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Tuna Manufacturing Process Figures 1 and 2 present the process flow chart of preparation of tuna raw materials and

its canning process.

COLD STORAGE
RAW TUNA

BUTCHERING
BUTCHERED TUNA

Viscera (heart, lung & intestine) & blood

Intestinal remains, scales and slime

WASHING
CLEANED TUNA

COOKING
COOKED TUNA

Heat

COOLING

SKINNING
SKINNED TUNA

Skin & Blood vessels

Fish head, Blood Flesh pieces

LOINING

Figure 1 Preparation of Tuna Raw Materials

Damage cans create solid waste

Temperature increase & toxic gases

Figure 2 Tuna Canning Process

Tuna Manufacturing Processes A. Preparation of Raw Materials Keep tuna on ice until ready to can; it may be canned either precooked or raw. Precooking removes most of the strong-flavored oils. B. Process 1. BUTCHERING Removing viscera (heart, lung and intestine), tenderloin and blood on the tuna. 2. WASHING Allow blood to drain from stomach cavity. By doing so, this will remove excess blood left on the tuna. 3. COOKING Place fish belly down on a rack or metal tray in the bottom of a large baking pan. Cut tuna in half crosswise, if necessary. Precook fish by baking at 250F for 2-1/2 to 4 hours (depending on size) or at 350F for 1 hour. The fish may also be cooked in a steamer for 2 to 4 hours. If a thermometer is used, cook to a 165 to 175F internal temperature. 4. COOLING Refrigerate cooked fish overnight to firm the meat. 5. SKINNING Peel off the skin with a knife, removing blood vessels and any discolored flesh. Cut meat away from bones; cut out and discard all bones, fin bases, and dark flesh. 6. LOINING Cut quarters crosswise into lengths suitable for half-pint or pint jars. Fill into jars, pressing down gently to make a solid pack. Note: PRE- CANNING PROCESSES This step may involve a number of operation such as steaming, soaking, drying, smoking, frying, salting, mixing, grinding, pre-cooling, and cutting to can size.

C. Packaging 1. PACKING Tuna may be packed in water or oil, whichever is preferred. Add water or oil to jars, leaving 1-inch headspace. Add 1/2 teaspoon of salt per half-pint or 1 teaspoon of salt per pint, if desired. 2. SEAMING Mechanical process of hermetic sealing of a can with a metal lid. 3. CAN WASHING Must be done by using hot water sprinklers with the container upside-down because the jet of steam is insufficient for correct cleaning. 4. STERILIZATION It is an operation in which foodstuff is heated to a sufficiently high temperature and during a sufficiently long period of time to destroy all microbial and enzymatic activity in the food and it also lengthens the life of the product.

5. STORAGE The cold store is owned by the processor and is located within the canning factory. In order to preserve the quality and safety of the raw material, monitoring should be performed on a daily basis and corrective action(s) taken whenever necessary. 6. INSPECTION The product will undergo quality and safety evaluations, in the pro cessors internal laboratory, for criteria that include net weight, drained weight container vacuum, pH, sensory quality, and histamine content. 7. LABELLING According to the Recommended International General Standard for the labelling of pre-packaged foods (CAC/RS 1-1969) the following information should be used in labeling: The name of food The name shall indicate the true nature of the food and normally be specific and not generic. List of ingredients A complete list of ingredients shall be declared on the label in descending order of proportion. Net contents The net contents shall be declared in either the metric ("System International" units) or avoirdupois or both systems of measurement as required by the country in which the food is sold. Name and address The name and address of the manufacturer, packer, distributor, importer, exporter or vendor of the food shall be declared. Country of origin The country of origin of a food shall be declared if its omission would mislead or deceive the consumer. Optional labeling Any information or pictorial device may be displayed in labelling provided that it would not mislead or deceive the consumer in any way whatsoever in respect of the food. Grade designations If grade designations are used, they should be readily understandable, and not be misleading or deceptive in any way. 8. PACKING (FOR RELEASE) If the cans are litho-printed, once filled they can be packed into master cartons after an interim storage period. Plain ("bright") cans should be labelled and then packed into cartons. 9. SHIPPING AND STORAGE Canned products are left for 7-10 days prior to shipment. Products are packed in carton boxes and are stored in cool dry

