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MSC.Software Corporation reserves the right to make changes in specifications and other information contained in this document without prior notice. The concepts, methods, and examples presented in this text are for illustrative and educational purposes only, and are not intended to be exhaustive or to apply to any particular engineering problem or design. MSC.Software Corporation assumes no liability or responsibility to any person or company for direct or indirect damages resulting from the use of any information contained herein.
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CONTENTS
Section 
Pages 

1.0 
Introduction to MSC SimXpert Thermal Analysis……………………………………………… 
11 

2.0 
Conduction………………………………………………………………………………………………. 21 

3.0 
Convection………………………………………………………………………………………………. 31 

4.0 
Transient Thermal Analysis…………………………………………… 
…………………………… 
41 
5.0 
Radiation…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 51 

6.0 
SOL 400 Thermal Capability………………………………………………………………………… 
61 

7.0 
Thermal Analysis Theory……………………………………………………………………………… 71 
SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION TO MSC SimXpert THERMAL ANALYSIS
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
HEAT TRANSFER
● Should a Heat Transfer analysis be performed ?
● When the solution for the temperature field in a solid (or fluid) is desired, and the temperature is not influenced by other fields, a heat transfer analysis is appropriate.
Coupled Fields
vs
Thermal Field
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
MODES OF HEAT TRANSFER
● Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
● Conduction (through a material)
● Convection (to a fluid)
● Natural (free)
● Forced
● Advection (energy carried in a fluid)
● Radiation (energy transfer through free space (no intervening medium) from one surface to another)
Moving Fluid Removes Heat From Solid
T _{1} >T _{2}
qhAT
Convection
● Ambient (to space) ● Enclosure (enclosed radiation system)
q
12
Heat Moves IN Moving Fluid
T _{1} >T _{2}
q
T _{1} >T _{2}
(
T
1
T
2
)
(
qFAT
1
21
^{T} 1
q mC
p
4 T
2
4 )
Advection
Radiation
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS TYPES
● Thermal problems can be categorized as
● Steadystate
● Steadystate analyses are concerned with state point solutions with fixed boundary conditions
● Transient
● Transient analyses are characterized by solution evolution over time, and in addition to energy exchange with the environment, involves thermal energy storage
● Linear
● Properties; i.e. conductivity, convection coefficient.; do not change with
● Temperature
● The boundary conditions do not involve
● Radiation
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS TYPES (Cont.)
● Thermal problems can be categorized as (continued)
● Nonlinear
● Temperature dependent material properties.
● Conduction
● Convection
● Natural
● Forced
● Radiation boundary conditions.
● Ambient
● Enclosure
● Steadystate or transient solution. ● All nonlinear analyses necessarily involve solution iteration, error estimation, and convergence criteria.
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
THERMAL MODEL ELEMENTS
● MSC SimXpert thermal elements
● 1D – conduction only in the direction of the centerline of the element
● 2D – conduction only through the midplane of the element
● 3D – conduction in all three directions ● Axisymmetry
● Nonzero thermal gradient in the radial and axial directions ● Zero thermal gradient in the circumferential direction
● Special elements for conduction
● Special element for lumped thermal capacitance
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
THERMAL MODEL MATERIAL PROPERTIES
● Thermal materials
● Conduction
● Thermal conductivity
● Can be a function of temperature
● Transient model
● Specific heat (heat capacity per unit mass)
● Can be a function of temperature
● Density
● Cannot be a function of temperature
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
THERMAL MODEL MATERIAL PROPERTIES
● Thermal materials
● Convection
● Natural (free)
● Heat transfer coefficient
● Can be a function of temperature
● Can be a function of time
● h = function(Gr, Pr)
● Forced
● Constant coefficient
● h = function(Re, Pr)
● Radiation
● Surface absorptivity
● Can be a function of temperature
● Surface emissivity
● Can be a function of temperature
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
THERMAL MODEL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
● Thermal boundary conditions
● Convection
● Natural (free)
● Forced (SimXpert R4.0)
● Radiation
● Ambient (to space)
● Enclosure
● Temperature
● Temperature  constant or time varying temperature for set of nodes
● “Initial conditions” for set of nodes
● Steadystate – initialization/starting temperature
● Transient – initial temperature
● MPC – multipoint constraint (constraint for set of nodal temperatures)
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
THERMAL MODEL LOADS
● Thermal loads
● Heat flux
● Applied to surface, Normal Flux ● From a distant radiation source, Radiant Flux
● Can specify direction not normal to the surface
● Nodal heat
● Power input to a node
● Volumetric load
● Internal (to element) heat generation
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
STEADYSTATE EQUATION
● The familiar conduction heat transfer equation is
2
T
q
k
1 T
^{}
t
● The MD Nastran Thermal steadystate equation derived from this equation is
[
K
]{
T
}
R
[
]{
T
T
abs
}
4
{
P
}
{
N
}
● This is a nonlinear matrix equation. It is solved using the NewtonRaphson iteration scheme. In concert with the NewtonRaphson method, the following options are provided to improve the efficiency of the iteration process.
