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Chapter 26 Problems 1, 2, 3 = straightforward, intermediate, challenging Section 26.1 Definition of Capacitance 1.

(a) How much charge is on each plate of a 4.00-F capacitor when it is connected to a 12.0- !atter"# (!) $f this same capacitor is connected to a 1.%0- !atter", what charge is stored# 2. &wo conductors ha'ing net charges of (10.0 ) and *10.0 ) ha'e a potential difference of 10.0 !etween them. (a) +etermine the capacitance of the s"stem. (!) ,hat is the potential difference !etween the two conductors if the charges on each are increased to (100 ) and *100 )# Section 26.2 Calculating Capacitance 3. -n isolated charged conducting sphere of radius 12.0 cm creates an electric field of 4..0 / 104 01) at a distance 21.0 cm from its center. (a) ,hat is its surface charge densit"# (!) ,hat is its capacitance# 4. (a) $f a drop of li2uid has capacitance 1.00 pF, what is its radius# (!) $f another drop has radius 2.00 mm, what is its capacitance# (c) ,hat is the charge on the smaller drop if its potential is 100 # 5. &wo conducting spheres with diameters of 0.400 m and 1.00 m are separated !" a distance that is large compared with the diameters. &he spheres are connected !" a thin wire and are charged to 3.00 ). (a) How is this total charge shared !etween the spheres# ($gnore an" charge on the wire.) (!) ,hat is the potential of the s"stem of spheres when the reference potential is ta4en to !e V = 0 at r = 5#

6. 6egarding the 7arth and a cloud la"er 800 m a!o'e the 7arth as the 9plates:: of a capacitor, calculate the capacitance. -ssume the cloud la"er has an area of 1.00 4m2 and that the air !etween the cloud and the ground is pure and dr". -ssume charge !uilds up on the cloud and on the ground until a uniform electric field of ;.00 / 10< 01) throughout the space !etween them ma4es the air !rea4 down and conduct electricit" as a lightning !olt. ,hat is the ma=imum charge the cloud can hold# 7. -n air-filled capacitor consists of two parallel plates, each with an area of 3.<0 cm2, separated !" a distance of 1.80 mm. - 20.0potential difference is applied to these plates. )alculate (a) the electric field !etween the plates, (!) the surface charge densit", (c) the capacitance, and (d) the charge on each plate. . - 1-mega!it computer memor" chip contains man" <0.0-f F capacitors. 7ach capacitor has a plate area of 21.0 / 10*12 m2. +etermine the plate separation of such a capacitor (assume a parallel-plate configuration). &he order of magnitude of the diameter of an atom is 10*10 m = 0.1 nm. 7=press the plate separation in nanometers. !. ,hen a potential difference of 1%0 is applied to the plates of a parallel-plate capacitor, the plates carr" a surface charge densit" of ;0.0 n)1cm2. ,hat is the spacing !etween the plates# 1". - 'aria!le air capacitor used in a radio tuning circuit is made of N semicircular plates each of radius R and positioned a distance d from its neigh!ors, to which it is electricall" connected. -s shown in Figure >2<.10, a second identical set of plates is enmeshed with its plates halfwa" !etween those of the first set. &he second set can rotate as a unit. +etermine the capacitance as a function of the angle of rotation , where = 0 corresponds to the ma=imum capacitance.

15. Find the capacitance of the 7arth. (Suggestion: &he outer conductor of the 9spherical capacitor:: ma" !e considered as a conducting sphere at infinit" where V approaches @ero.) Section 26.3 Combinations of Capacitors 16. &wo capacitors, C1 = %.00 F and C2 = 12.0 F, are connected in parallel, and the resulting com!ination is connected to a ..00!atter". (a) ,hat is the e2ui'alent capacitance of the com!ination# ,hat are (!) the potential difference across each capacitor and (c) the charge stored on each capacitor# 17. $hat %f& &he two capacitors of >ro!lem 1< are now connected in series and to a ..00!atter". Find (a) the e2ui'alent capacitance of the com!ination, (!) the potential difference across each capacitor, and (c) the charge on each capacitor. 1 . 7'aluate the e2ui'alent capacitance of the configuration shown in Figure >2<.18. -ll the capacitors are identical, and each has capacitance C.

