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Thermal Analysis Using MSC SimXpert
SMX124 Course Notes
Part Number:
SIMX*R3.2*Z*Z*Z*SM-SMX124-NT
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
January 2009
Legal Information MSC.Software Corporation reserves the right to make changes in specifications and other information

Legal Information

MSC.Software Corporation reserves the right to make changes in specifications and other information contained in this document without prior notice. The concepts, methods, and examples presented in this text are for illustrative and educational purposes only, and are not intended to be exhaustive or to apply to any particular engineering problem or design. MSC.Software Corporation assumes no liability or responsibility to any person or company for direct or indirect damages resulting from the use of any information contained herein.

Copyright © 2007 MSC.Software Corporation. All Rights Reserved. This notice shall be marked on any reproduction of this documentation, in whole or in part. Any reproduction or distribution of this document, in whole or in part, without the prior written consent of MSC.Software Corporation is prohibited.

The MSC.Software corporate logo, Adams, Dytran, Easy5, Fatigue, Laminate Modeler, Marc, Mentat, MD Nastran, MD Patran, MSC, MSC Nastran, Mvision, Patran, SimDesigner, SimEnterprise, SimManager, SimXpert and Sofy are trademarks or registered trademarks of the MSC.Software Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. NASTRAN is a registered trademark of NASA. All other trademarks belong to their respective owners.

CONTENTS Section Pages 1.0 Introduction to MSC SimXpert Thermal

CONTENTS

Section

Pages

1.0

Introduction to MSC SimXpert Thermal Analysis………………………………………………

1-1

2.0

Conduction………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2-1

3.0

Convection………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3-1

4.0

Transient Thermal Analysis……………………………………………

……………………………

4-1

5.0

Radiation…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5-1

6.0

SOL 400 Thermal Capability…………………………………………………………………………

6-1

7.0

Thermal Analysis Theory……………………………………………………………………………… 7-1

Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation 4
SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION TO MSC SimXpert THERMAL ANALYSIS SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright 

SECTION 1

INTRODUCTION TO MSC SimXpert THERMAL ANALYSIS

SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

S1-1
S1-1
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright  2009 MSC.Software Corporation S1-2

SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

S1-2
S1-2
HEAT TRANSFER ● Should a Heat Transfer analysis be performed ? ● When the solution

HEAT TRANSFER

Should a Heat Transfer analysis be performed ?

When the solution for the temperature field in a solid (or fluid) is desired, and the temperature is not influenced by other fields, a heat transfer analysis is appropriate.

by other fields, a heat transfer analysis is appropriate. Coupled Fields vs Thermal Field SMX124, Section

Coupled Fields

vs

a heat transfer analysis is appropriate. Coupled Fields vs Thermal Field SMX124, Section 1, January 2009

Thermal Field

SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

S1-3
S1-3
MODES OF HEAT TRANSFER ● Mechanisms of Heat Transfer ● Conduction (through a material) ●

MODES OF HEAT TRANSFER

Mechanisms of Heat Transfer

Conduction (through a material)

Convection (to a fluid)

Natural (free)

Forced

Advection (energy carried in a fluid)

Radiation (energy transfer through free space (no intervening medium) from one surface to another)

T 2 q
T 2
q
T 1
T 1

Moving Fluid Removes Heat From Solid

T 1 >T 2

qhAT

Convection

Ambient (to space) Enclosure (enclosed radiation system)

q

12

● Enclosure (enclosed radiation system) q  1  2 q T 2 T 1 Heat
q T 2
q
T 2
T 1
T 1

Heat Moves IN Moving Fluid

T 1 >T 2

q

T 1 >T 2

(

T

1

T

2

)

(

qFAT

1

T 2
T 2

21

T 1

q mC

p

4 T

2

4 )

Advection

Radiation

SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

S1-4
S1-4
ANALYSIS TYPES ● Thermal problems can be categorized as ● Steady-state ● Steady-state analyses are

ANALYSIS TYPES

Thermal problems can be categorized as

Steady-state

Steady-state analyses are concerned with state point solutions with fixed boundary conditions

Transient

Transient analyses are characterized by solution evolution over time, and in addition to energy exchange with the environment, involves thermal energy storage

Linear

Properties; i.e. conductivity, convection coefficient.; do not change with

Temperature

The boundary conditions do not involve

Radiation

SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

S1-5
S1-5
ANALYSIS TYPES (Cont.) ● Thermal problems can be categorized as (continued) ● Nonlinear ● Temperature

ANALYSIS TYPES (Cont.)

Thermal problems can be categorized as (continued)

Nonlinear

Temperature dependent material properties.

Conduction

Convection

Natural

Forced

Radiation boundary conditions.

Ambient

Enclosure

Steady-state or transient solution. All nonlinear analyses necessarily involve solution iteration, error estimation, and convergence criteria.

SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

S1-6
S1-6
THERMAL MODEL ELEMENTS ● MSC SimXpert thermal elements ● 1D – conduction only in the

THERMAL MODEL ELEMENTS

MSC SimXpert thermal elements

1D – conduction only in the direction of the centerline of the element

2D – conduction only through the mid-plane of the element

3D – conduction in all three directions Axi-symmetry

Non-zero thermal gradient in the radial and axial directions Zero thermal gradient in the circumferential direction

Special elements for conduction

Special element for lumped thermal capacitance

SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

S1-7
S1-7
THERMAL MODEL MATERIAL PROPERTIES ● Thermal materials ● Conduction ● Thermal conductivity ● Can be

THERMAL MODEL MATERIAL PROPERTIES

Thermal materials

Conduction

Thermal conductivity

Can be a function of temperature

Transient model

Specific heat (heat capacity per unit mass)

Can be a function of temperature

Density

Cannot be a function of temperature

SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

S1-8
S1-8
THERMAL MODEL MATERIAL PROPERTIES ● Thermal materials ● Convection ● Natural (free) ● Heat transfer

THERMAL MODEL MATERIAL PROPERTIES

Thermal materials

Convection

Natural (free)

Heat transfer coefficient

Can be a function of temperature

Can be a function of time

h = function(Gr, Pr)

Forced

Constant coefficient

h = function(Re, Pr)

