu Borassus 0labelli0er Caryota urens Cocos nuci0era Co)ernicia )runi0era Elaeis guineensis Elaeis olei0era 8odoicea maldivica 4etroxylon sagu 2hoenix dactyli0era Serenoa re)ens English name Betel )alm Toddy )alm Maggery )alm Coconut )alm Nax )alm A0rican oil )alm American oil )alm !ouble cocoanut Sago )alm !ate )alm Saw )almetto /ocal name Use Supari Taar .aryal Palm Palm Sagodana ,h8oor S)ice Sa) 2alm wine %ruit %ruit 2alm oil 2alm oil %ruit %ood %ruit 4edicinal '>

4amily" 11;$ Araceae

Sr $ @ . , Taxon English name /ocal name Bamin&and Use ;egetable ;egetable

Alocasia macrorri9os "iant taro Amor)ho)hallus )aeonii0olius Nhite s)ot giant arum Colocasia esculanta Coco yam, wild taro

,achalu) Ar*i ;egetable

4amily" 11<$ Pandanaceae

Sr $ @ . Taxon English name /ocal name Use

2andanus utilis 2andanus, screw )ine Am%emohor pat) Rampe S)ice 2andanus tectorius Tahitian screw)ine ,e ra) ,e da S)ice

4amily" 11@$ Poaceae

Sr $ @ . , > E ' ? A G @1 @@ Taxon Alo)ecurus arundinaceus Avena sativa Bambusa arundinacea Cymbo)ogon citratus Cymbo)ogon 0lexuosus Cymbo)ogon Fwarancusa Cymbo)ogon nardus !escham)sia ces)itosa ss)+ al)ina !escham)sia congesti0ormis Echinochloa colona *ordium vulgare English name Cree)ing 0oxtail, cree)ing meadow 0oxtail, cree)ing meadowD0oxtail :at Bamboo 8emon "rass East Indian lemongrass Iwarancusa grass citronella grass al)ine tu0ted hairgrass 4ontana hairgrass Mungle rice Barley 3ul0e0,ha i ,ashmiri chae Shai ma&hoti Shai ma&hoti Sa aan& +ao /ocal name Shai &iloCe +a*i 'ans) Ta%ashir) %ansluchan Sera) 9er*eine Use 4edicinal %odder Bamboo, medicinal S)ice, medicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal 4edicinal, cosmetic 4edicinal, cosmetic %ood, 0odder %ood, 0odder


@. @, @> @E @' @? @A @G .1 .@ .. ., .> .E .' .? .A .G ,1

:ry9a longistaminata :ry9a )unctata :ry9a ru0i)ogon :ry9a sativa 2anicum miliaceum 2ennisetum glaucum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum o00icinarum Secale cereale Setaria italica Setaria )umila Sorghum bicolor Sorghum I drummondii Sorghum hel)ense Sorghum )ro)inCuum Triticum aestivum Triticum durum Triticum monococcum Uea mays

8ongDstamen rice, red rice Red rice Brownbread rice, red rice, wild red rice Rice 2anic millet 2earl millet 4unF sweetcane Sugarcane Rye %oxtail millet Cattail grass, yellow bristle grass, yellow bristlegrass Sorghum Sudangrass Mohnson grass Sorghum Nheat !urum wheat Ein/orn 4ai9e, corn

/al cha al /al cha al /al cha al !ha al !heena 'a8ra ,ana) Sar&anda 3anna) Ei&h) ,amaad ,angni Shoo +a ar

%ood %ood %ood %ood %ood, 0odder %ood 4edicinal Sugar %ood, 0odder %ood %ood, oil %odder, 0ood %odder %odder %odder, 0ood %ood %ood %ood %ood, oil

+a ar 3andam 3andam Ma&&i

4amily" 11?$ !yperaceae

Sr $ @ Taxon Carex 0lava English name /ocal name Use yellow sedge Ma&hoti 4edicinal

3enus -ndex
3enus Abelmoschus Abrus Abutilon Acacia Achillea Page ,. >@ ,. >@ >G 3enus Artabotrys Artemisia Artocar)us Asimina As)aragus Page .E >G E? .E EG 3enus Carthamus Carum Caryota Cassia Castilla Page >G >' '. >. EA