● Tangential matrix update strategy
● Line search method
● Bisection of loads
● QuasiNewton (BFGS) updates
● This equation, and its solution, are described in Section 7.
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TRANSIENT EQUATION
● The familiar conduction heat transfer equation is
2
T
q
k
1 T
^{}
t
● The MD Nastran Thermal transient equation derived from this equation is
[
B
]{
T
}
[
K
]{
T
}
R
[
]{
T
T
abs
}
4
{
P
}
{
N
}
● This is a nonlinear matrix equation. It is solved using the NewtonRaphson iteration scheme. In concert with the NewtonRaphson method, the following options are provided to improve the efficiency of the iteration process.
● Tangential matrix update strategy
● Line search method
● Bisection of loads
● QuasiNewton (BFGS) updates
● This equation, and its solution, are described in Section 7.
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SMX124, Section 1, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 2
CONDUCTION WITH ELEMENTS, MATERIALS, CONSTRAINTS, LOADING
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TOPICS ON CONDUCTION
● Laws affecting conduction
● Supported element topologies
● 1D, 2D, 3D, Axisymmetric
● Assemble element conduction matrices to form system matrix
● Create elements
● Material for conduction
● Isotropic (K)
● Orthotropic (Kxx, Kyy, Kzz)
● Anisotropic (Kxx, Kxy, Kxz, Kyy, Kyz, Kzz)
● Temperature independent or dependent
● Constraints and loads that can be applied to conduction elements
● Temperature (constant, spatial dependent, or time dependent)
● Heat flux to a surface: normal flux, radiant (vector) flux
● Nodal heat input
● Heat generation within conduction element
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
LAWS AFFECTING CONDUCTION
● Second law of thermodynamics
● Heat only flows from regions of high temperature to regions of low temperature.
● Fourier’s Law (empirical)
● One dimension
● General
{q}
qkA(dT / dx)
k
T
x
i
● First law of thermodynamics  conservation of energy
2
T
q
k
1 T
^{}
t
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES
● Element types ● The MD Nastran SOL 153 and SOL 159 elements are isoparametric
1D 
2D 
3D 
Axisym 
CBAR 
CQUAD4 
CHEXA 
CTRIAX6 
CBEAM 
CQUAD8 
CPENTA 

CBEND 
CTRIA3 
CTETRA 

CONROD 
CTRIA6 

CROD 

CTUBE 
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.)
● 1D element
● Isoparametric element with 1 dimension, (r)
1
2
r = 1
_{0}
r = 1
r
● Interpolation within element
T
2
i 1
h
i
(
)
r T
i
h
1
(1
r
)/ 2 ,
h r
2
(1
)/ 2
● Element conduction matrix
[
k
]
(
e
j
)
V (
j )
[
B
]
(
j
)
T
[
k
]
(
j
)
[
B
]
(
j
)
dV
(
j
)
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.)
● 1D element
● where
● [
● [
● [
k ]
B
k ]
(
j )
e
]
(
j )
(
j )
= element j conduction matrix
= element j temperature gradient interpolation matrix
= element j thermal conductivities
● The integration is over the volume of element j
● An example is
[0]
[0]
[0]
1
[0]
Ak
L
1
[0]
1
1
(
j
)
[
k
]
(
e
j
)
[0]
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
[0]
[0]
SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.)