#igure P26.1" 11. - %0.0-m length of coa=ial ca!le has an inner conductor that has a diameter of 2.%8 mm and carries a charge of 8.10 ). &he surrounding conductor has an inner diameter of 3.23 mm and a charge of *8.10 ). (a) ,hat is the capacitance of this ca!le# (!) ,hat is the potential difference !etween the two conductors# -ssume the region !etween the conductors is air. 12. - 20.0-F spherical capacitor is composed of two concentric metal spheres, one ha'ing a radius twice as large as the other. &he region !etween the spheres is a 'acuum. +etermine the 'olume of this region. 13. -n air-filled spherical capacitor is constructed with inner and outer shell radii of 3.00 and 14.0 cm, respecti'el". (a) )alculate the capacitance of the de'ice. (!) ,hat potential difference !etween the spheres results in a charge of 4.00 ) on the capacitor# 14. - small o!?ect of mass m carries a charge q and is suspended !" a thread !etween the 'ertical plates of a parallel-plate capacitor. &he plate separation is d. $f the thread ma4es an angle with the 'ertical, what is the potential difference !etween the plates#

#igure P26.1 1!. &wo capacitors when connected in parallel gi'e an e2ui'alent capacitance of ..00 pF and gi'e an e2ui'alent capacitance of 2.00 pF when connected in series. ,hat is the capacitance of each capacitor#

2". &wo capacitors when connected in parallel gi'e an e2ui'alent capacitance of Cp and an e2ui'alent capacitance of Cs when connected in series. ,hat is the capacitance of each capacitor# 21. Four capacitors are connected as shown in Figure >2<.21. (a) Find the e2ui'alent capacitance !etween points a and b. (!) )alculate the charge on each capacitor if 'Vab = 1%.0 .

#igure P26.22 23. )onsider the circuit shown in Figure >2<.2;, where C1 = <.00 F, C2 = ;.00 F, and 'V = 20.0 . )apacitor C1 is first charged !" the closing of switch A1. Awitch A1 is then opened, and the charged capacitor is connected to the uncharged capacitor !" the closing of A2. )alculate the initial charge ac2uired !" C1 and the final charge on each capacitor.

#igure P26.23 #igure P26.21 22. &hree capacitors are connected to a !atter" as shown in Figure >2<.22. &heir capacitances are C1 = ;C, C2 = C, and C; = %C. (a) ,hat is the e2ui'alent capacitance of this set of capacitors# (!) Atate the ran4ing of the capacitors according to the charge the" store, from largest to smallest. (c) 6an4 the capacitors according to the potential differences across them, from largest to smallest. (d) $hat %f& $f C; is increased, what happens to the charge stored !" each of the capacitors# 24. -ccording to its design specification, the timer circuit dela"ing the closing of an ele'ator door is to ha'e a capacitance of ;2.0 F !etween two points A and B. (a) ,hen one circuit is !eing constructed, the ine=pensi'e !ut dura!le capacitor installed !etween these two points is found to ha'e capacitance ;4.8 F. &o meet the specification, one additional capacitor can !e placed !etween the two points. Ahould it !e in series or in parallel with the ;4.8-F capacitor# ,hat should !e its capacitance# (!) $hat %f& &he ne=t circuit comes down the assem!l" line with capacitance 2..8 F !etween A and B. ,hat additional capacitor should !e installed in series or in parallel in that circuit, to meet the specification# 25. - group of identical capacitors is connected first in series and then in parallel. &he com!ined capacitance in parallel is 100 times larger than for the series connection. How man" capacitors are in the group#