Achyranthes ,' Aster >G Catharanthus E1 Aconitum .> Astragalus >. Celastrus >A Acorus EG Atro)a EE Celosia ,' Aegle ,A Avena '. Centella >' Aerva ,' A9adirachta ,G Ce)haelis >A Aeschynomene >@ Baco)a E@ Cestrum EE Aesculus >1 Bambusa '. Cheno)odium ,' A0ramomum '@ Bauhinia >. Chloro)hytum EG Albi9ia >@ Benincasa ,@ Chrysanthemum E1 Alcea ,. Berberis .> Cicer >. Alhagi >. Beta ,' Cichorium E1 Allium EG Bixa ,1 Cinchona >A Alocasia '. Boerhavia ,? Cinnamomum .? Aloe '1 Boesenbergia '@ Citrullus ,@ Alo)ecurus '. Bombax ,, Citrus ,A Aloysia EE Borago E, Clematis .> Al)inia '@ Borassus '. Clino)odium E, Alstonia E. Boswellia >1 Clitoria >. Althaea ,. Brassica .A Cochlos)ermum ,1 Amaranthus ,' Brosimum E? Cocos '. Amomum '@ Broussonetia EA Co00ea >A Amor)ho)hallus '. Bryonia ,@ Cola ,> Anacardium ,G Bunium >' Colchicum EG Anagalis ,> Butea >. Coleus E, Ana)halis >G Buxus >A Colocasia '. Androgra)his E. Caesal)inia >. Commi)hora >1 Anethum >' CaFanus >. Conium >' Angelica >' Calatro)is E. Convolvulus EE Annona .E Calendula >G Co)ernicia '. Anthriscus >' Camellia ,E Corchorus ,> A)ium >' Cananga .E Cordia E, ACuilegia .> Canavalia >. Coriandrum >' Arachis >. Cannabis EA Corydalis .' Areca '. Ca))aris ,1 Corylus EG Argemone .' Ca)sicum EE Crataegus >> Argyreia EE Cardamine .G Crinum EG Armoracia .A Carex ', Crocus EG Arnica >G Carissa E. Crotolaria >. 3enus Page 3enus Page 3enus Page Croton >? Eschschol9ia .' Iris EG Cry)tostegia E. Eucaly)tus >E Ixora >G Cucumis ,@ Eugenia >E Masminum E@ Cucurbita ,@ %agonia >1 Matro)ha >? Cullen >. %ago)yrum ,? Muglan EA Cuminum >' %eronia ,G Musticia E. Curculigo EG %erula >' =aem)0eria '@


Curcuma Cuscuta Cus)aria Cyamo)sis Cyclamen Cydonia Cymbo)ogon !albergia !atura !aucus !elonix !erris !el)hinium !escham)sia !esmodium !ianthus !icentra !igitalis !imocar)us !ioscorea !ios)yros !i)teryx !orema !racoce)halum !ryobalano)s Echinochloa Echino)s Ecli)ta Eichhornia Elaeagnus Elaeis Elettaria Embelia E)i)actis Eriobotrya Eruca Eryngium Erysimum 3enus 4edicago 4elia 4elilotus 4elissa 4entha 4etroxylon 4ichelia

'@ E? ,A >. ,> >> '. >. EE >' >. >. .> ', >. ,E .' E@ >1 '1 ,> >. >' E, ,. ', E1 E1 '1 >@ '. '@ ,E '1 >> .G >' .G Page >, ,G >, E> E> '. .E

%icus EA =rugiodendron %oeniculum >' 8ablab %ragaria >> 8actuca %raxinus E@ 8agenaria %umaria .' 8agotis "alium >G 8allemantia "entiana E, 8athyrus "loriosa '1 8aurus "lycine >. 8avandula "lycyrrhi9a >. 8avatera "ossy)ium ,. 8awsonia "rewia ,> 8ens "rindelia E1 8eonurus "y)so)hila ,E 8e)idium *amamelis EG 8eucas *elianthus E1 8evisticum *elichrysum E1 8imno)hila *eliotro)ium E, 8inum *elleborus .> 8itchi *es)eris .G 8obularia *ibiscus ,, 8odoicea *i))o)hae >@ 8otus *olarrhena E. 8u00a *ordium ', 8unaria *outtuynia .' 8ychnis *umulus EA 8yco)ersicon *ybanthus ,1 4adhuca *ydrastis .> 4agnolia *yoscyamus E' 4allotus *y)ericum ,. 4alus *ysso)us E, 4alva Iberis .G 4angi0era Ilex >A 4anihot Illicium .? 4anil/ara Im)atiens >A 4aranta Indigo0era >. 4arsdenia Inula E1 4atricaria I)omoea EE 4atthiola 3enus Page 3enus 2anicum ', Rhododendron 2a)aver .' Rhus 2assi0lora ,. Ricinus 2avonia ,, Rori))a 2eganum >1 Rosa 2ennisetum ', Rosmarinus 2ergularia E. Rubia