Radiation

Surface absorptivity

Can be a function of temperature

Surface emissivity

Can be a function of temperature

SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

S1-9
S1-9
THERMAL MODEL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS ● Thermal boundary conditions ● Convection ● Natural (free) ● Forced

THERMAL MODEL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

Thermal boundary conditions

Convection

Natural (free)

Forced (SimXpert R4.0)

Radiation

Ambient (to space)

Enclosure

Temperature

Temperature - constant or time varying temperature for set of nodes

“Initial conditions” for set of nodes

Steady-state – initialization/starting temperature

Transient – initial temperature

MPC – multipoint constraint (constraint for set of nodal temperatures)

SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

S1-10
S1-10
THERMAL MODEL LOADS ● Thermal loads ● Heat flux ● Applied to surface, Normal Flux

THERMAL MODEL LOADS

Thermal loads

Heat flux

Applied to surface, Normal Flux From a distant radiation source, Radiant Flux

Can specify direction not normal to the surface

Nodal heat

Power input to a node

Volumetric load

Internal (to element) heat generation

SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

S1-11
S1-11
STEADY-STATE EQUATION ● The familiar conduction heat transfer equation is  2 T  q

STEADY-STATE EQUATION

The familiar conduction heat transfer equation is

2

T

q

k

1 T

t

The MD Nastran Thermal steady-state equation derived from this equation is

[

K

]{

T

}

R

[

]{

T

T

abs

}

4

{

P

}

{

N

}

This is a nonlinear matrix equation. It is solved using the Newton-Raphson iteration scheme. In concert with the Newton-Raphson method, the following options are provided to improve the efficiency of the iteration process.

Tangential matrix update strategy

Line search method

Bisection of loads

Quasi-Newton (BFGS) updates

This equation, and its solution, are described in Section 7.

SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

S1-12
S1-12
TRANSIENT EQUATION ● The familiar conduction heat transfer equation is  2 T  q

TRANSIENT EQUATION

The familiar conduction heat transfer equation is

2

T

q

k

1 T

t

The MD Nastran Thermal transient equation derived from this equation is

[

B

]{

T

}

[

K

]{

T

}

R

[

]{

T

T

abs

}

4

{

P

}

{

N

}

This is a nonlinear matrix equation. It is solved using the Newton-Raphson iteration scheme. In concert with the Newton-Raphson method, the following options are provided to improve the efficiency of the iteration process.

Tangential matrix update strategy

Line search method

Bisection of loads

Quasi-Newton (BFGS) updates

This equation, and its solution, are described in Section 7.

SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

S1-13
S1-13
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright  2009 MSC.Software Corporation S1-14

SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

S1-14
S1-14
SECTION 2 CONDUCTION WITH ELEMENTS, MATERIALS, CONSTRAINTS, LOADING SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 

SECTION 2

CONDUCTION WITH ELEMENTS, MATERIALS, CONSTRAINTS, LOADING

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

S2-1
S2-1
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009 MSC.Software Corporation S2-2

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

S2-2
S2-2
TOPICS ON CONDUCTION ● Laws affecting conduction ● Supported element topologies ● 1D, 2D, 3D,

TOPICS ON CONDUCTION

Laws affecting conduction

Supported element topologies

1D, 2D, 3D, Axisymmetric

Assemble element conduction matrices to form system matrix

Create elements

Material for conduction

Isotropic (K)

Orthotropic (Kxx, Kyy, Kzz)

Anisotropic (Kxx, Kxy, Kxz, Kyy, Kyz, Kzz)

Temperature independent or dependent

Constraints and loads that can be applied to conduction elements

Temperature (constant, spatial dependent, or time dependent)

Heat flux to a surface: normal flux, radiant (vector) flux

Nodal heat input

Heat generation within conduction element

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

S2-3
S2-3
LAWS AFFECTING CONDUCTION ● Second law of thermodynamics ● Heat only flows from regions of

LAWS AFFECTING CONDUCTION

Second law of thermodynamics

Heat only flows from regions of high temperature to regions of low temperature.

Fourier’s Law (empirical)

One dimension

General

{q}

qkA(dT / dx)



k

  T

x

i

First law of thermodynamics - conservation of energy

2

T

q

k

1 T

t

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

S2-4
S2-4
SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES ● Element types ● The MD Nastran SOL 153 and SOL 159

SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES

Element types The MD Nastran SOL 153 and SOL 159 elements are isoparametric

1D

2D

3D

Axisym

CBAR

CQUAD4

CHEXA

CTRIAX6

CBEAM

CQUAD8

CPENTA

 

CBEND

CTRIA3

CTETRA

 

CONROD

CTRIA6

   

CROD

     

CTUBE

     

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

S2-5
S2-5
SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.) 12 33 11 34 12 35 13 ● 1D element ●

SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.)

12
12
33 11 34 12 35 13
33
11
34
12
35
13

1D element

Isoparametric element with 1 dimension, (r)

1

2

element ● Isoparametric element with 1 dimension, (r) 1 2 r = -1 0 r =
element ● Isoparametric element with 1 dimension, (r) 1 2 r = -1 0 r =

r = -1

0

r = 1

r

Interpolation within element

T

2

i 1

h

i

(

)

r T

i

h

1

(1

 r

)/ 2 ,

h r

2

(1

)/ 2

Element conduction matrix

[

k

]

(

e

j

)

V (

j )

[

B

]

(

j

)

T

[

k

]

(

j

)

[

B

]

(

j

)

dV

(

j

)

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

S2-6
S2-6
SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.) ● 1D element ● where ● [ ● [ ● [

SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.)

1D element

where

[

[

[

k ]

B

k ]

(

j )

e

]

(

j )

(

j )

12
12
33 11 34 12 35 13
33
11
34
12
35
13

= element j conduction matrix

= element j temperature gradient interpolation matrix

= element j thermal conductivities

The integration is over the volume of element j

An example is

[0]

 

[0]

[0]

1

[0]


 

Ak

L

1

[0]

1

1

(

j

)





[

k

]

(

e

j

)

[0]

 

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

[0]

[0]

 

S2-7
S2-7
SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.) ● 2D element 34 ● Isoparametric element with 2 dimensions, (r,s)

SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.)