26. )onsider three capacitors C1, C2, C;, and a !atter". $f C1 is connected to the !atter", the charge on C1 is ;0.8 ). 0ow C1 is disconnected, discharged, and connected in series with C2. ,hen the series com!ination of C2 and C1 is connected across the !atter", the charge on C1 is 2;.1 ). &he circuit is disconnected and the capacitors discharged. )apacitor C;, capacitor C1, and the !atter" are connected in series, resulting in a charge on C1 of 2%.2 ). $f, after !eing disconnected and discharged, C1, C2, and C; are connected in series with one another and with the !atter", what is the charge on C1# 27. Find the e2ui'alent capacitance !etween points a and b for the group of capacitors connected as shown in Figure >2<.23. &a4e C1 = %.00 F, C2 = 10.0 F, and C; = 2.00 F.

#igure P26.2! 3". Aome ph"sical s"stems possessing capacitance continuousl" distri!uted o'er space can !e modeled as an infinite arra" of discrete circuit elements. 7=amples are a microwa'e wa'eguide and the a=on of a ner'e cell. &o practice anal"sis of an infinite arra", determine the e2ui'alent capacitance C !etween terminals X and Y of the infinite set of capacitors represented in Figure >2<.;0. 7ach capacitor has capacitance C0. Suggestion: $magine that the ladder is cut at the line AB, and note that the e2ui'alent capacitance of the infinite section to the right of AB is also C.

#igure P26.27 2 . For the networ4 descri!ed in the pre'ious pro!lem, if the potential difference !etween points a and b is <0.0 , what charge is stored on C;# 2!. Find the e2ui'alent capacitance !etween points a and b in the com!ination of capacitors shown in Figure >2<.2..

#igure P26.3" Section 26.4 (nerg) Store* in a Charge* Capacitor 31. (a) - ;.00-F capacitor is connected to a 12.0- !atter". How much energ" is stored in the capacitor# (!) $f the capacitor had !een

connected to a <.00- !atter", how much energ" would ha'e !een stored# 32. &he immediate cause of man" deaths is 'entricular fi!rillation, uncoordinated 2ui'ering of the heart as opposed to proper !eating. -n electric shoc4 to the chest can cause momentar" paral"sis of the heart muscle, after which the heart will sometimes start organi@ed !eating again. - defibrillator (Fig. 2<.14) is a de'ice that applies a strong electric shoc4 to the chest o'er a time of a few milliseconds. &he de'ice contains a capacitor of se'eral microfarads, charged to se'eral thousand 'olts. 7lectrodes called paddles, a!out 8 cm across and coated with conducting paste, are held against the chest on !oth sides of the heart. &heir handles are insulated to pre'ent in?ur" to the operator, who calls, 9)learB:: and pushes a !utton on one paddle to discharge the capacitor through the patient:s chest. -ssume that an energ" of ;00 C is to !e deli'ered from a ;0.0- F capacitor. &o what potential difference must it !e charged# 33. &wo capacitors, C1 = 2%.0 F and C2 = %.00 F, are connected in parallel and charged with a 100- power suppl". (a) +raw a circuit diagram and calculate the total energ" stored in the two capacitors. (!) $hat %f& ,hat potential difference would !e re2uired across the same two capacitors connected in series in order that the com!ination stores the same amount of energ" as in (a)# +raw a circuit diagram of this circuit. 34. - parallel-plate capacitor is charged and then disconnected from a !atter". D" what fraction does the stored energ" change (increase or decrease) when the plate separation is dou!led# 35. -s a person mo'es a!out in a dr" en'ironment, electric charge accumulates on his !od". Ence it is at high 'oltage, either positi'e or negati'e, the !od" can discharge 'ia sometimes noticea!le spar4s and shoc4s.