>1 >. E1 ,@ E@ E, >. .? E> ,, >' >. E> .G E> >' E@ ,A >1 .G '. >, ,@ .G ,E E' ,> .E >? >> ,, ,G >? ,> '@ E. E1 .G Page ,E ,G >? ,1 >E E> >G


4imosa 4imuso)s 4irabilis 4omordica 4oringa 4orus 4urraya 4usa 4yosotis 4yrica 4yristica 4yrrhis 4yrtus 3arcissus 3elumbium 3elumbo 3e)eta 3erium 3icotiana 3igella 3i)helium 3yctanthes :cimum :enothera :ldenlandia :lea :nosma :)erculina :)untia :riganum :ry9a :smanthus :xalis 2aeonia 2alaCuium 2anax 2andanus 3enus Strychnos Styrax Suaeda Swertia Sym)hytum Sy9ygium Tagetes

>, ,> ,? ,@ ,1 EA ,G '@ E, EA .E >' >E '1 .E .E E> E. E' .> >1 EE E> >' >G E@ E, EE ,? E> ', E@ >A .? ,> >? '. Page E, ,> ,' E, E, >E E1

2erilla 2eri)loca 2etroselinum 2etunia 2eumus 2haseolus 2hoenix 2hyllanthus 2hysalis 2ilocar)us 2imenta 2im)inella 2i)er 2istacia 2isum 2lantago 2lumbago 2lumeria 2odo)hyllum 2ogostemon 2olygonatum 2olygonum 2ortulaca 2otentilla 2raecitrullus 2rimula 2roso)sis 2runus 2sidium 2terocar)us 2ulsatilla 2unica 2yrus Ranunculus Ra)hanus Rauvol0ia Rheum 3enus Tri0olium Trigonella Triticum Tro)aeolum Tuli)a Turnera 5rginea

E> E. >? E' .? >, '. >? E' ,G >E >? .' ,G >, E? ,A E. .> E> ,? ,' >> ,@ ,> >, >> >E >, .> >E >> .> .G E. ,? Page >, >> ', >A '1 ,. '1

Rubus Rumex Ruta Saccharum Salix Salsola Salvia Sambucus Sanguinaria Santalum Saraca Sassa0ras SatureFa Saussurea Saxi0raga Schinus Scor9onera Scro)hularia Secale Selinum Semecar)us Senna Serenoa Sesamum Sesbania Setaria Shorea Silene Silybum Sina)is Sisymbrium Smilax Solanum So)hora Sorghum S)inacea S)ilanthes 3enus ;igna ;inca ;iola ;iscum ;itex ;itis Nasabia

>E ,? ,G ', ,E ,' E> E? .' >? >, .? E> E1 >E ,G E1 E@ ', >? ,G >, '. E. >, ', ,. ,E E1 ,1 ,1 '1 E' >, ', ,' E1 Page >> E. ,1 >? EE >@ ,1


Tamarindus Tamarix Taraxacum Terminalia Theobroma Thymus Toxicodendron Trachys)ermum Tribulus Trichosanthes

>, ,@ E@ >E ,> E> ,G >? >1 ,@

5rena 5rtica ;aleriana ;anilla ;ateria ;erbascum ;erbena ;icia

,, EA E? '1 ,. E@ EE >>

Nithania Ianthium Iylo)ia Uanthoxylum Uea Uingiber Ui9i)hus

E' E@ .E ,G ', '1 >1

@+ Biomes o0 the Norld :nline database o0 4issouri Botanical "arden at 5R8 V http"##m%gnet$mo%ot$org .+ Com)lete %amily 8ist %:C Treatments :nline database o0 *arvard 5niversity at 5R8 V http"##flora$huh$har*ard$edu ,+ "erm)lasm Resources In0ormation 3etwor/ #"RI3$ :nline database o0 5S !e)artment o0 Agriculture at 5R8 V $ars0grin$go* ?1