2D element

34
34

Isoparametric element with 2 dimensions, (r,s)

s

s

s 2 1 = 1 0 3 = -1 r = -1 4 r =
s
2
1
= 1
0
3
= -1
r = -1
4
r = 1

r

55 33 56 11 34 57 12 35 13
55
33
56
11 34
57
12
35
13

Interpolation within element

T

4

i 1

h

i

(

r

,

)

s T

i

h

h

1

3

 r s

s

(1

)(1

)(1

(1

 r

) / 4 ,

) /

4 ,

h

h

2

4

r s

r s

(1

(1

)(1

)(1

) / 4

) / 4

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

S2-8
S2-8
SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.) ● 2D element 34 ● Element conduction matrix [ k ]

SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.)

2D element

34
34

Element conduction matrix

[

k

]

(

e

j

)

V (

j )

[

B

]

(

j

)

T

[

k

]

(

j

)

[

B

]

(

j

)

dV

(

j

)

55 33 56 11 34 57 12 35 13
55
33
56
11 34
57
12
35
13

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

S2-9
S2-9
SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.) ● 3D element ● Isoparametric element with 3 dimensions, (r,s,t) ●

SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.)

3D element

Isoparametric element with 3 dimensions, (r,s,t)

Interpolation within element

T

8

h

i

i 1

(

r

,

)

s t T

,

i

Element conduction matrix

[

k

]

(

e

j

)

V (

j )

[

B

]

(

j

)

T

[

k

]

(

j

)

[

B

]

(

j

)

dV

(

j

)

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

S2-10
S2-10
SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.) ● Recommendations ● Use linear elements, unless have substantial curvature and

SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.)

Recommendations

Use linear elements, unless have substantial curvature and desire to minimize the number of elements

If doing thermal analysis (calculate temperatures) to structural analysis (stress analysis) mapping (loads are temperatures from thermal analysis), it is best to use the same type of element that is to be used for the structural analysis, e.g. Tet10, and not Tet4.

Loads and boundary conditions do not affect which type of element should be used

Special Elements

This category is for elements that are not finite elements, but of course they can be used in modeling a thermal process. There are two types

of special elements. They are ● CELASi (scalar spring) ● Simple conduction element SMX124, Section
of special elements. They are
● CELASi (scalar spring)
● Simple conduction element
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S2-11
SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.) ● Special Elements (continued) ● CELASi (scalar spring) (continued) ● Used

SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.)

Special Elements (continued)

CELASi (scalar spring) (continued)

Used to model a one-dimensional conduction element with a thermal resistance.

R= L/kA, where CELAS2 used inverse of R

G=1/R = kA/L (Watt/ 0 C, type of unit)

DMI or DMIG (direct matrix input) -- complex component

DMI

For defining matrix data blocks.

[

name

]

[

X

ij

]

where the elements X ij may be real or complex (real and imaginary part). The matrix is defined by a single header entry and one or more column entries. Only one header is required. A column entry is required for each column with nonzero elements.

For more information see the MD Nastran Quick Reference Guide.

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

S2-12
S2-12
ASSEMBLE ELEMENT MATRICES ● Assemble all element conduction and other system matrices ● Derive element

ASSEMBLE ELEMENT MATRICES

Assemble all element conduction and other system matrices

Derive element conduction matrices

[

k

]

(

e

j

)

[

V (

j )

B

]

(

j

)

T

[

k

]

(

j

)

[

B

]

(

j

)

dV

(

j

)

Sum the element conduction matrices

[

K

]

j

[

k

]

(

e

j

)

Create other necessary system matrices, and create the conduction system matrix equation

[K ]{T} {P}

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

S2-13
S2-13
ASSEMBLE ELEMENT MATRICES (Cont.) ● Summary of the steady-state finite element method Represent continuous structure

ASSEMBLE ELEMENT MATRICES (Cont.)

Summary of the steady-state finite element method

Represent continuous structure as a collection of discrete elements connected by nodes

as a collection of discrete elements connected by nodes Derive element conduction matrices from material properties,

Derive element conduction matrices from material properties, element properties, and geometry

from material properties, element properties, and geometry Assemble all element conduction matrices into a global

Assemble all element conduction matrices into a global conduction matrix [K]

Assemble loads into a global load vector {P}

matrix [K] Assemble loads into a global load vector {P} Apply boundary conditions to constrain the

Apply boundary conditions to constrain the model

vector {P} Apply boundary conditions to constrain the model Solve the matrix equation [K] {T} =

Solve the matrix equation [K] {T} = {P} for nodal temperature

the matrix equation [K] {T} = {P} for nodal temperature Compute thermal flux from temperature results

Compute thermal flux from temperature results

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

S2-14
S2-14
CREATING 1D ELEMENTS ● 1D elements ● Create by meshing curve or edge ● Create

CREATING 1D ELEMENTS

1D elements

Create by meshing curve or edge

Create a material property set

Create an element property set

Mesh a geometric curve with 1D elements

Select the curve for Curve to mesh,

CURVE/1

Specify the element size, 1

From the Model Browser tree select the element property, PBAR_1

the Model Browser tree select the element property, PBAR_1 SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009

tree select the element property, PBAR_1 SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation S2-15
tree select the element property, PBAR_1 SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation S2-15
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation S2-15
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S2-15
CREATING 1D ELEMENTS (Cont.) ● 1D elements (continued) ● Create manually ● 1D elements ●

CREATING 1D ELEMENTS (Cont.)

