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AUTHORITY
USAMC ltr, 2 Jul 1973

THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED

AMC PAMPHLET

AMCP 706-175

ENGINEERING DESIGN HANDBOOK

EXPLOSIVES SERIES

SOLID PROPELLANTS PART ONE

STATEMENT #2 UNCL.SSIFIED This document is subject to special export controls and each transmittal to foreign governments or foreign nationals may be made only with prior approval of: Army Materiel Commands Attn: AMCRD-TV, Washington, D.C. 20315

HEADQUIARTER6, U. S, ARMY MATERIEL COMMAND

SEPTEMBR 1964

DISCLAIMER NOTICE
THIS DOCUMENT IS BEST QUALITY PRACTICABLE. THE COPY FURNISHED TO DTIC CONTAINED A SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF PAGES WHICH DO NOT REPRODUCE LEGIBLY.

-)

ENGINEERING DESIGN HANDBOOK SERIES


General and Miscellaneous Subjects Beiliotic Missile Series Number 281(S-RD) 282 284(C) 286 Title Weapon System Effectiveness (U) Propulsion and Propellants Trajectories (U) Structures

Listed below are the Handbooks %hich have been published or submitted for publication. Handbooks with publication dates prior to I August 1962 were published as 20-series Ordnance Corps parmptilets, AMC Circular 3L0-38, 19 July 1963, redesignated those publications as 706-series AMC pamphlets (i.e., ORDP 20- 138 was redesignated AMCP 706-138). All new, reprinted, or revised Handbooks are being published as 706-series AIAC pamphlets.

Number -1006 107 108 110 111 I1a 113 114 121 134 135 136 137

Title E-ements of Arr--maent Engineering, Part One, Sources of Energy Elements of Armament Engineeritg, Part Two, Ballistics Elements of Armament Engineering, PartThree, Weapon Systems and Components Experimental Statistics, Seccion 1, Basic Concepts and Analysis of Measurement Data Experimental Statistics Section Z, Analysis of Enumerative and Classificatory Data Experimental Statistics, Sectio, 3,Planning andAnalysis of Comparati.e Experiments Experimental Statistics, Section 4, Special Topics Experimental Statistics, Section 5, Tables Packaging and Pack Engineering Maintenance Engineering Guide for Ordnance Design Inve:tions, Patents, and RelatedMatters (Revised) Servomechanisms, Section 1, Theory Servomechanisms, Section Z, Measurement and Signal Converters Servomechanisms, Section 3, Amplification Servomechanisms, Section 4, Power Elements System Design Armor and Its Applicetion to Vehicles (U) Guns--General (Ciuns Series) Gun Tubes (Guns Series) Propellant Actuated Devices Warheads- -General (U) Compensating Elements (Fire Control Series) The Automo.tive Assembly (Automotive Series)

Ballistics Series Trajectories, Differential Effects, and Data for Projectiles 150 Interior Ballistics of Guns 160(S) Elements of Terminal Ballistics, Part One, Introduction, Kill Mechanisms, and Vulnerability (U) 161(5) Elements of Terminal Ballistics, Part Two, Collection and Analysis of Data Concorning Targets (U) L62(S-RD) Elements of Terminal Ballistics, Part Three, Application to Missile and Space Targets (U) 140 Carriages and Mounts Series Carriages and Mounts--General Cradles Recoil Systems Top Carriages Bottom Carriages EquiliL-rato:s Elevating Mechanisms Traversing Mechanizrns

340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347

"139
170(C) 250 252 270 290(C) 331 355

138

"and

Ammunition and Explosivvs Series 175 Solid Propellants, Part One 176(C) Solid Propellants, Part Two (U) 177 Properties of Explosives of Military Interest, Section I 178(C) Properties of Explosives of Military Interest, Section 2 (U) 210 Fuses, General and Mechanical ZlI(C) Fuses, Proximity, Electrical, Part One (U) 2I1(4) Fuses, Proximity, Electrical, Part Two (U) 213(3) Fuses, Proximity, Electrical, Part Three (U) 214(S) Fuses, Proximity, Electrical, Part Four (U) 215(C) Fuses, P'oximity, Electrical, Part Five (U) 244 Section 1, Artillery Ainmunition- -eneral, with Table of Contents, Glossary and Index (or Series 245(C) Section Z, Design for Terminal 'Efects (U) 246 Section 3, Design for Control of Flight Ch&racteristics 247 Section 4, Design for Projection 240 Section 5. Inspection Aspects of Artillery Ammunition Design 249 Section 6, Manufacture of Metallic Components of Aztillery Ammunition

Materials Handbooks Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys Copper and Copper Alloys Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys 3U03 Titanium and Titanium Alloys 308 Glas 309 Plastics 310 Rubber and Rubber-Like Materials 301 30Z 303 Military Pyrotechnics Series Part Two, Safety, Procedures and Glossary 187 Part Three, Properties oi Materials Used in Pyrotechnic Compositions 186 Surface-to-Air Missile Series 291 Part One, System lntegratinn 29a Part Two, Weapon Control 293 Part Three, Computers 294(S) Part Four, Missile Armament (U) 295(S) Part Five, Countermeasures (U) 296 Part Six, Structures and Power Sources 297(S) Part Seven, Sample Problem (U)

HEADQUARTERS UNITED STATES ARMY MATERIEL COMMAND WASHINGTON, D. C. Z0315

30 September 1964

AMCP 706-175, Solid Propellants, Part One, forming part of the Explosives Series of the Army Materiel Command Engineering Design Handbook Series, is published for the information and guidance of all concerned. (AMCRD)

FOR THE COMMANDER:

SELWYN D. SMITH, JR. Major General, USA OFFICIAL: Chief of Staff

'.

DAVIDSON Co onel, GS Chief, Administrative Office

DISTRIBUTION:

Special

I!

EXPLOSIVES SERIES

SOLID PROPELLANTS
"PART

ONE

By A. ft

iall

CONSISTING OF CHAPTERS 1-10

!r

PRI-EFACE
This handbook has been prepared as one of a series on Explosives. It is part of a group of handbooks covering the engineering principles and fundamental data needed in the development of Army materiel, which (as a group) constitutes the Engineering Design Handbook Series of the Army Materiel Command. -Th handbook presents information on the design, functioning and manufacture and rockets. of solid propellants for use in propelling charges for guns The text and illustrations for this handbook were prepared by Hercules Powder Company under subcontract to the Engineering Handbook Office of Duke University, prime c'ontractor to the Army Research Office-Durham for the Engineering Design Handbook Series. Agencies of the Department of Defense, 'having need for Handbooks, may bubmit requisitions or official requests directly to Publications and Reproduction Agency, Letterkenny Army Depot, Chambersburg, Pennsylvania 17Z01. Contractors should submit such requisitions or requests to their contracting officers. Commcnts and suggestions on this handbook are welcome and should be addressed to Army Research Office-Durham, Box CM, Duke Station, Durham, North Carolina 27706.

r i

1!

'

I,,,-

ii!

C,

I.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Pararaph PREFACE ................................................ LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ................................ LIST OF TABLES ...................................... LIST OF SYMBOLS ....................................... INTRODUCTION PU *!.P SE ................... I.......... IDE I~NITIONS ............................................ PLA N ..................................................... REFERENCES ............................................ CNAPTER 2 EVOLUTION OF GASES BY PIOPUKLANTS GENERAL ................................................ EQUATION OF STATE .................................... DALT.ISTIC PARAMETERS ................................ Specific Force ..................................... Ch ra tristic Velocity ........... .......................... Reduced Characteristic Velocity ........................... Specific Impulse .......................................... Reduced Specific Impulse .................................. Volume Specific Impulse ................................... Gas Horsepower .......................................... THERMOCHEMISTRY............................... Specific GOu Volume ...................................... Flame Temperature at Constant Volume ..................... Flame Temperature at Constant Pressure ..................... Ratio of Specific c ts ................. .................. Exact Calculation of Flame Temperature and Product Page ii viii x xi

I 2 3

...................

I I 1 2

4 5 6 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-5 6-6 6-7 7 7-1 7-2 7-3 7-4 7-5 IF! 7,-6 7-7 7-8 8 8-1 8-2 6-3

3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6

Composition ............... ...........................


Hirschfelder-Sherman Calculation ........................... Example Calculation ofF, cl, iZ by the Hirschfelder.Shenman Method ... ... ........................................ ADL Short Calculation for Specific Impulse .................. MEASUREMENT OF BALLISTIC PARAMETERS ........... Measurement of Heat of Explosion .......................... Measurement of Specific Force ............................ Measurement of Characteristc Velocity.................. Measurement of Specific Impulse ........................... Example Calculation of I, from Measured l, (del) at Non-

7
7 9 10 10 10 10 I II

5-4
8-5 9 S9-1 9-2 9-3 94

standard Conditions ................................


BUURNIO OF PROPELLANTS...................... Effct of Furmm .................... ................ Effect of Temperature ..................................... Effect of Gas Velocity. Erosive BruinS ..................... Eff t of Composition .....................................

II
12 13 14 15 I5

I.

"

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)


Parqaroph Burning Rate of Composite Propellants ...................... 9-5 Problem of Unstable Burning ............................... 9-6 9-7 Transition from Deflagration to Detonation .................. PROPELLANT CikAIN .................................... 10 SCHEDULING OF MASS RATE ............................ 11 Gun ..................................................... 11-1 11-2 Catapult ................................................. 11-3 Rocket M otor ............................................ Calculation of a Rocket Propellant Charge ................... 11-4 Gas Generator ........................................... 11-5 Calculation of a Gas Generator Propellant Charge ............ 11-6 P49g 16 17 17 17 19 19 20 22 22 24 24

REFERENCES ........................................
CHAPTER 3 PHYSICAL PROPETIU EEQUIREMENTS 12 13 14 i5 16 17 18 18- ' 18-2 18-3 18-4 18-5 18-6 18-7 I-" 18-9 18-10 GENERAL ............................................... DENSITY ................................................. GRAVIMETRIC DENSITY ................................. HYGROSCOPICITY ....................................... COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION ................ THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY .............................. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES .............................. Ultimate Tensile Strength .................................. Elongation in Tension ..................................... Modulus in Tension ....................................... Stress Relaxation ......................................... Cieep ................................................... Compressive Strengh ..................................... Deformation at Rupture in Compression ..................... Modulus in Compression .................................. Shear Properties .......................................... Brittle Temperature .......................... REFERENCES ............................................ CNA"t~l
2 AACK

24j

27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 31 31 31 31 31 31 31

............

i
33 33 33 33 33 36 36 36 37 41

19 20 21 22 23 24 226 27

GENERA L ................................................ APPEARANCE ............................................ COMPOAITION ........................................... GRANULATION .......................................... THERMOCHEMISTRY .................................... HYGROSCOPICITY ....................................... SHELF LIFE ........................ MANUFACTURING PROCESS ............................. USES ..................................................... REFERENCES ............................................ iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)


Paragraph Page

CHAP=R 5
CRYSTAWNE MONOPROPJLLANTS 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 G EN ERA L ................................................. NITROGUANIDINE ....................................... ........................... RDX. ................ H M X ..................................................... PETN ...................... ............................. AMMONIUM NITRATE ................................... AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE ............................. "REFERENCES...................... CHAPTE 6 42 42 43 43 43 44 44 44

PLASTIC MONOMROPUJANTS 35 36 36-1 36-1.1 36-1.1.1 36-1.1.2 36-1.1.3 36-1.1.4 36-1.2 36-2 36.2.1 36-2.2 36-2.3 36-3 36-4 36-5 37 38 38-1 38-2 38-3 38-4 38-5 38-6 38-7 38-8 39 40 40-1 40-1.1 40-1.2 40-1.3 45 GENERAL ................................................ 45 FORMULATION .......................................... 45 Polym er ................................................. ....... 46 Nitrocelluiec .................................. 46 Nitrogen Content ..................................... 46 Sohubili-y.... ........................................ 46 ................. Hygroscopicity ..................... 48 Viscosity ............................................. 48 Other Polymers ......................................... . 48 Stabilizer....................................... 49 Diphenylamine.............................. 49 2-Nitrodiphenylamine ................................... 49 Ethyl Centralite ......................................... 49 Oxidant-Type Plasticizers ................................. 49 Fucl-Type Plasticizers ..................................... 50 Additives ................................................ 50 BALLISTIC CHARACTERISTICS ......................... 51 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES .................................. 51 Ultimate Strength ......................................... 52 Deformation at Rupture ................................... 52 Cold Flow ............................................... 52 ......... Hygroscopicity ................................. 52 Density .................................................. 52 Vapor Pressure ........................................ 52 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion ........................... 52 Plasticity ................................................. 52 THERMAL PROPERTIES .................................. 53 USES .................................................... 53 Gun Propellants .......................................... 34 Propellants for Cannon .................................. 54 Propellants for Small Arms .............................. 54 Propellants for Mortars ..................................

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)


Paragraph 40-2 40-2.1 40-2.2 Rocket ane. Gas Generator Propel~ants ...................... Propellants for Rockets .............. ................... Propellants for Gas Generators ........................... REFERENCES ............................................ CHAPTER 7 COMPOSITES COMPRISING CRYSTALLINE MONOPIOPEUJATS IN PLASTIC MONOPROPIULANT UINDFIS 41 42 43 43-1 43-2 44 45 46 GENERAL ................................................ FORMULATIONS .......................................... BALLISTIC CHARACTERISTICS ........................... Nonflashing Nitropuanidine Proixl:ants ..................... High Force Nitroguanidine Prorellants ..................... PHYSICAL PROPERTIES .................................. THERMAL PROPERTIES .................................. MANUFACTURING PROCESS ............................. REFERENCES ............................................ CHAPTER 5 MANUFACTURING PROCESSE. FOR SMO 47 48 48-1 48-2 48-3 48-4 49 49-1 49-1.1 49-1.2 49-2 49-3 49-4 49-5 49-6 50 50-i 50-2 30-3 S1 51-1 51-2 51-3 GENERAL .................................. NITROCELLULOSE ....................................... Nitrogen Content ......................................... Solubility ................................................ Viscosity ................................................. Significance of Nitrocellulose Properties ...................... SOLVENT EXTRUSION ................................... Mixing .................................................. Premixing Operations ................................... Post-Sigma Blade Mixing Operations ...................... Forming ................................................. Removal of Solvent ....................................... Finishing ................................................ Blending ................................................. Propellants Made by Solvent Extrusion ...................... SOLVENT EMULSION (BALL POWDER) PROCESS ......... Forming Operations ....................................... Incorporation of Plasticizers ............................... Finishing Operations ...................................... ROLLED SHEET PROCESS ................................ Mixing ............................... .................. Rolfln ............ ............................. Finishing ................................................ 58 58 58 58 59 59 61 61 61 Page 54 56 56 56

IKELSS POWDER ............. 62 62 65 66 66 66 66 67 67 68 72 72 72 72 72 74 74 75 75 77 77 77 80 1_

(_9

TABLE OF CONTENTS (ContiniucO)


/
Paragraph 52 SOLVENTLFSS EXTRUSION-' PROCESS .................. 52-I 52-2 52-3 53 53-1 53-2 53-3 53-4 54 Extrusion ........................................... .... Finishing ................................................ IFlaw s ................................................... CAST DOUBLE-BASE PROCESS ........................... Casting .................................................. Curing .................................................. Physical Strength ......................... ............... Uses of Propellants Made by Cast Double-Base Process ........ SLURRY CASTING PROCESS ............................. REFERENCES ............................................ CHAVFIM 9 FUEL DINDEWt COMPOSITES 55 56 56-1 56-2 56-3 56-4 56-5 57 58 58-1 58-2 58-3 58-3.1 58-3.2 58-3.3 58-3.5 58-4 58-5 58-6 GENERAL ................ .............................. CHOICE OF OXIDIZER ................................... Potassium Perchlorate ..................................... Ammonium ?erchlorate ................................... Lithium Perchlcrate .................................... .. Ammonium Nitrate ....................................... ......................... M ixed Oxidizers ................ VOLUMETRIC RELATION OF OXIDIZER TO BINDER ..... CHOICE OF BINDER ...................................... A sphalt .................................................. Polyisobut2ne ............................................ Elastomeric Binders ....................................... Polysulfide Rubber ...................................... ........... Polyurethane Rubber ........................ Butadiene-Acrylic Acid Copolymer Rubber, PBAA .......... Poly(vinyl Chloride) ............................. Elabtomeric Binders for Cartridge-Loaded Grains ........... Thermoplastic Syntheti. Polymer Binders for Cartridge-Loaded G rains ................................................. Cellulose Acetate ......................................... Other W-ider Systems ................ .................... REFEr.EN CES ................. ......................... 10 CHAPTRl INERT SIMULANTS FOR PROPIELLANTS GENERAL .................................... M OCK-UPS .................................... .......... SIMULANTS TO REPRODUCE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES... SIMULANTS TO REPRODUCE MANUFACTURING PROP...... ......... ERTIES ................................ SEM ILIVE ................................................ REFER ENCES ............................................ G LO SSA R Y ............................................... ... .................... IN D E X .......................... vii 89 89 90 90 93 93 94 )4 94 95 95 95 95 98 99 99 0 101 102 102 102 Page 80 80 80 84 84 85 88 88 88 88 88

58-3.4

III

59 60 61 62 63

2 112 112 112 113 113 114 117

I.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figore I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Title Reduced specific impulse versus area ratio and gamma ........... Burning of solid monopropellant ............................ Rate-pressure relationship of propellants for which r = bP'.... Rate-pressure relationship of plateau propellants ................ Rate-pressure relationship of mesa propellants .................. Burning of composite propellants-filler rate faster than binder... Burning 4f compositem pro~illant-filler rate slower than binder... Neutral geometry........................................... Rod and shell grain. ................................. Star-perforated grain ........................................ Slotted-tube grain ........................................... Progressive geometry ......................................... Multiple-perforated cylinder .................................. Degressive goemetry ......................................... Gun cycle .................... ............................. Closed bomb assembly ....................................... Closed bomb record ......................................... Catapult cycle............................................... Rocket motor cycle ......................................... Tensile test setp ........................................... Tensile test record showiug derivation of ultimate strength, elougation, and modulus ........................................ Black powder, grade FFFFG, 8X magnifi,-t.a ................ Black powder manufacturing proe~ .......................... Black powder wheel mill ..................................... Black powder prets .................................. Nitrocellulose monopropellant sybim ......................... Cross section of grain of IMR smokeless powder for small arms, photographed in ultraviolet light, 112X magnification ......... Physical properties versus polyi er concentration ................ Rclationships among To, F, an,, Q for gun propellants .......... Specific impulse of double-bane rocket propellants as a functioa ofT, .................................................... Burning rates of double-LUae rocket and gas generator propellants Cross section of triple-bate gun propellant grain, crossed nicols, 32X ma.nification ........................................ Nitrocellulose manufacture ................................... Cellulose nitrator ........................................... Nitrocellulon wringe's ...................................... Nitrocellulose boing tbs ................................... Solvent extrusion process .................................... Sigma blade mixer .......................................... Schraeder mixer ............................................ M acerator ....................................... Maca'oni and blocking presses ............................... Cutting machine.......... ......................... Sweetie barrel ............................................... viii Pag 5 12 13 13 14 16 16 18 s 18 18 18 19 19 20 21 21 22 22 29 30 34 37 38 39 45 47 51 53 54 55 60 62 63 64 65 67 68 69 70 71 73 74 *

33
34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43

.........

Vl
4

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Continued) 'I ) K


,e
44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63

Ttle
Solvent emulsion process ................. ................... Ball powder ................................................ Still ....................................................... Rolled sheet process ........................... ............. R oll mill ................................................... Slitter ..................................................... Trench mortar increments .................................... Solventles extrusion process ................................. Solventless extruded shapes .................................. Carpet rolling .............................................. Solventles extrusion press ................................... Cast double-base process .....................................

Page
75 76 77 78 78 79 81 81 82 83 84 85 85 86 87 91 92 93 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 104 105 106 107 106 109 110

S64
65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 ! 74 75 76 77 78

Mold parts ................................................. Casting setup ......................... ..................... Cast grain ..................... ........................... Specific impulse, Il, and flame temperature, T&, of NH 4 CIO4 -fuel binder composites ......................................... Burning rate, r, at 1000 psi, ambient temperature of NH 4 CIO 4-fuel binder composites ......................................... Specific impulses, I.,, and flame temperatures, Tp, of NH 4NOI-fuel binder composites ............................. ........... Slurry casting process ....................................... Sigma bsde mixer (200 gallon) ............................... Vertical mixer (300 gallon) ................................... Mandrel for medium size rocket motor ....................... Medium size case-bonded grain with a 5-point star configuration.. l-inch extruder for poly (vinyl chloride) propellant .............. Extrusion of wired grain .................................... Extnrsion procem for fuel binder composites ................... Blocking press .................................... Extrusion press.......................... ......... Compression molding process for fuel binder composites ....... Compressing stacked disks ................................... Machining outside diameter of grain .......................... Jato grains ................................................. Finished jatos .............................................. Individual segment (50 pounds) of 1000-pound segmented grain.. Segmented grain (1000 pounds) ..............................

ix

r, ,j
II

ht
LIST OF TAM=S
I 2 3 4 5 6
7 8 9 10 II

y.. .............. loiy Reduced characteristic ve Thermochemical constants for Hirschfelder-Sherman calculation. Nominal compositions of black powder available in the United
States .........................................

4 8
33

Granulations of potassium nitrate black powders............... 35 36 Granulations of sodium nitrate black powders................. Consumption of black blasting powder (all types) in the United
states ..............I .................................... Physical and ballistic parameters of crystalline monopropellants.. HyNroscopicity of nitrocellulose ......................... .............................. Nonfiasing p pelants........ High force propellants. . ................................... Oxidizers for fuel binder composite........................... 40 42 48 59 59 49

12
13 14

Hypothetical fuel binder CH 1. ...............................


Hypothetical propellants ..................................... Oxidizer loading versus binder density per unit volume ..........

90
90 94

Ii

2K

, I

r_

1'1
LIST OF SYMBOLS
-) = a coustant = aceleration time rate of acceleration a (subscdpt) = atmospheric av (subscript) = average
A,, A,
SA,

a a

i I I.

= ingredient in propellant composition

= total impulse = specific impulse

= calculated themodynmMc specific hba.


pulse

= area of burning surface = = area of nozzle exit =por~t a = noezle throat area =

, , (del) = measured specific impule at nonstandard conditions i (subscript) = partial value contributed by product

I
k X K

= product gs constitaent
= erosion constant = Kelvin (temperatmre) = ratio of initial propelaMnt burning surface A, to nozzle throat a& =

b aconstant b' = a constant b = a constnt c (subscript) = chamber C* = characteristic velocity

e,*
C

= calculated thermodynamic characteristic velocity


m concentratio

K, = erosivity constant I (subscript) = liquid state


L
=distance downstream from the

of polymer in solution

WaVa-

Cp
Q,

= thrust coeilient = number untIi~ of weight figein atoms of nprplat carbon in


composition
= molar heat capacity at constant jressure

I c -

M
Mr, Mr.
n n

tion point =grainlength =molecula weight of cobsto Sa - pcf mvlm


averap molecular weight o omb
gases at isobaric adiabatic Barns tenperature

C,

= molar beat capacity at constant volume

= grain diameter

average molecular weight of combustion


gases at isocloric adiabatic flame ternperature = exponent in do Saint Robert buning rt equation, r = bP" = gas volume in moles produced from unit weiI;h of propllant o = moles per unit weight of gas at isobaric adiabatic flame temperature

D. = diameter of nozzle exit D = = diameter of nozzle throat e = base of naturai logarithms e (subscript) = exit E = internal energy &E = heat of formation = Hr I (subscript) = partial value contributed by fuel F = specific force or impetus F = thrust

= cceleration of gravity

n.

=molesper unit weight ofgSaaat isochorlc

g (subscript) = gaseous state G = man velocity of the gases in the port Ohp = gas horsepower H = moisture content H, = heat of formation = AE H. = heat of explosion = Q AM = enthalpy change I (subscript) = partial value contributed V ingredteat !

adiabatic flame temperature a (subszript or superscript) = calculated thermodynamic value o (subscript) = initial condition ox (subsciipt) = partial value contributed by oxidizer p (subscript) = constant pressure conditions P = pressure P. = chamber pressure

ii

VA.

LIST OF SYMBOLS (Continued)


Q
r R R

-heat of explosion = H.
= linear burning rate = Rankine (temperature) = specific gas constant a

(overline) = average
= a constant = covolume = nozzle divergence hall-angle = a constant = volumetric coefficient of thermal expansion C. ratio of specific heats = C

Xi

R. = universal gas constant = relative force RF RH = relative humidity quickness = relative RQ j(subscript) state = solid $ S# S3 Sj $. =area of burning surface ---tensile stress = = =
=

p p

A,4
17 =nozzle-expansion area ratio = A, = viscosity of solution v A of solvent

tensile stress at break final area of surface after burning initial area of surface maximum sts

= relative viscosity = nozzle divergence loss factor = propellant inass ratio, ratio of propellant mass of any stage to gross mass of that stage
= temperature coefficient of pressure at constant pressure-rate ratio = =

t time = brie t ss = burnib) thre condition t (susrp) = throat


T T, T, T. T, so = = = = = Tt = = = absolute temperature initial temperature pyrolysis temperlature reference temperature isobaric adiabatic flame temperature

VrP

7r

temperature coefficient of pressure at constant K value = t =density

temperature at throat

isochodc adiabatic flame temperature a constant v (subscpt) = constant volume conditions


V = velocity_!

(-

__

= specific volume P

V Vp W

= volume = volume of propellant = weight d wei eronsrae = dW = wight burning rt = weight fractionf)Ir X = volume rtin

= temperature coefficient of burning rate at

constant pressure = temperature coeffiient of burning rate at constant K value =

"(opeacrlptdot)

derivative

Ii

ai

SOLID PROPELLANTS
PART ONE

INTROUCTION
1. Pupos& This Handbook isintended to pro. vide a general description of solid propellants of n unerratiat lbscrmintheequialen backro~.d equvalet th ofan udergaduae degree in engineering Or physical scecbut no Kor Z. Desiflen. A wolid propellant isa chemical a mixture of chemicals which when ignited burns in the substantial absence of atmospheri aqgen at a controlled rate and evolves gas capable of performing work. In order to discuss certain phenomena, notably burning and detonation processes, Rits necessary to defne certain terms that mre used with meanings differing significantly from

MIL-STD-444, Merriam-Webster's unabrde


dictionary, P .InCaer2sdecbdhwth or common usag.arsatieyokt, iftu ofmerit-speific force forgu hts and specific 1,41uilse; or charateristic veloity for rocket propellants-are derived from thermioChapter 2 is discussed the mechanism of burning of propellants and the scheduling of gas evolution to meet the requirements of various engines in which propellants arm used, such as guns, caia Pults, rockets, and gas generators. A few simple iwmeiical examples ame given by way of iflustration, but detailed discussion of the ballistics of such engines is omitted as being beyond the scope

those given in MUMS2-444.1 TheU more im'V portant of these are: A (solid) monopropellazit is a singl physical phase comprising both oxidizinlg and fadelo.1. Tuianloutoc mousgin meats. the liui prpantlr eto decribing ap singe

of this work and available elsewhere. In Chapter 3


appears a discussion of certain physical propertu of propeiants as related to system requirements.