>+ "ernot =at9erBs S)ice 2ages :nline database at 5R8 V 0 ang$&funigraC$ac$at E+ "lobal Biodiversity In0ormation %acility #"BI%$ :nline database at 5R8 V $g%if$org '+ "+ 8+ Cho)ra 6Angios)erms7 )ublished by 5niCue 2ublishers 8ahore, @G?1+ ?+ *ari Chand 4ultani 6TaFDulDACaCirB #5rdu$ )ublished by Shei/h 4uhammad Bashir & Sons, 5rdu Ba9aar, 8ahore+ A+ International Code o0 Botanical 3omenclature #Saint 8ouis CodeD@GGG$ :nline database at 5R8 V $%iosis$org$u& G+ Integrated Taxonomic In0ormation System #ITIS$ :nline database o0 5S !e)artment o0 Agriculture at 5R8 V $itis$usda$go* @1+ ISTA 8ist o0 Stabili9ed 2lant 3ames :nline document o0 International Seed Testing Association at 5R8 V $ars0grin$go* @@+ 8+ Natson and 4+ M+ !allwit9 6The %amilies o0 %lowering 2lants #;ersion @>th !ecember .111$ available online at 5R8 V http"##%iodi*ersity$uno$edu#delta# @.+ 4edicinal 2lants o0 2a/istan :nline database o0 2a/istan Agricultural Research Council #2ARC$ at 5R8 V $parc$go*$p& @,+ 4edicinal 2lants o0 2a/istan :nline sym)osium )roceedings at 5R8 V $telmedpa&$com @>+ 4issouri Botanical "arden #4B"$, Research Asia Inventory o0 the 2lants o0 2a/istan :nline database at 5R8 V $mo%ot$org @E+ 4ultilingual 4ultiscri)t 2lant 3ame !atabase :nline database o0 4elbourne 5niversity at 5R8 V http"##gmr$landfood$unimel%$edu$au @'+ 2lants !atabase :nline database o0 5S !e)artment o0 Agriculture at 5R8 V $plants$usda$go* @?+ 2urdue "uide to 4edicinal and Aromatic 2lants :nline database at 5R8 V $hort$purdu$edu @A+ S)ecies .111 :nline database at 5R8 V $sp5666$org @G+ ;ascular 2lant %amilies and "enera !atabase :nline database o0 Royal Botanic "arden, =ew at 5R8 V $&e $org


458TI8I3"5A8 458TISCRI2T 28A3T 3A4E !ATABASE

University of Melbourne Fresh Treatment of Genus Brassica


1$ 'rassica carinata A. Braun = Abyssinian cabbage, Abyssinian mustard, African cabbage, Ethiopian mustard. 2. Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. = Brown mustard, Indian mustard. 3. Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. subsp. integrifolia (H. West) Thell. = Leaf mustard. = Raai (Hindi). 4. Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. subsp. integrifolia (H. West) Thell. (Crispifolia Group) = Curled mustard, Curly-leaved mustard. 5. Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. var. cuneifolia (Roxb.) Kitam. = Wedge-shape leaved mustard. 6. Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. var. foliosa L.H. Bailey = Plain-leaved mustard. 7. Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. var. gracilis Tsen & Lee = Slender mustard, Oil mustard. Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. var. integrifolia (H. West) Sinskaya -> Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. var. foliosa L.H. Bailey -> Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. subsp. integrifolia (H. West) Thell. = Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. var. integrifolia (H. West) Sinskaya -> Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. var. rugosa (Roxb.) N. Tsen & S. N. Lee -> Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. subsp. integrifolia (H. West) Thell. 8. Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. var. japonica (Thunb.) L.H. Bailey 9. Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. var. juncea = Most names generally applied to the species Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. can be applied to this variety. 10. Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. var. linearifolia Sun = Narrow-leaved mustard, Japanese water cabbage. 11. Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. var. longidens L.H. Bailey = Hakka mustard. Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. var. megarrhiza N. Tsen & S. N. Lee = Sichuan largerooted mustard, Turnip-rooted mustard. = This mustard seems to be considered as a synonym of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. var. napiformis (Pailleux & Bois) Kitam. 12. Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. var. multiceps N. Tsen & S. N. Lee = Nine-headed mustard, Red in snow, Serrated-leaved mustard, Multishoot mustard. 13. Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. var. multisecta Bailey = Cut-leaved green in snow, Thousand nerved cabbage, Silverthread mustard. 14. Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. subsp. napiformis (Paill. & Bois) Gladis = Pailleux's large-rooted mustard, Turnip-rooted mustard. 15. Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. var. rugosa (Roxb.) N. Tsen & S. N. Lee = Cabbage leaf mustard, Heading leaf mustard, Broad-leaved mustard, Swatow mustard. = Pahaadi raai (Hindi). = This is now considered as a synonym of Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. Subsp. Integrifolia (H. West) Thell. 16. Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. et Cosson var. sareptana Sinskaja = Sarepta mustard, Lyrate-leaved mustard. 17. Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. var. strumata N. Tsen & S. N. Lee = Horned mustard, Large-petioled mustard, Szechuan mustard. 18. Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. subsp. tatsai Mao = Sichuan pickling mustard, Sichuan swollen stem mustard, Big stem mustard, Yangtze river mustard.


