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- Syllabus
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- 02 Panini and Pingala
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- Linguistic

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M.D.SRINIVAS

CENTRE FOR POLICY STUDIES

mdsrinivas50@gmail.com

DEVELOPMENT OF VYKARAA OR ABDASTRA

Pre-Pinian: Yskas Nirukta, Prtikhya Texts

piali, Indra, Kaktsna, kayana, Vydi, etc

Pini (c. 500 BCE): Adhyy Strapha, Dhtupha, Gaapha

Ktyyana: Vrttika, Pli-vykaraa

Patajali (c. 100 BCE): Mahbhya

arvavarman: Ktantra-vykaraa

Candragomin (c.450 CE): Cndra-vykaraa

Devanandin (c.450): Jainendra-vykaraa

Bharthari (c. 450): Vkyapadya, Mahbhya-dpik

Jayditya, Vmana (c. 600): Kikvtti

Jinendrabuddhi (c.900): Kikvivaraa-pajik or Nysa

Kaiyaa (c. 900): Mahbhya-pradpa

Haradatta (c. 1000): Padamajar

Dharmakrti (c.1000): Rpvatra

Hemacandra (c. 1100): Siddhahaimacandra, etc

Vopadeva (c.1250): Mudgdhabodha

DEVELOPMENT OF VYKARAA OR ABDASTRA

Rmacandra (c.1350): Prakriykaumud

Nryaa Bhatiri (c.1600): Prakriysarvasva

Bhaoji Dkita (c.1625): Siddhntakaumud, Prauhamanoram,

abdakaustubha

Kauabhaa (c.1650): Vaiykaraabhaa

Varadarja (c.1650): Laghu-siddhntakaumud, Sra-siddhntakaumud

Ngeabhaa (c.1700): Mahbhya-pradipodyota, Bhacchabdendu-

ekhara,Vaiykaraa-siddhntamaj, Paribhenduekhara

Grammars of Other Languages

Tamil: Tolkppiyam (c.200 BCE), Vrasolyam (c.1200), Nannl (c.1300)

Kannada: Karnaka-bhbhaa (c.1100), abdamaidarpaa

(c.1200), Karnaka-abdnusana (c.1600)

Telugu: ndhra-abdacintmai (c.1100), ndhrabhbhaa (c.1250),

Triliga-abdnusana (c.1300)

Pali: Kaccyana-vykaraa, Saddalakkhaa (c. 1150)

Prkta: Prkta-praka, Prkta-abdnusana (c.1200)

Persian: Praspraka (c.1575)

STRAS: PRESENT SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURES

Most of the canonical texts on different disciplines (stras) in Indian

tradition do not present a series of propositions; instead they present a

series of rules, which serve to characterize and carry out systematic

procedures to accomplish various ends.

These systematic procedures are generally referred to as vidhi, kriy or

prakriy, sdhana, karma or parikarma, karaa, upya etc in different

disciplines.

The rules are often formulated in the form of stras: According to

Vinudharmottarapura (3.5.1): A stra has to be concise, unambiguous,

pithy, comprehensive, shorn of irrelevancies and blemish-less.

~ U(

Pinis Adhyy is acknowledged to be the paradigmatic example of a

canonical text in Indian tradition. All other disciplines, especially

mathematics, have been deeply influenced by its ingenious symbolic and

technical devices, recursive and generative formalism and the system of

conventions governing rule application and rule interaction.

PINI AND EUCLID

In Euclids geometry, propositions are derived from axioms with the help

of logical rules which are accepted as true. In Pinis grammar, linguistic

forms are derived from grammatical elements with the help of rules which

were framed ad hoc (i.e. stras)....

Historically speaking, Pinis method has occupied a place comparable to

that held by Euclids method in western thought. Scientific developments

have therefore taken different directions in India and in the West.... In

India, Pinis perfection and ingenuity have rarely been matched outside

the realm of linguistics. Just as Plato reserved admission to his Academy

for geometricians, Indian scholars and philosophers are expected to have

first undergone a training in scientific linguistics....

[J.F.Staal, Euclid and Pini, Philosophy East and West, 15, 1965, 99-116]

Note: The word derived means demonstrated in the case of Euclidean

Geometry; it means generated in the case of Pinis Grammar (upapatti

and nipatti)

ABDNUSANA: PINIS ADHYY

u u ~ j +

u [ uU~]

u u ~ ~

Jg ~

u u " ~

u u

[ ]

Now, the instruction of utterances

Instruction, namely generation (of utterances) by using prakti, pratyaya

and other components, this is done by grammar, and that it is its direct

purpose.