InChapters 4-9 covntoa prplanta die.


mooprpelant

onppeanscomnykwns subsantal uanityin ie cntiuou orbiner single-base and double-base propellants, appear in Chapter 6. These common termis can be somewhat phase of it oamposite propellant. Delagratlon is a burning process in a solid cofsnicetelasotaspoeln. ~comprising, for examiple, cellulose acetate snd .nd ~.
systn, bth ompisig oidat ad feL n dvanes t ~singlewhic ab frnt rectio

theliqid ropllat felddesribng sigic Cq dli -hsi liuid pr 11ant. A file is a discrete material dispersed in .Patc

u.cussed, arranged according to their phywsiaw twre. Black powder h. presented. in Chapter 4. apearIn Chapter

diet tmlaL or not explosion occurs as a result of deflagradion, depends on confnesnesit Nownedo then. definitions; is usedl for the fids dole In this Handbook. Othier definitions are introduced in the text at appropriate places. Unless otberwisir noted, definitions am In aiccord with dwm td n ~ *Nmbftm~ mf tof*fd of asshhus~r.pellants

~ ~1II~~I0(IIt5

nirogycein inc amdifficulft to assign to either or double-base. Composites comprising ~monopropellant blider and monopropellant filler.

commonly known as triple-base, appear inChaptr7 gi h omntr a ecnuig as when a nitroguanidine propallant with a single.. base (ultrocellulos.) binder is to be descibed. Mlanufaicturing processes for the propellants of
Chapters 6 and 7 are given In Chapter 8. Fuel bimder compositesi are discussed in Chapter 9. A discussion of inert simulants, or dummies, for pro. is given in Chapter 10. Higher enegy

system ar discussed in ORDP 20-176, Solid Propelnts, Part Two (C). literature consulted in the prepration ad this Hand1book includes publications early i 1960. The reader is referred to SPIA/M2,1 in which will be found data sheets for all of the propellants developed and used within the Departmu t ol Defense incuding those that will appear subsequen to the publication of this Handbook.

WUNCU
1. MILuVD444, MiliUMa
DeIIduwIO

Defense, 6 February 1959. 2. SPIAIM2, Propellant Manual, Solid Propelaut Infor Asency, Jot=s Hopkins Univusity. CON-

Standard.Nomenclgre and n hae Ammmaition Area, Departmet of

PID)NTIAL

I!

*1
k2

|7

CIAPM
4. Geaned. The devices in which propellants are commonly used, be they devices, such as guns that comprise moving pistons, or vented vessels acquiring momentum by discharge of gas, ,are devices that convert heat energy into mechanical energy. They thus fall into the general classification of heat engines. The propellant gas is then the working fluid that actuates heat engines. In solid propellant heat engines the working fluid is nenerated in situ by burning the propellant within the engine. The general problem in fitting a solid propellant to a heat engine is the generation of s of specified properties at a specified rate which is a function of time. The specifications of gas proprties and rate of generation are not usually independentof each other. Thus a given problem may be solved by using gas with one set of properties

2
where R. is the universal gas constanL The tIns a is known as the covolume and may be thought of as the space occupied by the gas when Cornpressed to the limit. It has the empirical value of about I cc per gram for most propellants.' The significance of the covolume correction may be shown by some simple numerical examples. Under standard conditions of temperature and pressure (273"K, 1 atm), 1 gram of gas of molecular weight 2700 ol 1 aupie10gramofA tem 22.4 d a pressure o 68 atm (1000 psi) are conditions typical of rocket ballistics. Under these ciraustances 2730 X 273 68 For I percent accuracy, V - a does not differ

EVOLUTION OF GASES BY PROPELLANTS

at me rate schedule or, alternately, by using a difbrewt set of gas properties on a correl from V. It is cusnary, herefore, in di et rate schedule. The properties o gasrocket ballistics to ignore the covolume correction and use the perfect gas equation we determined by the composition of the propel-

lant. The derivation of the gas properties from the composition is knovn as dtermochemistry of propelimts. The rate of gas generation is determined by the linear rate of burning and charge geometry. Of these, the linear burning raft as a functin Of theseuthe inear burolning pratery a ysta f t

WR,T M

whereas we encounter similar temperatures in gun


ballistics, the pressures are higher. Taking 3000

Immur gemetr aremntrfled m (44000 psi) as typical, for I gram of gas tdon of presure is aandchare propellant property. System at at(400piasyiclfo1grmogs pressure and charge geometry are controlled at leat in part by the end-item specification. The 2730 1
overall problem of selecting a propellant formulation and geometry to meet a given end-item per-

V2-7a 301000 -=3.3c Under these conditions, V - a differs significantly

formance specification is an exercise in interior


balstics. Because the propellant developer owes the ballistician both thermochemical dat and raft versus pressure data, he should have a qualitative knowledge of interior ballistics in order to perform his function intelligently, S. Fquae of stade. The classical equation of stAt used by ballisticians is known as the NobleAbel equation. For unit mass of propellant it is usually written P(V-a) = RT where Risthe gas onstant perunit Spelant, or more generally WR T t P(V - aW) = 1-\ I sofpro(1) 3

from V, and the covolume correction must be


made. For precise calculations, other equations of state of greater precision than Equation I are used. These equations are more complex and contain constants the physical significance of which is more difficult to understand. In such calculations the departure from the perfect gas law is still callcd the covolume correction. The covolume if evaluated is'no longer a constant but is a variable with a value still in the neighborhood of Noble-Abel'sa. 6. Dac lwalert. Different systems" of interior ballistics have been developed by gun bellisti.ians on the one hand and by rocket ballisticiAns on the other. Both types of system depend on the sume primary thermocherical properties o p prpl nopeUt gases, but ute different parameten aa

working tools. Thus, as a measure of the ability ofth omutinprcucsofpoplansto perfam n teirrespective hetengines, SnballisAbbreviated to lore.), or impesus. F. Rocket belvWtily, c*, or specific inpuls., I,. Auxiliary unit engineers sometimes; use gAs hornPO10 Ghp.

TAKLE 1. REDUCED C2IARACTEROII VELOMIY GAY1'(


1.15 1.566
.

cluaus use the parameter specific force (often

Kpowes

1.20 1.25 1.30


1.35

GLIpel 1 hrme Spetifc force, Pis a measamofthailtyofth popllntga t pdom. waLk It is definedhby the equation F = R.T, M (2) d1b aqwrssed in terms of foos-poundaS Per 6.2 awadfhk& yaleft. Charcteristic yelocity, co, is not a significant physical quantity. It is defined
P.A~a
M .. ,where

1.40 cimtrmceic

1-542 1.520 1.499 1.479 1.461 ichgigypnsou

that the charctersic velocity is a stronger fauc3SO~ M, il60 SPOCHIC i3IPulse, 1W. is efinedas the bmpulse (force x time) delivered by burning a unit weight of propellant in a rocket chamober. Froin rocket ballistic: theory can be daft-ed th.eqmo FZz1
(.)

P. is chamber Wal-

sure, A# is norethroat area, and Wabrig fate in pounds per second. Mlathematical anaWyi aor 9it can be coinputd* frm the thermodymi aI prprtc of t= VsM~1
I~
5(~

(4) hermo..

fm

k 2

(3) ()

Note that this pamer beoe

44Reduced .~ellsuhbi

Medlsy. Equation

ma

dynamic Wncton of the propellan only wheni the rai !t ij spedz& Ifo T .- cur.-Cait United States P. convention is to consider P, as one atumophere

be1dmP

(3a) als Paragraph 8-4. &S. uamil Vese lapilies. Equation 4 may b vte F __ 7- s
=''"It1 2.. 1 (a

The quantity

may be called the 0e-

doced characteristic velocity; It is dimensionless nd isa function only ofthespedclfhcentratio, y. In Table I wre shown the value of tbe reduced Svelocity for differefnt values ofy IU wrceitcvloisybobtainedby multlplyiggreue huestcvelocity byunit Ih if cag fti eue oprtvl O~opow dwrnoynaok ahman enoed y sbpmfton neommaft3" iret w fr@Srb 93.

.
specific impulse; ti dlznensoniess and depends only on the pressur rati ,i -' 1- the seii eatratw, -Y.A plot of the duceai~ dfic;

ME9TRIC UNITS1

..

a*

'I

-I .*

2.1

.1

001

002

003

004

006OG0

007

00t

009

0.10

Fkm 1. Redueud S*c

Impul

Vwes

Area Rato and Gomma

pulse as a function of pms-ue ratio for various y's is shown in Figure 1. The we of this chd t in

Hlre sain is a parameter that does not 1,eom a thermodynamic function of tde propellant unles

calculating specific impuls is illustrated in the


numerical example, Paragraph 7-7.

spci

Si .. Tm pUnited iahs and ansity, expIoued in u

P, States convention with respect to flant hostoe is thereore not purely a

the ati -1is specifie. There appears to be no


'. On

__

of pound-.econds per cubic inch, is known as the


volume specific impulse. If a proposed rocket specific impulse. Thus a propellant with lower specific impulse but higher density may sometimes
motor has a fixed prpennt envelope, it will 98te impulse rouhly in proportion to its volume

property.
"t. T Taoemj data

i-

quired for the determination of the abovo, arameters are the burning temperatures v constant

volume and at constant pressure, T. and T,, e-

i
spectively, specific gas volume, j, and, ratio of specific heats, -y. The burning temperatures and conpostion of the product gas arm also impor, tan from the standpoint of compatibility with the surroundings. In propellants the surroundings indude the inert parts of the heat engine which must remain intact through the cycle or even have a service life of many cycles. 7-L Spedlic gn vetho , Specific gas volume,

Outperform one with higher specific impulse and Iowe density. If the proposed rocket motor requires a given total impulse but has no envelope requirement, the volumi of the propellant, and hence the size and weight of the (inert) chambet, will be lower the higher the volume specific impulse. .Go fineds Gh 550
.as

On R.7 M I P -L p

s the number of weight moles of gas proIduced in the burning of a unit weight of propel-

-i

lant. In all cases wher only gaseous products result, M is the avenge molecular weight of the product gas. The gas volume is determined from the conservation equations for the elements * ZC [CO5 I +which (6b) H = 2[H 2 + 2[H20]+ [HClJ ZN =2[N21 (Ec) (6d) Xza = [HQJ]
IC021 + ICOJ +

where AE, is the beat of formation of product I per mole. The quantities yj are d&rived from Equations 6a-6c and various gas equilibrium equations, of the most important is the water gas equi[2]O

C2[s

= J

(13)

[H 5J + 512O1 +

In actOa systems therm may be found small

1 I~C +

Inte owegtaosof

1 ()qitoitt ofconstituent other than those dieI~~~~N2] + [HC' = V vsc sC 4 4 5 O H H 0, and N, as wefllasproducts of otber atomico (8) XN + %ZH+ za spedes "if'present in the propellant For each such qaon . e.g., is the total number constituent there is available an equilibrium corn-

carbon in a unit weight of pro-

stant Kj(7) similar to K,(7) (Equation 13) and


an estimate of its molar heat capacity. "The constants KV() and the various C,'s and AE's have been quite precisely evaluated us functions (4 temperature, T.31 () The calculation of T, is similar to that of T,, except that iiitcad of Eqltaton 10 we must use

peilant and [C021 is the number of weight moles, of C02 in the gas from the unit weight of propellant. it x, is the weight fraction of ingredient I in the propellant composition and C, the numiber

~of weight atoms of carbon in unit weigt of 1, then


2H, zN, and XCI are derived in the same way.

7.2. FkW tamperaftw Sl "et"i vakwah flaBme temperature at constant volume is de.WeminA,by solrimg the equtation
0=1C

the following
T,~
=

T1
Pj

(4

1 L IT.

ML'hJ(10)

dl

(0)

14T."C, T]Since
where yj is the mole (volume) fraction -of a prod-( uct gas consttuent 1, e.g., C02 , inthe gases

where C,, is the heat capacity at constant pressure of gas constituet 1. thalpy instead of heat of formation must be used.

burning is now at constant pressure, en-Q


= AF4

formed from the.propellant and C,,, is the molar heat capacity of the same gas constituent. The heat of expboion or calorilic value of the propellant, Q. usually expresse in caloriee per gram, is the difference at reference temperature, T. between the heat of formation of the prnducts anid

AUMO-

(15)

AflzM,.aum

X(x.AH 4)(1) (16b)

= (YA5Jf) AHVI".U~

-Q

E,.,

.2Ap~at

(1 (12s)

the weighted average of the y's of is propelant a tb(. PS constituents


__

Assuming no heat effect of miing ~AE) A4,,iaat=

=ZyIC,,,

(17)

where A&E is the heat-of formation of ingredient I per gInM. 1 AF,..1 Ij(y,4EI) (12b) 1 M6

The values of y used ame not the ratios of heat capacities at room temperature, but the ratios at ~operating temperatures of the beat engines conorei

7-5

Exc

of..

terean

_~~o

,t~

7-5$. Exact eakulaloa of tiame tenmperature ad product composition. The calculation of the flame temperature and product gas composition is done by trial, starting usually with an assumed temperature. This is an iterative process and is profitably done with a machine calculator, particularly when

The gas volume,

-,

is calculated by Equation 8,

and the force, F, by Equation 2. If T, is above 3000 0 K, a better approximation of T, is given by the relationship T,. 3000 + 6046(- (C, + 0.01185) +
[(C,, + 0.01185) + 3.308(10- 4 )(E - 500C,.)]2 (19) (

gas equilibria other than the water gas equilibrium 2 4 must be considered. Programs"have bcen
worked out for such calculations, assuming essentially only adiabatic conditions and chemical and thermodynamic equilibria, to give results of accuracy limited only by the thermodynamic data of the individual species considered. These programs also are used for calculated specific impulse on the basis of either frozen composition flow or equilibrium flow through the n~zb,. A JANAF Thermochemical Panel exists for the coordina'tion of thermochemical data and calculating procedures.

In crder to calculate characteristic velocity from Equation 3 or specific impulse f' m Equation 4 (see also Reference 17) we need the flame temperature at constant pressure, T7, and the ratio of specific heats, y, at the working temperature. The value of v,is given by the relationship"

The exact calculation, even with a sophisticated


machine calculator, is time consuming. Couse"

I + 1.987
CM

(20)

quently nearly every propellant development facility has for internal use a short-cut calculation

from wl ich T, is calculated by the equation


T,

yielding approximate results useful for screening


and program guidance. Many of the date reportd= in the literature, including some SPIA/M2 data sheets, are the results of such approximate calculations and should be confirmed by exact calculations before important decisions are-based on them. Two approximate calculations that have been used by more than one facility are described in Paragraphs 7-6 and 7-8. 7-6. Hirsefelder-Sherman calculadon." It ,. possible" to calculat- Q from additive constant; Qt which are defined as the contributions of ingredients I to the heats of explosion of propellants containing them. The Hirschfelder-Sherman calculation takes as the reference temperaturc 2500 0 K, The heat of explosion, Q, of the propellant differs from the heat required to bring the combustion products to 2500'K by an amount E, which can also be calculated from additive constants E& which are properties of the ingredients 1. Finally, the heat capacity of the product gas at 25000 K is estimated from additive constants C,, which are properties of the ingredients 1. These heat capacitie are assumed constant for the interval from

(21)

Additive constants for a number of provellant ingredients a:- given in Table 2., Constants for other organic ingredients can be estimated fromn the relationships" \M/ C, + hN, + iH 4

C,., = 1.620C, + 3.265H, + 5.1930, 4- 3.384N, (22) Q, = (-tiE)j - 67421[2C, + H4 - C, 13277 40026H-A+)5151 9 81 0, 40026H, + (23)

6724N 6724N,

20001K to 3000'K. The burning temperature at


-Amstant volume, T., is ther given by the equation ET, 2500 + L C,/7

where (-AE), is the heat of combustion of ingredient i. Within the range 2000 to 4000-K for T,, this method gives results within a few perent of the exact method. The method should not be used for propellants with T, over 4000WK as it does H, OH, and C1. It should also not be usm+d for

not allow for dissociation to free radicals, such as


conpropellants yielding a substantial amount &1* densed exhaust.

(18)

I I I II I I

I I I I

II

TABLE 2. THERMOCHEMICAL CONSTANTS FOR_ HIRSCHFELDER-MHRMAN CALCUL&TION'*

Act

16038 0.3167

2W

0.21026

Amofapicate Aq*Akn~ UD&MVP opiocim (9% M.~ CaPOOiMsO Butyl corbbo adipsto Umlyl cabaiffainu Cw~ba block

339 -2302 WHis,.1% 2.imthyI4.5-vnylpyridin

0.3213 0.2179 0.4132 0.42 0.29 0.1349 0.3M5 0.337

-117 -2305 -3133 -26V9 -I65 -3137.3 -1971 -115? -2656 -3139 -237 -2346.7 2324 -633A -3010 -2626

0.04470 0.09M5 0.11544 0.OSf U010103 0.032 OA"68 0.0155 0.097 &.1113 0.11M7 0.06330 0.04519 010"M8 0.10637 0.09941 0.121a3 0.16M5 0.10434 0.00326 0.14235 0.0605 0.09150 0.09130 0.07U7 O.0413 0.14M6 0.0"06 OA092

-ni
-1536 -1302 -3Mi

cwd em-1243 ',i ooa-1353 DWO-aWy pb'thaiate D"bwty becaft Ok ht-2612 ahmxl Dlahl h~x~aa-1760 Diglyso dinitraft I0t~OO[ehw Dkactyl phthalate Dfbnyla DM ha r~eylunll.-2270 Ether Ethyl alcolol Ethyl cmlialite Graphit OR-I rubber IBIX CycloteirameIn"eohy Lad gaa MaY ) d -2037 -1716 -2412 -3370 -3257 1321 -2000 -1827 1095
1073

-2371 -2395

0.42S3 0.5106 0.527 0.3866


0.3837

-15 -M -2684

0.3349 OM010 0.34/1 0.3-476 0.97" 0.606 0.3905 0.1349 0.57" 0.3414 0.396 J).376 0.3530 0.=05 0.5811 0.3454 0.3421

-2Ma
-2735 -2766 -3234 -40M 575 -2440 -2440
-1625

N-Mthl--ntwnl.

MO9 znfao1139 Mbmey-3302 Nitrocalfulo^e 12.6% N NitwoolAlm, 13.15% N 956 1033

377 137.7 196.9 2U3.1

SJ

TAKLE2.