● 2D element
● Isoparametric element with 2 dimensions, (r,s)
s
s
r
● Interpolation within element
T
4
i 1
h
i
(
r
,
)
s T
i
h
h
1
3
r s
s
(1
)(1
)(1
(1
r
) / 4 ,
) /
4 ,
h
h
2
4
r s
r s
(1
(1
)(1
)(1
) / 4
) / 4
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.)
● 2D element
● Element conduction matrix
[
k
]
(
e
j
)
V (
j )
[
B
]
(
j
)
T
[
k
]
(
j
)
[
B
]
(
j
)
dV
(
j
)
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.)
● 3D element
● Isoparametric element with 3 dimensions, (r,s,t)
● Interpolation within element
T
8
h
i
i 1
(
r
,
)
s t T
,
i
● Element conduction matrix
[
k
]
(
e
j
)
V (
j )
[
B
]
(
j
)
T
[
k
]
(
j
)
[
B
]
(
j
)
dV
(
j
)
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.)
● Recommendations
● Use linear elements, unless have substantial curvature and desire to minimize the number of elements
● If doing thermal analysis (calculate temperatures) to structural analysis (stress analysis) mapping (loads are temperatures from thermal analysis), it is best to use the same type of element that is to be used for the structural analysis, e.g. Tet10, and not Tet4.
● Loads and boundary conditions do not affect which type of element should be used
● Special Elements
● This category is for elements that are not finite elements, but of course they can be used in modeling a thermal process. There are two types
SUPPORTED ELEMENT TOPOLOGIES (Cont.)
● Special Elements (continued)
● CELASi (scalar spring) (continued)
● Used to model a onedimensional conduction element with a thermal resistance.
● R= L/kA, where CELAS2 used inverse of R
● G=1/R = kA/L (Watt/ ^{0} C, type of unit)
● DMI or DMIG (direct matrix input)  complex component
● DMI
● For defining matrix data blocks.
[
name
]
[
X
ij
]
● where the elements X _{i}_{j} may be real or complex (real and imaginary part). The matrix is defined by a single header entry and one or more column entries. Only one header is required. A column entry is required for each column with nonzero elements.
● For more information see the MD Nastran Quick Reference Guide.
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ASSEMBLE ELEMENT MATRICES
● Assemble all element conduction and other system matrices
● Derive element conduction matrices
[
k
]
(
e
j
)
[
V (
j )
B
]
(
j
)
T
[
k
]
(
j
)
[
B
]
(
j
)
dV
(
j
)
● Sum the element conduction matrices
[
K
]
j
[
k
]
(
e
j
)
● Create other necessary system matrices, and create the conduction system matrix equation
[K ]{T} {P}
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ASSEMBLE ELEMENT MATRICES (Cont.)
● Summary of the steadystate finite element method
Represent continuous structure as a collection of discrete elements connected by nodes
Derive element conduction matrices from material properties, element properties, and geometry
Assemble all element conduction matrices into a global conduction matrix [K]
Assemble loads into a global load vector {P}
Apply boundary conditions to constrain the model
Solve the matrix equation [K] {T} = {P} for nodal temperature
Compute thermal flux from temperature results
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CREATING 1D ELEMENTS
● 1D elements
● Create by meshing curve or edge
● Create a material property set
● Create an element property set
● Mesh a geometric curve with 1D elements
● Select the curve for Curve to mesh,
CURVE/1
● Specify the element size, 1
● From the Model Browser tree select the element property, PBAR_1
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
CREATING 1D ELEMENTS (Cont.)
● 1D elements (continued)
● Create manually
● 1D elements
● Create manually
● Select the Element Property under PID ● Specify (X1,X2,X3) for the crosssection orientation vector
● Specify the coordinates for the two ends of the 1D element
2
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
1
CREATING 2D ELEMENTS
● 2D elements
● Create by meshing surface or face, method l
● Create a material property set
● Create an element property set
● Mesh a geometric surface with 2D elements
● Screen select the surface for Surface to mesh
● Specify the element size
● Specify Mapped for Mesh method
● From the Model Browser tree select the element property PSHELL_1
CREATING 2D ELEMENTS (Cont.)