Valid utterances cannot be taught by pratipada-ptha (stating each of them

individually). Bhaspati tried to teach Indra valid utterances by pratipada-

pha for thousand divine years, but reached nowhere near the end.

ABDNUSANA: PINIS ADHYY

u~ ( u

uU

> ~>

~ ~ U

( ) U ( )

[ ]

How are these utterances to be known?

Some characterisation with what is general and particular is to be

provided, by which, with little effort, great amount of utterances are

known.

What is that characterisation? Utsarga (general) and Apavda

(special/exceptional) rules...

INDOLOGISTS ON PINIS ADHYY

Of particular interest is the stress laid on the small number of primitive

elements, themselves not used (i.e., themselves abstract) from which the

Sanskrit grammarians are said to derive the infinite variety of actual

forms in use.

[J.F.Staal on Francois Pons letter of 1740 (published 1743) in, A Reader on the

Sanskrit Grammarians, MIT Press, 1972, p.30]

The Descriptive Grammar of Sanskrit, which Pini brought to its

perfection, is one of the greatest monuments of human intelligence and an

indispensible model for the description of languages.

[L. Bloomfield, Review of Liebich, Konkordanz das Pini-Candra, Language, 5, 267-276,

1929]

INDOLOGISTS ON PINIS ADHYY

The idea that a language is based on a system of rules determining the

interpretation of its infinitely many sentences is by no means novel. Well

over a century ago, it was expressed with reasonable clarity by Wilhelm

von Humboldt in his famous but rarely studied introduction to general

linguistics (Humboldt 1836). His view that a language makes infinite use

of finite means and that a grammar must describe the process that makes

this possible.. Pinis grammar can be interpreted as a fragment of such a

generative grammar in essentially the contemporary sense of this term.

[N. Chomsky, Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, MIT Press, 1964, p.v]

Modern linguistics acknowledges it as the most complete generative

grammar of any language yet written and continues to adopt technical

ideas from it .

[P.Kiparsky, Pinian Linguistics, in Encyclopaedia of Language and Linguistics, VI, 1994]

INDOLOGISTS ON PINIS ADHYY

The algebraic formulation of Pinis rules was not appreciated by the

first Western students; they regarded the work as abstruse or artificial. ...

The Western critique was muted and eventually turned into praise when

modern schools of linguistics developed sophisticated notation systems of

their own. Grammars that derive words and sentences from basic elements

by a string of rules are obviously in greater need of symbolic code than

paradigmatic or direct method practical grammars....

It is a sad observation that we did not learn more from Pini than we did,

that we recognised the value and the spirit of his "artificial" and "abstruse"

formulations only when we had independently constructed comparable

systems. The Indian New Logic (navya-nyya) had the same fate: only

after Western mathematicians had developed a formal logic of their own

and after this knowledge had reached a few Indologists, did the attitude

towards the navya-nyya school change from ridicule to respect.

H. Scharfe, Grammatical Literature, Wiesbaden 1977, p.112, 115.

INDOLOGISTS ON PINIS ADHYY

Pini has composed a list of formulae called stra...serving to form

words and sentences from a given material of minimal elements...It

comprises both lists of primary elements, and a program for the

combination of these elements. These elements are the phonemes, the

roots, group of words sharing a grammatical feature, morphemes

(suffixes) having a meaning ...

The program is made up of operating rules as well as conventions

necessary for the application of the rules. It is composed in a true meta-

language very apt to its purpose, achieving the maximum brevity, which

makes it easy to memorize, and is the first and foremost example of the

formalization of the technical exposition in the universal history of

sciences. Because of its practical objective and form, it cannot be

compared with a systematic grammar of a European type. By contrast, its

resemblance to a modern computer program is striking.

[P S Filliozat: The Sanskrit Language: An Overview, Indica Books, Varanasi 2000

(French Edition 1992), p. 24]

INDOLOGISTS ON PINIS ADHYY

Pini's grammar is universally admired for its insightful analysis of

Sanskrit...Generative linguists for their part have marvelled especially at

its ingenious technical devices, and at intricate system of conventions

governing rule application and rule interaction that it presupposes, which

seem to uncannily anticipate ideas of modern linguistic theory (if only

because many of them were originally borrowed from Pini in the first

place.)...