1D elements (continued)

Create manually

1D elements

Create manually

● Create manually ● 1D elements ● Create manually ● Select the Element Property under PID
● Create manually ● 1D elements ● Create manually ● Select the Element Property under PID

Select the Element Property under PID Specify (X1,X2,X3) for the cross-section orientation vector

Specify (X1,X2,X3) for the cross-section orientation vector ● Specify the coordinates for the two ends of

Specify the coordinates for the two ends of the 1D element

Specify the coordinates for the two ends of the 1D element 2 SMX124, Section 2, January
Specify the coordinates for the two ends of the 1D element 2 SMX124, Section 2, January

2

Specify the coordinates for the two ends of the 1D element 2 SMX124, Section 2, January

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

1

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CREATING 2D ELEMENTS ● 2D elements ● Create by meshing surface or face, method l

CREATING 2D ELEMENTS

2D elements

Create by meshing surface or face, method l

Create a material property set

Create an element property set

Mesh a geometric surface with 2D elements

Screen select the surface for Surface to mesh

Specify the element size

Specify Mapped for Mesh method

From the Model Browser tree select the element property PSHELL_1

the Model Browser tree select the element property PSHELL_1 SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation S2-17
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S2-17
CREATING 2D ELEMENTS (Cont.) ● 2D elements (continued) ● Create manually ● 2D elements ●

CREATING 2D ELEMENTS (Cont.)

2D elements (continued)

Create manually

2D elements

Create manually

● Create manually ● 2D elements ● Create manually ● Use the pick panel to define
● Create manually ● 2D elements ● Create manually ● Use the pick panel to define

Use the pick panel to define four corner nodes

The four sets of coordinates are (0,0,0), (1,0,0), (1,1,0), and (0,1,0)

of coordinates are (0,0,0), (1,0,0), (1,1,0), and (0,1,0) ● The image of the CQUAD4 element created
● The image of the CQUAD4 element created is SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright
● The image of the CQUAD4
element created is
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S2-18
CREATING 3D ELEMENTS ● 3D elements ● Create by meshing solid, method I ● Create

CREATING 3D ELEMENTS

3D elements

Create by meshing solid, method I

Create a material property set

Create an element property set

Mesh a geometric solid with 3D elements

Select the solid for Solid To mesh

Specify the element size

From the Model Browser tree select the element property PSOLID_1

the Model Browser tree select the element property PSOLID_1 SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation S2-19
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S2-19
CREATING 3D ELEMENTS (Cont.) ● 3D elements (continued) ● Create manually ● 3D elements ●

CREATING 3D ELEMENTS (Cont.)

3D elements (continued)

Create manually

3D elements

Create manually

● Create manually ● 3D elements ● Create manually ● The eight sets of coordinates are

The eight sets of coordinates are (0,0,0), (1,0,0), (1,1,0), (0,1,0), (0,0,1),…,(0,1,1)

are (0,0,0), (1,0,0), (1,1,0), (0,1,0), (0,0,1),…,(0,1,1) ● Use the pick panel to define eight corner nodes
are (0,0,0), (1,0,0), (1,1,0), (0,1,0), (0,0,1),…,(0,1,1) ● Use the pick panel to define eight corner nodes

Use the pick panel to define eight corner nodes

● Use the pick panel to define eight corner nodes ● The image of the CHEXA8

The image of the CHEXA8 element created is

corner nodes ● The image of the CHEXA8 element created is SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation S2-20
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S2-20
MATERIAL FOR CONDUCTION ● Thermal conductivity of solid material ● Isotropic ● K ● Temperature

MATERIAL FOR CONDUCTION

Thermal conductivity of solid material

Isotropic

K

Temperature independent

Temperature dependent

Orthotropic

Kxx, Kyy, Kzz

Temperature independent

Temperature dependent

Anisotropic

Kxx, Kxy, Kxz, Kyy, Kyz, Kzz

Temperature independent

Temperature dependent

These material properties are for modeling conduction

Steady-state

Transient

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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MATERIAL FOR CONDUCTION (Cont.) ● In addition the following topics are covered for materials ●

MATERIAL FOR CONDUCTION (Cont.)

In addition the following topics are covered for materials

Required material properties to define a model

Units

Method of creation of materials

Use of fields for material definition

In the section on transient analysis the following topics are covered, in addition to those for steady-state analysis

Density

Specific heat at constant pressure

Lumped thermal capacitance

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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MATERIAL FOR CONDUCTION (Cont.) ● Isotropic material ● Temperature independent Isotropic material property. ●

MATERIAL FOR CONDUCTION (Cont.)

Isotropic material

Temperature independent Isotropic material property.

Access the material property forms using the Materials and Properties tab, then the Material group.

the Materials and Properties tab, then the Material group. ● Select Isotropic. ● Enter the name,
● Select Isotropic. ● Enter the name, ID, and description. ● Select Solid to define
● Select Isotropic.
● Enter the name, ID, and
description.
● Select Solid to define
thermal properties of solid
material.
● Enter the value for the
thermal conductivity.
Click OK.
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S2-23
MATERIAL FOR CONDUCTION (Cont.) ● Isotropic material (continued) ● Temperature dependent Isotropic material

MATERIAL FOR CONDUCTION (Cont.)

Isotropic material (continued)

Temperature dependent Isotropic material property

For the Thermal Conductivity entry box click on the Pick… icon

Select a temperature dependent table in the Model Browser tree

Click OK

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S2-24
table in the Model Browser tree ● Click OK S2-24 SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

in the Model Browser tree ● Click OK S2-24 SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 
MATERIAL FOR CONDUCTION (Cont.) ● Orthotropic and Anisotropic material ● Temperature independent or dependent. ●

MATERIAL FOR CONDUCTION (Cont.)

Orthotropic and Anisotropic material

Temperature independent or dependent.

Access the material property forms using the Materials and Properties tab, then the Material group.

Select an Orthotropic or Anisotropic material, similar to that for Isotropic material.

material, similar to that for Isotropic material. SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009
material, similar to that for Isotropic material. SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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S2-25
MATERIAL FOR CONDUCTION (Cont.) ● Units ● The following table lists the units that correspond

MATERIAL FOR CONDUCTION (Cont.)

Units

The following table lists the units that correspond to the fields of the Materials – Thermal (High Level Editor), or the fields of the MatIsotropic and RadMat entries (Single Card Image ).

of the MatIsotropic and RadMat entries (Single Card Image ). SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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TEMPERATURE CONSTRAINTS ● Temperature constraints at node points ● Access the temperature constraint form using

TEMPERATURE CONSTRAINTS

Temperature constraints at node points

Access the temperature constraint form using the LBCs tab, then the

LBC group

The form Defaults For Temperature BC appears

Its default setting is for a constant temperature at node points.