CNA

2-kdbymw-1313

0.3226

-n~1

0.0411

Nkyvry chlMme PrPa~waudum


YOUakm pbrm-1380

-16 tda 1661


12fae00

0.0370 0.3240
0.13703 0.3412

-131 727
37 -61D5

.6 6 om072
0.0074 A12

doom@)o )OYV

Suc Otbw mayhtaaa pthacedn rr~~gb~.-329 iAte70

-1121 -12934 glcl

0.4341 0.3791 0.430

-21325 -1973 -39.24

M1 0.0733 0.10412

-191

o.3o3

-1810

am=

Iousum
RDnt on

me~hed

CO3ldw

qan18:2500 0.W~~

40.00 K7

136
Nitro1121d

0.341osi5 1 0.34191)-AP}M
0.040/MtA A4

0.494

late by

quti
-14

Truo(538.
lftgrdmt &racd a x.Q,

ISO4

-w

eto

wd

a prp-

538.3o69O

NI~~r~ce~0.4 BlyEmtraI ctat 00-403-0.0010

0.1635

b7y late Fr

19Aonm

F,=00 RT

0.1534519 + 0.03185)4

~~~Smu~~
x~c x~as X04
Nbovnakm O~l7 0.5 ".

~w
xml9
478

0.3451)]53.

-i5002x 8,00f-bl

85K r64*
.. .. -'.---. - .

-- -

- -. -

- - -.. -

~'.

-.

NkoIr

011

"

.11

Specific heat ratio: S1.987 x 0.03634


Iea . -

&L NMUUMW tdktaGx

MM

71

35

1.2092 .02

kw" -ofe a prpeln,,also as the calorific valuu, is measumed by burning in h


bomb calorimeter under an inert atmosphere.

(lonof

3855

Two types of clorimeter have been in commo


- 3188*K or 5738'R use. In the Boas calorimeta the loading denwity,

T, =

reduced charactristic velocity corresponding to S S., 7,= 1.2I9 is 1.540. The characteristic velocity, is thm c.4 = 1,540 Vy32.2'x1543x 5738 x 0.03634 = 4950 ~For Spcific hmpused, l14" From Figure 1, the redued specific hopulse corresponding to y = 1.209 and -PA = 0.015 is ._ i. 2.445. Th ftIC 14 Js , . i . N4 4~~ = 245 lb-so/b '74S. t sheet ml5
o te excto
SO-.ati* 1___X53_

Chiwcwtwnui velocity, 4: From Table 1, the

or weight of propellant per unit vohfue is firly Wh, leading to pressures of some thosands of pounds. T calorimeter need not be prprmrind. In a coal calorhante, the loading density is low rand in initial, inert gas Iresm of somne 200 to 300 pa is required. Both typM of caliormear
give essentially the $me vals of a.

diermochemical. purposes, the observed hsat must be corrected for the heat of condeisation of wate and for sdhida pa equilibrium, during the cooling of the calorimeter and its contetLs M6 orretIo amount to about 10 percent and many be so appxmxtated." Uncorrected cloriinetric uftilt as a quality assurance measure in volume production of propeilnts to verify dat scessive oa of propellant umufactwed to the same formula actually duplica each other within specified limits. The calodimer test can be run with much eseftadnceprciothnac ple cheml anld T procedure far the calorim-
ee of conmiderabin

0030_vlesentdwte___i,"a

I the q k i pleaity of the exact calculation for specific impulse


ple of propellans with condensible exhaust, the ABL utetho makes a number of simplifying assumnp-

S(a)

tior. Chid among them are: S No product dissociation is consdered (b) A priority system applies to the kmadon of the products. Thus, oxygen first oxidizes all W metal, then converts C to CO, then
H2 to H20, 8rid any oxypn still not used up

eOt

eti

ie

rtpsr" Cais

naNv

a values

eatetDra

omtut/red

in propellanu seldom exceed 1500 cal/g and are accordingly much les than for odinary fuels. Th obviou reason for this is that ordiary fuels dth on atmospheric oxygen for their combustion reactions, whereas propellants must carry their oxi-

converts CO to CO,. (c) Cetain latent hem are completely re-

covered durin nozl

-xpensi

dants withi themselves in order to functim in tbc absec air. g Mi b ein.e of speciut
F

The calculation can be performed with a desk


calcuator, but Is usually done with a l-ager cklcu-

Q.Cmbiniftn (25)

Equations 1 and 2 we get

bftor If available. lb of ds calculation n- as differ mxdd nsdi r by as much 3 pa-cent. The resulft do not represnt ther hfon flow
or equilibrum Mow, but agree fairly well With

w (V v--W))( t

A dirct experimental measute of F Should then

be obtained from the preure developed under exact equiibum Sow calculations adiabat condition by burnhig a weight, W, of The assumption of no dissociutio leads to arti. propellant in a ldosed dcamber of volume, V. Beft. values for r,. I;. of bd b* ~caus trulya adiabatic conditions can only be approached, w related concept, that of reladve orce, e cal daTaina of the ballistic parametm is used. If equal weighus of two propellants with is dsouseed , tho next fwy pusru phs. the same burning dm aen fired o ecutively in

10(

the sanw closed vensd at the same WWa temperatue W and (V - aW) = constant. Then
2 =rections FP--half-angle F

Unless the operating aind discharge pressure ar 1000 psi and 14.7 pdI. respectively, the me
ured I., must be corrected to those values. Cormust -or doe the amoun divergence of be the applied nozde also since of,

F1 , the fmcie of the tandard propellant, is awbitaurly assined the vlue 100 percent, & the
relative facie, AF, of the propellant under examl-

impulse delivered decreases as nozzl an& increases." The usual 0nvention for half-an* is n
15. Part of the dAerence between 1,& sad I.,

nadon becomes Sconvention p =.p- X 100% (26)

Relative force is used In quality control of Sun Opeo l m to asure u that successive lots Of the sume formulation duplicate each other. In developIng a new propellant to replace an existing one, a mealurement of relative force is useful as an

is therre due to the divergence loss. Th. 150 is unfoatuately nct always observed. Some masured I., data reported in the literature In using half-angl. to zero been corrected have ecarhalf-aSk which must identify one dat I, rection has been used.
8-. EsmPmk ealcdift of 1,, 6uum i 1. (dd) at WmmlNmdi olmsim. The followini

indication that the relationship between calculated


and d6livered forme is or is not similar to the relaionship for the known standard propellant The procedure and description of apparatus for the determination of relative force may be found in an Army Service Forces Directive.' 4 oic velocity. W.3. Meauressm t of cwuet Delivered or actual characteristic velocity, c*, is define as

data were tak

from an actual rocketiztg

A Expansion ratio, e, 2.779 Mean Obamber pressure, P, = 218 psis Nozzle divergence half-angle, a = 200 Specific heat ratio, y = 1.17 1, (del) = 201.3 lb-sec/lb The correction of I, (del) to standard conditions involves the parameter thrust coefficient, Cr,, from interior feda ballistics. The thrust coefficient, deF
_

C= w

PA ds d" P.

(27)

It is determined experimentally by static firing of a weight, W, of propellant in a vented vessel of known throat area, A,, measuring the chamber prsure as a function of time, and integrating, The JANAF Solid Propellant Rocket Static Test Panel has published" a survey of existing static test facilities and is continuing to coordinate test procedures. Comparison of c* with c.0 gives a measure of the operating efficiency of the vented vessel. In similar heat engines with simila propulalts,
-I

g!,z (29) =A c* measures the contribution of the nozzle to the rocket thrust. Since co is independent of discharge c fr any given rocket firing is a Cr constant independent of nozzle and external conditions. The thrust coefficient has its maximum value when expansion in the nozzle is to zero pressure

(vacuum) and discharge is also to zero pressure.


should remain nearly constant. T'he For any other exit pressure tho vacuum thuwt coefficent must be correctedby a term e(& It the ambient prewif difr from the exit prostsure another correction involving g must be difference between d and cO is due largely to

heat losses to the motor walls..


84. Maumam f ssseie inmihe.. Dclivuend or actual specific impulse, I.,, is defined as dV

(28)

This parameter is determined also by static firing

IP., Thrust Coefficient and Expansion Ratio Tables

a vented veel, but measuring thrust.

of which the tabulated C. is for vacuum diuchsr&


11l

and so& zra The&mpmangl dverp

pruM

m~b*

poducs

weSieofalad

is

-maebyd_____.omzd __~ ..

r-odessic

atd

M-

acua

...

hot am

NIb

in

tmeaure

m&

emoskUU

A [C, (tAbl)

About ttoehere tempraturim and ecampoultla. daames are cOdtinuous fami the iii haq prok7P.)]pebant to the products at flane tempemature, it is omIiet for analyis to break the 1ce down Foratbum, he apluingthetabe vluw it. several phase as rapresentd by Figur 2,
(p.)J +
+(a P)
-a

(I)

Ci,

1.54358
lp,

1.75284

~~ ~~

0.10 .30

bmftmnd elvms, and wftin doa far Pe-P m bwd bmd 0.21405) + OMMgU - C, (hles 14.7~ 147S 0.21405 -2.779 x
su

A. OCM WeWCL*Tf
-J

PWOI

Ia

Mom aina0v

SASAMTWS SOS Um

OMSSSS FROe M auM

~00116 1

Wils I

C, (v*1

0.983(1.75324 - 0.13856) = 1.87 Tb caned valmsofI1, stswxeadcand 14 the01ore 1.87region 201.3 x T.-316 =242.8 Rb-me/lb
if

Msudn

of thesaid.JInreglofB atlOnl*ayeoftheaa"d is bulug heated to mOlysis sempertwe, T,. In C pyrolysis is taking place and gasmm products wre being formed. The pyrolytic reactions MY aC DIY "o invOlv the forumas" Of &iqui in "mdales (tomm wone). A laye of primay nTj I pospolydcpi~dflctat bnpaabft regIon D. In segon E (fi9 zne thes-e pvawae temperature. 13 tiL[ process heated to *ignto
they*

9.0 1u of Ir~ I Heat wili be tuam Opp rieW rainlioma cOwduction and/or wonvec*@ofthsmffamofarldd MWdpropeflant m if fti smw is Sin a ioa afm .amentafly a nonconductoro heat the eated surfac zeSLV wmPy rse m gse prdu

may underg lw temperaftre rewctios of


fftba sa nldI h a

7U pa In immedite contact with the burning sm.ur-

negow F, to yiel finall bured gas at tempeaw facel wif be the wm nwdpyrolyti prod, tiare T in region ().I ucts ot the surace, at th tamperatur of prolyASi. At operati pressures in the neighborhood of Mw*oig ut fromm the surfam the games are raised several hundred pounds per square inch and tod ftheperam of dw bo mspe highe, the thicknes of the region B ftfrcag F underg reactions wamon *seives Md with the sallU prhaps of the oeder of 10-2 inches in abnmpbm o tatthe ho ta pbere matnu s By aperadizg at greatly reduced pressures Md59. fteitI asaeo equilibrinim among the wvoad chmnical species prevent. Uf the aid is a its comnbsdo product at flame temperature, tho
I w"he -i~--- o1a t311,311,4lM Usee this 8 1Weis eC. cakausd by gquatJa 21P from aswm with a vms.o moaouru lop swd e*.

owca broadn theme regos. The fom mese, exprmenets Ofthsyp. The linear rate of burnin of the monoproelant depend on fthrate at which dr, sufaew the lmaiunding comnbustion be~g heiat products. All exposeid n.4ac that cm "Wse dwn 12

7) ~ O t aw re m and thereatre burn at doe -

pmduts shoud tweleve beat al rae.U Mme brIng surface shosM srede by parallel, kqerslmisccjaduloo, known as PlobversL ' and first announced for block powder, has bee. m qcpopeilhnb under both roclod weri~hd for -bot:CaM*buso

Boom Of tlafly burned grfins It apsPol-s also to mhod for cOump*Ils prOPelants, abbNOu the 9xTim rgm of 9ieac of a bInn

Inaftcmeme fonpw olthe mIm bknown an toHem lh~ hrnae ,r. It Is usualy eapnmid Im -f icbm~ per macad. Whent ris mudgiedd by do ama of the Iuu fixfcS, and by doe dmnity we have fialy. the wiike-.- amwjhernihe 'wi. euapessd as poomad per somd Wr~ (3)

--

LOG PRESSURE
lwe& Isb.Fhom" noabnwn
forYWr =W

offt sp guih

*d composition of the Ppropilat 9-L good f prosse. lncressig fte wmu

presumrde maionship, but also many propelloft. dvaWwieYruauLTOtes4Cr.ae

~ __ Propellant. showing a nowof at arkadfly mupelanbyicreaangbednitytheaspase dmcd a, am shown in Fgua 4. ane known a mid therby decreasing the thickness of repom-D and E tbrouh which the begt umt be WIWn

in bu* lbomed bombs. and vented vessels over a period of years, mid empirica equatious in vaorim form developed by diffetm schools ot de Saint Robert equ~to Muracur equatlAn"
Sum~equel atia "
m

mured 7ue influnc of press=r has been studWa

r = bP
r =a+ bp

(31m)
(31b) okVI+6310

Nf the logP-legr relaton hor a paela is pkftte we vet a family of curves ressbfift Fplgur3 from propellant. behaving aoaco&Ru t0 Equation 31A, from which the value of b and x can be evaluat&d Mme camatmt am is tie dlope of
5m,10,000 to 50.000 Psi, nerly anl pmpdImnf follow Equation 31m, with n = approximately
LOG PSISS#JRE

0.he lAtrackte pressu l ressureo 2ine0 pd. n fores-"4 theso propellant Isenerally mrtaatfi 13

d4

o o

-$nooiaan- proellants." 7Ws behavior is shown by-

owtainniftceluomsesytempropellantsc

kI

tan I( iag sa0l amounts of lead compounds and by inae betbw e ammonshun paerhorafe coanposIim.7 Teelect ofthe loadcompounds is to incra the burning rafte in the plateau rraio and out the lIad the propellant would shlr~v a -vntual ewe coinciding with the highi pwar,;e N-ancii of

i j

j
*

the plta rplae cum &M~-owdm.im two-

Figur 4). The mechanism of plaftm 1.1rinadou hasmo brn uly ltMae&Fro Equation 31 la,

7J

frmwhich it is apparent that a low vahe of a


isdesirable in -4cet propellufts to d~eras the senstivity of the operating pressure to small ftvrat area In practical terms. a low value of x e mtm ptsdsgoflighter weight

LOS 00"51001 Frgws S. Rote.reusu


lelofthirep of MGMs

isactioni becoanca appreciable, Ofe would. ex~pec tm aterlainhip to now e th temeltu-

chambers by decreasin the requiremientfo i safety factors to take -- r of deviations o!bS,_P or At fron design values. As a low value of n isdesirable, a negtive value

or M-T

is even more desirable. Propellants wre known perature. By measuring the'linear burning rates which show negative values of n over short presa h aepesr o h aepqlata ttesm resr o h am rplata sure ranges, as shown in Figure 5.11 They am initial temperatures one could calculate r. know, he hap fom of ue urvs, s ~two propellants. In the region 01 negative slp, shnthrfeqetlosdueatosipid the pressure increase as a result of sudden expor "s(,-T.,) (34)

sur of additional burmnin surface or by partial


constriction of the throat the rawe would drop immediately to restore the balance. The close approech of the Isotherms also, contributes to, a low temperature coeffilcient of performance fair vented vessels designed to operate in thins region Cross ing of isotherms Indicates a region of negative temperature coefficient. O-L 211as o hiolmiwatmu As can be see fron the isotherm oft Figures 3, 4, and 5, the initial tmeaueof the propellant has asiae sigifian tram~nserd to the propellant surface from the combastion products were used to raise that suriat a .,uaperature 7'. at wehich vaporization, or where Y' and u are constants and T,, is a referenice initial temperature. A linear relatonship has also been noted." The existence of regions of negafive temperature coefficient described above is not consistent with either of these relationships, so the effect of propellant temperature on linea burn'eg rafte remains largely an empirical relationship. In the SPI/M2 data sheets four temperature coefficmiets may be found. Of thms the temperature coefficient of burning rafte at constant pressue, (habv)Prss curves (Figures 3, 4 or 5) using the inter. ;dmn of the curves for the different temperatures with a vertica line at the constant pressure of Interest.

elet liearbunin o th rae. f al o ~

14

-~

"

.-

noShm fm a re xokatW.mr the weeklnprearure


isno

th

-hspaae dons

ow

fis

ain

~-P n; ,

is the "port area or the exit area of the tubec


an ti*h ctra ra

P,

so

Eqaton3

no have re

siniicance.

becomea
As

Is detrmined O. pikkaily by sudo4fta rocket mnowe it difieKtat grizk ', I I Pre and dividing di known web ~m th bburing~ by iMe bringtime lo p d cn dwuat~ ~ ~ peeal ~ ~ ~ ihs ardoe ~~~o mt tumpsmme~s umupdosci oit~en K vaue M, r the saedesign at ii.. bA, men r maof c I P is OW&1Th Iap
M~tK aue

zlxy-

which is In a more coosveulemt form for use. by 1 enr.TuaimtE scle h "erosivity Coist=Ct and is a nure, fie bs urceptibilfty of a propellant to Crosion ItIr valu Is c h order of 0.5 to 1.0. Equation 35 wil be r nO~ d as a lBneW approximadk., applicable do~u range of Vas velocities, for wbich the cansteMS K, bas been developed. A theoretea treatmeat of erosioon has been based on the tramifion etet& pressre at corniataf value, v.& fow, 1-mioa Bow tD turbulent Gow of the noesh bastion productswiti the petforation. is devemumad horn the rnWm =le An erosiv burnin law &Ap the cwm for ofa.c cuirves, uaft the fth 01 -- sempessateru with 45* hes which b NO +
-ao

-orE~ltl tape

hsben&frelfo

Fabrenbel Lowde desrale tm isthe bener assmaally than g-3.but this pu M stillhs bedv onl. h. "mOL7U the peuiariwncM u Coeoielln nt yswa an aterteeitthat the leioerbring rm~all cithe paur ADb loweedf thefralrte parsapeer afvereloctype degree, usand the "exreded reion unit Ideed hA eseo lawt mafewitna a te prfraion o(1 suc + K 1~ ) WX&M at ~ llu (33) rocket sfon

taoe propellants thte.aefiebae sh wlavela hig herla . burnpa raute thwn thoe onesff. T In tis eondquaionem tioefacogstapressure and haatrstio altcnsat athrocet Iabwhe6s the mane-peeocity ofldo gmbps pftire in deoi IonteLrestt theuisersnce guwnsprelams who Charge N111 Aselp thule d iL forc g9oetr ft Of for thcet design oath popelnsther han, weretu of~a uMe ud ith eoressagre tohbe h ombustiog n

tle coaol bune1ing teprtrs amdraiteSon endepetrdentl pn ordessrteet smlandeloul ptrcerdoimce andM teop thequseremdntsn Topethis eho o"hv h (putscofmonlyconting addi-

-~elii

thttUMwbrigrt tadna cei ocyt hreevlpm~mzLI

mie y experiment. Tempruanue comucients anid erosivity constants are also properties of fthe compositions. p.51111111 of couempb sp A composite propellant has been defined as a solid propellant system. comprising two or more suli

-9

phase intimately mixed. In all important cases> with tte possible exception of black powder, one -_ of thaew phase iscontinuous and forms the matrix 911911 FILLER or bidri which fth other phase or Phases is dispersd. When a composite propellant burns, fth figure 6. Suwning of Compos*t Propellantburning surface comprises a web of bidr ild Paer Raft Faster Then Bkiner wM shepised suirface of fller meateaL Each expoed matwW abumnsat itsown flear rate at my * Siven pressure wd startingteprawandhas
____

binder and filler woul be a aoinicidance, and easily disturbed by a clianau in burnsing pressnre. In geaad the filler surface will recede faste or slower tha the binider, giving rise to an irregular and time-dmepedet boundar~y betwenrgion C and D. FIgure 6 show the case of filler burning morm rapidly than binder. Area. I shows a fier particl not yet exposed. Area U show a Wallr particle partin~y burned, while at Area III is a pocket left by a filer particle completely consumed. Tne net effect at the fatster-bring filler is to increase: the instantaneoui burning surface di the binder. We projection on a plane parallel to the original burnlug surface. By increasin the actual burning area, we attain a greater apparent honea rate, referred
SIDRFILLER

<

Fiur 7. Awin of Composite Propellantfiller Rote Slower Than Ainder follow the corresponding figure for the fasterburning phase. iu a two-phase filler-binder composite various

to the projected area& In spiteo the lower apparent burning rate of the binder, the burning rate of the composite propellant approaches the linecar rate of the fast-burning filer. The cuse of filler burning moire slowly than bbxderissdhown in Figure 7. InArea I we have *again a fier partcl not yet uncovered in Area 11 a filler particle burning at a slower rteo than the surroundinig binder, and in Are MIan hincopletely burned feir particle campleting its combusition in fth gas phase outside the pkece of
propellant In this instac the liea burning rafte

combinations of monopropellants, fuels, and oxidizner are possible. If both binder and filler areI monopropellants, regio D is all combustible mixture, although of a mixture of compositions, If the binder is a monopropellant and the filler is either oxidant or fuck region Dis acontinuum ofcown bustible siuxture containing pocket of fuel gas or oxldirr gas and a diffusloo, pmoess as well as heating must occur In region E befaire the combustion reactions can be completed. If the binder is fuel or oxidant and the Male is monopropeflant,
region D becomes a continuum of fuel gas or oxi-

ofc the composite should approximate that cf pur biod. As the liea burning ratedo the composite tends toMwthe burning rAte of the faste~r-bring plugs, itis to be expected that the temperature

diner gas containing pockets of combustible mixtare. If the binder is fuel and the fier oxidant or vice versa, region D conitains no combuatible mixture. A diffusion step h.required to mix the fuel-rich

16(

iI

_ (produce )

gas with oxidizer-rich gas before the reactions to the flame temperature can be completed. With laraer filler particle size the distance either gas must move to accomplish diffusion is longer and, therefore, the distance between region D and region F should be pester than with smaller filler
particle size. This may explain qualitatively the

detonation. This question has been and is being investigated intensively. It is presumed that burning can give rise to shock and that the shock thus produced can occasion detonation in the propellant. That continuous monopropellants can be detoneted by shock has
been well documented."." The necessary condi-

observed slower burning rates of fuel binder composites with large filler particle size. The requirement of a diffusion step before a combustible continuum is achieved is no essential handicap in a burning regime. It is interesting to

dlons are that the shock intensity be sufficiently


great and that the propellant be present in cross section greater than its critical diametew. That burning of a properly consolidated rocket grain can give rise to shock has not been demonstrated.

note, however, that propellants with this requiremeant propagate detonation in the solid less readily than do monopropehlants. The preceding discussion of the burning relatiohips applies to steady state burning and assumes no pores, cracks, or fissures with conponnts perpendicularto the burningsrfc. Two imorat problems ame Kcogaind in coinneton with burning, 9-L Probmu of miob bmlas. For as long as modem rockets have been under investigation in the United States and undoubtedly earlier else-

A theoretical study" indicates that only when the


pressure rises exponentially in a few microseconds to several thousand atmospherm can coalescec of pressure waves give rise to shock as a result of burning. In an improperly consolidated propellant, on the other hand, with regions of interconnected porosity It is compaaivey easy to attain a condition of shock which will result in detonation. Unfortunately much of the literature whnch purports to study the transition from deflagration to detonation actually reports studies of the transition from shock to detonation."

where, some rockets have exhibited a tendency to


develop irregular pressure peaks at soe ti during their burning cycles. In severe cases t has led to rupture of the motor chamber. With pressure-time instrumentation of suffently low tieconstants these pressure irregularities have been shown to exhibit frequencies identified with axial, -adial, and/or tangential vibration modes

I*.

A s

of propel-

lant is known as a grain. The exposed portion of the grain surface at any time during burning is the buming jurface. Any portion of the surface which is covered by adhered nonburning material is inibited. The shortest distance, normal to a buming surface, that the grain burs until it loses its

of the b~urning cavty Insprt

Sgiven *

Sp laoedinohside thee ov granerfoe rationradiale 1 rods"' placed inside the grain perforation, radial holes" through the web, sots" or baffles",' within the grain, and most recently by adding small qdantities of finely-divided aiuminums" to * the composition. In each case a "quick-fix" has been accomplished but no real explanation has been for the phenomenon. Considerable light been shed very recently on this question by the appreciation that the -opellant grain does not behave as those a rigid body Int in has acoustic properties similar to of the gao the burning cavity."
967. Tvaml from delogiudo. to detoamdo. With the advent of very large, high performance rocket engines the question has been raised whether and uoder what circumstances a rocket motor can proceed spontaneously from a burning regime to

nt~

structural integrity is the burning distance. The


the web. If a grain burns on only one side, as is the case with case-bonded or otherwise inhibited grains, the web is equal to the burning distance. If two parallel surfaces bum toward each other, as in uninhibited single- or multiple-perforated grains, the web is twice the burning distance. The relationship between web and burning distance is thus not single valued. The dimensions of the grain ten collectively are known u the granuaton when referred to multiple-grain or bulk charges, or as niurinwnre mdtasngeri. A grain that maintains its burning surface constant, or approximately constant, during burning has neutral geometry. Simple neutral geometries include sheets, squares, or disks with webs small compared with surface dimensions or with edges inhibited, long tubes, or tubes with ends inhibited.

17

1',

A grain whose burning surface increases during the burning has progressive geometry. Ex~amples

of progressive geometry are tubes with outer nur-(


face inhibited and burning only on the perforation surface, also grains with multiple perforations. A grain whose burning surface decreases as burning progresses has degressive geometry. Such geometries incude 4,heres, cubes, also cylinders and cords of any cross section. The burning surface is plotted against fraction of web burned for several geometries in Figre 8-14. The portions of the grain remaining at burn-through, shown shaded in

)
,,~'

IMe 0MIrnM WIN

Figure 10. Star-Porforated Grain

49

ai
I-" "aNE

Fiue1.SndTb

ri

FRCINo
A.LN US

UE

EINNTDTB.MT

Idu

TUK

SUKMUTORTON

INTERNALTE BURNIN

DA

Figure9.

NeudandSel Geoeraiyiue1.Pogesv

-7

11-1. Camn.Te pressure-time relationship in a


. gun .ignition N .level, ie shown in Figure 15. The propellant on starts to burn essentially in a closed chainber. When the pressure has built up to a sufficient known as shot-start pressure, the frictional and other forces tending to hold the projectile in plare are overcome and the projectile starts to move. As the projectile moves the volume of the burning chamber increases, requiring generation of more gas to maintain the pressure level. During the early portion of the projectile travel the quasiconstant vo'tume of the burning chamber permits continued pressure build-up. By the time the proequal to the diameter of the gun tube), the rate of addition of volume has caught up with the rva of generation of gas, and the pressure has attained its maximum value, The remaining portion of the propellant is consumed at decreasing pressure, after which the gases expand adiabatically until the projectile leaves the muzzle. The entire cycle is accomplished in a matter of milliseconds. The gun cycle can be fairly precisely analyzed, but the analysis is complicated and requires innchine calculation. It is obvious that the numss rate of burning is very high and that the propellant must have either a very high linear b,,rning rate or a very large burning surface (Equation 30). Because propellants do not have very high linear

egms Figur 13. Mu/ue4.Pmfrfratd Cylinder

owl

Figures 10 and 13 are known as slivers, The terms neutrality, progressivity, end degressivity are also applied to thi, weight burning rate, W1. Since i' is proportional to bcth linear rate and burning surface, factors affecting the rate can affect the progressivity just as well as can geometric factors. In this sense a dual-composition grain in which the first compocition exposed burns S more slowly than the second can be progressive in spite of a degressivegeometry. b Sucan h grainsva used for small arms cha'ges. The slow-burning outer composition is created by coating or applying a plasticizer to the outside of the grain and causing it to penetrate enly part way through the web, leaving the interior of the web unchanged. Dual-composition grains may also be used in

. V

rockets to create a boost-sustain situation. In this


case the fast-burning composition is first exposed and the slow-burning one later. Erosive burning is sometimes used to speed up the early burning of a normally progressive geometry and attain essentially neutral burning. Finally, pressure changes that affect the rate contribute to progressivity. In this sense all closed bomb burning is at least initially progressive, regordless of geometry, and

. IJ a

e
FRACTION Of UsE meUwMM A
M

burning of a progressive or degresaive geometry in a vented vessel is more progressive or degressive than is Indicated by the geometry.
1L d.dmfddq of ms ma. Let us now con-

sider some of the operating cycles for engine, in which propelts m used.

9
19

WMEM, CU

Figue 14. Degrenive Geometry

Q2)H

Pf.55U16

rmi Vge.
GUN

ACLATIONGNP NJ

PRE11SIU11-

TIME RELATICOS9NP IN sun

fir
bri ng rae-vna wih prole u hereuimntofa of acom-atn rsuew er ar elf sdae.Th a chpo-ieqikes

I&GnId
h kw m.Frqaiycnr bmb(Fgre 1 * upss 1) a iiSi yei area oc

aogvtterltv

in it.

onCia

e idgnprplat

Gin vru

rsue Tet

poeln

sBa in

buroipg whates zreven ateM gun odd preo-rs are let thergun. F q" as tye rontio pros Esrth e geoettrichprogesm ofte mammdetn ap chrg strqicnspsQ oon lsu ih eaiv oc eemnt (tePrgahR2.Inti chambwere charrdges at hide an Itesuacin the gunW Cpresue The utest pop telcan frdI aut is charges. vlcmaisoy withou thcedstandar pwpeinsu and lrQ scharessul fminded musipld~rsie cord Teuroe ahre, hargeve ar, hai.l ladvnaed, gun pro- tin TCIe ideal caaputsthoul raio o a t costn presavt corge nlalbreotnimd p flng btendps soeresw esret afod fosataclrtor. the tdeat tor oshf aheproschiongo the pull prengrethofa lther- propellati torv for tetam c drato t oshne or ior mahine-loadedeor, theso aelasinle aunin vlmulipe '~ 8 h s uvemyb~sdt th e harge i to a num e er sgrinslethand bydkeeI it in oneliceande wer indgsprefre.Oopellan versus

Tepractice ith nt Sttsn&Agn a propellant harge for a now gun or in designing a new propellaunt charge for an existing gun is to select a propellat composition on the basis of its forc, F, and flame temperature, T., and estabMthe optimum granulation empirically. Having established a given lot of prorellant ai the standard, additional lots tha are manufactured must match the standard by actual compairison firing in
20

progressivity oftecharge. Itmay b bevnot only that an extremely high progresivity is required, but that the required propressivity is not linear, For personnel catapults there is an added requirement that the rate of acceleration, &,(jerk) not exceed a specified value. This sete an upper limit on the slope of the rising portion of the pressure-time curve, Figur 18. Catapult grains may be desgnd in the form of multiple-perforate

I'96

AND
MEZOKECTRC GA

TIM

a Mau='~m
it lIENS *~

K USaM o PRUN Si-Ainsc umn mmw


to 40-000

ill V. o w

a-S

AN

VAI. E av WITH

r~a

Figure 146 Csdl.Asml

figur

. 1.

co

o"Rcr

I.".21

At

thi

pon-ntedp

Lprmts

-be

~Iis chosen

selected. For this eozpe 010 propellant (oft SPIA/M2) which hotheUbelwiqg characteristic I.=212 lb-aeoc/lb at1000pda sod optintaM

IXC,
TIME

0.00741

OR TRAVEL
-. -A

r-

r 0.27 at 1000pu"and 70F a 0.0557 lb/Ins Ahmeprmmeis now chnn inntherem Sime of plateau bung ofc this ptpellaont so dudt dung.. in the burulug surface of the propellant will cume only minimu variations In pressure -and fthusL The pressur selected Is 1000 p.1. Becaue of heat loss to the rocket Lator and

3~o

propellant required IsI


212(0.95) 193l

FRACTION OF SLOW DITANCE

W=-=ta

20

= 9.93 1b/sec(_

Figure 11. Cwatpult Cycle

At a chamber presur of 1000 p.1*


9.93

othballistics ofthe catapultis given in rqxnrt


by the Atlangtic- eseactCroantmassrteulo'

or

D,

1.34 in

for a rock-t moter propellan charge usually ilse mass rteo of discharge required to Import the design thrust, and for the design duration which may be froaItea Of ilflec dto tesisofaconds. The burning presure shoud at beast WWIIoumatea constant level. Thispressure versus time so xothe ab burning of arockst Sralnusualy sesmbi.s Fiure 19. A rocket moto is required to m~antain an aveagesea levul thrust of 2000 lb for 20 mec at ad4esip operating temperature of 700F. The total inpulm, L,required is 20 x 2000 or 40000 lb-u. 22

--

---

fig"e I9. R..*.e Meter Cycle

TM

IM

I1
I

a T obtais ratio 11W epimm ealcn frir fte Tfrnt Coeljkim ed Expartlo Re TaN*O$ is found to be 8.4:1. Thgietr A. = 84(1.40) = 11.75' in* Da = 3.87 in propllant surface during burning is

Continuing with this design, the surface area withot lotsandwith de endsothe gainuinhibited, is i S =2 - (ij )(ODS - ID') + w(IDXL) = 2(0.785)(12.442 - 1.642) + 3.14(1.64X29.8) = 393 in, The surface of the sots Is therefore

s..

.9"30o57 9

659 in2

s.,.. = 659 - 393 = 266 ins


Using four slots at 900, 5.40 in hgh, ar,4 0.10 in wide the dot lnt becomes 5 4a 6.15

S-=7p=r.r7X0.0357)
Yf a neriy neutral tW is desired, then the surshould be as constant as po&face Le.. , burning =$,$=-- S.. T7U ipopednt bur2ning: O during disace is equal to
Ft.

= (0.2IX20) = 5.4 in

Disregarding the void volume ot the dots for the

this point smu type of Sran design, such a star-type, dotted cylinder, cruciform, rod and as At
tabs, etc., should be Initially chosen. The design cylinder. a dotted be met with canparamete requirements is the desin in prain An important nW*iof/the port ame in an Internal burning gr'ain to the nozzl fthoa amr, For ths illstato the ' t.5:1 ratiobunn is set atof thefte minimum grain.* of ~to Invent erosive ~ port-to-throat re Thereore the port aa At.
=

momsen

S = 3.14(1.44)(29.8
-

6.15

3.4)

714 ins Within the accurac of the calcultions this design appears slightly prolvreve. The volume Of the slob is Y .55,0(.)4 "1. n

'

1.5A4 = 1.5(1.40) = 2.10 ins

L = 29.8 +

the port area will result The use of a minimum nveopem he in o~t tnuu~e p~ibe ocket th soe.lWith i~ siaceenelode 1or

n an actual problem the desin, should be in checked for undesirable variations of burning surface by plotting the calculated burning surface as

13.3 (0.785)(12.442

1.64')=299i

29.9 in

motor. WIth a por diameter 4i 1.64 in and ac


o5.40 in, tho outer diameter of brng stanc e the propellant is 12.44 in. The volume of propellast required is W S The requiredhs
3560_=

198.5 0.0557

360

sgrain

a function of burning time. Final verification of the design would be acomplished by fabr.-cation and stati test of the grain. While It is comparatively easy to design a rocket to fit the performance requirements of a design. problem, it is often quite another thing to

At the grain into the required envelope. Whre


29.8 in
a gun charge designer can select a propetlant coan

(o,78SX12.244 - 1.64') is I I diipo work the porwo-aot am s sowo as I"p to 1:1. emoepfti erOSIVO 920l frsqeul IM. b " ias eary ets" of bains (until te pan-sf the pMRoehnt will sratio equas 1.5),.s paoti the I P be at a ow ran fs amal omeMrY must CoMPests fo tWa M "sdts Sma
U 6dpd poMlm b a ds mn ,u dk,l,

position and determine the proper granulation, a


rocket charge designer is often forced by envelope requirements to start with a grain gomety and develop a propellant compositWon to dive the requlrod burning rate. For this reason there are nearly as many active rocket propellant comrpoulnir. tions as there are rockets. The propellant geomctries and significant performance parameters of 23

o em bnaseelblo.

*
I I I II I

a
I I

most solid propellant rocket motors used by the Uailed SWa=e milltaiy services me sunumariued in
SIA Jlo, dwanua."p.

1111110CE

1. J.Censer, ThaoWy Of $A*. interior BefWasIC9 of GOOK, 101. John Wiley & Saw, Int., Now Yoit6 New

flow.rste, or (0)a specifi gas horepower. In additin., a maximum Sat Impmware is usually sped1.4d, and the exhanet gum finn the propellant mmtbsclmii.S
11.4~~ee f A pbgm Asosme a gas generaor must be deudped to provide 20 gas horsepower for 30 secoods The saunimum allwamble Same tmperature T, .is

Vanisaksrc&Iiov BXckst Propubom6 Elseier PubOdkbh Ca~any, Ibc Neer York~ New Yodk. 1960.

114.

~~ ~

~in

~6.

Q. Crama Inn.,, hiliuk (L.bkek At, Reaftdk 3d. 2). mulles Springr, Dcliii. Omamany, 1925 F. L. W.Harnk Niter, interal ahWakn. Phllas*phi dLOay, Ubem hnc. New York~Now Yoak, 19"I. 7. 0. P.Sko., Rocket PrpulIsonELremnMn Ax introdmemtione the Enulwawln of Rocket. 2nd edldos. John Wiley &Sams, Inc. New York. New.York, 1956. MbWevsaryRoktUadqBW~ioDrl-Praed L. ILtN. Double-3m Pi'up.Uunt a Pu"l McGraw-Hil lNook Coaopsa, Ine., New York. Now York, 1950. 9. M. Bann*, st 4L, le. cit.. p.911.

19OD-L 00K propellant (wseSpIAmw), which sista the lemperature requkvesnett, has the Uo]bug chawscerilimw
To

T= 125 188rK = 3398R


AV*nenmk

1 m 0.04576 =oh r =0.28 in/see at 10lXia P =0.055 lb/ins


If the nw~zie eut pressmare is 50 p"la subsV~t~tt in Euadw5

10. Alw allistis Lkboralgy, Gsors Wosblsgun P. U. Unhlfti. cit. 11. F.D.Resmlal. D.D.Waeuaa, W.R Evans,S &aLevin
ad L loft, SelenWe Vebiw of Chpkul Thermo. Properslea. Cl~ule of doe Naiosal Durems of 3"nnards SK0 U. S. Govrwrma~n PuIstin Ofcik, 650 campgtr, Allied _-4q"~u Cbrpepogua, Geg.wa Chemical Divone, 16 Afsy 1960, C=WeA1
i

y SLyA" L~ wWO.A.Redds, Rcker Pmpedm I2erornuafte COMPSWIeiOa ?PoMau fr SAW IBM

1343x 338
20

~DA-30-06-ORD-263L
and Thom"ke EwhAskeo of Ammer Pvrwwqe Conmpeaftlow, WADC TR-396737 (Pry-

4 xa2 x14 xo3n


550

.25?ropelmto

0.04 \1000J

4. ~ 145),Wdsh Air Dsvelopmef Caner, Daytoes 14oinlt Army-Navy-Ai Foss MA Une PuasI om Pae-

If~brec rit Caauhl fowIscertaineqrdth mas vowsetic aboe. f auns roeds d-an maIsdeind dni* a ecnvre oaA flow~ ~ Univer, g sity.Sler lam of bP CON~muh Pasw~, 15 WSbnk mstem Lab. Swaq'asus 57 1 0. Hkssmny salidc 1',X.05 dolsn0 Dailbam"A Lahorse, fore Wu0senaw
Iihwe*, NDe. A-101, OM. 93275.192 Appi. 1937)Th Apoow

0.kb

Phyic

Jhm

~ aadmC ~ Qe-0254u, ~ rasinsn h 16 eetgs law


R, (7

Th ppeat is~twb .4 n.Meprpllnt

CNFE~AL(IAA~rctNo 0024,