● 2D elements (continued)
● Create manually
● 2D elements
● Create manually
● Use the pick panel to define four corner nodes
● The four sets of coordinates are (0,0,0), (1,0,0), (1,1,0), and (0,1,0)
CREATING 3D ELEMENTS
● 3D elements
● Create by meshing solid, method I
● Create a material property set
● Create an element property set
● Mesh a geometric solid with 3D elements
● Select the solid for Solid To mesh
● Specify the element size
● From the Model Browser tree select the element property PSOLID_1
CREATING 3D ELEMENTS (Cont.)
● 3D elements (continued)
● Create manually
● 3D elements
● Create manually
● The eight sets of coordinates are (0,0,0), (1,0,0), (1,1,0), (0,1,0), (0,0,1),…,(0,1,1)
● Use the pick panel to define eight corner nodes
● The image of the CHEXA8 element created is
MATERIAL FOR CONDUCTION
● Thermal conductivity of solid material
● Isotropic
● K
● Temperature independent
● Temperature dependent
● Orthotropic
● Kxx, Kyy, Kzz
● Temperature independent
● Temperature dependent
● Anisotropic
● Kxx, Kxy, Kxz, Kyy, Kyz, Kzz
● Temperature independent
● Temperature dependent
● These material properties are for modeling conduction
● Steadystate
● Transient
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
MATERIAL FOR CONDUCTION (Cont.)
● In addition the following topics are covered for materials
● Required material properties to define a model
● Units
● Method of creation of materials
● Use of fields for material definition
● In the section on transient analysis the following topics are covered, in addition to those for steadystate analysis
● Density
● Specific heat at constant pressure
● Lumped thermal capacitance
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
MATERIAL FOR CONDUCTION (Cont.)
● Isotropic material
● Temperature independent Isotropic material property.
● Access the material property forms using the Materials and Properties tab, then the Material group.
MATERIAL FOR CONDUCTION (Cont.)
● Isotropic material (continued)
● Temperature dependent Isotropic material property
● For the Thermal Conductivity entry box click on the Pick… icon
● Select a temperature dependent table in the Model Browser tree
● Click OK
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
MATERIAL FOR CONDUCTION (Cont.)
● Orthotropic and Anisotropic material
● Temperature independent or dependent.
● Access the material property forms using the Materials and Properties tab, then the Material group.
● Select an Orthotropic or Anisotropic material, similar to that for Isotropic material.
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
MATERIAL FOR CONDUCTION (Cont.)
● Units
● The following table lists the units that correspond to the fields of the Materials – Thermal (High Level Editor), or the fields of the MatIsotropic and RadMat entries (Single Card Image ).
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TEMPERATURE CONSTRAINTS
● Temperature constraints at node points
● Access the temperature constraint form using the LBCs tab, then the
LBC group
● The form Defaults For Temperature BC appears
● Its default setting is for a constant temperature at node points.
TEMPERATURE CONSTRAINTS (Cont.)
● Temperature constraints at node points
● Specify the application region using the Create Temperature pick panel
● Select an entity type to screen pick, e.g. Nodes
● Screen pick the nodes to constrain their temperature
● Click Done, then click Exit
TEMPERATURE CONSTRAINTS (Cont.)
● MPC temperature constraints
k
A T
k
k
0
● Access the constraint form
using the LBCs tab, then the LBC group
● The form Defaults For MPC BC appears
● Change to the form Defaults For MPC BC by using an Entity Type pick
● DOF0 is for the DOF of the dependent node
● WT0 is for the weighting factor for DOF0
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TEMPERATURE CONSTRAINTS (Cont.)
● MPC temperature constraints
● DOFi is for the DOF of the ith independent node
● WTi is for the weighting factor for DOFi
● Click Store, then click Exit
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
TEMPERATURE CONSTRAINTS (Cont.)