Enter the value for the temperature. ● Click Store, then click Exit SMX124, Section 2,
Enter the value for the temperature.
● Click Store, then click Exit
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S2-27
TEMPERATURE CONSTRAINTS (Cont.) ● Temperature constraints at node points ● Specify the application region using

TEMPERATURE CONSTRAINTS (Cont.)

Temperature constraints at node points

Specify the application region using the Create Temperature pick panel

Select an entity type to screen pick, e.g. Nodes

Screen pick the nodes to constrain their temperature

Click Done, then click Exit

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation S2-28
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S2-28
TEMPERATURE CONSTRAINTS (Cont.) ● MPC temperature constraints  k A T k k  0

TEMPERATURE CONSTRAINTS (Cont.)

MPC temperature constraints

k

A T

k

k

0

(Cont.) ● MPC temperature constraints  k A T k k  0 ● Access the
(Cont.) ● MPC temperature constraints  k A T k k  0 ● Access the

Access the constraint form

using the LBCs tab, then the LBC group

The form Defaults For MPC BC appears

Change to the form Defaults For MPC BC by using an Entity Type pick

DOF0 is for the DOF of the dependent node

WT0 is for the weighting factor for DOF0

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

is for the weighting factor for DOF0 SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009 MSC.Software
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TEMPERATURE CONSTRAINTS (Cont.) ● MPC temperature constraints ● DOFi is for the DOF of the

TEMPERATURE CONSTRAINTS (Cont.)

MPC temperature constraints

DOFi is for the DOF of the i-th independent node

WTi is for the weighting factor for DOFi

Click Store, then click Exit

weighting factor for DOFi ● Click Store, then click Exit SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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TEMPERATURE CONSTRAINTS (Cont.) ● MPC temperature constraints ● Specify the application region using the Create

TEMPERATURE CONSTRAINTS (Cont.)

MPC temperature constraints

Specify the application region using the Create MPC pick panel

Select an entity type to screen pick, e.g. Nodes

Screen pick the nodes

First node picked is dependent node (example, Node 25) Subsequent nodes picked are independent nodes (example, Node 50, 49, 24)

picked are independent nodes (example, Node 50, 49, 24) ● Click Done ● In Multi-Point Constraint
picked are independent nodes (example, Node 50, 49, 24) ● Click Done ● In Multi-Point Constraint
● Click Done ● In Multi-Point Constraint form that appears click Create SMX124, Section 2,
● Click Done
● In Multi-Point Constraint form
that appears click Create
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S2-31
INITIALIZATION TEMPERATURE ● Temperature initialization ● To perform nonlinear steady-state or transient analysis it

INITIALIZATION TEMPERATURE

Temperature initialization

To perform nonlinear steady-state or transient analysis it is necessary to specify initialization temperatures.

Steady-state, must specify starting temperature (as opposed to “initial temperature” that is needed for transient analysis) at all the nodes. Transient, must specify the initial temperature at all the nodes.

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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INITIALIZATION TEMPERATURE (Cont.) ● Temperature initialization ● Access the initialization temperature form using

INITIALIZATION TEMPERATURE (Cont.)

Temperature initialization

Access the initialization temperature form using

the LBCs tab, then the LBC group.

The form Defaults For TEMP_INIT BC appears.

Enter the value for the initial temperature.

Click Store, then click Exit.

the initial temperature. ● Click Store, then click Exit. SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009
the initial temperature. ● Click Store, then click Exit. SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation S2-33
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S2-33
INITIALIZATION TEMPERATURE (Cont.) ● Temperature initialization ● Specify the application region using the Create

INITIALIZATION TEMPERATURE (Cont.)

Temperature initialization

Specify the application region using the Create TEMP_INIT pick panel.

Select an entity type to screen pick, e.g. Nodes.

Screen pick the nodes to specify their initialization temperature.

Click Done, then click Exit.

temperature. ● Click Done, then click Exit. SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation S2-34
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S2-34
INITIALIZATION TEMPERATURE (Cont.) ● Temperature initialization ● For the nodes not included in the specified

INITIALIZATION TEMPERATURE (Cont.)

Temperature initialization

For the nodes not included in the specified application regions, their temperatures are specified using Analysis: Solver Control / General Parameters / Properties / General Solution Parameters / Default Init Temperature

/ General Solution Parameters / Default Init Temperature SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation S2-35
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S2-35
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation S2-36

CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE

CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation S2-36

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009

Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation S2-36
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S2-36
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create Material property SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright

CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE

Create Material property

STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create Material property SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009
STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create Material property SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create Property SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 

CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE

Create Property

CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create Property SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create Property SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create Property SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create Property SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create surface ● Create two curves SMX124, Section 2,

CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE

Create surface

Create two curves

THRU PLATE ● Create surface ● Create two curves SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009
THRU PLATE ● Create surface ● Create two curves SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation S2-39
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S2-39
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create surface ● Create two curves ● Create a

CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE

Create surface

Create two curves

THRU PLATE ● Create surface ● Create two curves ● Create a surface using the curves
THRU PLATE ● Create surface ● Create two curves ● Create a surface using the curves

Create a surface using the curves

Create two curves ● Create a surface using the curves SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright
Create two curves ● Create a surface using the curves SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright
Create two curves ● Create a surface using the curves SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create surface ● Create a surface using the curves

CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE

Create surface

Create a surface using the curves

● Create surface ● Create a surface using the curves SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright
● Create surface ● Create a surface using the curves SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Mesh the surface SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright

CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE

Mesh the surface

CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Mesh the surface SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Mesh the surface SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Mesh the surface SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Apply temperature constraints SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright

CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE

Apply temperature constraints

CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Apply temperature constraints SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009
CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Apply temperature constraints SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation S2-43
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S2-43
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Apply temperature constraints SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright

CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE

Apply temperature constraints

CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Apply temperature constraints SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation S2-44
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S2-44
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create an LBC Set SMX124, Section 2, January 2009

CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE

Create an LBC Set

CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create an LBC Set SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create an LBC Set SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create SimXpert analysis file SMX124, Section 2, January 2009

CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE

Create SimXpert analysis file

CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create SimXpert analysis file SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009
CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create SimXpert analysis file SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009
CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create SimXpert analysis file SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009
CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create SimXpert analysis file SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009
CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create SimXpert analysis file SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009
CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create SimXpert analysis file SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create SimXpert analysis file SMX124, Section 2, January 2009

CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE

Create SimXpert analysis file

CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create SimXpert analysis file SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation S2-47
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S2-47
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create SimXpert analysis file SMX124, Section 2, January 2009

CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE

Create SimXpert analysis file

CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create SimXpert analysis file SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009
CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create SimXpert analysis file SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009
CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create SimXpert analysis file SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009
CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Create SimXpert analysis file SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Run MD Nastran Thermal ● Display thermal results ●

CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE

Run MD Nastran Thermal Display thermal results

Attach .xdb file

Thermal ● Display thermal results ● Attach .xdb file SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 
Thermal ● Display thermal results ● Attach .xdb file SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE ● Display thermal results ● Display thermal fringe SMX124, Section

CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE

Display thermal results

Display thermal fringe

● Display thermal results ● Display thermal fringe SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation S2-50
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S2-50
LOADING ● Loads that can be applied to conduction elements ● Heat flux to a

LOADING

Loads that can be applied to conduction elements

Heat flux to a surface

Normal flux (Nastran QHBDY or QBDYi)

Heat Flux (power/area)

Time scaling function

Application region

Heat into a node

Nodal heat

Heat generation in conduction elements

Volumetric heat (Nastran QVOL)

Power input per unit volume

Power produced by heat conduction elements

Time scaling function

Application region

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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LOADING (Cont.) ● Heat flux to a surface ● Normal Flux ● Access the normal

LOADING (Cont.)

Heat flux to a surface

Normal Flux

Access the normal flux form using the LBCs tab, then the LBC group.

The form Defaults For Normal Flux appears.

Enter the value for the heat flux (power/area).

● Click Store, then click Exit. SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
● Click Store, then click Exit.
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S2-52
LOADING (Cont.) ● Heat flux to a surface ● Normal Flux ● Specify the application

LOADING (Cont.)

Heat flux to a surface

Normal Flux

Specify the application region using the Create Normal Flux pick panel

Select an entity type to screen pick, e.g. Nodes

Screen pick the nodes to apply the heat flux to

Click Done, then click Exit

to apply the heat flux to ● Click Done, then click Exit SMX124, Section 2, January

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

to ● Click Done, then click Exit SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009 MSC.Software
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LOADING (Cont.) ● Heat generation ● Volumetric Heat ● Access the volumetric heat form using

LOADING (Cont.)

Heat generation

Volumetric Heat

Access the volumetric heat form using the LBCs tab, then the LBC

group.

The form Defaults For Volumetric Heat BC appears.

Enter the value for the power input per unit volume (power/volume)

● Click Store, then click Exit SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
● Click Store, then click Exit
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
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LOADING (Cont.) ● Heat generation ● Volumetric Heat ● Specify the application region using the

LOADING (Cont.)

Heat generation

Volumetric Heat

Specify the application region using the Create Volumetric Heat pick panel

Select an entity type to screen pick, e.g. Elements

Screen pick the elements to apply the internal heat generation to

Click Done, then click Exit

internal heat generation to ● Click Done, then click Exit SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation S2-55
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S2-55
NOTE ON GEOMETRIC SURFACE ELEMENTS ● Heat flux or boundary condition surface elements ● To

NOTE ON GEOMETRIC SURFACE ELEMENTS

Heat flux or boundary condition surface elements

To apply heat flux, convection, or radiation to a conducting surface (2D element, e.g. CQUAD4) or face (3D element, e.g. CHEXA) it is necessary to apply them to a geometric surface, which in turn is connected to conducting elements. The geometric surface elements are named CHBDYE, CHBDYG, or CHBDYP, or simply CHBDYi. This is shown conceptually.

The user does not explicitly create the CHBDYi elements. They are created automatically by (from within) SimXpert as a result of creating the loads and boundary conditions.

as a result of creating the loads and boundary conditions. SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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LOADING (Cont.) ● The heat flow through the isoparametric elements is in the parametric directions

LOADING (Cont.)

The heat flow through the isoparametric elements is in the parametric directions of the elements.

1D element

Heat flow is only along the centerline of the element, not normal to the centerline of the element

2D element

Heat flow is only in the plane of the element, not normal to the plane of the element

3D element

Heat flow is in all three directions of the element

Axisymmetric element

Heat flow is only in the radial or centerline direction of the element, not in the circumferential direction

So, do not use an isoparametric element that does not have a parametric coordinate in a direction that heat flow must be modeled

The performance of linear finite elements, e.g. CQUAD4 element, is as good as that of parabolic finite elements, e.g. CQUAD8 element, for 2D or 3D.

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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LBC Set ● Create an LBC set that combines the needed LBCs ● Access the

LBC Set

Create an LBC set that combines the needed LBCs

Access the loads and boundary condition set form using the

LBCs tab, then the LBC Set group.

The form LBC Set appears.

Select the two loads and boundary conditions

Click OK

Select the two loads and boundary conditions ● Click OK SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright
Select the two loads and boundary conditions ● Click OK SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright
Select the two loads and boundary conditions ● Click OK SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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ANALYSIS SETUP ● The Analysis forms in the Model tree browser are used to specify

ANALYSIS SETUP

The Analysis forms in the Model tree browser are used to specify the parameters for an analysis

Model: Analysis

specify the parameters for an analysis ● Model: Analysis ● Model: Analysis / Nastran Jobs ●
specify the parameters for an analysis ● Model: Analysis ● Model: Analysis / Nastran Jobs ●

Model: Analysis / Nastran Jobs

● Model: Analysis ● Model: Analysis / Nastran Jobs ● Nastran Jobs : Create New Job

Nastran Jobs : Create New Job

Job Properties form

● Nastran Jobs : Create New Job ● Job Properties form SMX124, Section 2, January 2009

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.) ● The Analysis forms in the Model ● General Parameters, etc. ●

ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)

The Analysis forms in the Model

General Parameters, etc.