~~~~ kusth

~ ~ is)R -0 ~pdss ~ SD93(das

(.

20. Allsay Ballistics Laboratory, Hercule

Powder

Company. un1publ"e (10ta. 21. C. 3 A. Or%* sad A. M. Job Th Af oedu C. A. Orick an A. td. a o s, pelkABL/P-I, T A P frCalculation of he I. o Propec. lleants WRalYiadc is Cotar sel Exhaus Produc1 Allegany Daniells
LAW ON?,ra Powder Co "y. ABL/X-34, March I959, Contract NOrd 16640, CONFIDENAbraat o IY54).CONFIlDENCTIAJ, S 1064). No MAL (VIA Abstract9 22 1. Corsr, Sm. ci., p. 128. P36. 23. Saasslud Merhodir and Prmcedures for the Deerml. nation of Heat of Explon of Rocket P ellant Pow4,Na um~ o Otuaae, NAVOMJD OD 9375, $ June 1953 (SPIA Abstract No, 13,316), 24. Army Service Forces, Proof Dbatve 12, Jrd rev. Amk,12 Feb ry 1946. 25. Joint Army-Navy-Air Force Solid Propellant Rocket

35. W. H. Avery, .

$827, January 1946, CONFIDENTIAL (SPIA Abstract No. 0514); S. Zauawhlnsk and It F. Pro"kel, Strand-RAte SalLotk Steaas of Pkvnpampy. impea"-Ti Propellats, Hercules Powder NOrd "N, ABL/P-13, Doesbe 1948, C . qay aroyOo W

RAnte Stundies of DonWe-fter Powdler, Allow" RatLaboray, Georep Wadilhglom Untnvely,

RHnt anM U. N. Doolh BDwxi

Aleay BallstcsLaorat, uneor


Universiy, loc. cit., p. 45. . ff. Gos

ashngon

Polowa, avyDepartment, Bureau ofOrnce

37.

and R. F. Preckel. Strand Aret BaUlto Char$3udin Piatsu-Type Propellants. Po IV. Allegany acrre ot Laboratory, of Var~ious Balsi Bafo33) Hercule Modi~rs, Powder Company,

Static Tsoo Panel, Dewfptioa of Stak Test Faik at Plak ekt Oranizadowu, CONFIDENTIAL,
Sofid proplht 1
MarylaE.t nA. ARdepoon P. M. Ku.

. Appid y mmtiona Labeesory. The Johns Hopkins U11feraty, Silver 26. F.

ABL/P-25, April 1955, Contract NOrd 10431, CONFIDENTIAL (SPIA Abstract No. 15,209). 38, J. Comner, o. cit., p. 73. 39. F. T. McClure, R. W. Hart and J. F. Bird, o564d Propellant Rocket Motors as AcoMtc OillAdtorx, Applied Physics Laboratory, The Johns Hopkins UnlNOrd 7336. T -d Con.trc -Th ffect of Turbulen an Heaopm. 40. i. Corner, oe Recto Rafts" Trans. Faridy Soc., 43, 633 (1947). (Summarized in J. Corner, Theory of the Interior BailiUtis of Guns, p. 74, John Wiley & Sons. Inc., Now York. New York, 1950.) 41. Roam & Hass Company, Redstone Arsenal Research Division, Quarterly Progress Report on Interior Bat. l2H. lReport e, No. P-$4-9, 15 April-IS July, 154, Conttact W-01-021-ORD-334, CONFIDENTIAL (SPIA Abstr-act No. 14391); 0. Robillard and 3. U. Leroir, The Development of a New Erosive Durmln Law, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technoloy, Bulletin of the Thirteenth MUstl of the Joint Army-Navy-Air Force Solid ProslUt Group, Vol II. p. 441, CONFIDENTIAL, Solid Propelant Information Agency, Apr lied Physics Labora. tory, The Johns Hooks Uni'. If V .y S.-prin-l.

hvpellant opm t. Part survey atkx of sofid oem a I-be~ lesttuc of Curn Methoilt, Southes Report 3K 287. 31 January 1959, CONFIDENTIAL (SPIA Abstract No. 19191). 27. F. I. Malhna, ", i of te R Motor Unit and on the Theory of fl'Uct Gases,". F'anIam Inst.. 230,433 (1940). 2 H.n. 3. SRiert TaI. Crum, Thrust o enTand Expension Aao Tab, Remo Wooldridge Cporo tion, Guided Missile Research Division, 29 February 19*56 (PIA Abstract No. 17368). 29. IL Muraour, "Surl; loin de combustion do poudre oolildales. 3' note," Bull. soc. chim. Fraone, 41, 1451 (1927); Ibid., "ur les lols de combslton dea poodre colloldales. 4 note," Suit. evc. chim. Frace, 47, 261 (1930); Ibi., "'ur une thorle do k corn-

bti

rend., 19%227 (1931); H. gursoar and W. Seu4. i.Aoi Dvopetoimrl-,LqSod 42. A. LAntonio.Drvakme Intermd-Prnix:Soli reacher, " ,ite se d o co m bu to d os po udin oolP ropel aw Aoekeu , A sr f * Ge a C a por atio n, o ae is lm l, MAsms Report L3032135-2, 16 November 1930. poodrea, 27, 87 (1937). (Summarized In J. Cotner, CONFIDENTAL (SPIA Abstract No, 10731). loc. cit., pp. 43-3.) 30. B. L Crawford, Jr., C. HueM and 1.L McEbrady, "The Mechanism of the Burning of Double-Ban Propeliats" J. Phys. C#em., $4,854 (19S0). 31. Piobset, Traift "Aritlkrl 1339 as cited in 3. Taylor, Sol PropellantapW Erotehenr. Comrposition, p. M, sPub~hrls, Inc., New York, Now York, 19"9. I99. 32. J. Taylor, Solid P .. J t and Ezowhrmk ComposiAmn.p. 56, sa Publishers, oc., New York, New York, 1959. 33. U. Skm rleld, Dmlnt Mchanism of A-nsOnMim Perachata PrIpellats. Part II. Thewy of Burning of a Copst ,L Propellant, per presented at Amnwicas Rocket Society 13th Annual Mmeting, 17-21 November 1 $S, New York. Ntw York. A 4. Cose, lo. ci.. .71.

a& van eJoe, do pooures co!Wdalr." Compt.

Mryand,

Ice. ct., p. 4~)43.

l. . hi-Propelient Racheta. mental Studies of Vn-aboe Numg o .eoplax f Pope o Atus nero Ceoporation, Repop t 606 (Final), 4 June 1952, CONFIDENIAL (SPIA Abstract No. 1211". l Invers, w ilalmot Vosbie Asxoe 44. Co. ILIe. gurn,, Allegany olllstics Laborntry, Hercais Powder Company, ADL/UPI 46 (p. 7 of Motly progrss Report 46), I Auput 190J, Contract NOed 10431,CONFIDENTIAL (SPIA Abstract No. 15$12). 45. It, L. Lou sad It. C. Krlger, Efect of Chemkel Add.dies on Unstable Darni, Asrojst-General Corpora. tim, Aerojet Report 1.?79411., -19 (16 Octlor-15 December 1937). 10 January 1917, Contract NOrd 16819, CONFIDENTIAL (SPIA Abstract No. 111003).

L P. Smith and D. F. Wpenger. Devel~opmn of


I.e

1'

25

46. V. PbMNdmkr Daub""iu CmW Prmpdbs, AWAIm nmatef Fbi mud Eqdguw Nwd Dhlfup MWI sw. Neval hrowln Gmead, Report 834. 11 Ampst 1951, CONFIDENTIAL (SlIA Ab@rnc No. 11121) Dl~bIOO QmugyteE PPV0'BU Repor an A
Mid

511 1 L B.IMh Jr.. C. U. Iupn m i T. W"hh Molrk Tda ME&2thad-c~ Swab Tat VaNu.m A DAvi, df PvowlAe ~w " 13, iad &whimuv Pebo ivy 13. 111W. Q GkrOS Wurik, Numbs
51. M. L. DlI. 1. Mill, I. Walse mud A. Q. Seamek.

n- i

Dd~s ~cm-womwen Smoinof sw Pmomwlt keds of fts Twaft Memig at do. Joint AmytNavy-Air Fia SMi Prupsilau Oru. VOLLUP. 11t, CONF1DW41aL~fd ftprqlhdw Jimadm Apacy Agplld Plquc Labmna7. Tim Jobas Hwbs Ui~averity. Sasprigs Mavylmudim.dm"

Veisi

&Wd P#.&r Catplw July194, Contad t


10e21, 14.403).

mud A. C. Uwdoek, A.4


-r

prm fhw

C0141&W IAL OK
o~ .Bb

r
o

~b

d-o

Ieo
Coo dom smd

Vai.

SolMid Prelu

1.iS, Jawud,4%

IJE Pha 31,

IM/u

l CNFpIDENTIAL;w

doMM4Uf fcm wr
Sownli Propub Upcks.~ Maxbsd

UMj

26

. . NOW,-.....

3-

-N"

CI)
ing on use.

PHYfSiAL PROPERTIES REOUIREMNSM


measured on bulk gun propellants as th wegt of Propellant required to fill a cotaier when charged at a specific rate frm a
hopper at a specified heiSht.1 (The density o Po-

ballistic requirements depending on the uses so which they are put, the phyiad Properties m quiresnts ot propellants will be different depend13. Deaity. Since in a solid propellant beat engine the propellant is always contained within
the engine, the propellant must have a density high enough that the charge can be so contained. Two factors enter into the determination that the charge will fit Into the chamber the density of t epro-

pellant as loaded into cartridge cam can also be deterd.e4 ) datum is influenced not only by density
and dimensions but by the smoothness of tine stn r absenc o tiling from the cutting operation. It is used as an *that tie required charge weight can be contained
___

u t lt volumetric ,,:i pelant itself, pekt and the effcincy athe of the charg Seoetry or the fraction of the propellant envelve occupied by propellant.
The density of a propellant is calculat

in the catridge case. rtigcae

M. Hypscepiclty. Most propellats contain


cw MOitUntsthat are hygropic and this property

om

the densities of its ingredients, assuming.ao volume change s a rult of mixing. I - -- ,(38)
P

is passed along in some degree to the propellants. The m.chanism of sorption and desorption of hyg~Mmscpi moistur probably involve a rapid attainmeat of the equilibrium, dependent an ruetdr, humidity, at the surface of the grain followed

In the cas o i propellant undergoing reaction during the mixing opeation, as is the case

by slow difftusion within the grziu. The effct of hygroscopic moisture is the sume as if the formula

of many fuel binder composite. the ingredients include the acton products (.#.,, polymers) and
not the reagents actually charged (monomer). In the case o a propellant manufactured with inclusion of a volatile olvent later substintially removed, that portion (residual solvent) of th: solvent remaining in the finished propellant must be considered an irgredient. Densiry can be measured with a mercury dispacmt-ent volumeterl or with a pycmooeterl or, more roughly, from the weight and dimensions

contained the same fraction t I water.

Hysroscopicity of propellants for cannon is defned as the equilibrium moistur%; content at 90 percent relative humidity and 30 0C temperature. For small ums propellants hygroscopicity is defined as the difference between the equilibrium moisture contents at 90 percent relative humidity, 300C temperature and at 20 percent relative humidity, 30C temperature. The procedure for small arms propellants' involves successive exposure of the same sample to controlled humidity atmos-

.4

at the grain. Comparison of the memued density


with the calculated value gives a measure of poros-,

pheres, whereas for cannon propellants' a single


exposure and a chemical analysis for nwisture are

ity, cracks, and fissures in the propelant. Microsoc Individtul pores, as around crystals in comprste structures, have no app1vnt effec on the burning of the propellant, but cracks and fissuns contitte undesirable burning surf that case exces pressure and interfere with che k&.'uled m burning rate, and Inter=o eted Sentr poroiy can lead to detonation. In monoprope;-

required.
Hygroscopicity of propellant charges loaded in engines has been coitrolled by hermetic sealing of the engine or its shipping and storage container, or by loading a desiccant either into the engine or the shipping container. Hygroscopicity of individual grains has been minimized by formulating to a wininamum content of hygroscopic material and

laits measured density is usually very close to calculated density. In composites a difference of mwre than 2 percent indicates troule. 27

in the ca of coated grains by building a layer of material of low permeability into the surface of the grain.

mm1)
-~

.1

~--

,.L CeeffsW et thadSmi aqwinlm. At the lmve of about 10-4 per degree C. the thermal expansion acdlcivt Is01 little moment to multipleVrain harps Fix sinpe-grin charges loddinto chambers at small charancus cae must be taken between grains sod to ify tha the claanesm oto nil disappear in the upper range of sotoage firking temperaturos because of the diffeient apsincoefficien ts of propellant and cluamber maeeti-L 3W this e~n fth cbsmn wanl wol -ot dram an the grain cau~ng it to deform cc even fracture. If the grain is enclosed in a rigid Inhbitr, oeficintsci he he~n . Inbl~~ sboul match as closely as possible for the same reason. If the grain is to be case-bonded to th chamber, it is not ordinarily feasible to match the expansion coeftiointi; and the grafn musm be formulated to acept the strsat due to dilkiemdealpas L1. 17. Tflid easasdty. Propellants pme in geneall very powr conuc=tmorat heat. This propay is a useful act for ballistic design, as it cani be s~afey Ssumned that the unburned portio ci a graidn,will remain at its initial temperature throughout the combuealon process. On the other hand, in a larg grain the time required to bring the propellant1toL unifoyrm temperature following a cAnge of environment may be several hours or eve days dedngon ftmperatmr differential, while it contains a teperature gradient, the rate of gas production wil reflec the teprtr dient Thermal Ff k fornm too rapid chang from very cold to very warm or vimc vers may lead to cracking of the grain. The Inteior of grains stcu'd in mnitions In otcwms falsby awvide Whrin to attain the maximum diurnaltempewrcatue. 1,I M~WW u~n PraPsA6ls ThM 10"U~nklda properties of proelafts mumt be such as to enable thin t0 Wlthetkd the aOCAcNaam load Imposd shipping, kandling. -d MWg Theis toquirommut difir whhly from one cigine to anPhysical Strngth other Methdw for meamisui wad deformaton ane reviewed by ftb 4ANAP Pane on Physical Properte of Solid Propellants and raported In the publ-icatof dot podt. Numerca vialue below we as ieamvad by Standard JANAF teas.8 Reoute Is such tet an strong fmetadons of the rais of loading, propellants gPnSpern troaWu with higher rate of Icederaiy

ieg. The rates of loradng in actual rocket moairs vary freer low rates during sWrage due to fteperature changes to wry high rates during firnW JANAP mechnica propeties tes data one sk the compare propeliante ulficant to the etenttat dy une tes conditions and Amp* tha the same comnpainion will be valid under operatin conditions. mi tf 11 hh~I~ is important fmt racket grains supported at the head cnd during acceleration. Fat othe apia 61003 it Is c acat i intfetav or peurhp usefu a a quality control measure to unnm that sccusselt tagvnpoelatrsml ahohr Tensile strength ranges freom about 10,000 pounds pe square inch for Straigh polmer manoproetIWns to below 50 paounds per squar Inch for ae casebonded Propellants. I" Skgafts~ In tension Cuec-bonded grains must deform to accommodate changes in dimewsios of ilmir containing cases with changes in temperature. Althugh nrquirements MaY from. rocket moto to racket motor, a minimum of 15 percent elongation at rupture, at the loweststrg or operatting temperatur is a typic requirement for a case-bonded propellan in a large rocket. Many such propellants have reported values of 50 to 100 Percent elon"Ptlcn at nornal ambient temperature. 18-3. Mefth k fsssla. A low vahue of moduIns is required ot case-bonded grains in order to Avoid distortion of the case or rupture of the adhesiv bond when, the ruiotor is cooled. A typical value fer mrodulus of a case-bonded propellant is 30 to60 pounds per square inA per inch per Utch, Ct dl nensionaf pounids per Now" inch. Ufltimate tensile eSftrgd clongation, and modolusu anal determined in the same test.' A tes Ws~tal[Woo IsOw in igure 20 and a testreord indicatin ft. derivation of data in Figure 21. 164 Srsum rslmzdsa. It is adviffitageous In a cusibouded propellant far fthstreses Produced by distortion to be relaxed as the grain eae accommodated to Its new envitunment so that resd"a stresses will amt lad to cracking inars of -1es concentafton. The property of relaxation under tensio may be measured by measuring the tensil sires at fixed elongation as a unti"onf. time.' 28

-ub

PROPELLANT SAMPLE

( LOAD CELL
(a) STRESS-STRAIN RECORDER 0 RECORDER CONTROLS (@)CROSSHEAD CONTROLS

(D SAMPLE GRIPS Q MOVABLE CROSSHEAD FIXED CROSSHEAD

Figure 20. Tensile Test Sefup

29

16*

figure 21. Tensile Ted Record Showing Derivation oO ultimate Strength, Elongation, (Reaw curve from right to left)

and modulus
4

30

11

1M-5. Cree. A lower limit on tensile modulus of case-bonded propllants is set by the requiremert that under its own weight the propellant not deform so as to decrease port areas or substantinily change shape and dimensions. Whethsr such deformation is elastic due to too low modulus or inelastic due to cold dow it is known as ceep. Creep has been responsible also for departures from design ballistics of cartridie-loaded rocket ,Ains. The best criterion fcr assessing the tendency to creep still appears to be experience. 18-3 Compressive strength. Cartridge-type rocket grains supported on traps or otherwise at the noule end are subjected to compressive stresses during firing. The mognitude of such stresses and, therefore, the compressive strength to withstand them can be computed for any instance from the designed acceleration of the rocket. Compressive strengths of propellants are usually of the same order of magnitude as ultimate tensile strength, and for design purposes the tensile strength of the propellant is frequently used with suitable safety factors. Compressive strength can be readily measured on equipment shown in Figure 20. 18-7. Deformado. at rupiture In comspression The most severe stresses on a gun propellant occur during ignition when the grains impact on the cartridge case or chamber wall and on the base of the projectile as a result of having been accelcrated by the igniter gases. If the grains shatter in such impact, the added burning surface leads to excess pressures in the gun, Redesign of the igniter is the usual remedy, but the propellant is required not to be brittle. The test specified for brittleness is deformation in compression at rupture. Unless otherwise specified the required minimum value is

strength at the bond between the prcpellant and the case. Per unit cf propellant lengt', neglecting the perforation, the weight of the propellant under acceleratimi and therefore the total shear o w inches, p the propellant density in pounds per cubic inch, and a is the acceleration in g's. The total shear force is appiied over an area of ,rd. The required minimum shear strength, in pounds per square inch, is = !pa 47rd 4 Procedures for measuring shear. have been reported." 18-10. BrifMle tamperaie. For many plastics the second-order transitionv temperatuie" signals the onset of brittleness. This appears to be the case with cawe bonded propellants. It lhs not been established that the same significance of the second-order transition temperature holds for cartridge-loaded propellants which perform well at temperatures considerably below that of a secondorder transition. The second-order transition temperature may be measured" by noting a break in the curve of specific volume versus temperature or an abrupt decrease in mechanical properties such as impact strength at that temperature.

30 percent,"6 18.. Modulus In compresalo. For cartridge-

loaded rocket grains the deformation due to compression during acceleration must not be great enough to cause significant departures from design geometry. This fixes a lower limit on the permissible value of compressive modulus. The value of

this l t has not been prcisely evaluated as high values oi compressive modulus usually accompany
the required compressive strength.

MFENCFS 1. C. 0. Jackson, "A Mercury Displacement Volumeter." J. Sf.4 ntr., 6, 261 (1929). 2. MIU-ST-286, Propellants:Samplirg, Inspection and Testing, Method .10.1.1-Spelfc Gravity (Pycncmeter Method). 28 June 1956. 3. MIL-STD-286, Propellants: Sampling, inspection and Testing, Method 502.1---ulk Density, 28 June 1956. and Sampling, Inspection 4. MIL-STD-286, Testing, MethodPropellants: 507.1-Density of Loading, 28 June 1956. 5, MIL-STD-286, Propellants:Sampling, Inspection and Testing, Method 503.1.2-Hygroxoplclty, SmallA rms Propellantu (EquilibriumMethod), 28 June 1956. 6. .MIL-STD-286, Propellants: Sampling, Inspection and Testing,

18-9. Sho propesita. Case-bonded grains are stressed in shear during acceleration. The weight
of the propellant must be supported by the shear

Propellants(EquilibriumMethod), 28 June 1956. 7. J. N. Sherman and H. M. Burns, Temperatures Produced in Solid Propellant Rockets by Exposure so Climatic Extremes, Allegany Ballistics Laboratory, Hercules Powder Conmpany, ABL/X-37, June 1959,
Contract NOrd 16640, CONFIDENTIAL (SPIA Ab-

Method 503.2.1-Hygroscoplcity, Cannon

srat Wo. 19341).

31

"

~11

8. Joint Army-Navy-Air Force Paneu on Phyial Properties of Solid Popellants, Meth, o or Determhdis the Texoie Properties ot Solid Rocket Ppopellanxs. Parn Propefianut. SPIAIPps, MarchL. Nik-oelluo 1956; Part It. Baite Cornpoitte, SPIA/PPS, Febrary 1957, Soisd propellant nforma'lm Apncy, Aplied Physics Laboratory, Th johnbs Hopkins Uni. versity, Silver Sprin, Maryland. 9. K. IL Sweeny and K. W. Bills, Jr., Apparatus for Me x aek, jor, Aero*Meamurement of Stres: General rporation. Bulktin of the Seventaeuth KMeing of the Joint Army-Navy-Air Force Panel on Physical Properties of Propellants, SPIA/PPI 1, p. 91,

May 1958, CX)NFIDENTIAL, Solid Propellact Infoamalon Agency, Applied Phyics LAboratory, The Johns Hopkins Univenity, Silver prin& Maryland. 10. MULP-270A, Pppe/lAw, A t//kry, $ Mamh,19 $0. 11. F. A. Warren, F- L AndA oa and P. .1. u, Eva/sotlon of Solid PropellantProperties. Prt I-A Survey ot Current Method4, Southwesu RMs.h Instittut, Report 35287, 31 January 1959, (.NF'DENTIAL (SPIA Abstract No. 19191). 12. F. W. Bilmvwyer, Jr., Textbook ol Polymer Chwntry. p. 40, Inerlence Publienms, IW., New York, Nosw York, 1957.