19. Brassica napus L. = Rape, Swede rape. 20. Brassica napus L. (Annua Group) = Summer rape. 21. Brassica napus L. (Biennis Group) = Winter rape. 22. Brassica napus L. (Napobrassica Group) = Rutabaga, Swede, Swedish turnip. 23. Brassica napus L. (Napus Group) = Rape, Colza, canola, Oilseed rape. 24. Brassica napus L. (Pabularia Group) = Siberian kale, Rape kale, Hanoversalad, Hungry gap kale, Asparagus kale. 25. Brassica nigra (L.) W. D. J. Koch = Black mustard, Chou noir. = Kaali Raai (Hindi). 5<$ 'rassica oleracea L. (Alboglabra Group) = Chinese /ale, Chinese broccoli, Nhite 0lowering broccoli+ 5@$ 'rassica oleracea L. (Botrytis Group) = !auliflo er, Common cauli0lower+ V 2hool gobhi #*indi$+ 5?$ 'rassica oleracea L. (Botrytis Group) 'Romanesco' = Romanesco broccoli, White christmas tree cauliflower. 52$ 'rassica oleracea L. (Botrytis Group - Chlorusa Subgroup) = Green Cape broccoli, Green Cape cauliflower. =6$ 'rassica oleracea L. (Botrytis Group - Erytrobotrys Subgroup) = Purple Cape broccoli, Purple Cape cauliflower. =1$ 'rassica oleracea L. (Botrytis Group - Phaeusa Subgroup) = Brown Italian broccoli. =5$ 'rassica oleracea L. (Botrytis Group - Theiusa Subgroup) = Yellow Italian broccoli, Lime green cauliflower. ==$ 'rassica oleracea L. (Botrytis Group - Theiusa Subgroup) 'Bari' = Romanesco broccoli, Bari cauliflower, Green christmas tree cauliflower. =>$ 'rassica oleracea L. (Capitata Group) = Cabbage, Nhite cabbage+ V Band gobhi #*indi$+ =;$ 'rassica oleracea L. (Capitata Rubra Group) = Red cabbage+ =<$ 'rassica oleracea L. (Costata Group) = 2ortuguese cabbage, Bed0ord cabbage, Tronchuda /ale, Tronchuda cabbage, 2ortuguese /ale, Tronchuda cabbage, Sea/ale cabbage, 4adeira cabbage, NhiteD0lowered cabbage+ =@$ 'rassica oleracea L. (Gemmifera Group) = 'russels sprouts$ =?$ 'rassica oleracea 8+ #3ongylodes "rou)$ V ,ohlra%i, Turnip0stemmed ca%%age, 7ungarian turnip) !a%%age turnip #5SA$+ =2$ 'rassica oleracea L. (Italica Group) = 'roccoli, Winter cauliflower. >6$ 'rassica oleracea L. (Italica Group - Albida Subgroup) = White sprouting broccoli. >1$ 'rassica oleracea L. (Italica Group - Cymosa Subgroup) = Green sprouting broccoli, Calabrese broccoli S)routing broccoli, As)aragus broccoli+ >5$ 'rassica oleracea L. (Italica Group - Flava Subgroup) = Yellow sprouting broccoli. >=$ 'rassica oleracea L. (Italica Group - Italica Subgroup) = Purple sprouting broccoli, Sicilian purple sprouting broccoli. >>$ 'rassica oleracea 8+ #Medullosa "rou)$ V Marro 0stem &ale, Marro &ale, Marro 0stemmed &ale+