Analysis forms in the Model ● General Parameters, etc. ● General Parameters: Properties ● General Solution

General Parameters: Properties

General Solution Parameters form

Parameters: Properties ● General Solution Parameters form SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009
Parameters: Properties ● General Solution Parameters form SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.) ● The Analysis forms in the Model ● Radiation Parameters: Properties ●

ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)

The Analysis forms in the Model Radiation Parameters: Properties

forms in the Model ● Radiation Parameters: Properties ● Radiation Parameters form SMX124, Section 2, January

Radiation Parameters form

Parameters: Properties ● Radiation Parameters form SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.) ● The Analysis forms in the Model ● Cases: Add Common Case

ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)

The Analysis forms in the Model Cases: Add Common Case

The Analysis forms in the Model ● Cases: Add Common Case ● Common Case, Case Control

Common Case, Case Control

Specify titles to be above all subcases

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

Specify titles to be above all subcases SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009 MSC.Software
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ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.) ● The Analysis forms in the Model ● Common Case, Add Output

ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)

The Analysis forms in the Model Common Case, Add Output Requests

forms in the Model ● Common Case, Add Output Requests SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright
forms in the Model ● Common Case, Add Output Requests SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright
forms in the Model ● Common Case, Add Output Requests SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright
forms in the Model ● Common Case, Add Output Requests SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

● Common Case, Add Output Requests SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009 MSC.Software Corporation
● Common Case, Add Output Requests SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009 MSC.Software Corporation
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ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.) ● The Analysis forms in the Model ● Cases: Add Subcase ●

ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)

The Analysis forms in the Model Cases: Add Subcase

Select the desired LBC Set

● Cases: Add Subcase ● Select the desired LBC Set SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright
● Cases: Add Subcase ● Select the desired LBC Set SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.) ● The Analysis forms in the Model ● Subcase Parameters: Properties ●

ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)

The Analysis forms in the Model Subcase Parameters: Properties

forms in the Model ● Subcase Parameters: Properties ● NINC = number of equal subdivisions of

NINC = number of equal subdivisions of the load change defined for the subcase for Newton-Raphson methods.

change defined for the subcase for Newton-Raphson methods. SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.) ● The Analysis forms in the Model ● Matrix Update Method ●

ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)

The Analysis forms in the Model

Matrix Update Method

Automatic => the program automatically selects the most efficient strategy based on convergence rates. At each step the number of iterations required for convergence is estimated. The conduction matrix is updated if 1) the estimated number of iterations to converge exceeds MAXITER, 2) the estimated time required for convergence with the current conduction matrix exceeds the estimated time required for convergence with updated conduction, and 3) the solution diverges.

with updated conduction, and 3) the solution diverges. SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.) ● The Analysis forms in the Model ● Matrix Update Method ●

ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)

The Analysis forms in the Model

Matrix Update Method

Semi-Automatic => the program for each load increment 1) performs a single iteration based on the new load, 2) updates the conduction matrix, and 3) follows the normal Automatic approach.

Controlled Iters => the program updates the conduction matrix at every KSTEPth iteration and on convergence if KSTEP <= MAXITER. However, if KSTEP > MAXITER the conduction matrix is never updated.

KSTEP > MAXITER the conduction matrix is never updated. SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.) ● The Analysis forms in the Model ● Matrix Update Method ●

ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)

The Analysis forms in the Model

Matrix Update Method

Controlled Iters => note that the Newton-Raphson iteration strategy is used by selecting this approach (Controlled Iters) and KSTEP = 1, while the Modified Newton-Raphson iteration strategy is used by selecting this approach (Controlled Iters) and KSTEP = MAXITER.

KSTEP => for Automatic and Semi-Automatic methods the conduction matrix is updated at convergence if KSTEP is < the number of iterations that were required for convergence with the current conduction.

were required for convergence with the current conduction. SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.) ● The Analysis forms in the Model ● MAXITER => the number

ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)

The Analysis forms in the Model

MAXITER => the number of iterations for a load increment is limited to MAXITER. If the solution process does not converge in MAXITER iterations the load increment is bisected and the analysis is repeated.

Temperature Error, Yes or No

EPSU = error tolerance for temperature criterion

Load Error, Yes or No

EPSP = error tolerance for load criterion

Work Error, Yes or No

EPSW = error tolerance for work criterion

Yes or No ● EPSW = error tolerance for work criterion SMX124, Section 2, January 2009

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.) ● The Analysis forms in the Model ● Output File: Properties ●

ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)

The Analysis forms in the Model Output File: Properties

Output File Properties form

Output File: Properties ● Output File Properties form SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009
Output File: Properties ● Output File Properties form SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright  2009

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.) ● The Analysis forms in the Model ● Submit an analysis file

ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)

The Analysis forms in the Model Submit an analysis file to the solver ss_sample_problem: Run

File name

to the solver ● ss_sample_problem: Run ● File name SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 
to the solver ● ss_sample_problem: Run ● File name SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.) ● The Analysis forms in the Model ● Choices for SOL type

ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)

The Analysis forms in the Model Choices for SOL type for steady- state analysis.

SOL153

SOL600, 153

for steady- state analysis. ● SOL153 ● SOL600, 153 SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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DISPLAY RESULTS ● Display thermal analysis results ● Attach an .XDB result file SMX124, Section

DISPLAY RESULTS

Display thermal analysis results

Attach an .XDB result file

thermal analysis results ● Attach an .XDB result file SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 
thermal analysis results ● Attach an .XDB result file SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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DISPLAY RESULTS (Cont.) ● Display thermal analysis results ● Access the results form using the

DISPLAY RESULTS (Cont.)

Display thermal analysis results

Access the results form using the Results tab, then the Results group.

Select the following

tab, then the Results group. ● Select the following ● Fringe ● Result Cases -- SC1:

Fringe

Result Cases -- SC1: Non-linear: 100 % of L

Result Type -- Temperatures

Click Update Plot

of L ● Result Type -- Temperatures ● Click Update Plot SMX124, Section 2, January 2009

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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DISPLAY RESULTS (Cont.) ● Display thermal analysis results ● Display the temperature results as a

DISPLAY RESULTS (Cont.)