I.
I
32i

32

i. ,1
II

M 4

)BINAOC
19. GemsrA Black pode is our oldest pro.-

POWDR
I2L Groabdz The standard granulaton of

pdkl~t It Is older than any of the best eane


(puns, rockets) in which propelats ame used, &W hos bow used as a pyoehi and as a bst charp for centuries. ft Is an intimate mixtt Of . hanoal ad slfu. Tzr ar tw tyzs

potassium nitrate and sodium nitrat powder are


-shownin Table 4 and 5, revae3tvely.,o oil ng knowledge of I 03 i14 , 2,3. ElgmMM the nature ot the volatil mae in the charcoal

of block powder, one made with potasuimn Whift


and~~~~~~~~~ t oerwhsoimitte The poum~dmm ntre type is the older, and for jednanMuses is stil the more comnwoniy used. I o.'dnance CirclJes black powder is the potasalum nitrate type unless otherwise designated. The name black powder is a traslation e( the German "Schwarzpulver," named after BerthoW Schwarz who experimented with It in the fourteenth con-

ad

tmuwna

oeuor

If1 percent variation in die fraction of each TABLE 3. NOhMIAL COAMIPSMTONS OF NLAMK PO"IM~ .VA "IZAL IN TM UNITE STATE8 KO &%q Oyp NaO /, "40s, % 74.0 10.O4 1. 15.6 0.80 O.5O 1, 72-1.77 12. ,'0 .. 2 2016.0 ,2 1.5 0.70 1,74-1,.12

tury.1 Yn the En glish ia gu

known as "Sunpowder" until the use of Sawkeless powder in guns made it necessaryto diflrentiate between the blc and th imkls varieties of gun pror;ellant. Gumpm,-1., .4ade.d Musk.t Powder and Cannon Powder, later Ri& Powder and S~'nGunpowder. When used for blasting, Sunpowder was called Blasting Powder. The present United States ferminolo is "A" Blasdni Powder.' ) so/wn Th lrm tye ofbhlk poderwa developed in the United States in the middle Of the nitteth cenury' an,: is known oommorciAIly as "B" BhufinS Powder. When used for ora& it is Called sodium nitrate iI I iblack I 1 I powder. I I I I I1 I I I II I I II 20. Aperac. The appearance of black powder is shown in Flgure 22. The Srains are irregularly shaped solids, resulting fromt the fracture of large-r pWM-' on .he follk of the Cornin__g mill, of roughbly uniform size as a result of screening. Black powder may alternatively be pelleted into grain$ of uniform %ime andl shape. 21. Cempaidm, The nominal composition of black powder as avQAle in the United Staw6 Is shown In Table 3. The sawe compofidons are uised for both nm-i~try and commercial Srsdes. Seltr-en of the Imwqxl has an important bear-ing on the quality and peiformance of black powder. The Charcoal is not pure carbon, but contains 13 to 20 percent vd~ift matter aind 2 to 5.perent moisture.

the material was

t,%-'M

Sulur, % Cluarem~, % Aah, nwiniu, % MoNM mW=mu,. % Spd gravity

ingredient, it is praucticlly impossible to calculalte the gas composition or volume of black powderc A roughi approximation may be got byj asunmvolatile matter is largely carbon, that inW that theQ4APTU appears in the product as K2COs, the potasium the II I nitr-rn as N, , the"bon as CO + L-02, and that the sulfur and such hydrosen as is in the vohttile matter do not make an important contribution to the gas volume. Under thew assumptions the Sas volume would be given by [CC) + % [NJ - %1[K]. Since the IN) and JK] are present in equal numbets, the gas volume of black powder is determined roughly by the fr %tion of charcoal in the formals, In the United Staes Srode of potassum nitrate type of black powder, one gram contaisi 0.0130 gram atoms of carbon which when burned should give 0.0130 moles or 290 cc (MP) of Vsu. An experimental value if the gas volume from three samples of British blac~k powder recently cxamined in the Imperial Cnemical Indosries laboratories has been reported at 280 c, (SMP.0 The same author reportw a beat of explosion, of 720 cal/S and a Ixulated flawe temperature,

11

0
t

--.-"

-I

U at

I
I

I
4

11 I
1

I
I

i
III
I'
I

P1gw, 22. Block Powder. Grad. 1175G. Ox MagMA cation


t

(11

-~~

TAIL! 4. GRANULATIONS OF ]POTA86TUM NITRATh ILACK POWDERS


Sim aim A-1 A-2 canwi6 A,3 A-38 Mu"ke FPO A-4. Shenl PFGF A-S. Fun.
PFFFO

(maiuhnu

permet) 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 5.0 3.0

Simm siz 85.0 12 12 16 20 i3 30 40 s0 50 100 140 140 140

.4 4 12 12 14 16 16 16 20 40 45 100 100

A-6 A.?

5.0 0 5.0 S.0 3.0 . 5.0 $10a 5.0 3.0 5.0 15.0 "0.0 50.0I

Meal
Cnmeal grade I

100

5.0

200

4pbw*4mxezgqWs: 121 *2 grains per pound. 0.6-bali grin dksuter

'')Life

Wbbg32/640

12

Saving Sinvle

6
10 12 16 20 40

3
3 3 3 3 3 3

12
1/12 P012 16 30 50 100

1212 12 12 12

Cannon Salutwng FS PP 5 PF~g

""9P~
"IA'SAsting
PA 2FA MFA 4FA JFA
6FA VFA MalD
M lF100

20/640
4 10 12 20
30 40 40

3
3 3 3 3
3 3 3 3--

5
12 16 20 so
so 100

12
12 12 12 12 12
12
-

M~al X DiflWeataro circula Peforazloes in PIAUI.

140

3--

33

TANALE.

GDANULATIONiS OF SODIUM Nr1RAU MACK ?OW335

JAN C

9/16 hsb

0"
3 3 Is 40 2j47.5 1W"6

0a.

LANDa JAN A

12

S S

4W647.5 cc/1 C V7/64 7*a IS/ 7.5

7.S 7M

UIU

40

75

XCNS, and sonme uneateKd KNO5 , C, and &I' moisture pikump at any time that the atmospheuic As the fratio of chaxwca increases and the franhumidity exceeds the partial pressur of water don of saltpeter decreases, the gas volume should over a saturated solution of the saltpeter. Humidity cycling results in a slow deterioration inceaese and T, should decrease. The force, F, calcltdW from the luperisi Chem"ica ndustries due to crystsl growth of 4W mitrawe Submergence of black powder under wate causes the saltpeer data, is 110,000 ft-lb/lb. so leach aft The initial condensed phase reaction in the burning of black powder has been Identified as 2& MAg ME At elevated teuprmaturos, physifthreaction of molten MUlfu with occluded hydrocd Changes in fte sufr can occu. The hypro. scopic g,,ct ame also &Clterlous to shel lI&e VWn or oxy hydrocarbons in the charcci,' or with the potassium nitrate.6 A suffuriess grade ot black Apart from these influences, black powder is very pweismanufactured in Great Britain. his*has stabl thrf ad unde optimum conditions b~5h ~3DUO5~teflPC~5iE~black powder can be stored for many years withnormal black powder becaus molten saltpete is out sariou deteiozdon raptired to inifiAte its Comhustion.10 The co cp f linear burning rawe as presented podr r M anhiiininfl byU diehp es- sofwbac pwe r auatrdb h rcs hw i.&W h9has little significance when applied Whmdcl in tie flowaheet F~guf 23. Th to the irregular Jhape of black powder. The term charcoal and sul fur awe ground toehrIn the pi&l iate, whet speaking of blc olNear burning dewis tothe ateof pop aplid lacko paw-n verizer, which is essentially a ball mill using short cylinders for ball. The "compositon dustcolun ~ thegraula matria, i~., ~.steel *Auao th grnulr nderalLea fse.isdischarged from the pulveizer through a "reel" or screen which rejects the coasem material. The 24L Hyprseeopkky. The hygroscopic nature of saltpeter is added to the comipositin dust and MlazA powder hos long been known and hs recog

36(

MOIL

COINM" a"

CUTTISO

F~~Pqt 22. MckiPowthr Munedoduring Proc..

rework in the wheel mill shown in Figur 24, alonig with a smml quantity of wow ar. ihedividuul wheels of dhe wheel I'I may weigh 10 tons and stad 7 fhot high. The iwictian of the wheel
*

volumes of smoke and to a corrosivec barrel "f requiring thorough cleaning of ahe gun do"r after each use. When propeilants known as

less powders with higher foirce and

)ewheel

thachievement of a sgtat of "incorporsaton." Although incorporation i little understoodi, ita believed to be a state of wery close contact among ingredients, perhaps without intervening films of air an partichuuN and accomplished by very conweetbl eclmical effort in the form of sheairing Whe te indwil yce i cmpet, cake is shovetled out and transported tothe pres house where It is first broken down by passing through rolls then pressed into cakes using a hoir~iontal press shown in Fgur 25. Tho preas cakes are broken into pieces of about 44-itich size on tdo cafin rolls shown in she background of Figur 25. The sire is reduced further ons the corning rolls. ThU product from the comning mill is screened on a reel, the dust being sent back to the press. The product siz andl shape do not chang essentially after the comning operation. The remaining operatios are glaring and screening to separate the Various grades produced. Th gain oeainIs carried out at elevated temperature in order, simultaneously, to evaporiae water down to the specifie leve. Iffuse powder is being made, two or more grades ot differet burning rate are produced by varying the ratio of sufur to charcoal in the formula and these are bliended to meet burning roe siclaip 27. Uses With a force, F, of 110,000 ft-lb/lb, black powder was an effective gun propellant. The prsneof solid reaction products led to large

powder became obsolete for gun use. The d*V wastn m overnight because; a gun dse for black powder was not ideal for use with iless powder and vice versa. There are still a -fer antique sporting pieces in the hands of hobbyists who fire them, but the use of black powder as the popllngcharge for guns no longer is sgiiat DuigWrd ar1anedroefraas suppressant for use with cerium guns, particularly the 155-rn, gun. It was known that potassium salts are effective in suppression of dash. As black powder is rougly threequaters potassium nitrate and a propellant in its own right, the use at night of an auxiliary charge of black powder was undertaken with considerable success. Ths use of black powder is not expected to outlive the present isvesitodies of smokeless powder, however, since new propellants containing largely nitroguanildine have been developed which have at tlw same level of

force lower burning temperature than those of the

World War 11 smokeless powders. These nlroguanidine propellants exhibit much less tendency to flash, and the incorporation of small fracthnss of potassium salts ki them generally inhibitsfls
-completely.

Black powder was also the original rocket propellant. In the decades before World War 11, except for Goddard's experiments, rocketry in the United States was confined to fireworks and !'mall signal rockets of modest range and velocity )id
small payloads. For such rockets, black po~wde-

37

'3

-..-

(D
I
I

'I

.1
or

*1

I
I
II I

I
.1

.'.

A
I
Coiwtuj,

I
al
.

I. duP.M de N.maal.6 C.., I.e.

FIgure 24. 8 C&Powder Wheel MW :33

77-'

Cart"Y off 0 .1. duPong do ZN.mowp.

figaar 25. Mlock Powder Presi 39

Co.. Inc.

has been quite satisfactory. The smoke and sparks of the exhaust were desirable and there was no disadvantage connected with residue in the spent motor chamber. When military rockets were do.veloped durin World War H, first abroad and later In the United States, it was recopinLa that the low calorific value ot black powder took it out ofcmetto with the. mor eanergtic propelhfts tha were available. Manafacturiiig proceses moreve were not available to form black powder

TABLE C CONSUWION OF BLACK ELASMiG POWDIM (ALL TYPE)M IN THE UNIKYD STAITESI Year
-91

(thoSansR)
197,72 197M2
8

rns
1930
1935
1940

99.873
6,5

performance rockets, and it is doubtful that the190065 physical properties of bla~cpowder would be coinpatible with the thermal and acceleration forces of Sclrockets. As a burstin charge, black powder has been2.9

9974 ,2 .9 oe"evn"o

15 196S.S9 13

supplanted largely by more potent high explosives


exapt for some practice bombs and poetls whmthe smoke puff helps locateth mct

whereas the slower burning black powder maintie rsueiae dgv terd.Colmnsliebakpwrbcoal into highr priced lump the less coal and"Mitbreaks -woduces fines than even the low rafte permissible high explosives. Unfortunatelyr the reaction time of black powder lasts longe tbaa the iniia fracture of fth coal, resdulig in cowasioal igntio of methane (fire damp) and dust In the atmosphere of gSsy mines and even of the ital f. Use Of black powder for blasting in codl none engaged in interstate commerce is now forbidden by federal law. The largest current use of black powder is for safety fuse. M&hssa column of black powder enclosed in a fabric tube. The rate of burning is carefully staqdardized so that the shooter can prodict the length of time between lihting his fuse and the shot. Black powder has also been used as the timing element in some military fumes. It has the disadvantage of producing a considerable volume of gas which either must be vented or It increases the pressure on the powder train anki hence its burning rate. It has the further disadvantage that it is difficult to ignite at reduced pressume and impossible to ignite a0 pressures below 100 mm. For use at high altitiades it is necessary to asmue that any device relyng on the burning of black powder be pressurized. The decline ot the black powder industry Inthe United States I- shown InTable 6. Recogniring the obsolescence of black powder, the military force have sponsoed research on Wsubttutes for black powder in all applications. 40

In primers for gun charges and igniters for rocket: charges the eay igintibility of black powder has made it a preferred higrediezit The high eantent of potassum nitrate has al" been reogrlued as fvorable for such use, because potassium salts are good emitter of radiation and radiation may be an important mean of transfer of heaCl fom the primer at the igniter to the surface of the mai propeefant charg. As the first. c"i a well a military explosive, and for a long time the only available explosire, bhac powdet has been extensively used for blastzing For. this use the sodium nitat black powder has been preferred ever since its introducI1cc in Spite Of s01omwhat greater hygroscopicity and slower burnting rate, because of its lower price. Black powder does no detonate, even when inidiated with a blasting cap. The observed propaga toic rates of 100 to 600 m/sec'" when confined In steel pipe and initiated with detonator are accounted for by shattering of the black powder by the initiator and burning at the attained presmtie. Black blustig powder was fis supplanted by commercial high explosives for blasting in rock because the detonation of the high explosives was very much more effetive than the burning of black powder. For blasting in earth, black powder withstood the competition of high explosives for a longe time because the shock of detonation of Nog explosives was rapidly dissipated in earth

II)MING

1. A. P. VanGelderand H. Schiatter, Hilor, ol the Explolimve lndxd In Ameria, p. 10, Columbia University hum. New York. NowYork, 17. 2. C. W. Brooks (F. L duloft 4e Nem.n& Co. Int.), privalcoammuniction. 3. L. duPont (to F. 1.duPont de Nemoun &Co., h=c), U.S. Patent 17,321 (57).
4. JAN.P-223A, National Military Etabltuhext Specl.

8. J. D. Blackwood Pad P. P. 3owdw, "The JnalatI Burntni ad Thermal Decoosution of Ou dnper,." Po. Ryo. Sac. (London), AM3 28s (1952). 9. C. C.ampbel and 0. Weiantm. "A Tbermna~mJd cal Sthd of the Igito and Combsti~m Reactions 1 of BlaCk Powder," Tram. Faraday Som., 3,
(d-

Powder, Black (12 January 1949) with SCN No. laton 1'('23 March 1959).
5. JAN-P-362, Job Arm-.Novy Spectlcatlox. Powder,

10 J. Tal, ibe. cik., p. 2 1.


11. Hercules Powder Company, unpublished data.

Mlack, Sodium-Nivrate (28 June 1946) with Amendment-I (23 DeceImber 194).

12. U. & Buranu of the Cenus, SWttka AbaMrx of


the United States: 1940, 62nd edition. p. 60, Wash.

6. J. Taylor, Solid Propellent and Ezetherodc Compo-

4dona, p. 19., ltrecidence Publiars. Inc., New YoiLk Now York. 1959. 7. EL Debus, "iniacbe Theork doe hlaqjh," Ann., 212, 257 (1382); 21, 15(112). ( kSmmarized in J.Taylor, lc. cit., p. 20).

inoma, D. C., 1940;, Wi., Statiotial Ab.sract of the U~ed Stte,: 1959, SM4h edition. p. 15. Wahlnato., D. C., 1959; U. & Bumeu of Meims, Mbnrael Marke Report No. MUS 2973, Washintno, D. C., 195.

:)

41

I IIi

IIIiI

CRYSTALMNE MONOPROPELLANTS
28. GemenL The shape of black powder Orains suggests crystalline material. A crystalline chemnical with better thermodynamic properties than black powder should have advantages over black powder not only in ballistics but also in uniformity of composition and ease of manufacture. Such chemicals exist. They have not been exploited as propellants because they became available at a late date than nitrocellulose and smokeless powder, and the background lrnowldrdg that would have led them to be appreciated is of still more recent origiin. The list of possible mnoxpropellmnts includes many chemicals used as miltary high explosives, as the theram 0hemistry of propellants is essentially the same as that for high explosives. The difference betweer combustion and detonation of a crystalline monoppropellant is merely a difference in reaction rate.' Except for primtary explosives, which can detonate from burning and are therefore excluded by definitilon from possible monopopellants, these chemicals will burn quietly when ignted. They will detonate only under the himfeawe of a mechanical shock of severity far greater thnca e ondi agnor rocket chamber. Thethrnu aswel sabiit a te snstivtyof these materials have been extensively investigated in connection with their uae as high explosives. In general, they exhibit long shelf life and are very stable at temperatures up to nearly their melting points. In common with black powder grains, single crystals of monopropellants are nor subject to being shaped to accurately controlled dimensions and large sizes. Again like black powder, howeve, they can sometimes be pelleted under sufficiently nigh pressure to moderately well consolidated large grains of controlled dimensions.. The densities, melting points, and ballistic paraetr of several possible crystalline momopropellants are tabulated in Table 7. 29. Nfiregu~iu. Nitroguanidine may. as an approximation, be considered -to react according to the equation C140 2 N, = CO + H2 + H20 + 2N 2 (39) The gas -folume. , of nitroguanidines is quite, high and the fraction of nitrogen in the gas is unusually high for propellant gas. The burning ternperature of nitroguanidine lif some l50*K lower than that of a smokeless powder of the same force level (see M1 in SPIA/M2), indicatig ht nito

(!

TABLE 7. PHYSICAL AND BAWLIMC rAZAM&TIRs OF CRY917ALLINE MONOPROPELLAIM


Density

L
721 246 202 1360 1321

Moe/) JIng 0.0481

T. 2268 2405 402 3940

Pamre 302.000 321.000 452,00 430,000

Nitroguanldine*
Nitroguacidiasj RD Vatole1.82 1.92 PETN. tmniqrra,a ArmoamiurnnWtratt Ammnioaumn pordiloratt 1,77 1.72 1.91 140 170 Decompowe 1..713

1819 3220 3140

19 255 253

0.040 0.0402

276

1531 354 335

0,0348 0.0437 0.0362

4220 1622 1849

3I110 I24W 1406

9 197,000 186,000

2 159 13

*ffkwhfad.Ssrma celculation 0I Panszrwp 74). tiasat scakluthm (on Fruap~b 7-5).

42

guanidine should cause less gun barrel erosion


than a comparable service gun propellant. The high& content of nitrogen in the gas should result

30. RDX. RDX (cyclotrimethyleaetrinitramlne,


cyclonite, hexogen) may be considered to ifct acodn to Equation 43

in less tevideucy to Blash than a service gun propellant at the same lame temperatum and an even more pronounced advantage at the same level of fore.
The usual crystal form of tutroguanidine is

(CIzsz

=30+HO+3N(4)

The force and specific impulse, from Table 7, are quite attractive, although the lame temperaturem
are higher than desirable for gun appllcatoes.

needles, resulting in quite low gravimetric density


and smal web. No successful work has been reported on growing crystals of size and shape that would permit using nitroguanidine as a gun propaflant. The linear burning rate has apparently

RDX has been fired in sporting and small arms

successfully4 with ballistics comparing favorably with those of smokeless powder. As expected, the quickness was found to depend on the crystal ize, finer crystals being quicker than coarser. The high

not been measured.


Although uitroguanidine has not found ase as a monopropellantr the disadvantages of its crystal

burning temperatures may be tempeied by formulating to a composite with a binder of lower buming temperature.

form have been overcome at the cost of some


compromise of ballistic parameters by formulating nitroguanidine as filler with plastic monopropellant binders into composite propellants. Development of such composites has also permitted a continuous spectrum of force and flame temperatures in the triple-base system decribed in Chapter 7. Nitroguanidine is synthesized by ti e fusion of calcium cyanamide or syantesied with aummonium nitrate under high pressure aNd temperature to yield guanidin nitrate, followed by dehydration S with mixed sulfuric and nitric acids' CaNCN + NH4 NO, + 2H1O =- Ca(OH) 2 + NH: C(NH2)NH2 HNOa NH: C(NH 2 )NHCN + 2NH'tNO, = 2NH: C(NHv)NH, HNOA NHH: C(NHp.)NH.. ENOs - H20 N CNH:: O C(NH))NHNN Othrsnths r knon The

RDX is manufactured by the Woolwich processl by the nitration of hexamothylenetetramine (C)N + HO, ) + gaseous products (44) = (N C or by the Bachmann process' by reacting ammo. nium nitrate and nitric acid with hexamethylene-. tetramine under dehydrating conditions 2n N -61120 (45) + = 2(CH+N2 O 2 )+ 31. HMX. HMX (cyclotetraiethylenetetrntramine) is homologous with RDX and may be assumed to react (CHgN2O2) = 4CO + 411O + 414 (46) The ballistic parameters are similar to those of RDX. It is somewhat more dense than RDX and has a somewhat higher melting point (Table 7). like RDX, HMX can be compounded into composites such as PPL 949 (see SPIA/M2). HMX' appears as a by-product to the extent of about 10% in Bachmann-process RDX. No atte'mpt is ordinarily made to w, aatw it from the RDX, because for most uses it is the full equivvlent of RDX. By changing the conditions of operaHMX can be increased stntian lation of the HMX ia practical. y to where iso-

(40a) (40b) (40-) c

Other syntheses are known. The thiocynate processO depends on the series of reactions 2NH 4 CNS = NH: C(NH2)NHgCNS +,H2S (41a) NH: C(NH 2 )NHRCNS + NH 4 NO$ - NH: C(NH3)NH, HNOa + NH4 CNS (41b)

The Rober
*

process' prceeds throush ethyl

of the Bachmuan proctst, the fraction of

pseudo a and guanidie sulate CO(NH 5 ), + (C2Ha) 2 SO4

= NH :C(NH*)OCHa + CH 5 HSO4
H2SO4 + NH: C(NH 2 )OC2Hg + NHs - NH: C(NH 3 )2 H2SO4 + C2H 5 OH NH C(NHI)g H2 S04 + HNOs - HO

(42a)
(42b) 32. PETN. PETN (pentauytlhritol tetranirate, penthrite) may bc assumed to react C(CH2NO,), = 2CO + 3CX +2 + 2N5 + 4110 (47)

NH .C(NH2)NHNO, + H2SO,

(42c)

1)

43

I II I I'

___ __ icc and Sp'-Citi, LmN it o( PVIT-h1 we zomariihtr to thois & RDLX arnd HM)X

chlkra, niay ',Iv aaw,74 (0


110~

tc: rtwit

(Tatye 7). S.-

+ `TN- has I1nwecr drinsity and

k,);:! Vlla -,OZ thn kL'-X a-r. HkV4\,

%"2

-H~ %01

( 50)

l~itr mctnalJ; %IkLtdd be. grcltrzed to PFTN As v mo-T pltant, &mmor-a pcnhoroIe is i~l ~ ~ f~iNt eCjber LS Ok~popin LS 15 WICr fCX CMVJwMtt :~d~nsammonium nitrat, a rnmorsui perchiorzte is hyPFTN' is mnurfsacturtd' .b the li~ration rF(S-swtp, Th~e pitcr~ of hydrx~rz rDik~ie in C!Qi1 Off) 4 --- 411N0 5 C(GtH NOs)4 + 4H20O (48) 33. m~ . Amnonuirpeik~ortte 33.Axw~wmAmonim ritrac N-HNO,
Asa
=.

tIC pfvdxt$ of r-CM AuMtio mkuke4 a4=nw ium perchOf8.te unUrOAuw fiL- Lise in Se11t used mpeli ti-y Rich u guns For these rta~sm armorit Mn W W ot bee use.- ~a a ia wriopell ust chwagrc It is wvk.16 uwl' as an ox~izi.q L~ti

N2

-+

2rii 2 0 4a'wxnwg

O,
aiqt

(49)
puiodw"

fwr-thez in Chaptr 9, "~ in ORDF 20 176. Amonun peirblorate is pirpared byj ilectroly-ti oxidati~son aosditun cbloside,

raxocr,ulthogh iu for,, an fL mumjr gosuewhat ,odzxxe wheni cOCMXMsdd binto wen $5os1i wili any incxfftpketely oxidimed bitv&rs
4a~nItiw atuch in Fal* oi

N&CI +4H..:)=NIU10

+4H 1

(5, f)

fdklO"A b) meuw~thet~s wi& an amo(Un Wit


NZ0

,+N= N'H 4 O,~ i Na'

(51b)

Oh4pAff 9. Ammzsxnuni nitraL is bygrow-Vic a, rels*~r ~~ivrn~i alx'.e 4-0 perce - Arty Pm1~xl113t chsaige oouspn=rs anun~otxum ruftmve n-ruet be protoae4 from~ humidity. Ammmeum nitrte also r.wts C~ differe~ra urda"ege a series of phast one at 32.2cCQ all of %=;Krauurv, ireIudsn w)fch are accoapaniced by cbAng" it, deni~t) 7bit- dowitneive vo the interit)j of sinoSl crysbyrobror Dohygroscpsi bindAer, Ci ot i crstls rura~ stkn te bnde ~No ammpiu ammoiumn~taitcrysalswitm Lee bi& Pprotectecl forom uk-oiste pick-up. Tht aa wchvnres car also be omwtsunevl, as the axysLal uuZ of the awmoin ITL tritmt ki psee-rabb Vf) smtall AMd Che stresss prodst~d by the v~olume change of the ir~dvidual partscles ran be absorbd ty) the binder. Wben fxmuwd into large graiS by rornp-srson motding. hypwosop- effects arre likewise cemfirwed propellants cause them to swel! somewhat txt 4D4n bit do "st Appear to interfere vith tbwi awwal burning proce**is. Such grain, have been stWkid' but Vave m.T fouad sevice use njitzat r-. wi arficle of -ornmerce, Ammn iumejr being widely u"e as h fertfl'rt ukgrebcit La a ckutstitunt o( commercia NOh t~p,"sit4.

RESUN'C+M
I L WothJef %D F. J. Poh -Ucbrx die Orisn= vmU Epkkjyswuir-. Z. Zej. ScA.le*. a Sprenjroo*i., 211, 913)

2 0 9- L SUJLkh V 1 Sibe-Us and 0. F Szeirb.4, Jr, Stud) d~tb Prcp'i2'&s5 01 "1a-iwi,Ni Lmu iLA1 Nkz~opsnl4A"," Ind. EA5- Che--r,, 13, 1124 (931l). 3. The Synmerhu e~d Fmewm,Io Irrcjiv~irw, Naval 15 lur UT1' 950. C
pe

1rl'iDE7,TIAtL (SPIA Abstrarw

Abiru-a

te. OF i i-die jbd 106&0j. Symnekeiio QR 12. 15 Jul)SJ CONVIOEST'IAL (SPLA.