● MPC temperature constraints
● Specify the application region using the Create MPC pick panel
● Select an entity type to screen pick, e.g. Nodes
● Screen pick the nodes
● First node picked is dependent node (example, Node 25) ● Subsequent nodes picked are independent nodes (example, Node 50, 49, 24)
INITIALIZATION TEMPERATURE
● Temperature initialization
● To perform nonlinear steadystate or transient analysis it is necessary to specify initialization temperatures.
● Steadystate, must specify starting temperature (as opposed to “initial temperature” that is needed for transient analysis) at all the nodes. ● Transient, must specify the initial temperature at all the nodes.
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
INITIALIZATION TEMPERATURE (Cont.)
● Temperature initialization
● Access the initialization temperature form using
the LBCs tab, then the LBC group.
● The form Defaults For TEMP_INIT BC appears.
● Enter the value for the initial temperature.
● Click Store, then click Exit.
INITIALIZATION TEMPERATURE (Cont.)
● Temperature initialization
● Specify the application region using the Create TEMP_INIT pick panel.
● Select an entity type to screen pick, e.g. Nodes.
● Screen pick the nodes to specify their initialization temperature.
● Click Done, then click Exit.
INITIALIZATION TEMPERATURE (Cont.)
● Temperature initialization
● For the nodes not included in the specified application regions, their temperatures are specified using Analysis: Solver Control / General Parameters / Properties / General Solution Parameters / Default Init Temperature
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Create Material property
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Create Property
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Create surface
● Create two curves
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Create surface
● Create two curves
● Create a surface using the curves
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Create surface
● Create a surface using the curves
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Mesh the surface
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Apply temperature constraints
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Apply temperature constraints
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Create an LBC Set
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Create SimXpert analysis file
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Create SimXpert analysis file
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Create SimXpert analysis file
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Run MD Nastran Thermal ● Display thermal results
● Attach .xdb file
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONDUCTION THRU PLATE
● Display thermal results
● Display thermal fringe
LOADING
● Loads that can be applied to conduction elements
● Heat flux to a surface
● Normal flux (Nastran QHBDY or QBDYi)
● Heat Flux (power/area)
● Time scaling function
● Application region
● Heat into a node
● Nodal heat
● Heat generation in conduction elements
● Volumetric heat (Nastran QVOL)
● Power input per unit volume
● Power produced by heat conduction elements
● Time scaling function
● Application region
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
LOADING (Cont.)
● Heat flux to a surface
● Normal Flux
● Access the normal flux form using the LBCs tab, then the LBC group.
● The form Defaults For Normal Flux appears.
● Enter the value for the heat flux (power/area).
LOADING (Cont.)
● Heat flux to a surface
● Normal Flux
● Specify the application region using the Create Normal Flux pick panel
● Select an entity type to screen pick, e.g. Nodes
● Screen pick the nodes to apply the heat flux to
● Click Done, then click Exit
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
LOADING (Cont.)
● Heat generation
● Volumetric Heat
● Access the volumetric heat form using the LBCs tab, then the LBC
group.
● The form Defaults For Volumetric Heat BC appears.
● Enter the value for the power input per unit volume (power/volume)
LOADING (Cont.)
● Heat generation
● Volumetric Heat
● Specify the application region using the Create Volumetric Heat pick panel
● Select an entity type to screen pick, e.g. Elements
● Screen pick the elements to apply the internal heat generation to
● Click Done, then click Exit
NOTE ON GEOMETRIC SURFACE ELEMENTS
● Heat flux or boundary condition surface elements
● To apply heat flux, convection, or radiation to a conducting surface (2D element, e.g. CQUAD4) or face (3D element, e.g. CHEXA) it is necessary to apply them to a geometric surface, which in turn is connected to conducting elements. The geometric surface elements are named CHBDYE, CHBDYG, or CHBDYP, or simply CHBDYi. This is shown conceptually.
● The user does not explicitly create the CHBDYi elements. They are created automatically by (from within) SimXpert as a result of creating the loads and boundary conditions.
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
LOADING (Cont.)
● The heat flow through the isoparametric elements is in the parametric directions of the elements.