INTRODUCTION PINEAPPLE PROCESSING The manufacturing process of pineapple products viz. Slices and Juice involves many steps and different sub-processes. Ripe and matured pineapples are washed, graded and peeled. Then they are crushed in the crusher to obtain juice. In case of slices, after peeling, uniform slices are made on the slicer. Juice is then taken to vessels and boiled and certain preservatives are added. It is finally taken to storage tanks and packed in bottles on vacuum filling machine. In case of slices, they are dipped in sugar syrup for about 3 to 4 hours. Then the slices are taken to lacquered cans and cans are sterilized. While canning, sugar syrup is added. Cans are cooled quickly and after sealing and labeling, they are stored. The average yield is around 80%.
INGREDIENTS:

Apart from pineapple, the product is prepared from the composition as follows; Packing media, one or more of the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. Water Mixture of Water and Pineapple juice Pineapple juice, natural or clarified Dry nutritive sweeteners Sucrose Inverse sugar Dextrose Dried glucose syrup, without added liquid such slight amounts of steam or natural pineapple juice as occur in the normal canning of the product. 5. Other permitted ingredients; spices, spice oils, vinegar and mint. 6. Can for sealing.
Note: Sugar and Salt
Sugar helps retain the color, shape and texture of canned fruits. Sugar is usually added as a syrup. To make syrup, pour 4 cups of water into a saucepan and add:

2 cups of sugar to make 5 cups of thin syrup OR 3 cups of sugar to make 5-1/2 cups of medium syrup OR 4-3/4 cups of sugar to make 6-1/2 cups of heavy syrup.

Figures 3 present the process flow chart of preparation of pineapple raw materials and its canning process.

Fruits

Sorting

Rejects

Washing

Peeling and Sorting

Slicing

Filling into cans w/ syrup

Vacuum Sealing

Pasteurizing & Strerilizing

Cooling

Canned Fruit & Storage

Figure 3 Pineapple Canning Process

PROCESS: 1. Sorting After harvesting, the fruits are sorted, because only those that are fresh, ripe and not rotten can be used to make jams. Jams can also be made from previously prepared, frozen fruits and pulp 2. Washing The fruit should be washed very carefully as it can easily be damaged. 3. Peeling and sorting This follows the procedure of removing leaves, wooden pieces, pips or seeds and peel. Peeling is often done manually, or with knives, yet sometimes the skin is loosened with steam and then subsequently rubbed away mechanically. Finally, the fruits are sorted again to remove any blackened pieces, bits of peeling, seeds etc. 4. Pulping The peeled fruit can be cut into a variety of shapes, according to type (indicated by the crosses in the table). The shape of the cut fruit must be given on the can (slices, diced, pieces etc.). The peeled fruits are then pulped, and sugar added. They might also be mixed with water or fruit juice. 5. Filling in cans The cut pieces are now filled into jars or cans and covered with syrup. 6. Vacuum sealing, pasteurising or sterilizing After the jars or cans have been vacuum sealed, they are either pasteurised (temperatures above 80C) or sterilised (temperatures above 100C). 7. Cooling After the heating process, the canned fruits are first cooled to 40C, and then subsequently down to storage temperature. 8. Labelling ,Canned fruit and Storage After they have been cooled, the canned fruits are labelled and stored. In order to be exported the slices/pulp/juices can be packed into single or wholesale packages (bulk) consisting of glass jars, tin cans or polyethylene or polypropylene bags, and also filled antiseptically into bag-in-boxes.

Packing Instructions:
The two methods of packing food into canning jars are raw pack and hot pack. Raw pack is packing raw, prepared food into clean, hot jars and then adding hot liquid. Fruits and most vegetables need to be packed tightly because they will shrink during processing. However, raw corn, lima beans, and peas should be packed loosely, as they will expand. For Hot pack, heat prepared food to boiling or partially cook it. It should be packed loosely while boiling hot into clean, hot jars. Hot pack takes more time but has been found to result in higher quality canned foods.

For either packing method, pack acid foods including acidified tomatoes and acidified figs to within 1/2 inch of the top of the jar. Low acid foods to within 1 inch of the top of the jar. After food is packed into jars, wipe the jar rims clean. Put on the lid with the sealing compound next to the jar rim. Screw the band down firmly so that it is hand-tight. Do not use a jar wrench to tighten screw bands. There must be enough "give" for air to escape from the jars during processing. Process food promptly after packing it into jars and adjusting lids. Processing times are given for pints and quarts. If you are using half pint jars, use processing times for pints. For one-and-one-half pint jars, use processing times for quarts. Fruit juices are the only product that may be canned in half-gallon jars.