The grammar has four distinct components:

1. Adhyy: a system of about 4,000 grammatical rules

2. ivastras: the inventory of phonological segments...

3. Dhtupha: a list of about 2,000 verbal roots...

4. Gaapha: a list of 261 lists of lexical items ...

The grammar is a device that starts from meaning information... and

incrementally builds up a completely interpreted sentence.

[P.Kiparsky, On the Architecture of Pini's Grammar, 2002]

IVA-STRAS AND PRATYHRAS

Each stra has a set of varas followed by a marker (, K, , C, etc)

called the called the it vara [ ]

Pratyhras are formed by any of the varas and an it which follows it.

The pratyhra then stands for the class of varas enclosed by them except

for the intervening it-varas.

aK stands for {a, i, u, , }. iK stands for { i, u, , }

aC stands for all the vowels. haL stands for all the consonants

In this way about 300 pratyhras are possible; Pini uses 42 of them.

Recent studies show that the iva-stras give an optimal encoding for

these 42 partially ordered subsets of Sanskrit sounds.

METHOD OF ADHYY

Pinis Stras are mainly of the following types:

Vidhi-stra: Operational rules

Saj-stra: Rules which introduce class names and establish

conventions regarding the use of terms

Adhikra-stra: Headings

Paribh-stra: Metarules, which serve to interpret and regulate other

rules. They regulate the operations specified in the vidhi-stras:

ahsthneyog (1.1.49): Genitive designates in place of

Tasminnitinirdie prvasya (1.1.66): Locative defines the right

context

Yathsakhyamanudea samnm (1.3.10): For groups with the

same number of elements, the corresponding elements are to be

related in order.

Prvatrsiddham (8.2.1): (From now on every rule is regarded as)

not having taken effect with reference to preceding ones.

CONTEXT SENSITIVE RULES OF ADHYY

Example: Ikoyaaci (6.1.77)

CONTEXT SENSITIVE RULES OF ADHYY

ikoyaaci (6.1.77)

iK stands for {i, u, , },

ya stands for {y, v, r, l}

aC stands for all the vowels.

From 6.1.72, sahitym is carried forward. Thus the stra provides that:

i, u, , y, v, r, l before a vowel, in close contact

This gives

i + a y + a, u+ a v + a, and so on.

Aka savare drgha (6.1.101) is an apavda- stra to the above, and

gives:

i + i = , u+ u = , and so on.

PINI AND ZERO

Panini introduces the notion of zero-replacement (zero-phoneme, zero-

morpheme etc)

Adarana lopa (1.1.60) Non-appearance is zero.

There are about fifty stras where lopa appears explicitly and more than

hundred if we take into account anuvtti.

There are several other kinds of zeroes in Panini.

For instance, there are the it varas in pratyhras. [Tasya lopah (1.3.39)]

There are also luk, lu and lup which correspond to non-appearance of a

pratyaya or suffix.

" ~

: ( .)

Worldly activities are accomplished on the basis of different theories and

philosophies. What is important in one theory may not be so in another.

u

( S

( : (uU ( .-)

Upyas (procedures taught in stras) are to be discarded, even though

they are to be used for accomplishing an objective. There is no necessary

limitation on such means. One accomplishes objectives by one means or

the other.

As noted by the commentator Puyarja:

> ~ >

:

DEVELOPMENT OF CHADA-STRA

In his Chanda-stra (c.300 BCE), Pigala introduces some

combinatorial tools called pratyayas which can be employed to study the

various possible meters in Sanskrit prosody. Following are some of the

important texts which include a discussion of various pratyayas:

Pigala (c.300 BCE): Chanda-stra

Bharata (c.100 BCE): Nyastra

Brahmagupta (c.628): Brhmasphuasiddhnta

Virahka (c.650): Vttajtisamuccaya

Mahvra (c.850): Gaitasrasagraha

Halyudha (c.950): Mtasajvan Comm. on Pigalas Chanda-stra

Kedrabhaa (c.1000): Vttaratnkara

Ydavapraka (c.1000): Comm. on Pigalas Chandah-stra

Hemacandra (c.1200): Chandonusana

Prkta-paigala (c.1300)

Nryaapaita (c.1350): Gaitakaumud

Damodara (C.1500): Vabhaa

Nryaabhaa (c.1550): Nrya Comm. on Vttaratnkara

VARA-VTTA

A syllable (akara) is a vowel or a vowel with one more

consonants preceding it.

A syllable is laghu (light) if it has a short vowel. Even a

short syllable will be a guru if what follows is a conjunct

consonant, an anusvra or a visarga.