No I 10 1)

A. Herxcul"~ Powder- Ccr~wny, vznpibLa~d d&L. 5 14 M. Pjnkentsch, ZxPlosvel (IfighJ. in Ecc pedi6 of Checrnfa' Tech%'iart.w Vol. 6, P 40. [vnti-

scweoct Pubbihei. 1w, New* Yort. Ne* Yorb, 195! 19 7 I- Sacbrna, U. S Potaten 2, 9 , ( 5 f. 6. %'A 7. E 3ereaw. Rt H Baxth =4o i E Sacmi.he nlo I inr-afoW Crta
Phxiz CISYor4. New Yari. I'M,

~suc

iv ;r ib micz Pi-fat r~w Pw

ctnM

r.

Cheurr7

and Terknwokgy. VA

4, p 1.

Mv(3raihHd BwI Coin'eiq, Im, New' Yvi-i. Nr-w York. )926


i,. 5 V ft Grov&L Jr &AdL. Gretati.4-,tw4ralwed. Teebok"a Pub&'awmo 14S, 8 Amil a*5 7. Crv tmzi N~td J68%. CO)'-TiDENTIAL

comPLaitK rnn~iclnr 115, C'r9 hx'e W~r *OW41; monly kwimow as axMoak.lCS1 in u-4 for abovt 75 yremm. The firs, SuCh roTqL[Rut 9L-L made by Vijilk in France in I 894. Vi'eflk's p od uct v~a-, ewsenti a] nitrrozellutae, charngai tram.' it% okrigirallK fibrous Ifxii w, a dti.sc rlastic b o~llaidtg i'.ith rthcr and atkohoW, fo~rming into t ains, ani zutseqLl4JntI) remc-i-uI most of the ntA fe-A yr~;, later Alfred Note'! introdoced iM~tqc a dMcient vzriety (4 sAcletks paw~der in which mtoiC*txn .5 UWe "z a Cellaiding plasticie fo"K ith nitrocelluk-sc. Propellints; conriangn rtitrogiy-cerni' ere "rovfm as douqc-brasc becauise they ountain two exrIotsiv'e inrge-dients irE contrast ta sixtp-ba~ie iropeIiants *w-hih cz.-ta.r, nitoctiu lowe as the D*l expicii~e ingredint Additio" Ot ~Ime-type or -deterrer"' p4Astciztrs to the tormuIttkm gives the n~emfr fi-ibIiliy for clotifk content u- be varia6 indcVOW aridroccUttlose W pendendy, an important coflmdefat~im uxbeia botp1 ballistic qualities and physica piapenrs rmay twe apiftihed. Balli~tti quahLitis are lUrgeis dettiin~ bi the cealixq& .alue.e and phymkajc piLpert:ei bry &h p*Tnrer "mtent. A &rtioeles powder, "o~sed at in diii ight. Li a singIc-phase Ct ns.forlellant "Mixpnsing th-ec ingredieri- a pohnict. u- .iJ) ozidant ptuiaswir. usuaflt mitronmtromlllhose, a~n SIC'triUl ;;d A fNel plasdCazer. foe CLMopI.

lo tOw riot of PH?, their wx of purc M~yitr.e hiave lbh4j cakwifi vahee (k~het for'ae 'hotr. " Ct( 3pec& inpialw), I?*- bin BC rq*jewnt coac' thc aimpimin proeaal Ycung~s mncdw posonti IV& fOT ptxOPellnt use. 860%, 8C the pc0F-AlWn cenr"o be rehed mn to mxntain itu paetry, cven whenx supponed by beift borideAi tv the chamiber fe mA B delines the- lowwrst clo& yalue *all -Thi th--i anI eod-ite'n dttsigiecr,~ profitably use All are, them.t flis tU~fItu mfrroot-11o.10C fore, formulated within the p-4ygmu PARC. Strnce gun erosion limits 'he lovuabic flamec Wenperature of a proellaat. gmn propelsant fixandr- trend to fall to the Idt of the UP- PH. aheq foc stome applica~iims thy maut be webl performsne raicket prtrwflanI ft to the r*4g Hb ame founij tc Oxe Oibt d the line F14. Case-boadable propuefllwU fail in the ncjghorbood of Elhe line BC. Propellarits to reflera~t pas at moderate ttperuaurez for asircrnft A&-W earnetsi and antiLar oqphatioos an found in the neighbbxbDWood the hmn AD. There eaita considerab" oveurasi bemtn~u the farnmulatsz aitat fmr 4ffeftew typesI of end use Tri &&tio so the Lht.- basic invedients a itathizer is universA]), used to incrTaew tlx storag Life cof the proptilmt, anid akhbtea may be inourporated to rectuce ftaslj, to inaproie iagitability, to reduce mewtal fruiti ini gun barrels,

bowbeig jst

speacst'

we whnc thaei oirat

3-.oye.Nto~ can be, and have becti, uwd r

stheruul

oy

36. Feradsties. 71w ritioustips within the fanil, o4 nitrmdlluiose wmiop~rcpe~ianLs ame sh~wn quaiitatively tr., the triangular di~anr o( Fig'ieA\ 26. Fo; ballistc purpeses O~w scale of F~irre 26 sho'uld be considered about hama in weml- mactixxi 'car physical properises it is about linear .ix P.'1 vc' t trmv Lract iosc in thsfgetht resents all powssibl cmooiatu itt the xarat cAkx-ti&- value -4 purc polyak-r, P. LUnes pamMle w~~o PH are IlMtS of consazat calocifi vplue, Comi-/ pormuu o sthr 4 4PHair "coufhA iwc

dii atfoad Lad in Unjid 54&irsi cominmWr tc, anmmof Deftnen has dj tiniiclLbe wa'

tbE De-

Foguf 26. N~r"0o 45

se~uo MonY*rwpY4;o-tk

Sjvd..

3~41.1. N41ftTOrd11,* . Nitr~lcei~ule is the rorctwt at: pf rtjal uitratwx r_ celhLkloe. whbi,ci t Vo)-ero( emp~r"ca fwumuA (C'11 1 0,14 natrs

0 c~harserimiL. eTnr~ force! 'pe'Cifc- impn~til, -- k-iat% o( thit~oeln ii hi~gct the higheT the

n1trogea contee11.
s ra1417P ~41. 1 2_ S*ftbft Nitroccuien U1 cent or 12,6 pexce n*rtgcn is comlpletely solub'c, i.e., miscble in all proporifwts, in a rniitwt o( 2

H OH OH L

Pus byvolume tbexramd

mrt alcobol, used i

~the

required solubility &-urndnatkin.uAt 13,4 perOI)~only al sm.,~I tiubof 01 the. nitrocet ltrar ceflula entr the KoIvent pbaoc. Nu aotept is of the nitrot Cnnt all-ethe olv' mad to

of ether arid ak-obo used in no th ptoio Of the three - OH growjp-. thowse t uw 2 arbd 3 representative (4 the system is dcte~fa-tifl~to this 6 esi in Lhe that pa~ .icict are ae cqdar), while manufacture Of prope~lants" Whern involved in Eh%6nn Li p~iMAry. Ml of the -OM groups can be the aitrocdllwose mbibesal~l of the "nvvcnt and m-5 nitrated. and %n ceib -lose h~ ciinplrtrly nitraie., sep-a-ate sOveot phase is prmaet. Neverthelesw, es nuochulse as ruo~e.1 cta the ciutitt in JVigurr 27, under the microwocqcmi as u-- ir com.~i --ctu~lukh N 4.1 o( rslxrcnt. atim ter uperce, and aA sA L- peopell]nts il less thanAfiescnbsertohv Pd1erm Made from t1_ alati ids ompic-teLy nitrate& NiLvtceLtiloess are chuarztemltary Ukrd with etthir-alcoho wvevx Introby* nlitroge cmen aM ynuasi**iv inwO the forMUla UMsADY2~ 11as4kize dthetioI. of in solubility and pendent varabk-f Iygroscopkici

s fotrthi istrallth Knbibttionin eatptur-akoM. 4 c4n nirraaad1 pe g gucontetno hipigh omm-ca fiub~ers tat te wsott ensuthe ntofabnc t I 12 ptSONt roqeri atd foi pyr(ll~uk ae at 126 pcrccn C3Ii'&~fOC nIhhSlO and'Iu~Il yet n for d~iaiynamed at 12. percent nitroferi the qr mdi 4u gin ofju~ aztndega auUretsOpera The girefl-J"o qpere ntroin tl .I I n foret pl opdllat shsig Tutc atha 1.3.percent nirgin gunomon atwe togeno1 ants but rus pyjoericanm atope2 a banded solu iyinb htyhea, hul orl ether-loo l J>oterm..Aatj Solvents ;-he a deicseri ae pro-ic~t & tro allantIte

~
nrogm A perwt

"i~trrtblendeda

that a given lot o( nitrvcelluloe resembles; the


particular "ni.oce~uikw used when~ the propallant was orifinally standardlze&

abiend at 13-.25 ntruen 1-1 sbut pecen fibrou InitIoCfluMNC1 kx~ &Uke an inded ookmuch like the ontginiju oelulowe Wh'ii there could cte merit in msev~ily formul"~x two rniuro'~uLksam iuto a propellA4t :be ek7m5bO4Z of possible ~otifusion between duifrtWnt trades of njMOtroeljsm &LX

34-1.1..
of nircllls

ElyllvoespIdi,. The mino.h-C crjltnwt


i-, eq~b~ wihasrr

tL_,wq

~,

sunopher
W~tff

at 25CaW been expreesed' by) the

lluloses while 0( mazsaing the ratio of the tut to an e~cx blended nitrgen in the fibou smaze cow~St att U W StiG r for blmda cesko. As indicate in 36.1.1.1. PMrw T"t 2, the contributi-on o' the niurven-hsk-e to fth cdar& va".e dame tMzpeaure, and tWere-

405. 8-28.7K
(15112)

wbeic N is the

Dexcent ninrorv at it

ML-arcetiti

lose. From tbL- 'equahmo have beft cakiuasxd the

values_ shcown to Table 8 for the wltcellunie* used in proe'plants.

Fs~c27. Crcs Section o,, G'cin of IMP SmroA~e;!F Pctwdep to, Phcaeogroph~d ip (ltha.;oft Lig~rl. 112)- M~og~iFiccflon

ol Armr;

14

loo

ORU)P 201 [75 TABLV 9 RYGRO40.01CMT KnVfOC ELL11Ai'SE


Ni--DWZin Nawixadfukw qWMrfn)_ MIS5 Wau,
t(Pwvetit

OF

nit-ate), Txy(petrin acr-Ietc.), j~v4Ytrinut1Dhy1 acry'a'., and' even tuci-ty-Pe Plymrrisr XILh an thyl mctbtaclylatel. AIt P rnC4Y CCUUI-03 acetat cm,

th-_*
119

casel the negative of defkien: contributioc

1-5?

I.02-31 29.!bi The natrwv of this reivtcw~ship may he explitined on the basis that It is the unnitrWe -OH- Froups of the niitrsaefukmse that sorb moislivce 36-1.1.4. Vkoetdky. Viscosniy inl very dilute V'hmairs is a quantitawmv measure of the aveiage mokcrular weight a(f a p~olymir,. as sh-r b) th
equat2CNI

on thk part of the rolyIDv to~ ath tor'- of the ~prof-.Ian, is oveico"m bY the i ao of oxidant plasiuk&.'w s-uvh as nit o,,lcer'n and other nitrate esters. Cxii pol)mw~rs if usim mnust be phyiicaJlly comnw~ ho, plavictrii Mi accounts fo~ the fact that Ith cicxA pol~mtrs cited above are 'I1 esters Cellulom- ac-nateg, likc nitrocdiulose, arn derived finim czlltslos, are not completely, esterififtL an ar cha'ac~crized b decrec of eattrificautio (~e-esscd &s pei~ncnt mbtnd acCZK &A:i)a b) viscosity. Al.-o like nitoctllulose, a ctl~uk-ose wetst-t in a pfope~ant has its highe~t degree of P tzonatth tim C4 iltn~4Ut)Oi tictito the

_C ,. 0

41_1

DP

(3)

where j is the mesu~red isi i of tht kujrl 9. the viscosity of th.- slVent, C i. the concernin 0C olto and bwatio o4 the ci DP is the degree of polymirerzation The value 200 is emin.tical "n varie slightly aith the degree of substitution and with the tolven used. Tile n-gii shownm here is used fix amcton solution. The Wf wro~ber of Equatioci 53 is knowin as the intrinsic'isouty.merti - j~ca~es tu rlatve sk .wo~ty.Tbtrato iscaled he elaive
A! hipe'-

Srtiecp~mrsmyh

o~nrzdita-

vance of itoduction, int which case charascter-zation is po;bt Aternaanyely. they can be b, SJitu attr tr-Xtiv4 "-meU1Czaed

34 -2 StaLai~st In cxiinjoi~b with odtef or~ii c~hemiclsl nitrocetiulose tends to deteriorate %ith age b) a process knownm as thermal0 decompocsitioc Inthe aec c'nitiocellub-se, therma! deccimpositim wu iththeWbiingoff of NO 2 frmi the nitrate gioups This NO, reacts immedlv~ely writh
i. i l t jU~

Cowew.ti'o"

-W('oarN Cr1it"5, TnL't

Wepenpieteh identred, infisiene the vjscosity. For exampl, two nitriocellukies of diffcrert orig~n, slmicwng &4 sLame inuinsic v.iscosity, may have widely differing mineased viscosities inn"or con. centrated solution. Fclr propelant use t.iscosit' is measured' by timing the W.1of a 6yj,-inch steel t all througi~h a 10 percent &.4utiortof nitrocellulose in soxt"m. Typic-a] vilues oA nitrocellulose viscosity for proprllants are .6 to 25 sccorls, but mitioceilukoues of higher and tloict viwcosaits az sometimitA used- Wb conditions of the viscosity reoreentative of ar condek4umalioni arv ditiosis present luring propellant manufact~re The desi irmiasin has as its principal saptificancc the assurance that the nitocellukuse examined reuatmbin that usmed in the starxlardtzed piropellant 36-LIt. Odw pulymm.ri The polymer in the propellant 6le-d noit be nitrocellukuse Other rnerCezc -Ayw FY re~ agy be used sueb as poly(vinyl 48

cellulose) and is evolved as NO The secondary rivactioc of thc NO,, with the witrocellulose aecelcrates the thermal decortiposiumo. Hen"e thermal deupQsition~ should be inininiixed by adding to the formnula a chemical that will react ith the NO2 to givc a stable product and thus prevent stcordiiy cwiior, ri NO2 with nitrcaellulose. The other produact resulting from the lois of the NO, is a bond free radical which also tends to react tuxther to more sttable product-i Ail additive to remove the free radical characite od tae residue should also reiuii in stabilizing the propelant. Naroglycerin behaves in a mann.:r similar to that of flits x1Pukise and cvi Ne stabiheed in the samit wa) The viabiuimrs in currenv ise in the United Stases are dipl en)iarmnin~e, 2-nirrodiphen~lamiLre, and etbyl centialite Theit are JW ll c'.al bases, but they function h) being nitrated isther tLiW by forn &lon of stiall, txwr slat~illik's 11,1t bays been P~p pu" includ N-tthytanjhnc, cavbazol-,

e~d N m4ehNy-p Witroanlinz Mintral jel, an unsaturated aliphatic. functioit: as Ld staoinc itj13s41 p~lutlnt. ~ f-nerohin,

3-..DilpheaRTAMmlu. Dipbenylamine, (C,,H,` 3 NH il peepaitd bv subye'cing aniline tt high tfmrinprst're inl Pn aut(tV~IVeK 2C,! ( 1 NH 5 H~)NH 2=

(~4) has h'ni dipherrylby riag bas to use is Lii

*attack

Its histony in. the aging a( propellants tracedI The first mactioon product is ritri-soammne, (C,,Hs) 1 NN'Q totlow~ed niutri,z Diphenylearninv is sufficitatltJ nitroglycerin, so that its main si-gle-base popelants. X(-2.2.

-i~~h.-Ntoihwl basic them ViphtyumiUI and1 is ine tami.d nitrly)cvtn while affi being a good usA bilizei It is preferred to d'herny'njuibw as &SUMblirer !er doub~ce-bas proptelhlnts It is made by CM'C(CH'0ON0')' reamV Icloco-2-nitrckenzent with sailinum23.ua~zo tinrt
arne is kes

Nitrojfh4ccrin iA w the Dr-ria) in~ idlart ty - p'las dticizr and it is sdIl the raosi used of thiur type st~-c in ;Nc 12nI'r~i Statcs. It Ji5uiwalffi pepared m~ thc propcklant plaLnt wie, tby the Piuti~on of glyc.erin '&ij a rmi'.tu c4t nitric and sulliunc ai? Nitrate tert~s other ih7.n flitioglyct~ifl hA*avesf0 been used In man'. cases these plasticizers M'e CA'lAr than the r akteliulics,. ae'nhelCs~s' ptop lants in which thec. are centitnted aft sWi knowr~ as do.jbk-b&ks. Di'ohylne glycol dinitrate, DO~N, N0,tC0C,1 4 ,)20K , wzd tfletbykn( glycot dinitrate. TC;N, NO:tOCsK 4 SON 2 art the m,~h important of these niltrates. The ether bonds it, these r"<trs are contide~c4. ad'.anagecous in m proxing 1ev. tempecraturt phys"ca properties o( the preptllant. DUjN ha! bccr. used more a),:oad than in the United States. Other nitrates for vhich fraibil li is estalised are

CH, ONO, CVONO5 CumONQCH,

K ee -l mr Ethyl cetrah.4t ce. M.L3. trakite-1, or centrahtw for slxrt. is , m-iethlchlphtaytwee, MCONCHs)XC.Hs)J, It is mae& b) reacinS phosp~ew with N-ethyl- or N,N-dieisyladrline Its reaction hiistory is comsioderabiy mc methy ana:Lo.; up with nitrate !!:l-!. CThe
up wit -rae anlnz

CH2OHC(C1420N!0) 3 diethaonoi.ianninc dinitratt (DINA) NON(CP 4 ONO.,f 36-4 FuaI4ky pivektum As ii the came vith tt ipti-pih h Outtt o hYdCZII Lhe mu cxzdaxna& be t phe lcoptbe with~ the ntrocelu lose and should have sufflaenrly law %aporpre*sure to remain in the propellant during it, hit. In contiast to thie oxidant-ty-pt plasticizers, fuelty.Tv pl~istrirt~i cowtfbute no0 oxidanlt or otily a little oxidant to the compositiori and thus tend to reduct tt.,. farme and flame tempe'ature of the e bepotopelJant It is diffiult to drs%* a OAThari tmeen chemicals which aire oxidan*-tywc plasuWers- aod thjose which art fue[typ: plastknaers. this disunctiori is net really ver-y important arxi one is perhaps better od to consisder both as rilas ficirers. Fuel-type piasticizei are frequently the sanse plincizers that are found in comrnercial plastici end protec-tiv-e costing The'> are used because they are available in quantity at rrusonable pnc.s Tt:y may be esters such as diethyl, dimethy !. di -n-butyl., or &i(2-ethythexylypbthalarc,

i CentraLite-2 or $yin-d~nnthy'drphenylureY flj am known and is used somewhat abrsM The idered to bie sonewbat less e-c.tirL--s a- e phertylamine, but tive as stabilizers than 2-nit they are also quite. good p~asmtcizrs. When foun in propellants the), ame frequtntly used at higewr frawims than the diphenylinntns to take ai'kantaf cyt theit rtassswinna offoorrus 36-3, OzWW4yp* pleatins. The r~wred Omeusof ant oxidant-type ptastiwer are that it contributre oxidizing as wel -s fuel eleentrs to th comwpositiomri that it be physircally conipalible wit: the polymer, a" that its vapor pressure ovet the wompoution be levi enouk! tha the ceenposibion wDl not change sutstantially, over the tiie ot the propellant

149

sis n~ a, m ~ o; clc~s r'r iir.r efl'v si 1rtithre pzoplam S we'de im. tIW iBtmb;.J c rn adk ths a p~- .74 ~irvohng a~ "oatike "-l1nt, tht
r-26dui;! ri bvha'.rv a fsc4 sipta~l.differs from the " 4t of the fut:-t, pC plaisivizer~,or.!%) n that it has a tt.ghe: Vap, r pret"Suf than it- &sirablc Cra lua' Lis~of regic jai s'si~cnt

in- %iuaie -1 ;
rl,t

alis ;o

*'~4 pait~ anid thmu

bc.'~ t,?--' %i_ mrnaW'-%,iv duw to faCf Al TfliTSitf(rtMNsr-os iM[NCrfCC-UiorM 'Auti


in cs~-eJfoinT or str-ung ccontinuousl) paraliri to .h,- t~is of ersd-burnsnr, grains incremscs hth qcfkcilr buring r~are of giqoien in -ahich thc eithier

con aging of prorclar !, -ali chanir tue ballistc characMSLrStc 2117.1"mog the fuei'-tvTp P4a6ci7eri Is ustally made oti the ba3is of zailabihity and rj'g ptis tOK coninttt.-on to 'hx phys-al piolpvrtits of the propellant. 36s-5. Aiftiis T-h-- cornbusticir prod ict of plaiti3c moronopropellants contain gSws suchi a- CO i~n-d H2 Yhch jec combustible in ait If theetperature a, ttn~e of discha-rge to the atmsphere is high enough, ignition of these exhaust products in air may take plac-c This phenomenoriI Is known as jAash. or more .'pecfcaliy se~cordary flash Flash is unr .-sirable in gunnery because it discksaes the position of thr piece axio tenci v in rterferr with the vision of fl~g g-uimers. parttculazly duiang night firiY4 In r-ockets ftacn can likews'ss afford data on the position, of the tauncher. Rlash is also responaI le, a. lea-st in paiL, for the attentrat-cliz of radar 4inals to ar'd fro'n, rocket missiles. interfering with guidmnce anu teleinceuv. I o avoi- or dimiatish flash, adds m are. ffeiqurxod inchided in propellant corrnp z-ions to suppte.4 this ignition These additives iv take hte foeni of rxouasit-z sailts which lunct. .is a3 negativt caral: its for Lbe m~a.;tiofl

trt: rn-orporateii by inscreasing the bikrning surface Other &idifi%,ei oft claimned 'trivr arc found ini some rpla s Woid products in the propelai~s gas resulting from &I- incosrporAt-urs of ad W'Uves contribute to spnoke, w.hich is objectionahle to. recasons; similar to those or flash. The amount of additive used for a given purpose, eg. , fth suppression, muit U, con~idercd in the light of the conitribution to s."oke As discussed ip the next secijii- c&rbon may also appear itt smoke, 37. Be1*111tk' cfaweftristka. The calonfvc isimsc, flame !ernpcratures, and Mis vol'umes of plastic mcw'.csropetlants may be e-stirnazd fromL the dat. of Table 2 (pag 7). from which can be dens~ed the force, charwecteisb vvlociny, and4 ipeci&i impullst as outhried in Pa~ragramph 8 Calorikl vaiues range dc%.nAi*&rd fLom a rnaAm'un of about I ') cloe egrms ~i- 0 inngt~ vaiue It i. rurprisirj4 perhip- that a piopellant withi a negative canrwiffic value will bumn to produkct a "sful wortiing fluis! That it does wo is due tc) the fact that theruodynainic equilibriwn is no( attained ott km~ flameg temperature and endothermiic apIcies #4V-az in the Saseow prodwta
fitwv',
es T.

of CO and hvdrnt.rn waith rtsoumbcri-

vaygcn. (X tict potassurn salts av' lable in LUs. Unitca State,,. "&ts- .im sulfate is th- most frequeiitl used, though poas-siu nditate has been used in !Aline ifr-flanis Potwisiuw cT)olite ha-s beer. used abroad in propelfants mixed ur waler sluro sin,-ce it is insoluble in water. Potatsiumi nitrate and batium. n~trate have been used in some prope.-ants to make the propellant morme readily ign)itb!C. Metellic tin and metallic !.Ad -eze exim-6- of z.Jttt.cs M in-un, p tv reduice metal foul-ig Thty~ tun.t~iou b) loa~eriog the r-.eltrg Fr~ft or copper which is de~sited in the baite! by tlhc proiectile during travel thro'cgh the bore Certizir iead and copper alts have been found cfftive In i-..rir* the picis~ui coefficient of 50

tr.& be socriewbti op-er 100&R for spocing or pi-stol propeliants and ma) be below- 20CWR for gas generator propellants The oomposation of the gaswous products way he determined 3s outlined in Paragraph 7. In gerieral, only mxno iluantiatis of Rkld pnrduces will be found from tthe combustion of plastic mono~propellanu. The sohd produt4 Lre Jefived from the additives cer~p that some cool-burnial 1pu gt rricrarorpropellarn tend to be smokv The smoke is ca-bon denved from the propellant o54posttim; (1horct of fuel-type plaidcizers has a ccmsiderable effect on amk.It is Claimed thia lon c-arbors chains and particularlv benzenc rings in the fuel-ty-pe plas'im~ers are more prone to smoke than sue shotx-alIthatiL ch-ains

r7,500

hIts

T000 1111
I-

S t12

jTM

II

15

DOO

Uj

1/

hi 0

X,

4,.

ID

1-5

0?50

iew28I'-wa FK.r~ eft oyr Cn~rfo


3& hv" L-va
tocv~vela-t utiat____th

PUYE OCNRTO.ic
detiauo atI mr.r~

1.0

11

15011

tion m~ultplid the ro~nlx

y pcL graisty)( piolymerian KnFihur28pewrt ns patgenn te

xip t vii

&W h. toratnio at=c= ruptur. m typtaof~ Y 200 psi 'e1Ia nimlu.

