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Work Breakdown Structure -to sub-divide the scope of work into manageable work packages which cn be estimated, planned

and assigned to a responsible person or department for completion. The WBS was originally developed in the 1 !"#s as part of the drive towards improved pro$ect definition and it soon became the backbone of the planning and control system. The WBS is an e%cellent tool for &uantifying the scope of work as a list of work packages and is an essential tool for ensuring the estimate or &uotation includes the complete scope of work. The WBS can also be considered as a hierarchical form of mind map which helps to break comple%ity down into simple manageable components. Turner defines the WBS as '(a cascade of deliverables, in which the overall product or ob$ective is broken into sub-products, assemblages and components.) The main components of the WBS are* Structure +ethods of sub-division ,umbering or coding system -evel of detail ,umber of WBS levels .oll-up /ntegrating the WBS01BS to assign responsibility 1. The WBS Structure There are two methods presenting the WBS* 2raphically in bo%es Te%t /ndents The WBS is a hierarchical structure which is best presented by a graphical sub-division of the scope of work in boxes. This logical sub-division of all the work elements is easy to understand and assimilate, thus helping the pro$ect participants to &uantify their responsibility and gain their commitment and support. 3see 4igure 15 3show also WBS 6ori7ontal 8resentation5 9lthough bo%es are an e%cellent means of presentation it is a cumbersome document to develop and edit on the computer. Bo%es lend themselves more to graphic software than planning software and the printout for a large pro$ect would look best from a large flat bed printer rather than sticking 9: or 9; sheets together. The other method of presentation shows the scope of work as te%t indents, where each level is tabbed to represent its level in the hierarchy. /f you are using planning software you will have to setup this structure anyway as you input the pro$ect data. <. +ethods of Sub-=ivision

=esigning the WBS re&uires a delicate balance to address the different needs of the various discipline and pro$ect locations. This is not necessarily a right or wrong structure because what may be an e%cellent fit for one discipline may be awkward burden for another. 9s you will see there are many methods of sub-dividing the scope of work, your imagination is the only limiting factor. The best method is the one than works for you and you may use more than one method as the pro$ect progresses. >%cept for the pro$ect life-cycle all the other breakdown structures 3in the te%t5 are simply a sub-division of the scope of work, there are no logical relationships between the work packages ? that will come later in the @8+. Product Breakdown Structure (PBS): This represents a hierarchical view of the physical assemblies, components and parts needed to manufacture the product. @onsider the subdivision of an aeroplane 3see 4igure ;5 Organi ation Breakdown Structure (OBS): This represents a hierarchy of the company managing the pro$ect. By linking the 1BS with the WBS or 8BS this will identify who is responsible for performing the work packages 3see 4igure 1A shown later in this chapter5. The 1BS could contain any of the following sub-divisions 3see 4igure :5. =epartment or discipline @ontractor or supplier 8ro$ect Team or person

!ost Breakdown Structure (!BS): This represents the financial breakdown of pro$ect into budgets per work package 3see 4igure B5. !ontract Breakdown Structure also (!BS): This represents the relationships between the client with the contractor. 9t the lowest level this could link the purchase orders with the account invoices 3see 4igure !5 "ocation Breakdown Structure: This represents the physical location of the works and would be appropriate for a pro$ect which has pockets of work dotted all over the place. @onsider a power line pro$ect where there may be a number of similar substations. 3See 4igure C5 #ransport Breakdown Structure: 8ro$ects which are characteri7ed by large loads may find that transport and cranage limitations determine their breakdown structure 3see 4igure A5. S$ste% Breakdown Structure: This represents a systems breakdown which may cut across other breakdown structures, but would be useful when commissioning the product. @onsider the following house building pro$ect 3see 4igure 5. Pro&ect "ife-!$cle Structure* This represents a logical sub-division of the se&uence of work into pro$ect phases 3see 4igure 1"5. This is discussed in the 8ro$ect -ife @ycle chapter.

>ach element in the WBS needs to be identified by a short description. 9lthough the length of the description may be restricted by the si7e of the bo%, the meaning should be clear. 9s these e%amples have shown there are many ways of sub-dividing a pro$ect, with some methods being more appropriate than others. The best results are generally gained by using an iterative and heuristic approach which considers a range of sub-divisions until an appropriate structure is derived. ;. WBS Templates 9lthough location and discipline are popular criteria for sub-division, managers sometimes find difficulty thinking of methods to sub-divide their pro$ects. /n practice companies that use the WBS, wet up a standard WBS proforma or template for their pro$ects. /nstead of starting each pro$ect with a blank sheet of paper, consider using a WBS for a previous pro$ect as a template. 9 standard WBS ensures consistency and completeness as it becomes a planning checklist with all the components that your particular type of pro$ect would contain. 6aving a structured check list also reduces the risk of omitting the obvious. >ven if the complete WBS cannot be used, there may be portions which are similar and can be copied across. Dsing proven structures will greatly speed up the planning process and helps to structure your thinking. 4igure : below outlines a WBS where the first level is sub-divided by location, the second level by discipline and the third level by e%pense. This format could be used as a standard WBS for the company. The only changes per pro$ect would be the description rather than the structure. :. 6ow +any WBS -evelsE With each level of the WBS the scope of work is sub-divided into more work packages with a corresponding increase in the level of detail. 4or practical purposes three or four levels should be sufficient to achieve the desired level of planning and control ? any more than that and like a 8yramid the base of the WBS would start to become unwieldy. The number of levels is influenced by* -evel of detail -evel of risk -evel of control >stimate accuracy Work package value Work package manhours /f more than three or four levels are re&uired this can be addresses by using subpro$ects, where the lowest level of work package of one pro$ect constitutes the highest level of another pro$ect. This situation is common on pro$ect where a main contractor uses many subcontractors. /n this way, the WBS can effectively increase the number of breakdown levels, with each pro$ect manager focusing on their own scope of work and responsibility. Pro&ect !ontrol: the appropriate level of control relates to the comple%ity and risks embedded in the pro$ect. 8ro$ect control is the ability to steer the pro$ect to a successful completion. The