Otherwise the syllable is guru (heavy).

The last syllable of a foot of a metre is taken to be a guru

optionally.

? ? U

z " ~ ~

u u u

u u ?

GGG GLG GLL LLL LGG LGG LGG

THE EIGHT GAAS

Ya: LGG Ra: GLG Ta: GGL

Bha: GLL Ja: LGL Sa: LLG

Ma: GGG Na: LLL

The pattern of a metre is usually characterised in term of these gaas.

For instance the verse of Klidsa cited earlier is in Sragdhar metre:

9

Thus Sragdhar is characterised by the pattern: MaRaBhaNaYaYaYa,

with a break (yati) after seven syllables each.

GGGGLGG LLLLLLG GLGGLGG

A MNEMONIC FOR THE GAAS

There is the mnemonic attributed to Pini

YaMTRJaBhNaSaLaGam

L G G G L G L L L G

If we replace G by 0 and L by 1, we have a binary sequence of length 10

1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0

The above linear binary sequence generates all the 8 binary sequences of

length 3. We can remove the last pair 1, 0 and view the rest as a cyclic

binary sequence of length eight. In modern mathematics such sequences

are referred to as de Bruijn cycles.

[, stand for L, G or 1,0]

PRATYAYAS IN PIGALAS CHADA-STRA

In Chapter Eight of Chanda-stra, Pigala introduces the following six

pratyayas:

Prastra: A procedure by which all the possible metrical patterns with a

given number of syllables are laid out sequentially as an array.

Sakhy: The process of finding total number of metrical patterns (or

rows) in the prastra.

Naa: The process of finding for any row, with a given number, the

corresponding metrical pattern in the prastra.

Uddia: The process for finding, for any given metrical pattern, the

corresponding row number in the prastra.

Lagakriy: The process of finding the number of metrical forms with a

given number of Laghus (or Gurus).

Adhvayoga: The process of finding the space occupied by the prastra.

PRASTRA

z " " ~ (~ .-)

Form a G, L pair. Write them one below the other.

Insert on the right Gs and Ls.

[Repeating the process] we have eight (vasava) metric forms in the 3-

syllable-prastra

Single syllable prastra

Two syllable prastra

1 G

2 L

1 G G

2 L G

3 G L

4 L L

PRASTRA

Three syllable prastra

Another method of generating the prastra

U

U ( .-)

Start with a row of Gs. Scan from the left to identify the first G. Place

an L below that. The elements to the right are brought down as they are.

All the places to the left are filled up by Gs. Go on till a row of only Ls

is reached.

1 G G G

2 L G G

3 G L G

4 L L G

5 G G L

6 L G L

7 G L L

8 L L L

SAKHY

z z (~ .-)

The number of metres of n-syllables is S

n

= 2

n

. Pigala gives an optimal

algorithm for finding 2

n

by means of multiplication and squaring operations

much less than n in number.

Halve the number and mark "2"

If the number cannot be halved deduct one and mark "0"

[Proceed till you reach zero. Start with 1 and scan the sequence from the right]

If "0", multiply by 2

If "2", square

Example: Six-syllable metres n = 6

6/2 = 3 and mark "2"

3 cannot be halved (3-1) and mark "0"

2/2 = 1 and mark "2"

1-1 = 0 and mark "0"

Sequence 2, 0, 2, 0 yields 1x2, (1x2)

2

, (1x2)

2

x2, ((1x2)

2

x2)

2

= 2

6

Pigalas algorithm became the standard method for computing powers in

Indian mathematics.

SAKHY

Next stra of Pingala gives the sum of all the sakhys S

r

for r = 1, 2, ...n.

zU (~ .)

S

1

+ S

2

+ S

3

+ ... + S

n

= 2S

n

-1

Then comes the stra

(~ .)

S

n+1

= 2S

n

Together, the two sutras imply

S

n

= 2

n

and

1 + 2 + 2

2

+ ... + 2

n

= 2

n+1

-1

The latter clearly is the formula for the sum of a geometric series.

SAKHY

The Sakhya 2

n

discussed above is for the case of syllabic metres of n-

syllables which are sama-vttas metres which have the same pattern in

all the four pdas or quarters.

Ardhasama-vttas are those metres which are not sama, but whose halves

are the same. Viama- vttas are those whose pdas are all different.

In the fifth Chapter of Chanda-stra, Pigala has dealt with the sakhy

of Ardhasama and Viama- vttas.