)onsider a human !od" well separated from ground, with the t"pical capacitance 1%0 pF. (a) ,hat charge on the !od" will produce a potential of 10.0 4 # (!) Aensiti'e electronic de'ices can !e destro"ed !" electrostatic discharge from a person. - particular de'ice can !e destro"ed !" a discharge releasing an energ" of 2%0 C. &o what 'oltage on the !od" does this correspond# 36. - uniform electric field = ; 000 1m e=ists within a certain region. ,hat 'olume of space contains an energ" e2ual to 1.00 / 10*3 C# 7=press "our answer in cu!ic meters and in liters. 37. - parallel-plate capacitor has a charge ! and plates of area A. ,hat force acts on one plate to attract it toward the other plate# Decause the electric field !etween the plates is = ! 1A"0, "ou might thin4 that the force is # = ! = !21A"0. &his is wrong, !ecause the field includes contri!utions from !oth plates, and the field created !" the positi'e plate cannot e=ert an" force on the positi'e plate. Ahow that the force e=erted on each plate is actuall" # = !212"0A. (Suggestion: Fet C = "0A1$ for an ar!itrar" plate separation $G then re2uire that the wor4 done in separating the two charged plates !e % = + # d$.) &he force e=erted !" one charged plate on another is sometimes used in a machine shop to hold a wor4piece stationar". 3 . &he circuit in Figure >2<.;8 consists of two identical parallel metal plates connected !" identical metal springs to a 100- !atter". ,ith the switch open, the plates are uncharged, are separated !" a distance d = 8.00 mm, and ha'e a capacitance C = 2.00 F. ,hen the switch is closed, the distance !etween the plates decreases !" a factor of 0.%00. (a) How much charge collects on each plate and (!) what is the spring constant for each spring# (Suggestion : Hse the result of >ro!lem ;3.)

#igure P26.3 3!. ,e-ie. problem. - certain storm cloud has a potential of 1.00 / 108 relati'e to a tree. $f, during a lightning storm, %0.0 ) of charge is transferred through this potential difference and 1.00I of the energ" is a!sor!ed !" the tree, how much sap in the tree can !e !oiled awa"# Jodel the sap as water initiall" at ;0.0K). ,ater has a specific heat of 4 18< C14gK), a !oiling point of 100K), and a latent heat of 'apori@ation of 2.2< / 10< C14g. 4". &wo identical parallel-plate capacitors, each with capacitance C, are charged to potential difference 'V and connected in parallel. &hen the plate separation in one of the capacitors is dou!led. (a) Find the total energ" of the s"stem of two capacitors before the plate separation is dou!led. (!) Find the potential difference across each capacitor after the plate separation is dou!led. (c) Find the total energ" of the s"stem after the plate separation is dou!led. (d) 6econcile the difference in the answers to parts (a) and (c) with the law of conser'ation of energ". 41. Ahow that the energ" associated with a conducting sphere of radius R and charge ! surrounded !" a 'acuum is & = 'e!212R.

42. )onsider two conducting spheres with radii R1 and R2. &he" are separated !" a distance much greater than either radius. - total charge ! is shared !etween the spheres, su!?ect to the condition that the electric potential energ" of the s"stem has the smallest possi!le 'alue. &he total charge ! is e2ual to q1 ( q2, where q1 represents the charge on the first sphere and q2 the charge on the second. Decause the spheres are 'er" far apart, "ou can assume that the charge of each is uniforml" distri!uted o'er its surface. Lou ma" use the result of >ro!lem 41. (a) +etermine the 'alues of q1 and q2 in terms of ! , R1, and R2. (!) Ahow that the potential difference !etween the spheres is @ero. (,e saw in )hapter 2% that two conductors ?oined !" a conducting wire will !e at the same potential in a static situation. &his pro!lem illustrates the general principle that static charge on a conductor will distri!ute itself so that the electric potential energ" of the s"stem is a minimum.) Section 26.5 Capacitors .ith Dielectrics 43. +etermine (a) the capacitance and (!) the ma=imum potential difference that can !e applied to a &eflon-filled parallel-plate capacitor ha'ing a plate area of 1.3% cm2 and plate separation of 0.040 0 mm. 44. (a) How much charge can !e placed on a capacitor with air !etween the plates !efore it !rea4s down, if the area of each of the plates is %.00 cm2# (!) $hat %f& Find the ma=imum charge if pol"st"rene is used !etween the plates instead of air. 45. - commercial capacitor is to !e constructed as shown in Figure 2<.13a. &his particular capacitor is made from two strips of aluminum separated !" a strip of paraffin-coated paper. 7ach strip of foil and paper is 3.00 cm wide. &he foil is 0.004 00 mm thic4, and the paper is 0.02% 0 mm thic4 and has a dielectric constant of ;.30. ,hat length should the strips ha'e, if a capacitance of ..%0 / 10*8 F is desired