● 1D element
● Heat flow is only along the centerline of the element, not normal to the centerline of the element
● 2D element
● Heat flow is only in the plane of the element, not normal to the plane of the element
● 3D element
● Heat flow is in all three directions of the element
● Axisymmetric element
● Heat flow is only in the radial or centerline direction of the element, not in the circumferential direction
● So, do not use an isoparametric element that does not have a parametric coordinate in a direction that heat flow must be modeled
● The performance of linear finite elements, e.g. CQUAD4 element, is as good as that of parabolic finite elements, e.g. CQUAD8 element, for 2D or 3D.
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
LBC Set
● Create an LBC set that combines the needed LBCs
● Access the loads and boundary condition set form using the
LBCs tab, then the LBC Set group.
● The form LBC Set appears.
● Select the two loads and boundary conditions
● Click OK
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP
● The Analysis forms in the Model tree browser are used to specify the parameters for an analysis
● Model: Analysis
● Model: Analysis / Nastran Jobs
● Nastran Jobs : Create New Job
● Job Properties form
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● General Parameters, etc.
● General Parameters: Properties
● General Solution Parameters form
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model ● Radiation Parameters: Properties
● Radiation Parameters form
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model ● Cases: Add Common Case
● Common Case, Case Control
● Specify titles to be above all subcases
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model ● Common Case, Add Output Requests
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model ● Cases: Add Subcase
● Select the desired LBC Set
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model ● Subcase Parameters: Properties
● NINC = number of equal subdivisions of the load change defined for the subcase for NewtonRaphson methods.
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● Matrix Update Method
● Automatic => the program automatically selects the most efficient strategy based on convergence rates. At each step the number of iterations required for convergence is estimated. The conduction matrix is updated if 1) the estimated number of iterations to converge exceeds MAXITER, 2) the estimated time required for convergence with the current conduction matrix exceeds the estimated time required for convergence with updated conduction, and 3) the solution diverges.
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● Matrix Update Method
● SemiAutomatic => the program for each load increment 1) performs a single iteration based on the new load, 2) updates the conduction matrix, and 3) follows the normal Automatic approach.
● Controlled Iters => the program updates the conduction matrix at every KSTEPth iteration and on convergence if KSTEP <= MAXITER. However, if KSTEP > MAXITER the conduction matrix is never updated.
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● Matrix Update Method
● Controlled Iters => note that the NewtonRaphson iteration strategy is used by selecting this approach (Controlled Iters) and KSTEP = 1, while the Modified NewtonRaphson iteration strategy is used by selecting this approach (Controlled Iters) and KSTEP = MAXITER.
● KSTEP => for Automatic and SemiAutomatic methods the conduction matrix is updated at convergence if KSTEP is < the number of iterations that were required for convergence with the current conduction.
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model
● MAXITER => the number of iterations for a load increment is limited to MAXITER. If the solution process does not converge in MAXITER iterations the load increment is bisected and the analysis is repeated.
● Temperature Error, Yes or No
● EPSU = error tolerance for temperature criterion
● Load Error, Yes or No
● EPSP = error tolerance for load criterion
● Work Error, Yes or No
● EPSW = error tolerance for work criterion
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model ● Output File: Properties
● Output File Properties form
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model ● Submit an analysis file to the solver ● ss_sample_problem: Run
● File name
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
ANALYSIS SETUP (Cont.)
● The Analysis forms in the Model ● Choices for SOL type for steady state analysis.
● SOL153
● SOL600, 153
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
DISPLAY RESULTS
● Display thermal analysis results
● Attach an .XDB result file
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
DISPLAY RESULTS (Cont.)
● Display thermal analysis results
● Access the results form using the Results tab, then the Results group.
● Select the following
● Fringe
● Result Cases  SC1: Nonlinear: 100 % of L
● Result Type  Temperatures
● Click Update Plot
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
DISPLAY RESULTS (Cont.)
● Display thermal analysis results
● Display the temperature results as a fringe plot
SMX124, Section 2,
EXERCISE
Perform Workshop 1 “PCB With Heat Flux and Constant Temperature at Boundary” in your exercise workbook.