((~ .-)

The number of Ardhasama-vttas with n-syllables in each pda is (2

n

)

2

-2

n

In the same way, the number of Viama-vttas with n-syllables in each

pda is [(2

n

)

2

-2

n

]

2

- [(2

n

)

2

-2

n

]

NAA

(~ .-)

To find the metric pattern in a row of the prastra, start with the row-

number

Halve it (if possible) and write an L

If it cannot be halved, add one and halve and write a G

Proceed till all the syllables of the metre are found.

Example: Find the 7

th

metrical form in a 4-syllable prastra

(7+1)/2 = 4 Hence G

4/2 = 2 Hence GL

2/2 = 1 Hence GLL

(1+1)/2 = 1 Hence GLLG

If we set G=0 and L = 1, we can see that Pigalas naa process leads to

the desired metric form via the binary expansion

7 = 0 + 1x2 + 1 x 2

2

+ 0 x 2

3

FOUR-SYLLABLE PRASTRA

1 G G G G

2 L G G G

3 G L G G

4 L L G G

5 G G L G

6 L G L G

7 G L L G

8 L L L G

9 G G G L

10 L G G L

11 G L G L

12 L L G L

13 G G L L

14 L G L L

15 G L L L

16 L L L L

If we set G=0 and L=1, then we see that each metric pattern is the mirror

reflection of the binary representation of the associated row-number-1.

UDDIA

u zU j (~ .-)

To find the row number of a given metric pattern, scan the pattern from

the right.

Start with number 1

Double it when an L is encountered.

Double and reduce by 1 when a G is encountered

Example: To find the row-number of the pattern GLLG in a 4-syllable

prastra:

Start with 1. It is unchanged with first G

Then we find L. So we get 1x2 = 2

Then we find L. So we get 2x2 = 4

Finally we have G. We get 4x2-1 = 7

UDDIA

Another Method:

(? zU

" ( .)

Place 1 on top of the left-most syllable of the given metrical pattern

Double it at each step while moving right.

Sum the numbers above L and add 1 to get the row-number

Example: To find the row-number of the pattern GLLG

1 2 2

2

2

3

G L L G

Row-Number = 0 x 1 + 1 x 2 + 1 x 2

2

+ 0 x 2

3

+ 1= 7

Both the naa and uddia process of Pigala are essentially based on the

fact that every natural number has a unique binary representation: It can be

uniquely represented as a sum of different sakhy S

n

or the powers of 2.

LAGAKRIY

(~ . )

Pigalas stra on lagakriy process is too brief. Halyudha, the tenth

century commentator explains it as giving the basic rule for the

construction of the table of numbers which he refers to as the Meru-

prastra.

? S + Sz

q? u

u S ~ u S

S S U S

Sz

S S Sz

VARA-MERU OF PIGALA

Clearly the number of metrical forms with r Gurus (or Laghus) in the

prastra of metres of n-syllables is the binomial coefficient

n

C

r

The above passage of Halyudha shows that the basic rule for the

construction of the above table, is the recurrence relation

n

C

r

=

n-1

C

r-1

+

n-1

C

r

PASCAL TRIANGLE

The above Vara-Meru is actually a rotated version of the so called Pascal

Triangle (c. 1655) shown below:

REFERENCES

1. G.Cardona, Pini A Survey of Research, Mouton, The Hague 1976.

2. R.N.Sharma, The Adhyy of Pini, 6 Volumes, Munshiram

Manoharlal, Delhi 1990-2003.

3. G.Cardona, Pini His Work and its Traditions, 2ed, Motilal

Banarsidas, New Delhi 1997

4. G.Huet and A.Kulkarni and P.Scharf Eds., Sanskrit Computational

Linguistics, Springer, New York 2009

5. Chandastra of Pigala with Comm. Mtasajvan of Halyudha

Bhaa, Ed. Kedarnath, 3ed. Bombay 1938.

6. Vttaratnkara of Kedra with Comms. Nrya and Setu, Ed.

Madhusudana Sastri, Chaukhambha, Varanasi 1994.

7. B. van Nooten, Binary Numbers in Indian Antiquity, Jour. Ind. Phil.

21, 1993, pp.31-50.

8. R.Sridharan, Sanskrit Prosody, Pigala Stras and Binary Arithmetic, in

G.G.Emch et al Eds., Contributions to the History of Indian

Mathematics, Hindustan Book Agency, Delhi 2005, pp. 33-62.

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