!efore the capacitor is rolled up# (-dding a second strip of paper and rolling the capacitor effecti'el" dou!les its capacitance, !" allowing charge storage on !oth sides of each strip of foil.) 46. &he supermar4et sells rolls of aluminum foil, of plastic wrap, and of wa=ed paper. +escri!e a capacitor made from supermar4et materials. )ompute order-of-magnitude estimates for its capacitance and its !rea4down 'oltage. 47. - parallel-plate capacitor in air has a plate separation of 1.%0 cm and a plate area of 2%.0 cm2. &he plates are charged to a potential difference of 2%0 and disconnected from the source. &he capacitor is then immersed in distilled water. +etermine (a) the charge on the plates !efore and after immersion, (!) the capacitance and potential difference after immersion, and (c) the change in energ" of the capacitor. -ssume the li2uid is an insulator. 4 . - wafer of titanium dio=ide ( = 13;) of area 1.00 cm2 has a thic4ness of 0.100 mm. -luminum is e'aporated on the parallel faces to form a parallel-plate capacitor. (a) )alculate the capacitance. (!) ,hen the capacitor is charged with a 12.0- !atter", what is the magnitude of charge deli'ered to each plate# (c) For the situation in part (!), what are the free and induced surface charge densities# (d) ,hat is the magnitude of the electric field# 4!. 7ach capacitor in the com!ination shown in Figure >2<.4. has a !rea4down 'oltage of 1%.0 . ,hat is the !rea4down 'oltage of the com!ination#

#igure P26.4! Section 26.6 (lectric Dipole in an (lectric #iel* 5". - small rigid o!?ect carries positi'e and negati'e ;.%0-n) charges. $t is oriented so that the positi'e charge has coordinates (*1.20 mm, 1.10 mm) and the negati'e charge is at the point (1.40 mm, *1.;0 mm). (a) Find the electric dipole moment of the o!?ect. &he o!?ect is placed in an electric field ( = (3 800/ * 4 .000) 01). (!) Find the tor2ue acting on the o!?ect. (c) Find the potential energ" of the o!?ect*field s"stem when the o!?ect is in this orientation. (d) $f the orientation of the o!?ect can change, find the difference !etween the ma=imum and minimum potential energies of the s"stem. 51. - small o!?ect with electric dipole moment p is placed in a nonuniform electric field ( = ($)/. &hat is, the field is in the $ direction and its magnitude depends on the coordinate $. Fet represent the angle !etween the dipole moment and the $ direction. (a) >ro'e that the dipole feels a net force d # = p cos d$ in the direction toward which the field increases. (!) )onsider a spherical !alloon centered at the origin, with radius 1%.0 cm and carr"ing charge 2.00 ). 7'aluate d 1d$ at the point (1< cm, 0, 0). -ssume a water droplet at this point has an induced dipole moment of <.;0/ n) M m. Find the force on it. Section 26.7 1n 1tomic Description of Dielectrics 52. - detector of radiation called a Neiger tu!e consists of a closed, hollow, conducting c"linder with a fine wire along its a=is. Auppose that the internal diameter of the c"linder is 2.%0 cm and that the wire along the a=is has a

diameter of 0.200 mm. &he dielectric strength of the gas !etween the central wire and the c"linder is 1.20 / 10< 1m. )alculate the ma=imum potential difference that can !e applied !etween the wire and the c"linder !efore !rea4down occurs in the gas. 53. &he general form of Nauss:s law descri!es how a charge creates an electric field in a material, as well as in 'acuum. $t is