Ioe acev~trtr of 9~ &`O am $ CC..*k de-mra.se to 500 psi at AJ.7 Cc.f

nontscs 'n

342 D

-lmfm

ma zotfo

itaoL- *I-ICUi inVr) QWjC~n tUj-ing ir,eithitj t4Vijij~ 0n_ 10 pr1vezCt ddXtnabV1i Pt10ia4U11 Lzvrr-.MY t~ &Wb~ proprxtv, to about 50 percenit w~ a coviitr o( 0.9 .cc *a~dto IOU percnt atOgA Mt1l S~_CDIV

W17. toe& -A Lhm~e~aesAa da-za irxdicatc a Ohvinasl Ap~sc-COeff :U( for prcJanhi 00mi~illn lLsh fltJvQ 8 1,31r<~. abtnttCL~ hs~ic)~&a~ ra~c ti0an c~e Thit. '11aic thut paet Cldfuirtl of e a~ W _r O ie~n~e nc ~~fi~1a h iflulow~ jwcipelant, uiad ibis~ eaplsa'i th- ise of -tate a-4 ?Cipbcra inthbiifx for Maro)

large gradn# If tht park."elini is to be Awu-bmKW~ O exi~stenr of a %xvi ~abk Ziffe-enLal in tht bve tca;xty putk onotopllans pla~, ta h poe wowu-rd cold &u'%- that bc~oqnes mo-te proa mtancd CSxpauxiucc,-fxvumV(2 tarpe defi wAm moduus ky Wa. Ndeoaabk. ISTis t'tib. lus the polymer ConceAt

38J LaM low. Ir crwnnnui with otbeiy fteC

as diisocyanalca and aphydrxide bavr boen used suCOOMMY~

tvaiioi 01' about 6.9 g 'cc tc tOfclmd under pressuiv &I

propellnns can be ratures txooui4crcd

3I.4 Ryp.a~kk~.of~ 36CYywvbt.Th yo th anp aSd that omlulo theran xo-J1u11 tesm as that~ the of tit

) ii

opcratzic= If the rj~mcr j ~ tlft for COO~axitmis usu~h b4,oe~r than this h-nit, vda-a Werw e se in OxC v.,#j~aacvuin4

it s 4&0Q S&t~pn f WU~f$fthYML wapiciq of P~opd1WaUs dropt oiY a htthc axw rapiUy thaL. can be a~mouted for V simple dalu, t"a ot the tuai~xukme indw&UiNg that as a M14 soeptio of water by thie unrirated 014 groups ot the njrfuutxuuc, 3W the awull
T20c~ca1

scc~k fi

whic

pro~mm

aM c3taxarily Mjddt in t~ff~in amount! &Cp M~l 81ix* Lod gmanutitq at 'min Lni Amia L-Mpr V.4W Thi mqixt adrj enuhavntt

Wbci1 volatdk "vtnts

art

a)

usv,

thwo

39, Tteamal prepeeds.~ 7k thcamal dtc.ocopropdl1*zt has been pmuto of rJutrwxllj introduced in Pai&Auihi 36-2 t-nder the subject &f ubi Thermal t.tabity of piastic moanopropeluizgk-bw. propdllJAnts, by the 12(PC hesa wt"s~ for doubke-b"a proqdlunts, and by the Tab am tet tot Lbe Larga r ains used in ruckets and gas gnSatwum iP sidtlot~ a zurvefiancr ajrt t" w IM-F t65.5Q is usedtouidicatue teusetu! bit of Iropellant Thewc taut art all ru', at elevate in ortflO to get an cal point, "a are tLmpertjurltf aubieca to the *b,4-taY ta~t th~c Lcvr,-AtajjrP vo effb~acts of thop dcowtj usitkw~ rerwtax-I air rot pre'-asely know,) In the 134.!Y )cat tcv, a lWe o( 45 minutes is r~uc4qu The 65.5CC treIAc hiet ranges fromn ai!out I yewr for a prupeliant conraining 40 Pericnt nlitrugljotri to about 3 yei.':
In, a rb~stti'i7.A4 aiftol- k-,
-; A
-. l-

Donky Th . asupk
4
LfrIsIC

eest

ft

ofnu,..UWk~c PTpUanLtS. rbCare r~xin4.uttd SCCordmS1 to tbc


_

twn~ula 1
OW.,

ttx dertsi where A,. is the weight fracum en p~, hlanZs of revdrit 1. Measured denlitz-t 0( in 821. lUAta. Co tV. djl M4.4 -vapog pinoss Nitrocellulose itself is owt-olatile, Pltatcizzcrs in gcneral do ha~e mu%Urabi b,.t low~ Y&W, pmte~irt4. Prortlarats in which these plastic-zers art, used should aod air tw actu.iiy do k'vve vaitor Dres~suret wh sMI oi 'Me p&-taaJ YAM~ prewurti of dtI. plasticLWjcs anPL 'vv~ilft, iDnh~OLO5 hygroscoic UMints ture aM rtsiduAl "Ylents The vapor pres~surr cd nitioslyceri:. over pivpeianti hs~q bown extn. Sbm-Jy investigAted"t " tijthlg, lWwvver, substantial agrec-en as to its value. 52

of 40 pmta..tnt nintflgyenri tprdng propeilaut stored uadeie water aLimt 189 it .itill atabe and

reprodasce% its osaga~osl bALhstic.! The devkctpmeni of atupevsunic aixcraft carry 0&g mtaniuons &and buseddti iApden has fOCUae' &nnte~rtlo On Lt. life Of pla.IU( moooaWo-

-4-

0-

JI
225~ 2:

..... ...

"5

30

32

35

----4E

-4-bl

F,-

IC

T-~ ~
-o Ou, rKtes t-.-p*-r tu a!i~cald TK,1~n1 flnic Zer

FCd0 ~ LC.FO-13y
ta-lc-

-raurt

2s

ma, and
____

daP no

r-vial

lusoIk

rdcin

h-

!a

fL,

i4.i~d

taK
lyrcv

Ffo
Prcci

o~

n
al-c-

St~n
isorisnede.

zcltn(w&-~
hcex
ek4L
t t

7tp.i
! ckua,-PT~agar

t"

-r

ojtzllng4t o popilms

used~

~ ~

""r)O---.-inal/f le ni ' jdrq C . qu iru

---WP

J( jal~
.A rs lig

oawucim!
Inp r rr, i

40- 1

~jc~LVt

yletcno

hr,

sadfcec

vizlpa-~isb

0a

A
l(-tcrlunhpz&nog Fiur 29 fatbcnh-0t pm un,4 axAiI

T.
C

-lu

ion

Q,~

.)

Kt

Ifo

ip~lnsTlj

Icd eesnNldt

S1 i A

te

hcsFo

te-dr i

al-

v1,np

U.v&!

npeIm
I

,r

ag

tv!!

igc

Ir-rb nd-il
&?;Jiree rc

a-

~ rAa.s

q i-j' I

1 3C!

-j

th forc a-samr

uo'irIJ force arid;


o iti,

-. 0, ins niz proff ! Qa. fo-r Gup

r~ n-~co53~b

r~ia-\~a '.t&iIengrWr-.1twtct

flnu

1r~niu~

a:b

x9

11
_LN _EPRT~E

- -A-

------ --~
T# II

----

J-4O

. 11---s NO a . /,
#)rprOauoftejm n rpl-

u t-Pve1~
ta

--

eep
ie

myii
.mM Sw

w-i'PlmtcnetainW

COrzirto I,

I.Anu~~~ ~

~~

w09

'C

il

~prbcbm

usoI ed 0.8o propellant in theeUnited inte guns ibadr BrmiceishM6 Hord tet pS.p~mt SC muI s nex-

flung ftamc

Prite
wie

ut bahn ut hat amw am Of i k s t&e eaw,23K c M sto

(AbyteWo
r iam in

y W~ upfatR~~a Cooler areh om use propellant, forT.=~ a


M6 ex ashir-b .1im/uc, Bah isp -,ropell-o

tm of the r pr fhiopkela

e T. as ga

bavei

uecorsdaiy ~ ~ ~ ~ flash s~~n ~ ~ f Im esoi ~nt Foy thcor renuipootaat e th and flsub c 46-1-2nt frO:A1 Wao SEoA Mb th Fmemanyl dm mutolerated Flash ma ogert ebmias dl by sivg uease [MRo prop'ant was the mmited Sie iicoe propel-o oalant, o but anufath whho voofisdk PAYfry tmace ims M6 Hoted bivre) utt ine uaeu clvmt eInh '~m1 mdm O o~W1

54-

I
o.1' I

0.6

__i

0.5_

0.4

Tx

k
xx

9.- (D

0.3.

_______-__

z
0.2

II

A I

teo

200

220

240

CALCULATED
F.PW

SPECIFIC
404k

IMPULSE, 10
"We Ges oee~andm "Wow&

11. Swaim@ ftsv of Osv-k

sI

cilw xrnpuies (A a numbef Li double-bame rmict pev~ellants as a kuK-6mo o( dlame temeratti't, T,. taken fromn selcte SPIAM2 data shemt. Wh rqgifkamK of the line shown is merely tdw die points above the line awe all high becamse they wer either meagured at higher than standard Missre om cakulated, whi1,- those below the line -mr seamured at k-wTr than sanarJd press~re or with knfium ient expansion and should be corrected upward, These data, r presenfing fot the most pail propellants in set-kie use, wene reported beor the &L~opmof t1he standard pracuce of cmrecti mftmed Ww- unik to th 0 cm& toms deocribod in Paragraph 8-4. Burning rates of doubie-base roce and gas genertatr propellants at IOWX psi, 70'F as a fusictim Of Calculated sPectfic imPuls are Shown in Figur 31. pcflrmkts m calloms for roc"et haft umufly requbd propelIan burning rates beswme 0.25 and 0.5 inches per 'Wmdh in Swuabl ecinetalec, Fe dart rawg .ap ateiom short burning Wime and ~ho aml 1 ceabosi "a be nmor iportant than hog busnoux velocity, sad progiefants with thgber bsuring rose than (,5 wre imed. With heavy paysoads. specifi unpulse is ftreqantly aseificed to take ad441LL rmAm
vmtW

010 is used an the Horpst John rocket and in the booster (flixd stWe) mottus for the Nike Ajea and Hectulez, Tmerre, and TO% aiss n-z 0 a@o nse es waruoo
T16 is umd in a line charge projectm.

4-4.L h, O fo on V gI rs. As canIta~td with mwke mokorsFm Foas o mz sa"l require smallet- mas flow- of propellant gas for lon r times thereor Iower b~uimi rnas, The diffauo nsquaaaative "' for specaliaed Apphcabomo a tmket motor may be bes ftted wAt a aSu p rs~rtype propellant 2nd vw*everso. Othe requireawnts Icrga SmSnerawxr use m,) be col AKam m etazm of Igho pcrfornnax depeodMga h apiti'. ypical of otibk-biaf Sus prasor prope!wta mscupogdoms is X~-13, usend i the Sitkwbndu gsm gmeram.

Ne

ls
h.VbAs~W Nflto? SaaA" Nvmuirchue and An the A womm n.4 Art. (6 rvbrar

1, %M-STD-4",
2.

T- L. Dsa'.. rhe chemdr of Powdor aud E-xpzpAm. Vol fI P 2n2 ftom W* & som., Iac. New York 19413

o( lowe fi'.a

termmatw

an

n*m

cud abilit to use rucoper maniletas mD the itimUt dus5.


AV a meed in the sboulder-4xsd rockets oow

3. X NdaW,~ Or*Ms P5ma 1471/1SV, 0361/ilP. alto T. L Dam. b -. cir pp. 293 4-) 4, JAN-N-244 MoviWaou (FowUr 1/tAR Exp~ivrst (31 Jv4y 1945) with Amneidmmm-l (27 136cmeut ELC. Wanm, Tmwmkae7 of Cig&mt. Fm VOL L Paat 3, I. c~o#.Twv and Pvmvrk, P- 173@C D. VGA a tm CaMPY, New York, Ne York,

Sl~mmd by using potmi~km pewnhlorue as Co, C H. 3&m gw. Mde herAwakawkA~wamvuet'Le Aw sm dato matisy the shoirme *m t a? 0 31.AMN iwm Mwe. L bert.. Ourk burmM be oopie beottb aid eve h maop. 5i at. Cehmr. /is Ihufmm. to S*. of pawl ry thick Om lin SwmF TAWT lammbng tobe.
306w

Wold Wr IL JPN as wdelyteeddurio JPNwaswidly seddurng War aai n the 3.04wac HVAR.

C#Nmeo adeeCo.w Dvftvamw 2.ui 1kaLMw


iml UL V.I I,K, latrahm P~ NW~ Vork Il.j) o

of La*#4CA.m

Com>m

In L Oa. otat

madu~wthoesb

IPH to WNW=C

X4 ~ wn ~ ~ g~a ~ ~ rpi ~ X-8~~~~~ ~ ro ~ ~ ~

~ ~~I t
m

"OW ~qS, . Isa mbse Offmivn of C"Mbmh.

m,,

~ ~ ~uinbw.~sP"Um .~
an boa

-0~ - e,-

h chowg

knmmSS o Lava tI
ee Cafob

L0 of. a, sfetp~h Wkal C.ami


2m

&caelA. is-

Oufiallra

bws 1k., NwVAs. mo- Vat.


sa

1k~ Pat IL P 741,

usO miesmdn

S M4,d . MO

a~b

me" daw WfdL

N4-5 is old in the 2.754** "AR

VWq-11 .t

he DDONAM. Neodw maftw Tod r"pwws. cobrab 1kiksate'u bf*cmm o m


PIN5 IM hbU 14w. ~MS

J' CmemiWLe I Smoltefryj Po~'dvr.b Ehy

Ttu.vfcw*

MrMfA.; of Stl-4r

re.fing Naval P'oJer Focwcr,

Mario" prodac" 0! b'AyI Ce,'var~e m Doubt# 84ff Po'.~v, CSILD 5907, Ocktn 1945 (V1L'i Abstrac NAM 02 76._We I-%W 1,A239i241_. .,.. M0 E. Wbatwoit- an.;. C, H 2 JH Godfe).

h1"wt Heta TedhaL;ka! Rq'oi 2-1, 3Mac190 CIONIT1DENL4L tSPIA Athmi,.0 jO29)- F~ A WmrL Ade6ICq &adF M KwaErolamismn of
W-Ad Md&,,lfin P"V-fhwei

(to ~Wb

I mpverIa C1,mnkal

P~art li-

.11~u RupxI

ai:k C,,o,-Limr*.e &g PpvJr4lawii Alkeany Sullisoks LIomi. Hey. p6o ~ culee ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Moodily Propwa Report 44). 1 )mne 19,53. Cooirrcl
KNfroreflukvr, LIkMd Propelleai,.

Almtsct No 19191). 11- uierc~et Po C**m~,y~. ut~poL 1ebd O4& 1 WodrC~n.t.A~ER4 IL-D-261#9 (WSAF1. D~ad PretImirt(ioR Requfre. w.reoe 7 for i~~'i~ Sa7le HOAXLsi Sit-age lzid and C-"cqwrwi (14 No.mbes 1954). IWLL-C-21364 I Air'rwif, ond Adiuit Speoftian Power Sysseou, Gra. e-'uI petr/ifieono For (21 Jawuuay 1930) A W. Baurn. tErci o, Variiowi on Tocl eI Ioiie Wrsn-A odr opy D1 9Jn

A91 'MPR 48 (V- 6 of NMoTbly

W043% CON'FIDENTIAL. SPIA Abszu-i No155 Premmerc of Glycerol 11W dvC. Craiew, i'he V Trinkruie an Ceruakn GiyvU! Oaiusete* Ind Fqj 1.F. N4 L-aberper. 1. 0. Wylhe and L- Ohiov. Physi *'apo Pmrstare of UlW irNaalOtnmeT StuWn. NOTS 240, NAVORD I 184. 29 Seme 1949 (SPIA Ab~pct No 10)86. 14ML-STD-296. PruvpdA.,.s SowmplPV. 1pupet-sict md Trwm.ga, AMri4,d 404. 1.1-Hfem 7. sts (I20 ZOI ad

It

Fortldal;of RD 12. 12 Febcww 194i (5SIA AbuvaC No 1149). # mrwdSW eeomn.o n 20- eex PropcL~mnz for Cfliber .50, Herculms Powdtr Com-. pany, Knavil Ne ers emy. rinai Rpom" of It De.

It43' j(221 ) me 1956). M S MU-ST0Z84, Prim~edko w,opipM. Mapecrrka o~d rc (28 June Te Tezsiag MtfAod 4Ovtl (TjTI, a

comntr IQ-%, Contract DA-34M-0434-O 11933D (SPIA Abotmiw No. 17.002) 21. A. W BaJi (to Htirukm Powder Comuany), U. 5

I.%)

57

COPM~o

COPMIM

CRYSTALUMH

MO#4OPR0PUUANTI
KNOB"

114 PLASIK MONOPROaIt

41. GewtnL A3, was shown in Chtapter 5, civsbiader phase, alhtouh swb propeuld ati ive not tuihe monopropeUants have *.inite4 feasibilty *a proven unsW*~. pro'peflaztu, the bmltatJwis baing due to the osinThe bain w,1h rmw tn witwuin a difernt cufty in ptti cryptals of the ane and shae reset of mcbuiavie foruem during d&yig and owl for mwy ap fialoes and in the fact that perattim c~cdng from those F oa p-pi re m na ph*pur chenicals doi not yiMl a coc"iuous specitam tic umon~ropeflmt. due lo the preseuw of the of dwumocheawcal propeslies. The focm or cbhorcrystallne inawiia&. The bioders wre owaliy well -ah Ri~c velocity of a ginav aystaflinc monopreplawmed, costaamq roughly equal weigh ol

-tv

for prepeisests, is arkiorn opdma, for a spei -0 rodheb

ethyl witrumbt wre used One vii be me. These deficicies we ovro by acqtgfoised Wthe header phase. Potmum mltuk sueh as an aysilable paste size - Fb"I - or Orst of the miaute or ayb, may be added io inhbi the cwystane inoaoog"rUaw, and disesnog it n dubh a platic _ O.cnft-She copoia teis patak a uSevaray dwiset ID pmWd ausafti do de.Siud pomery wihaocupw* physicam ties and as amoifier to vary the Pamlevel The field of pi= petipelants is the oily fidW vivich twv-uiinpspbt phase ciospouites hrbees widely adapted. Only dx copo-ts udn mitroguazwhmne have bem standardned by the Iufted SMates oubtary forves, althoug RDX comsodroketprpe~nusadamoci * ft cpoame~si ba bee studied as rocket or gee
VDUNt PMPCARIUJSiSai

UkOU~w Ukrewst c~ puopgena gt the eeldfre i mlM m swws T. thasi sinunrT.ba= prope~imits. At the -a of &lMe atemeratm, nklztguenidiaeV pcgxuasts wi inv ga reater force tha sia~b pitas propenants. Advantag bas been take-- 0 stuoaation in the develOpmen of two epoafte Wrk of poe&ftfo reducti~on, seco mad Gas an o me o c43-1. N ~ ihvgmmb I Is Seodr nua Su sdea h of the game 6meaug frm the an~le of the

bass."

h -

.,-e111111F11 z

ma.d lower conas of do aymbw pbas Is V* at pard * Md " A I* in p awe sow,' 00ar padetiw. lb fth CM of OW ONRO du pzupe~atme I -m~wkb edu usuN , doasit. D P 39 ONW7n WO fh wb M b m skM ft e uov& wN s be bA e the de ph. Iti md& be m 4#00WMM Mas he A&%ONIN fth &

of coihmbuts deorea-

=bc *am imms of %, wd CO wta amyma. tagouf -~~d 6s t W Uparbu satd wh kit Ob = 7 ki do 19=6 bat uiut emfd sp~ ubased as do 11'1 C w N, hAwfid to as #ad"g WaM War I., TM Asin ahim lAI ma sOM OW - Co~ub M Nos as the . Pi-

)
FhkLrneteomituen,~e T., K O OmIuoCUlawr-f

TAME~ 9. NMfAfASM'4G PROflAhTS


PS415AI

T34

Cbqie

2546

2W4

2"41 211

2570 2241

lC

213

V!7

bItm M6 and corsp-,%t eawtefomce The reduction in Rlash coqywed w~ith 1d6 is therefore

functitm of com~ubmn lemm-rature and mcreaaes rapp* i boew soao temwmzure level An codue Iarply to the redtiction of the -cagmdbalbk wonic bbalate between wnuule vekxity ind gun fraction of the product pas The com-sponding wmm for weapons o( 3 -=ch or larg bore in& ai that the cos in b1me0 lift is "r high to pay German nitrogusnidine propellant' is considerably cooler, emnploying dicibykoc glycol dhdutmk in far nd muzzie wivrcity it the gun chamber gas Mead of wtrogjymein as de pbasucurw Summ kapastn ns lagbr than abou 3000*K For M15AI has greater force than M6. a soiewehat rapid-fire wtspow the ecmouniuc chamber gas temcooler propclmit could stil be usd edcwym perare is uwawnside y lomwr than 30000K As sh~own in Table 10. pooliellant5 conitaining Sons chambered for P46 propellant Threr- ac-.Inding nitroguatadmne propeilians ame simm an s an gadwacmnea~ etrtmpo
empaaon with M6~ in Table 9. elnsarfss Mith&MO M

TwoV awaus am eM t~euafr foxwuaai ajer sitroSuanidife prqpeftants, Corw. b to uxxvae ibc

Cif timm Vkhoi a f

Maximumn gas &=mper*-

fraction of natrgm

adite in the propeflmr 0

gnotae. M10 amd 1e42 6o

turt The ps-opellanti M 17 and T-16 contawn futroiDD( cotI - it.-

o( a dwrceawd binder fraction. Tkii way the cams be husited by a ox-P ellect on playtic prupenies. The adier omoww ,s wodecreame fte &orfic eaiw of the binder phave b)

HIto fawc .wetrgusaniine irnpellwts were upparenth- ornmaflh developed int the United Slat"sI Further develo~meai of this type propellant alepenls ion the *biit to tnfcrac the friiztiw of

afh.tunag ooe plastkizcr for thtpmamdy used, Such a cooler plustimizr may be diefthyete Oycol dinitrate as in the German 'formulatio or a Cooler miuuure of IWtOOiYocuii and fuel-typ plmtinim. formd ukrilm Am prpbis gwt anpro-n For oui sesit fiid s deire toSiv & rojectile the highest possible munkl vetocity. To a fia. approx-imaziam the usuuhe velocity shaic be pxpoertioual so the form of the propeflant. The -- tation m otbo ai =rnnt of muzzle velocity by mCrasta propellant forme is shea gai0 c-asmics a
43or cerai

nfroguanidin te peq'eft~nt. ptrusnd) ]muted by physia prupaties44- fhyalca pwesmssm The pby-sical propertis of these coompow"~ difer considerably fnmi these of the vlastic mnxwo romitanui The* are
qesire fto lae, n

exhibit puerally kwetr physical strength. As may be sen by ciamparum with the fuel bind-r compoaiwe Chapte 9. the decrase in phyalcal proptruies is not weessrily due to the valum pemmt of rifer It is more probably due to the shape of the nruwguambdine crystals, Which are ae

TAMA 36& HIMH FORM PNXULLANI


M17 %IQl7 541"' low0 t

Paw.?F. fS-hlb
M~ass

)"A"
3037

A
MIX

36610A
3110

MWOe"MT., ' A

amMmslsw I o

2.1.1

23.3

24.4

2-3.6

I'

*1

,hg,

U. Csg. Swib. of T'Ip4w.

e.

h.peIIs

oW Ct*'

NSos. U

I
I

With an tt'vtqu.M crysa! Shape, a Volume frac tKw. of MQ litment or a weight it aamme of a litc

cultit-r.

cross section at i-i order not to defo.i tmhe tim- cuti Rerroval of solveni from the corm;".ites
is much n.ore rapid, dut po~sstbl

moiot thivn 10 petcent shoull bbefeasible without ',iwiabifsy As the nmtrgut~nk~drse-fdk4 pr(I[t 1-nu1F~zUrt6 b iohent i~nt; are CUAIGo'ardk -Ip'a~ onentatiotv c4 needles may evatrusori, t- expected to rause bndgirig amd to initerfere with k-ni I &hnokagt duing# drying The resultineresidual rsmsss ir the birder phtase msy cxpl-un tW pihysial prcf-ert, dcktcenvcjC of thebe pro;:Vl]ants. kitoguanidine has be~o pfee~aed' 1*ith a inyv. fvotabk- c.o,-s i habott which irnp'oved the M'mtan(aurabilj-y of exiting bt-rnulatkirr;. It :S intrresting to "te that in tlie Carly Altencan tudies. expchnirenW t.l x~lants contuiranj' up to S(' percent ntiu~uanidwe weir Ctred in &-tillery -- ftl, Prrni at ~rdee ;-tr P~in t u~~ o1i 43, %wmaprewlimTbtcrysallne nxK 45 p.roiaw u K n r fl u ht T e ~rs ta ) It a nrKa j

to diffuston of

interfaces This does now mean that diy'ing times shouki be reduceed In orfder, to makc a qualit) grair it is neccssar to use lo%:r drying temrierat~ires and timne- comptarabe to thos- fmri iCrmcnik-riaI snuokekis powderi in order to avoid steep solvent gradi-rits and resulting uistortiori and ciackinig A phtxomtcitogr aph of a ciows secior of a intruguaraidiric propellant grain' is shomn in Fig-ire 32,

i De;, LeVCIp'v4,iof lmp -d1 Propetlams. Piatial) Arwaal ,TcdutKal Report No 1921. 5 June

9'3, Oird ,' 1LAI_)6O1, C-ONF I U) Abtusjac No 13.218'p


?d I 0 f k p'

T I AL (S?I A

M N2

rIM)Oporpdllits, bcr.-xing m ny newt etinj points -The A"~i 9( ccxnp&es ccont ner wo t1e- Miud:, thurefore due mxinly taming thern is dependent ~~ical Which is a plastic mnuvwpropellant S~hbth., test3 onMeasuring Wise 00edct CvO~uUtkim 01 ox~ides ,e-f nitrxogn Iror a filed weight of proyiellant Lndi-ormdintv sxiovlkfor &-hi indbated inxcrax~d sitir..a,

D3 A

195?7).

Janutrny 1916, CIONFiDENTIAL (SPIA

Ab!:2eIa No MOO!)~ J ,N Print 1-b resne a-&i'nteo K, A

Jnl)Wami and K Misloji. Gtrr-ai, f NtkpJ'w' Eirrs re 1911 aisd 1942 (A ranmlation of ath C --- ra R~ik D.e Ct&AkP1,,dmt

uss

Ltd h.V S F.'rra 25

to Imperial CheNrn-

05S6 9 1).

b?

Gallwitz). Califor-nia 1-tiiutt cf Tftbnolog). 3c'

vime ma) be e~peted wo be higher than to, the binder alone, dut to this urne trse~r chluti'wi. provided thialthe awltinig poinis o.4 the cry Laibn
in In
a--!.