earned value techni&ue may suggest an appropriate F value, duration or workhours for the work packages 3see 4igure 1<5.

'isk and (ncertaint$* the WBS structure should reflect the level of risk and uncertainty. Where the level of risk is high the WBS should be sub-divided further to generate more information and thus reduce the risk. @onsider the figure 1;, where selected areas of high risk have been subdivided to lower level. B. >stimating /f your company wins contracts by competitive bidding it is important to have a system for generating accurate &uotations &uickly. The WBS offers a top down sub-division of the work, while estimating at the work package level, offers a bottom up roll-up of pro$ect costs. The WBS reduces the possibility of overlaps and underlaps. 1verlaps of work causes conflict, while underlaps can be e%pensive ? forgetting an item will increase progressively as the work package#s level of detail increases. 9s a rough guide the level of accuracy should be at least the same as, or better than, the pro$ect#s profit margin. !. The ,umbering System 1ne of the beneficial features of the WBS is its ability to uni&uely identify by a number or code all the elements of work in a numerical and logical manner. With a uni&ue number, all the work packages can be linked to the pro$ect#s accounts, the corporate accounts and the client#s accounts. The number system can be alphabetic, numeric, or alphanumeric 3letters and number5. /n most of the e%amples here the numbering systems will be numeric. @onsider the following e%ample. 8ro$ect ,umber* +ost pro$ects are given a pro$ect number and a description to distinguish them from all the other pro$ects the company may be working on. The pro$ect number may come from a number of sources* >stimate number Guotation number @ontract ,umber /nvoice ,umber 8urchase ,umber @lient#s 1rder ,umber

+any pro$ects also have a name 3marine pro$ects would use the shuip#s name5, or a humorous nickname to help association. With increased computer graphics a pro$ect icon is also a consideration. C. WBS .oll-up

The roll-up facility is normally used to roll-up pro$ect costs for budget planning and control purposes. By suitably structuring the WBS, budgets can be established per department, per location or per sub-co"ntractor. 3see 4igure 1!5. The WBS roll-up techni&ue lends itself to anything that flows in the pro$ect, i.e. manhours, cubic meters of concrete thrown, tones of steel erected, bricks laid, drawings completed, s&uare meters of paint etc. 9ny of these could be planned, tracked and controlled using the WBS. @onsider a =rawing 1ffice pro$ect where it would be more appropriate to plan and track manhours rather than costs. This is because the chief draughtsman can estimate the time re&uired to complete a drawing from e%perience, but may not have the data necessary to estimate the costs involved 3see 4igure 1C5. A. .esponsibility 9ssigning responsibility for performing pro$ect work is one of the key pro$ect management functions. This can be achieved through the interface between the WBS and the organi7ation breakdown structure 31BS5. The WBS01BS links clearly indicates the work packages and the person responsible for carrying out the work, however it is rather cumbersome presentation as the level of detail increases. 4or this reason it is best suited to high level links 3see 4igure 1A5. The WBS01BS links can also be shown on the schedule bar chart, by either using a responsibility filed 3also called a responsibility matri%5 or printing the person#s name after the activity. . 4oreign @urrency Some pro$ects are characteri7es by international procurement from a number of countries. 9s these e%change rates are prone to fluctuate, then your risk management analysis will need to determine the e%tent of your e%posure to foreign currency. This can be achieved by structuring the WBS to roll-up a number foreign currency and report the total re&uirement for each 3see 4igure 1 5. The WBS does not indicate when the foreign currency is re&uired, for this you will have to develop the cash-flow statement through the critical path method 3@8+5 which is the topic of the following chapter.