( d1 =

q #igure P26.54 55. Four parallel metal plates >1, >2, >;, and >4, each of area 3.%0 cm2, are separated successi'el" !" a distance d = 1.1. mm, as shown in Figure >2<.%%. >1 is connected to the negati'e terminal of a !atter", and >2 to the positi'e terminal. &he !atter" maintains a potential difference of 12.0 . (a) $f >; is connected to the negati'e terminal, what is the capacitance of the three-plate s"stem >1>2>;# (!) ,hat is the charge on >2# (c) $f >4 is now connected to the positi'e terminal of the !atter", what is the capacitance of the four-plate s"stem >1>2>;>4# (d) ,hat is the charge on >4#

where " = "0 is the permitti'it" of the material. (a) - sheet with charge ! uniforml" distri!uted o'er its area A is surrounded !" a dielectric. Ahow that the sheet creates a uniform electric field at near!" points, with magnitude = ! 1 2A". (!) &wo large sheets of area A, carr"ing opposite charges of e2ual magnitude !, are a small distance d apart. Ahow that the" create uniform electric field in the space !etween them, with magnitude = ! 1A". (c) -ssume that the negati'e plate is at @ero potential. Ahow that the positi'e plate is at potential !d1A". (d) Ahow that the capacitance of the pair of plates is A"1d = A"01d. 1**itional Problems 54. For the s"stem of capacitors shown in Figure >2<.%4, find (a) the e2ui'alent capacitance of the s"stem, (!) the potential across each capacitor, (c) the charge on each capacitor, and (d) the total energ" stored !" the group.

#igure P26.55 56. Ene conductor of an o'erhead electric transmission line is a long aluminum wire 2.40 cm in radius. Auppose that at a particular

moment it carries charge per length 1.40 )1m and is at potential ;4% 4 . Find the potential 12.0 m !elow the wire. $gnore the other conductors of the transmission line and assume the electric field is e'er"where purel" radial. 57. &wo large parallel metal plates are oriented hori@ontall" and separated !" a distance ;d. - conducting wire ?oins them, and initiall" each plate carries no charge. 0ow a third identical plate carr"ing charge ! is inserted !etween the two plates, parallel to them and located a distance d from the upper plate, as in Figure >2<.%3. (a) ,hat induced charge appears on each of the two original plates# (!) ,hat potential difference appears !etween the middle plate and each of the other plates# 7ach plate has area A.

6". - 10.0-F capacitor has plates with 'acuum !etween them. 7ach plate carries a charge of magnitude 1 000 ). - particle with charge *;.00 ) and mass 2.00 / 10*1< 4g is fired from the positi'e plate toward the negati'e plate with an initial speed of 2.00 / 10< m1s. +oes it reach the negati'e plate# $f so, find its impact speed. $f not, what fraction of the wa" across the capacitor does it tra'el# 61. - parallel-plate capacitor is constructed !" filling the space !etween two s2uare plates with !loc4s of three dielectric materials, as in Figure >2<.<1. Lou ma" assume that ( OO d. (a) Find an e=pression for the capacitance of the de'ice in terms of the plate area A and d, 1, 2, and ;. (!) )alculate the capacitance using the 'alues A = 1.00 cm2, d = 2.00 mm, 1 = 4..0, 2 = %.<0, and ; = 2.10.