Display thermal analysis results

Display the temperature results as a fringe plot

January 2009
January 2009

SMX124, Section 2,

Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation S2-75
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
S2-75
EXERCISE Perform Workshop 1 “PCB With Heat Flux and Constant Temperature at Boundary” in your

EXERCISE

Perform Workshop 1 “PCB With Heat Flux and Constant Temperature at Boundary” in your exercise workbook.

SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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SECTION 3 CONVECTION SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright  2009 MSC.Software Corporation S3-1

SECTION 3 CONVECTION

SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright  2009 MSC.Software Corporation S3-2

SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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HEAT TRANSFER VIA CONVECTION ● The transfer of energy (heat) between a solid boundary and

HEAT TRANSFER VIA CONVECTION

The transfer of energy (heat) between a solid boundary and a fluid takes place by a combination of conduction and mass transport

The fluid motion can be induced by two different processes.

The fluid may be moved as a result of density differences due to a temperature variation within the fluid. This type of heat transfer is called free (or natural) convection.

The fluid motion may be caused by an external source, such as a pump or blower. This type of heat transfer is called forced convection.

A simple representation of convection heat transfer is given by

q surface to fluid

h A T

c

(

s

T

0

where

.

q surface to fluid = rate of heat transfer by convection

)

h c = convective heat transfer coefficient, or average unit thermal convective conductance

SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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HEAT TRANSFER VIA CONVECTION (Cont.) ● where ● A = heat transfer area ● T

HEAT TRANSFER VIA CONVECTION (Cont.)

where

A = heat transfer area T s = surface temperature T 0 = fluid temperature

The convective heat transfer coefficient is actually a complicated function

Fluid flow

Thermal properties of the fluid medium

Geometry of the thermal system

Its numerical value is in general not uniform over a surface

Depends on the location where the fluid temperature T 0 is specified

Convective heat transfer is modeled with SimXpert using empirically derived functions

SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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HEAT TRANSFER VIA CONVECTION (Cont.) ● Free convection Nu  h L c k f

HEAT TRANSFER VIA CONVECTION (Cont.)

Free convection

Nu

h L

c

k

f

q

surface to fluid

Nu 
Nu

h

c

k

f

A

L

(

Nu

k

f

L

T

s

T

0

)

Nu f (Gr) g(Pr)

where

Nu = Nusselt number (ratio of the temperature gradient in the fluid at the surface to a reference temperature gradient) Gr = Grashof number (ratio of buoyant to viscous forces) Pr = Prandtl number

The Reynolds number (Re) is not needed for free convection

SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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HEAT TRANSFER VIA CONVECTION (Cont.) ● Forced convection Nu  h L c k f

HEAT TRANSFER VIA CONVECTION (Cont.)

Forced convection

Nu

h L

c

k

f

q

surface to fluid

Nu 
Nu

h

c

k

f

A

L

(

Nu

k

f

L

T

s

T

0

)

Nu f (Re) g(Pr)

where

Nu = Nusselt number (ratio of the temperature gradient in the fluid at the surface to a reference temperature gradient) Re = Reynolds number (ratio of inertia to viscous forces) Pr = Prandtl number

SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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FREE CONVECTION ● Free convection ● Access the free convection form using the LBCs tab,

FREE CONVECTION

Free convection

Access the free convection form using the LBCs tab, then the LBC group.

The Defaults For Free Convection form appears

Enter the value for the ambient temperature.

SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation S3-7
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
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FREE CONVECTION (Cont.) ● Free convection ● Convection coefficient – constant coefficient ● ConvCoeff vs

FREE CONVECTION (Cont.)

Free convection

Convection coefficient – constant coefficient

ConvCoeff vs Time scaling function (for transient analysis click in checkbox, and specify a time function using a table)

Formula type – type of formula for free convection (more on subsequent page)

Reference temp location – location used to calculate the convection film coefficient (more on subsequent page)

Conv coeff exponent – free convection exponent

page) ● Conv coeff exponent – free convection exponent SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright 

SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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FREE CONVECTION (Cont.) ● Free convection ● ConvCoeff vs Temperature scaling function – free convection

FREE CONVECTION (Cont.)

Free convection

ConvCoeff vs Temperature scaling function – free convection heat transfer coefficient as a function of temperature

heat transfer coefficient as a function of temperature ● Click Store, then click Exit SMX124, Section

Click Store, then click Exit

SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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FREE CONVECTION (Cont.) ● Free convection ● Formula type – choices for type of formula

FREE CONVECTION (Cont.)

Free convection

Formula type – choices for type of formula for free convection:

qH T

CNTRLND

qH T

CNTRLND

T T

(

AMB

EXPF ) ( T  T ) AMB
EXPF
)
( T
T
)
AMB

(

T

EXPF

T

EXPF

AMB

)

The reference temperature is the average of element node point temperatures (average) and the ambient point temperatures (average)

The reference temperature is the surface temperature (average of element node point temperatures)

The reference temperature is the ambient temperature (average of ambient point temperatures)

SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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FREE CONVECTION (Cont.) ● Free convection ● Specify the application region using the Create Free

FREE CONVECTION (Cont.)

Free convection

Specify the application region using the Create Free Convection pick panel Select an entity type to screen pick, e.g. Nodes Screen pick the nodes to apply the free convection to Click Done, then click Exit

the free convection to ● Click Done, then click Exit SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright

SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

to ● Click Done, then click Exit SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright  2009 MSC.Software
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CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation S3-12

CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE

CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation S3-12

SMX124, Section 3, January 2009

Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation S3-12
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
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CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE ● Create Material property SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright

CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE

Create Material property

STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE ● Create Material property SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright  2009
STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE ● Create Material property SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright  2009

SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE ● Create Property SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright 

CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE

Create Property

CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE ● Create Property SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright  2009
CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE ● Create Property SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright  2009
CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE ● Create Property SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright  2009
CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE ● Create Property SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright  2009

SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright2009 MSC.Software Corporation

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CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE ● Create surface ● Create two curves SMX124, Section 3,

CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE

Create surface

Create two curves

OFF PLATE ● Create surface ● Create two curves SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright 2009
OFF PLATE ● Create surface ● Create two curves SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright 2009
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation S3-15
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
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CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE ● Create surface ● Create two curves ● Create a