SMX124, Section 2, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SECTION 3 CONVECTION
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
HEAT TRANSFER VIA CONVECTION
● The transfer of energy (heat) between a solid boundary and a fluid takes place by a combination of conduction and mass transport
● The fluid motion can be induced by two different processes.
● The fluid may be moved as a result of density differences due to a temperature variation within the fluid. This type of heat transfer is called free (or natural) convection.
● The fluid motion may be caused by an external source, such as a pump or blower. This type of heat transfer is called forced convection.
● A simple representation of convection heat transfer is given by
q surface to fluid
h A T
c
(
s
T
0
● where
.
● q _{s}_{u}_{r}_{f}_{a}_{c}_{e} _{t}_{o} _{f}_{l}_{u}_{i}_{d} = rate of heat transfer by convection
)
● h _{c} = convective heat transfer coefficient, or average unit thermal convective conductance
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
HEAT TRANSFER VIA CONVECTION (Cont.)
● where
● A = heat transfer area ●T _{s} = surface temperature ●T _{0} = fluid temperature
● The convective heat transfer coefficient is actually a complicated function
● Fluid flow
● Thermal properties of the fluid medium
● Geometry of the thermal system
● Its numerical value is in general not uniform over a surface
● Depends on the location where the fluid temperature T _{0} is specified
● Convective heat transfer is modeled with SimXpert using empirically derived functions
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
HEAT TRANSFER VIA CONVECTION (Cont.)
● Free convection
Nu
h L
c
k
f
q
surface to fluid
h
c ^{}
k
f
A
L
(
Nu
k
f
L
T
s
T
0
)
Nu f (Gr) g(Pr)
● where
● Nu = Nusselt number (ratio of the temperature gradient in the fluid at the surface to a reference temperature gradient) ● Gr = Grashof number (ratio of buoyant to viscous forces) ● Pr = Prandtl number
● The Reynolds number (Re) is not needed for free convection
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
HEAT TRANSFER VIA CONVECTION (Cont.)
● Forced convection
Nu
h L
c
k
f
q
surface to fluid
h
c ^{}
k
f
A
L
(
Nu
k
f
L
T
s
T
0
)
Nu f (Re) g(Pr)
● where
● Nu = Nusselt number (ratio of the temperature gradient in the fluid at the surface to a reference temperature gradient) ● Re = Reynolds number (ratio of inertia to viscous forces) ● Pr = Prandtl number
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
FREE CONVECTION
● Free convection
● Access the free convection form using the LBCs tab, then the LBC group.
● The Defaults For Free Convection form appears
● Enter the value for the ambient temperature.
FREE CONVECTION (Cont.)
● Free convection
● Convection coefficient – constant coefficient
● ConvCoeff vs Time scaling function (for transient analysis click in checkbox, and specify a time function using a table)
● Formula type – type of formula for free convection (more on subsequent page)
● Reference temp location – location used to calculate the convection film coefficient (more on subsequent page)
● Conv coeff exponent – free convection exponent
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
FREE CONVECTION (Cont.)
● Free convection
● ConvCoeff vs Temperature scaling function – free convection heat transfer coefficient as a function of temperature
● Click Store, then click Exit
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
FREE CONVECTION (Cont.)
● Free convection
● Formula type – choices for type of formula for free convection:
qH T
CNTRLND
qH T
CNTRLND
T T
(
AMB
(
T
EXPF
T
EXPF
AMB
)
● The reference temperature is the average of element node point temperatures (average) and the ambient point temperatures (average)
● The reference temperature is the surface temperature (average of element node point temperatures)
● The reference temperature is the ambient temperature (average of ambient point temperatures)
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
FREE CONVECTION (Cont.)
● Free convection
● Specify the application region using the Create Free Convection pick panel ● Select an entity type to screen pick, e.g. Nodes ● Screen pick the nodes to apply the free convection to ● Click Done, then click Exit
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009
CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE
● Create Material property
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE
● Create Property
SMX124, Section 3, January 2009 Copyright 2009 MSC.Software Corporation
CASE STUDY: CONVECTION OFF PLATE
● Create surface
● Create two curves
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