#igure P26.57 5 . - 2.00-nF parallel-plate capacitor is charged to an initial potential difference 'Vi = 100 and then isolated. &he dielectric material !etween the plates is mica, with a dielectric constant of %.00. (a) How much wor4 is re2uired to withdraw the mica sheet# (!) ,hat is the potential difference of the capacitor after the mica is withdrawn# 5!. - parallel-plate capacitor is constructed using a dielectric material whose dielectric constant is ;.00 and whose dielectric strength is 2.00 / 108 1m. &he desired capacitance is 0.2%0 F, and the capacitor must withstand a ma=imum potential difference of 4 000 . Find the minimum area of the capacitor plates.

#igure P26.61 62. - 10.0-F capacitor is charged to 1%.0 . $t is ne=t connected in series with an uncharged %.00-F capacitor. &he series com!ination is finall" connected across a %0.0!atter", as diagrammed in Figure >2<.<2. Find the new potential differences across the %F and 10-F capacitors.

#igure P26.62 63. (a) &wo spheres ha'e radii a and b and their centers are a distance d apart. Ahow that the capacitance of this s"stem is C= 4 0 1 1 2 + a b d

#igure P26.64 65. - capacitor is constructed from two s2uare plates of sides ( and separation d, as suggested in Figure >2<.<4. Lou ma" assume that d is much less than (. &he plates carr" charges (!0 and *!0. - !loc4 of metal has a width (, a length (, and a thic4ness slightl" less than d. $t is inserted a distance $ into the capacitor. &he charges on the plates are not distur!ed as the !loc4 slides in. $n a static situation, a metal pre'ents an electric field from penetrating inside it. &he metal can !e thought of as a perfect dielectric, with 5. (a) )alculate the stored energ" as a function of $. (!) Find the direction and magnitude of the force that acts on the metallic !loc4. (c) &he area of the ad'ancing front face of the !loc4 is essentiall" e2ual to (d. )onsidering the force on the !loc4 as acting on this face, find the stress (force per area) on it. (d) For comparison, e=press the energ" densit" in the electric field !etween the capacitor plates in terms of !0 , (, d, and "0. 66. ,hen considering the energ" suppl" for an automo!ile, the energ" per unit mass of the energ" source is an important parameter. Hsing the following data, compare the energ" per unit mass (C14g) for gasoline, lead*acid !atteries, and capacitors. (&he ampere - will !e introduced in the ne=t chapter as the A$ unit of electric current. 1 - = 1 )1s.) *asoline: 12< 000 Dtu1galG densit" = <30 4g1m;.

pro'ided that d is large compared with a and b. (Suggestion: Decause the spheres are far apart, assume that the potential of each e2uals the sum of the potentials due to each sphere, and when calculating those potentials assume that V = 'e!)r applies.) (!) Ahow that as d approaches infinit" the a!o'e result reduces to that of two spherical capacitors in series. 64. - capacitor is constructed from two s2uare plates of sides ( and separation d. material of dielectric constant is inserted a distance $ into the capacitor, as shown in Figure >2<.<4. -ssume that d is much smaller than $. (a) Find the e2ui'alent capacitance of the de'ice. (!) )alculate the energ" stored in the capacitor, letting 'V represent the potential difference. (c) Find the direction and magnitude of the force e=erted on the dielectric, assuming a constant potential difference 'V. $gnore friction. (d) E!tain a numerical 'alue for the force assuming that ( = %.00 cm, 'V = 2 000 , d = 2.00 mm, and the dielectric is glass ( = 4.%0). (Suggestion: &he s"stem can !e considered as two capacitors connected in parallel.)