>;$ 'rassica oleracea 8+ #Medullosa "rou) D Ru%ra Subgrou)$ V Red marro 0 stemmed &ale+ ><$ 'rassica oleracea 8+ #.anofim%riata "rou)$ V D arf &ale, 'ush &ale, Arnamental &ale$ >@$ 'rassica oleracea 8+ #Palmifolia "rou)$ V Palm ca%%age, 2almDtree /ale+ >?$ 'rassica oleracea 8+ #Palmifolia "rou)$ '/aciniato' V Palm ca%%age, -talian &ale+ >2$ 'rassica oleracea 8+ #Palmifolia "rou)$ '+ersey ,ale' V 3iant +ersey &ale, (al&ing0stic& ca%%age, +ersey &ale, 2almDtree /ale+ ;6$ 'rassica oleracea 8+ #Ramosa "rou)$ V ThousandDhead /ale, 2er)etual /ale, Branching cabbage, 2erennial /ale, Branching bush /ale, 'ranching &ale, 8ea0 and s)ear /ale, Si%erian &ale+ ;1$ 'rassica oleracea L. (Sabauda Group) = Sa*oy ca%%age+ ;5$ 'rassica oleracea 8+ #Sa%ellica "rou)$ V 'orecole #5=$, !urly &ale, =itchen /ale, Scotch &ale #5=$, Siberian /ale$ ;=$ 'rassica oleracea 8+ #Sa%ellica "rou)$ '.ero di Toscana' V Palm ca%%age, -talian &ale+ ;>$ 'rassica oleracea 8+ #9iridis "rou)$ V ,ale, %odder /ale, Cow cabbage #5=$, !ollards #5SA$, Tall /ale, Tree /ale, Tree cabbage+ ;;$ 'rassica oleracea 8+ #9iridis "rou)$ '.ero di Toscana' V Palm ca%%age, -talian &ale+ ;<$ 'rassica oleracea 8+ var+ oleracea G (ild ca%%age$ 57. Brassica rapa L. = Neep greens (fodder crops, leaf vegetables), Root neeps (fodder crops, root vegetables), Seed neeps (Oil crops), Inflorescence neeps (leafy vegetables consumed at early flowering stage). 58. Brassica rapa L. (Akana Group) = Radish-shaped pickling turnip, Long Japanese turnip, Long-rooted turnip. ;2$ Brassica rapa L. (Broccoletto Group) = Ruvo /ale #5SA$, Broccoli raab #5=$, Italian turni)Dbroccoli+ <6$ Brassica rapa L. (Broccoletto Group) 'Cima di Rapa' = Broccoli raab 'Cima di Ra)a'+ 61. Brassica rapa L. (Hakabura Group) 62. Brassica rapa L. (Hiroshimana Group) = Hiroshima pot-herb mustard. <=$ Brassica rapa L. (Parachinensis Group) = %alse )a/choi, 4oc/ )a/choi #5SA$, %lowering white cabbage #5=$+ 64. Brassica rapa L. (Perviridis Group) = Mustard spinach, Spinach mustard. <;$ Brassica rapa L. (Campestris Group) = Annual turnip rape, Bird ra)e, Canola+ <<$ Brassica rapa L. (Chinensis Group) = !hinese ca%%age, .on0heading !hinese ca%%age, !hinese chard, Asian ca%%age, !elery mustard, !hinese mustard, !hinese mustard ca%%age, !hinese hite mustard ca%%age, (hite ca%%age, Chinese white cabbage, Pak choi, Bok choy, Baak choi. 67. Brassica rapa L. (Dichotoma Group) = Spring turnip rape, Indian rape, Brown sarson, Toria. = Kaali sarson (Hindi). 68. Brassica rapa L. (Narinosa Group) = Chinese flat cabbage, Rosette pakchoi, Broad-beak mustard (as B. narinosa in USA). 69. Brassica rapa L. (Narinosa Group) 'Heibaicai' = Flat black cabbage.