@ase Study* ,icolette -arson, a self-confessed 'soccer mom) had been elected tournament director by the +anchester Dnited Tournament 1rgani7ing @ommittee and was responsible for organi7ing the club#s first summer tournament. +anchester Dnited Soccer @lub 3+DS@5 was formed as a way of bringing recreational players to a higher level of competition and preparing them for the State =evelopment 8rogram and0or high school teams. The club currently has <: boys and girls 3ranging in age from under to 1!5 on teams affiliated with the 6ampshire Soccer 9ssociation and the 2ranite State 2irls Soccer -eague. The club#s board of directors decided in the fall to sponsor a summer invitational soccer tournament to generate revenue as these tournaments have been reported to generate between FB",""" and FC",""" for the host club. +DS@ needs additional revenue to refurbish and e%pand the number of soccer fields at the .ock .immon soccer comple%. 4unds would also be used to augment the club#s scholarship program, which provides financial aid to players who cannot afford the F:B" annual club dues. ,icolette gave a blow-by-blow account of what transpired during the first tournament committee meeting that night. She had suggested that the committee brainstorm what needed to be done to pull off the eventH she would record their ideas on a flipchart. What emerged was a free-for-all of ideas and suggestions. 1ne member immediately stressed the importance of having &ualified referees and spent several minutes describing in detail how his son#s team was robbed in a poorly officiated championship game. This was followed by other stories of in$ustice on the soccer field. 9nother member suggested that they needed to &uickly contact the local colleges to see if they could use their fields. The committee spent more than ;" minutes talking about how they should screen teams and how much they should charge as an entry fee. 9n argument broke out whether they should reward the winning teams in each age bracket with medals or trophies. +any members felt that medals were too cheap, while others thought the trophies would be too e%pensive. Someone suggested that they seek local corporate sponsors to help fund the tournament. The proposed sale of tournament T-shirts and sweatshirts was followed by a general criti&ue of the different shirts parents had ac&uired at different tournaments. 1ne member advocated that they recruit an artist he knew to develop a uni&ue silkscreen design for the tournament. The meeting was ad$ourned ;" minutes late with only half of the members remaining until the end. ,icolette drove home with seven sheets of ideas and a headache. 9s her husband poured a glass of water for the two aspirin ,icolette was about to take, he tried to comfort her by saying that organi7ing this tournament would be a big pro$ect not unlike the pro$ects he works on at his engineering and design firm. 6e offered to sit down with her the ne%t night to help her plan the pro$ect. 6e suggested that the first thing they needed to do was to develop a WBS for the pro$ect. 1. +ake a list of the ma$or deliverables for the pro$ect and use them to develop a draft of the work breakdown structure for the tournament that contains at least three levels

of detail. What are the ma$or deliverables associated with hosting an event such as a soccer tournamentE <. 6ow would developing a WBS alleviate some of the problems that occurred during the first meeting and help ,icolette organi7e and plan the pro$ect. ;. Where can ,icolette find additional information to help her develop a WBS for the tournamentE :. 6ow could ,icolette and her task force use the WBS to generate cost estimates for the tournamentE Why would this be useful informationE =eliverables* Gualified .eferees @ontact local colleges to see if they could use their fields Screening of teams >ntry fee +edals I Trophies -ocal corporate sponsorship Sale of Tournament T-shirts I Sweatshirts .ecruitment of an artist to develop a uni&ue silk-screen design

1. +anchester Dnited Soccer Tournament 1.1 -ogistics 1.1.1 Jenue .eservations 1.1.1.1 @ollege Soccer 4ield 1.1.1.< 8ermits 1.1.< 8hysical 9rrangements 1.1.<.1 >rgonomics 1.1.<.< 1ver-all cleanliness of the venue 1.1.; .efreshments 1.1.;.1 4or the Staff 1.1.;.< 4or the 1fficiating Team 1.1.;.; 4or the 8articipants 1.1.: 4ield >&uipment

1.1.B .ecruitment 1.1.B.1 1rgani7ing Staff 1.1.B.< 1fficiating Team 1.1.B.; 9n 9rtist 1.1.! 8urchasing

1.< +arketing 1.<.1 -ocal Sponsorships 1.<.1.1 -ocal 2overnment Dnits 1.<.1.< ,on-government 1rgani7ations 1.<.1.; @orporations 1.<.1.: 4riends I .elatives 1.<.< 8romotion0 9dvertising 1.<.<.1 ,ewspaper 1.<.<.< Billboard 1.<.<.; TJ I .adio 1.<.; .epresentations 1.<.;.1 /nvitations 1.<.;.< +eetings 1.<.: +edia

1.; Sales 1.;.1 Ticket sales 1.;.< T-shirts I Sweatshirts 1.;.; Souvenirs I other merchandise 1.: 1fficiating @ommittee 1.:.1 Gualified .eferee 1.:.< -inesmen, 4ourth 1fficial, etc. 1.:.; Scorers0 Tabulators 1.:.: Screening of 8articipating Teams 1.B 9wards @ommittee 1.B.1 +edals I Trophies 1.B.< @ertificates0 Tokens 1.! 9ccounting 1.!.1 4inancing matters 1.!.< @ash =isbursements 1.!.<.1 8urchases 1.!.<.< 1ther 1perating @osts 1.!.; Billing I @ollection 1.!.;.1 >ntry 4ees 1.!.;.< Sales 1.C 9dministrative 1.C.1 1ver-all Supervision 1.C.< .egistration @ommittee 1.C.; =ocumentation 1.C.: Security, Safety I 6ealth 1.C.:.1 Security 2uards 1.C.:.< ,urse0 6ealth 8ersonnel

1.C.B 1.C.!

Dshers Staff0 1ffice Works