+ead,a-id batter.: 12.0 G 100 - M hG mass = 1<.0 4g. Capa-itor: potential difference at full charge = 12.0 G capacitance = 0.100 FG mass = 0.100 4g. 67. -n isolated capacitor of un4nown capacitance has !een charged to a potential difference of 100 . ,hen the charged capacitor is then connected in parallel to an uncharged 10.0-F capacitor, the potential difference across the com!ination is ;0.0 . )alculate the un4nown capacitance. 6 . &o repair a power suppl" for a stereo amplifier, an electronics technician needs a 100F capacitor capa!le of withstanding a potential difference of .0 !etween the plates. &he onl" a'aila!le suppl" is a !o= of fi'e 100-F capacitors, each ha'ing a ma=imum 'oltage capa!ilit" of %0 . )an the technician su!stitute a com!ination of these capacitors that has the proper electrical characteristics# $f so, what will !e the ma=imum 'oltage across an" of the capacitors used# (Suggestion: &he technician ma" not ha'e to use all the capacitors in the !o=.) 6!. - parallel-plate capacitor of plate separation d is charged to a potential difference 'V0. - dielectric sla! of thic4ness d and dielectric constant is introduced !etween the plates while the !atter" remains connected to the plates. (a) Ahow that the ratio of energ" stored after the dielectric is introduced to the energ" stored in the empt" capacitor is &)&0 = . Ni'e a ph"sical e=planation for this increase in stored energ". (!) ,hat happens to the charge on the capacitor# (0ote that this situation is not the same as in 7=ample 2<.3, in which the !atter" was remo'ed from the circuit !efore the dielectric was introduced.) 7". - 'ertical parallel-plate capacitor is half filled with a dielectric for which the dielectric constant is 2.00 (Fig. >2<.30a). ,hen this

capacitor is positioned hori@ontall", what fraction of it should !e filled with the same dielectric (Fig. >2<.30!) in order for the two capacitors to ha'e e2ual capacitance#

#igure P26.7" 71. )apacitors C1 = <.00 F and C2 = 2.00 F are charged as a parallel com!ination across a 2%0- !atter". &he capacitors are disconnected from the !atter" and from each other. &he" are then connected positi'e plate to negati'e plate and negati'e plate to positi'e plate. )alculate the resulting charge on each capacitor. 72. )alculate the e2ui'alent capacitance !etween the points a and b in Figure >2<.32. 0ote that this is not a simple series or parallel com!ination. (Suggestion: -ssume a potential difference 'V !etween points a and b. ,rite e=pressions for 'Vab in terms of the charges and capacitances for the 'arious possi!le pathwa"s from a to b, and re2uire conser'ation of charge for those capacitor plates that are connected to each other.)

#igure P26.75 #igure P26.72 73. &he inner conductor of a coa=ial ca!le has a radius of 0.800 mm, and the outer conductor:s inside radius is ;.00 mm. &he space !etween the conductors is filled with pol"eth"lene, which has a dielectric constant of 2.;0 and a dielectric strength of 18.0 / 10< 1m. ,hat is the ma=imum potential difference that this ca!le can withstand# 74. Lou are optimi@ing coa=ial ca!le design for a ma?or manufacturer. Ahow that for a gi'en outer conductor radius b, ma=imum potential difference capa!ilit" is attained when the radius of the inner conductor is a = b)e where e is the !ase of natural logarithms. 75. +etermine the e2ui'alent capacitance of the com!ination shown in Figure >2<.3%. (Suggestion: )onsider the s"mmetr" in'ol'ed.) P )op"right 2004 &homson. -ll rights reser'ed. 76. )onsider two long/ parallel, and oppositel" charged wires of radius d with their centers separated !" a distance 0. -ssuming the charge is distri!uted uniforml" on the surface of each wire, show that the capacitance per unit length of this pair of wires is

0 C = ln[ ( 0 d ) 1 d ]
77. 7=ample 2<.2 e=plored a c"lindrical capacitor of length ( and radii a and b of the two conductors. $n the $hat %f& section, it was claimed that increasing ( !" 10I is more effecti'e in terms of increasing the capacitance than increasing a !" 10I if b O 2.8%a. erif" this claim mathematicall".