70. Brassica rapa L. (Neosuguki Group) = Japanese pickling turnip. 71. Brassica rapa L. (Nipposinica Group) = Potherb mustard. 72. Brassica rapa L. (Nipposinica Group) 'Mibuna' = Mibu salad green, Kyoto salad green. 73. Brassica rapa L. (Nipposinica Group) 'Mizuna' = Japanese salad green. @>$ Brassica rapa L. (Oleifera Group) = Biennial turnip rape, Rapeseed, Turnip rape, Bird rape, Ninter turni) ra)e, Canola+ @;$ Brassica rapa L. (Pekinensis Group) = Heading Chinese cabbage, Tientsin nappa, Shantung cabbage, 2e/ing cabbage, BeiFing cabbage, Chinese white cabbage, Chinese celery cabbage, Shantung cabbage, Che0oo cabbage, Chinese leaves, 2e tsai, 3a)a cabbage, 8ong white cabbage, Tientsin cabbage, 4ichihli cabbage, Pe-tsai, Celery cabbage, Chinese cabbage. @<$ Brassica rapa L. (Praecox Group) = Summer turnip rape+ 77. Brassica rapa L. (Purpuraria Group) = Purple-stem mustard. 78. Brassica rapa L. (Rapa Group) = Turnip. 79. Brassica rapa L. (Tokinashi Group) = Radish-shaped pickling turnip, Long Japanese turnip, Long-rooted turnip. 80. Brassica rapa L. (Trilocularis Group) = Yellow sarson, Indian colza. = Pili raai, Pili sarson, Raai sarson (Hindi). 81. Brassica rapa L. var. septiceps L.H. Bailey = Seven top turnip.

Aur Pu%lications
1$ 3uidelines for Duality Seed Production and !ertification in Sindh$ 5$ 4ull Text Descriptions of All !rop 9arieties Appro*ed for !ulti*ation in Sindh$ =$ 3uidelines for Early 3eneration True0to0type Seed Production$

>$ 3uidelines for Seed 'usiness under (TA0Regime$

;$ (TA04arm Policies" .e Ris&s) .e !hallenges (Urdu)$ <$ (TA04arm Policies and Aur Aptions at State and 4arm /e*el (Urdu)$

?+ Updated Taxonomic Directory" Economic Plants of South Asia (Magnoliophyta)$ All entries reviewed according to current international taxonomic system+ ?$ Under0utiliCed 3enetic Resources of Sindh" 4amine 4oods) Spices) Medicinal and Aromatic Plants and Traditional 9arieties$ 2$ -n Situ !onser*ation of 'iodi*ersity and 4armers Participatory 'reeding Programs$ @1+ !rop 9ariety Descriptors for !ereal !rops" Bread Nheat, !urum Nheat, Barley, :at, Corn, Rice, Sorghum, 4illets, Triticale etc+ @@+ !rop 9ariety Descriptors for -ndustrial !rops" Sugarcane, Sugar beet, Cotton, Tobacco, Tea, Co00ee, Cocoa, Cola, Rubber, Mute, "uar, Castor and others+ 15$!rop 9ariety Descriptors for 9egeta%le and Melon !rops$ @,+ !rop 9ariety Descriptors for 4odder !rops" "rasses, Cruci0ers, 8egumes, %odder beet and others+ @>+ !rop 9ariety Descriptors for Ailseed !rops" Cruci0ers, Sun0lower, Soybean, Sesame, Sa00lower, "roundnut, %lax, :il )alm, Coconut etc+ @E+ !rop 9ariety Descriptors for 3rain /egume !rops (Pulses)" "ram, 4ung, 4ash, 4oth, 8ens, 2igeon )ea, 4atri and others+ @'+ !rop 9ariety Descriptors for 4ruit Plants" 4ango, Citrus, Banana, "uava, MuFube, 8itchi, Chi/u, 2lums and others+ @?+ !rop 9ariety Descriptors for Spices !rops" Turmeric, "inger, Cumin, %ennel, Betel lea0, Betel nut, =alonFi and others+ 1?$!rop 9ariety Descriptors for Arnamental and Aromatic Plants$ 12$!rop 9ariety Descriptors for Medicinal Plants$
56$ Protection of 3enetic Resources and Traditional ,no ledge Act (Proposed)$

.@+ Arnamental Plants of South Asia (Magnoliophyta)$ All entries reviewed according to Current International Taxonomic System+