~ a ~ ~iuntmpr-ajrs fr ~lfC*U kgtlS f CPO


ford', ~%wcu~ mtso ~ igrition

nrKot r real

Auto-

S. A W. flaim, 1, G Filick-) &end R- Wuinc. P-ovi& rv Ca'r.-l ini 5rew' o !propftho"?l Ptm~if-t

Powd-

HE-riiki i

~~Peelv
P

13Y aF1siioi; Radford Ordaarsct Works Po~der Compan,. Radfoxd RD) 9, 11 Junt W345(SPI 6,Abtna,-a No 10V3) V Mtbrw: R- Evarn. S Skotnik ane F. C- Tharivm
oj tk3i~-r~~r 'tA D W4~ AitUgow,.idisr .on4 66. N 14 UWember 1953. ISPIA Absts&!Ir1N tI& lt), J

4&. Msrhcbw6 precu. TN.- maawfa~wing ,-oceu~ uscd !-- the nitrsLguadidxn prop~eUmnU in the Ur th Uited States has bme uniformvly solvvnt ci. vmxwa. rft mtrw'eilulm-owe I*Atrabion in the
"ha a 1o0, btnder phase ia low MnOWg to "u"! wtntkeu pctxdure rould be used Thee amount o( soWet a"d isquite IM and the peopellat du-ing 4.viim is 1e ry sft W0 " it 'is w~fmrs s
S

coNr:D0NTIAL Coheu itd R A Hear). A kt*. M~rthwd Io~t the P~rFPerzftO, of Na"Crogoo.dle -sub Nish MONI Dff ) VNesaJ l dwme Tesa Swmns. NOTS 162, ~ 1D~rbi14,CNIF SAVr"

TIAL (SPIA Aboramet No 3W)


7, W F )&cktme (E I du poor~ de Nrftiuii & COn,r~m - - ) PiMle cO"WnUUnacamc 0 W. Stock. Marr popwid Examtmritom of Propel! Semi Co4AW"rsr Nirogs"iiadirr, 14frcuX Powder

to

A--

#X~I&Jd

gjUq

Cwipmay. 111 3112 21 AwpAat 1954, CIONFIDEII TiA& fiWA Absei No 1i.Oi 1)

CI6

MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR SMOKELESS POWDER


one manufocuwting prTcei 's,,rmr-of piasuc rmonropr,-rpeflar, A' i5 Ow j, h-,mretral inert .s tar)) of manufactunng them.-op',tKs, a *i-lc Pricesses .Is Ner de-Ith.ped to mae chfferent propellat grais Kcart;) kern f.abrication proceu used b) the commermal pliasts indust, has been itsed (or popeliants in Ia.-t sone presse, used fo(r propeliants havt no" yet been urd b) the plastics industry For any gwen process the dufference between use for proe!ianms and use for iin LrpLuti.s is. that the conseqauetncs of a fire during p. xessing prooellants are semvere aod exsraordinar) pi.-cautions mus, be taken to prevent fires and to control them if the) do occur Aside from &tails in the design of equipment, the rn.ost striktr4 fe-turt of pr'ntl|ant manutfacitunrin proceies has been the requirement to handle the rrmain hez of Ld.te sinm sqmraWa teriai in procesma oris by disauaw such that the frm odier opce knsv 9 a charg arndits conwuing requipmbent will not entail propatio to re4,ibo.ng opradonis This requirement has, until recently, discowuaged t drvtkopnemnt ot coninuous procsses. and is stiD a problem to people current]l working on contLnuous proce-,es lmpotart processes used sor nitrocellulose systern propellants are Solvent cxrusior, sol tl emulsion. rolling of sbect stlventjeu extrusioni the cast doule-bast process, and slurry cas.ng. Sin=c ni-mclu;ose i comm-mly maufactured ais at the propellant iaciiity, its manuftaure too ib ~'etteribed here, 47. Ge, tW, N

-iii pronu= Lhcr a*

i"tal in IeM wuee h The proms 44. NINN CUMU workjt and ahvj wade;u cialkv, i1 the Du Ponr mechanicaljdippng process Continuo_s processes have bevn ins-taile by one or more cornterrl produceri bu- the details have not been published It is believed that thew poceswis we engineering aaaptations of the mechmni,- dipping procsss The flowshett of the D)u Pont pjrnes is show'n rt Fiure 33. Cellulou in the form u, cotton inters is dried on a nu ing belt in a tunnel drier to a moisture content well blo% I pe'vent. Alternatively, sOweted %r-od c-dt-lose' my)be dried in the drier and then shredded. The dned ccluiosc an mixed nitrafing acid are introduced concurrenty '.nto the nitTa:or (Figure 34 where the cellulose is converted to nirrocetlulose At the end o( the nitration cycle, about 25 to 30 min'tti, the nitrat0 is discharS" -b pVity to Oxe centtiI4al Wnri*Er (Figur 33i wbere the spmt ad is re.oved, Pant at the speot acid is sent back to tOxc process fr rtuse after butting i-p ith frtes acid The remainder it rewo'ked to remove from the system the wa-tw picked up from the iitrnation The wruns nitsoctelaici, wet with "mentacid, is quikly drowned and transferred to the boding tubs (Fipgre W6) There, for a period of sevetil bour' depending on the degrev of nitration of the niticcellulose, it i4 bouied in the wea~k aLid resulting from the dilbtion oi the spent acid rrK reoved in the _rTiNIn'z operation This boiling treztnttnt wivei te hydrklyze an sulfate ester fornwd dunrng Che njtration The niroceflsaios ii nex~t pu~pcd, ec . in -xne or
crl'a

__ _

__ '6

VMSL

62

I
I

I
1' ft Au, P.wpA

fta..

4a

'S

I
I

A' Army

PkoeA Ra~nd A'ama

F~gww 3S. tircceuld'c

Wner

64

FA~f

36

N,?iovIh4ose SeaLng

vt%

and remo.e any residual acid. Thorough wa--hinE complete~s the punfcti~o n cycle h~ Orde to acU* mulatc lots ol sficient SMZC, Or Ir. produce a mixed nitration grade sm,:h a-, rniliwar bl-,Pd, poacher bthsare ble:idedi in bkridinj zubz. I1wh I~rinshrd nitx.ocelluklse is ccntrdugali, Asiwig to P a % vauL mmnent of abowi 25 to 30 percent for tii-O4i 'o 44-5. Ntiogem coewew, The degrce of nitrationt is coinroIL-d by~ tbe equillibriumv bemcrise the flictl-

paviIe~, lc.uini tehind nitrmfilu~ose of shliGIN2 diL-a-s~nr &3-rct of 5ut"It"tJon ine first f~lira t~o iurs qu"rpiO. but subequcriii cuihitra:~orw ;#id of dih rerit con~~~nis much &Io~cr and is qno? ccni~etz: h,%; end of die fit-raum:cfyptCraten For tih,; reas!on, cL'icfui frac [kO imeaFC
(c~t~m lifl~ri, fIDt~s /Uich havc thin czli ,aUs and- tnougt, tv.st to krq,. theia c wntalat) apart Inl the nilidioto produce a nitrcKdlulo,,. of a nairo-,-; StSII'ijtuin SpeiLxUIn I? An IAO~xi LCIluio4 'Lhrods

cellulov and the vpent acid ' As!,c acid perictraite


jitrato

the cellilose raitkick the sarface is first to eq~uilibrium, %4ith the ftesh acid Tht 65

%.zhcrc rcgt~l~s of cootlaction are found ITe celiiilose-acid suto (fr %ood LeIIuIOa is hig4.i theuri

that for cotton. resulting in i" greater ch~inge of acid s~trength duving thr nitration oreation This5 addb to* :', -dth of the nitration specirun. for 'thr vwooo nitrmceflulose I utahN 'A hile c'tnn cellulosc I, almnost pur,. rVIymeralcd drxtran. ACod 4CellUlow. tiiiall ccnlain an admixture A )`thVT sgal such 9,, Aylan and mannar, Thrte become nitrated and kthir nitrates burr, lke nitrated di~tf-ra but they havit secondar% eltects or. the physical strength of the pcrlymer arid it s vi~utimn popcertics. For most purpose,. wood nitrocellulose is a corn-Acte alubstitute for cottur. nitrocellulose Transpiration of moinst air in ihe wrusgnz can cause a lowering of the nitrog-tri lvel by dirni"rtion, A .light hydrolysis ocsur%also in the boiling operation. B~oth Of these effects, ar- mincr in a well-r-onducted opcration At12- perentflitoge or 48.2Soh~lli 442 olsb~h.At 126 prcet nt oge or 12 2 percent nttrogen rutro-uijtse is miscible in all wih ropotio5 eter-lcohl Sice IE fhOgin co'lienit measured is tne average acnim a spectruam, a poorly nitriisittJ cellutos2 with averaige nitrogn cmtent in the saltrble range may contan 4 fractions either vtorce or less highly substitutei than arm comspletely misciblie. In such cases this %vald be detctecd by a residuc in the solubility determlrsat~on.1 Guncotton contains a smllfee lio dii iter i ;luhe, y rssoi f lw sbLio tht s ;lubeeitc7 y easn o lw sbstitution o; low degree of polymerizatioYn. 41163, Viseos4x. The Niscosity of nitrocelluloe is determined b) the viscosity (degirce of poh-ymerizztior) of the original celluluse and by the niducto tion Of thL d4qreC Of paclJimetizaltion .rtcsdenrt the nitrocellvio-k.e manufacturing operations. Most
ti~~~~~~~i UUJni

volure Prodcipticm omratiwi it in vreferable toj maintain the nitration degree o'f the noioelluloit

constant. by control of thc nitration opcratikin ard


by blending. rather thtan to adjust tht foirnulis3 T hc vis~cowiy and siolubility have seconsdan effhciin the fir inufaetuning operations insth.'t the,. HNicr tOe amnount of solvent (and plasticizxr) requiredI to work the propellant. This is particularl% 'ruc during the solu-crt extrusion operation %: appOmd preslurt is constant ard require appromminttdy constant plasticity of Ath "rn (solventwtre I propellant The finishied dimensions of the priu-Nilant are deservirined by the solvent ccoitent and the die dimensions, so that if the plasticity is cotstrolk-d by varying solvent coiotent the difimensional control i4 forfeite. Simnt~aily for solsveftiless extrusions the finished dirmnesions awe controiled by extnausimn temperature and die sine, _rd if temnperatures axre changed to control plasticity dvring etruison, control of dimensions is less good For theme reasoess nitrocellu~ose specifications ciall for zxto of WA~lt Wi ioyi well as con~fo ereo tt~ Wadter0 ltak Wve e5of ~ In piru 26 (page 45), toijg, the lin SS divides the polygoo PARC into two

olf the system are such that the com~positioo can be worked and formed at tenable itmperaturts; Above the line SS they carnot be so worked. A rgons, Below SS the physica poetie
composition X in the upper region can be made Only- b% a process u"ng a volatile solvent which is subsequcnitly remnoved- A propellant made by a volatile solvcnt process always contains some residua' -olvent, and residual solverrt is one form
I'll'. iS~e

oitu- ighe nitrtLikmLgi utimperaure niresult inloer w.here if is. dependent on the nitration ternperavicouti) nitroccllulovses

~ ~

~ S4f'---------------_ itU'l-1~ 1

Kidd

Airauo

a_'.

iupslcjoA il rdu .T h on composiuri; X' %uch tha' th.e addition of thr repo~ition A" is added enough volitile solvent to enable the propellant to be processed. This results in the composition X' 0n the mixer which it well below the linc ~5 Compositioi X"' is frequently We fat to the left of line PHI that the mix w~ill not burn without air, and the hazard Fituation is tbereby somsewhal dimir'ishe+l Solvent evaporates during procc,%ing ano ti~c cirimposwtioll oithue matena] in process creeps back toward X. It must riot ctoss the line SS until after the last forming opewatton has been completed Final! drying wao-cs the matcrial a' composifion X. Nowe that X', X. X"'%wid f art. coffinear

48-4. SfgiNkmae of ukrocefamsse propefillies. Of the three properties disctwscd above only the degree of nitiation has ball. stic significanct, affectigtemolecular wseight and temrperature of the combustion products In order to manufalture a rpropeluani ci1 a spccinico force, F, Oir specirseiii; .pulse) One must either have the proper nitration oif the nitroctflulose ar comperss~at for the di~lereiebetween the prescribed ntitrocellulose and !h6Utrucluoie Pt band by Adjusting the proportion of oxidant plaste~ize and fuel plasticizier. In a

6I6

*19

L~~~ _J'

LLj

ftwo 37

5prwgO E1h

A-S~

f~or nitrocrIltilows used for propellaunts i the United Swtate the possumn of the huc SS oorresponds rou&hl to a wtofuoA.3' coomtrbalio (weight fraction niuhiplid by pt Veil~ density') in the flimshed propellant of about 1.0 g/cc. A volatile solveat pmr-ess must be used for &P~ propellats. with a preaer rdt Rrxuloe conoentra~tion than this. The sovtzt extusioru pracesi. is sometimes used for propellants with kywer nitroceliulose concentrationl in order to reducc the Waorific value of the mix. Bectause the residual solvent conten inreaeswith polymfer content and witt the
wreth\ cn~ra ; sinpfoeia nbe used

of the knpediests satd sakents nwod in the parictulia propellant, and it is the funcem of fith mixer to mix them thoroughly into a vingie homogeneous plastic phase. The uginm blade dtnlr if, capable of a good mioung job but it has certain' disadvantages. The sluafts of the sama bladles pwa hrough the end walls. of the rvtixer below, the upper wunace of the maiteia! being mixed. The treatment of the glands through which the shafts pasi is different for different types of propellant being processed. For double-base propellant it is cuts-j toniarv to remsove the oackina. leavin a Or
betwenthe hatadthewall aprt .A sal-

1ml oe gris

withafairlynso ther w

~solveti

iey

wcto

ek

hog

hscer

Thertd finishig of the so mext rusions Proes beeW bmed adpre adfer".xn oerton .s 3y nhrwni Figue dusp1. cs. owater. tPe Thpnre dientst to saem c operato t uoeand mrof the e q"alnty C ~gO~HICa rcivd i thendicted poduc As ymay tor bete singly in cobinations iresa .auihl poperawttnions a orenotingaremovly of corminefd tdd ias made, athremxigh tebocpuerains vent.iure Toes thes opeaton finshnghave beeen Thed 494. he ~ hear of th mixingopeea. is irst Thucs w ir~ithloose, wae-eit roemiulee.it anti blade is the mixer, rgma asshownivinin ledadtentcloce pressiste a hydraTli position in Figure 38. To this maaer art added all 67 r~xmpr-ssed to a "block" tsv expmaw a portion of

I] Fuuw 38. Skpma &6lnd Mbw

0 Awy rWMw

3am'd

Ap

the waw- AlcoWho then pumped tha: the bbx*, displuti the vremander of the water. The drbydnra~d kbL~k is bn*.en ,aseoiem s in a "6klck WreaWr or pkin roll, txuetirne by hand dursag the chargin o( the sipma blade miwe, sometimes by the aqma blade itself durnag the mixing Operab . Au&Mt of cii ni glycermr or ether oxishn pins*izff~ to the dehydraWe nitrocellulose is usually, NAi not Wiways, a~cmpltsbod in the Schreader bawi shb. mn 1 Figure 39. The purpose ait this is Io avoid the prm~noc &i a fme WUtrOgYcefin phase in the ugma blade mix=r at mny time. Nitwo~cllv)mse and itrvolycerin awe someftmes mixed w WSWr slrr, foilomcd by dryin and re-weuja with t0eWeore mbuzn in the ppis Nlad miw. FWnd"yp plastcizers and somet-solohi a"d-

tivn may be dissolved to th sohn beor addig to fthsigma bISIC miwe The soivent. Used MIncu~ mted States tor Solvent-extruzion PrOss propellants are usually 3 ether: I alcoWo by weight for snglbazc pro'pellants and abouat I acetooe: I alcoho fof double base. Othscr solven sytems, mcudwx esers, ame feasible. 494.2 Pe -a b lade g epseadeoMa hhsm Post-sigm~a blad mixing qoentlions ame also wometime, cmployed to shorten the sizma blade mixer cycle ind Ir ropvve the q"aSty of the wax. The maceral, b,0Awf tol F4=u 40, wokvt the mix on toothed rail, subjecls it to a vigorous searing acbm a.u redtr-es the Nul density of tht finished spite blade cbarpW, partcvlarly if the fiber strur> tun e s not been compiewaly destroyed at that

I
I I I

I
I

& V S Atm7 Few


1

Fw b 39

ScWo.d.r Mz,'

'2

69

I
I

I.i+

=i
I

I
I

-,

70

71

hamps Of soo.tow fwom singi-bame P,.idere. ( sceemm% we. wwk the dwO09M Wde, &Mb- wigt rerwav May be xcuup~bz d w vo byOCI bYw ,foqMcr e tk aWelapsd thee.1 in orwde ID emns ~cqIt 00 Sawu f~um It irv" doa so Abur am kwzumpkhif caftded particks of duit-c~dm a amish mdm;dwioa m by pea ps=at=~ faomedmb of -n zmwewk "~ an th noe"anngdeafterq. a wul wn 1mw~ bodies mfm. A fil' sk dry resores 1kr pmpdL fute of d 492L ywmk&P The CYRiar _1d afu doin cb* pme amInini by ezumwlnoo cmOEsess AhAPi--de P!i9 binme o ra~m bydradic wrem The dch b- comd w1& a duewyem phomi*0a itoc bilsom mt e inch a to vWM a pm. Me M ft~. dbaft CinlY fUsd Of 691 Ips p au (sodvewaei) in *f mb cgt ,ectiado -Vwmw is pfaed ima a Ti pam sabssmpew dry* the hold dimemsiu wE be a bamd. simio so, q~2 mad for ago-coig Te bftlkae of prupelma is *2ws *1ow. sAm pW ee dw mm. Te - q in the awa uc d m d tbe nomm CC dmk w~* a w-r vupm and sciva am poahemeiy ad& -in Fig 43. The bacuul is pI ip 11 o a0 t d.e k OD tof ~ -It P96 We WMMWW sy tgtOR dig Mk PUM.din y p s o the Anin pi TW Ear sa bydt~ v coupwfg.a a binck"a pa.wech peas waftg Sosat a dosed cat A simae bhccbq apaubmkoo we~ pammbking pcede IsPp. 41 we do mim; m wtam d an&m[a ft at mwin& pram demn:am cmmnm om. The moo the ca Bruns md be 4ki Figmg 27 ~PS 47) ha bm c yfhl @%m
m
__

-o'"temwarMm

mod

*c bkck

d orW w 011d 10 3 Sm p nF 111 am of to Iu -d *2 acwimoo wi* oi b Iphe to bewsm sto *icktiy deb 7U ap. *wdi bdk dmalh fcO. boom

-ub

-moea

NaW

bghL A coAula Ow poa in Pip. 42. word dw Sm prqpuelm is dw w vuta wMt Tbn~s-ssrvmomiam o di md~ ~ sldimdemdk
06&

sWcmimn

somods sm cut am kmg

dvoL Jim

.My

fib the

m be ma u*M

m do psiecmied in a Pp" aw
ad

s barnw buy~ mI
Piupelmi ate dr

i malk I

bwmk w"

a1

myemmt

--

--

__f

the yid of aca


4--

m an' mr d 2 mime~ of * m ASW ewoff vo


lm mma p f e rem of -1

Mirmosid ad lsefra 7W

"M66 cisa %V Om o de dry*d Iby1umodn bei ofv wsed by Iut ix s *0m ~ wt -A s ma b db jo lb druyw
-

gras bi&g measlyd a l* e gW *2 pl-Kp =aqdio 67 -e nupjy doe uwmctad ad di was dry to )OWU rad Sm ok dft. web i~

pmpi 4W& whom* As eA smaa bo we d0o" *eNWubl ssd b h A cherps, dwy we bkWiwbocomligu to he dima A a NO psN&. Iha UNA AX0M

f w tomnsa aloed lop Ot *c "m PaGP of Ajg" mW beS m alm Ahumedv" 1i1 ewm. mdi oTmti d com a mmb of bamd he wb ama~m e.i amlmR dam wM a beat dine as a dmms ad do Mod am=l As thecmd sohewa , nv be cauin momindi ocmib by 1ild is do bond of doe wi mdc=h Ca r &Mt s~d* fr rpmONOe 86h% abisoto I FA hued 1sl w~ & s~ dm u&edas cpWIA RM COMOM v-a of to esm a d times Theaomo of omam -t ahd mo y-b d4 rsp ued wM hse owc ft*ghl pladuciad "km kmd prmie b.taho dw ed Pnmnc se h wW is candwably Iis dm 6 obiinhmm. Is do 9Mis of &&a mod don uemomi 1w an am as obe, id bo I op of dwe Woe- has bevv yomm Afftso As do

an OWN do smimmsw

_________

-'rato

-ad

-d

72

my 18- Awu

80

s~or Arwft

F4pur

02. Cwtie

Mm~e~i

73

V18 Amy P~b

3~fmw

A~

deal MI, 1110 112, v , L Aw 544. Mi'. Th4~.doubp~-*kdf W12,MS. WS, die BrkMs Cwdes CO) ad WM; dob~4we rocket propeflmaw K17 Dom sbw Sw of doin pwopei~ami may be huied powim AEaa Nodm MwW fhIA/ Cot dmw u ismariname in the cam douie-base pmu smy ben -m by achvat exinedo., as we mb the &jIe-bm Sm pqx~autm daumed in Cbpw7. ama~ (4 Pwwiup' pmimn. A SL
mV
____d

mdrdayMea

fsa

Vad d

rwa~ 6 (arm propegmt a inlti t~U~d* d O~~f

FU

I mm mw v-

7 10 p rms Stu WL Faig d-n fmkarvwo of wh'et~ pw 0ie Ohmwq'for this opera" cocaDu~os rth eqpom prima a dosed, uemi-jacketd aW ore "tar " in Fipis 4. Pqm#ppe with peddke-bdk din or dowbie Iiw ~stomf and an auxiiary seevent recovry sysuem Nfitrucciluokse is dispered in a nusohw~wv (Waff) an a uAtVai (eth" sreau Fperhap Wse), a ,4it (dipbenyayinti) other aduhxz wse added. Addkn"e bwot d at t66 poemi amot be ,stbwhe in wasm mud it crystalMR hm is maD Comade e they mun hawe a Parcc uWI teren sinaofe ta i propeilant~e pae Wbe maze aod ! 1eawdteu p dient faixm- sci
____

sh a of lids p tepdog

is shwn in F sm 44 , m d

re a n
--

uk o el i e at e m o

m Fi Ic..lih
in

-iF~e45. t a Thwb-a Obs MwM CbmaJc Cmywsm


74

~w ne avc~va
f

min g acid

be

11

5,mill

"(AD

~ak-w'
1 s5OF itV~A 00

Lw

5.W-

A T

his low visc~osity laNcque phase, i.sing chalk as an additive to neutralize the acid, Wheri a smooth UKa buern~ formed, a protaiive collooid is added Wi form an CAemulsinT ane NoS siz ihstbu&.# of the laciqtae part~icles in this emnulsion arc conuyoled by the kind and degree of agitation. A Wsal is then added to draw- thsslved and emulwSwfe water by osmos from *tIwlacquer droplets Onussion of the malt ivssdts ii' kywer density product. The solvent is distilled cif by raising the tepea ture ard is recovered for reuse. When solvent removal is complet, the slurm is cooled, dewasered,

wd nnxn wshedto thesaltandprotctiv

M_

by emulsifying at high shear, heating the emulsion to a temperatwre well abo~v the atmospheric boilirig point, and flhab evaporating toe sohvet. Thewe spheres may th" be plasticize as descrbed below- They art usually co&te with a sinai. amiotnt 0f castrig ptastcizer Prior to drying to miznrimaa accumulation oU a %tatK chatac when dry S& I t o p~Woc . Scremied cuts, suill in water iurry. are weighed pycroomectri"by upaint and a second stih The slurry is again iraaei andi plasthizers (fuel and/or oxidant) are added. 11it nitruglycerii, is used it is added lsiie ilsieiseuifdbfoeaitn

to the &vweinng operation. or rotary sctwm. yuiadsn one or more fr further processn to didlertend pm roduacts. The grain sine range of any cut is within about 10 to IS prces, verae (l ofthe ~Wino Luger upheres and more uniform susmay be jtroudied b) a moimaficatwio' Iof the above proceminwlcl tmelaqur s ad u i te bw~e Mof solivenz, exatrded via a metering ptvimp and orifice plate as strands, ntro ^ prop irtionase stream
-,z
ur

%XAuu -.

adcut to square cylindetrs. The cylindets assome aqhria" shae during transfe to fth stil where &eoty adk~wsea (sal) and goilvent removal am ac q .ihe as described above. Sphere 50 so 75 microms in diameter suitble

muiells qwe s;1tm tmertr uc tic, and may be controlled to ktav a plasticizer gradient within the granule. When the impregnshas been cxpleteci the solvent is iewoved. ~vn oiols muta ~ieti h h fsleti otoldaon I-vn granules tc facilitate the coaling op~rafinn, 56-J. Fbalhlig spesallam. Coating agents are agan added as emulsions and the voperatian of coarng is periormed at controlled time and temperature. In order to get more closely controlled web, the coated propellant may next be passed through sizing rolls which dlattn the laqwc balls- The product is then dried and finishied in tie same way as the cormniionding solvnit-ext-uted propellants.

I75

uMcasiq, devzaibd below, am msae #

,"

I
'It

I.
t
I

Cay

Ota N

ChainS Cwwwa

FJyww 45 Doff Prdr

76

m, 0 04. W~m CI

fiavr. 4w'. SWii

the hIWTn Operltrens may he ambte'. to th& surimm of the grains cF~ring the glazinj, operazion 51. ReItd sbo pnvmS it the propellant is to bL u-Sefl iD 'he (OrM of IhCAS. itl1ip-, CL-)C, OT some other form, o f ectwWang y St~orfet.I), it ma) be suitabiy made by a rolled sheet proc~cis. Ttus is bWsically the pro~cess origina~lly u~ed by Nobel, anid is -axec extemivaiely used abroad lhar. insthe United fu '5Po5 si'wf Figure 47. 511-1, .b A great deal of 1 'exibilit) is passible *ithin thi proe~ss mrxing may be accornplishO~ either with or wilhout the use of volarjie solvent ir. a Scl racder mixer or in a sigima blade, mixer, or it vriay take placze in Aa'cr %Jsl-)r If slurry mixing )i used, the still fibrous rmx, o; vall#,

thr--u -h a filte

ofa-utw-h~ Further ehrminatior, of %ate! iiiay be ircomrnfVhed b) aur-dr~iti Finai ch-atinatior, of %.ati-ror voladic solvent is j~uai) ariomiplished dunn',. the ioiuig operation at the timei that the wropel~an i5 ounsoldald to -a Owet. althouLgt dryii v operattions mnay bt usc botievr passes o~ver the rolls or after the conclusion of the roll'ng opcration.
51.2. R*lMug- -he iill milk mna% he ctmi.rxerd (both rolls rotatinf at the s-rnc prmpheral b;:eecdj or difRcrentiral (o;,t roll faster than Owe other), or a combinati(,n of dif~hrential and cvcn specJ irD~s ma> be used tYuwmdc -dw Unjtc~i S1ateS Most if-lling operations aic conhducted on es%'n iifved rolls Fj This Yperation th, first pass lormis a ~hmc, vlhtct i! foldwl and or ro:atvd for ezlkh succeed irig pit- In the United Sjtes dillerential r4.4]ng ii

77

mix

OLLFIRI$14TRENH

MRTA

WATER SLUPWY
scft"E"4

EVEN- gotta
DIFFERENTIAL

NEW
GLIT

STRIP
Cuse

ftM~EApE

C~O

U-8-u Apo M&F~Y4&

WW4b

ftm~

PSI

A-PW-hAN~d A.,

1~

79

eu~miy* us@& 1k chp ube to the codat rnai md jmm roeawf dy q the bitWO kitis Wriys ta A diw~dvoAia reM t ish tbas pnapcdy WaVL~,d by d=sa rul I p-M isnd o by n~r mdv o peon. A typica rcd uwD

~twb shmU

M2L Nobin

is A- uI i

Ths proams

vA

rf

prm

-ps by awW

is Whow~ in Fig.. 4$.


S"4 PI 111 0

uelb (Feaws S3) cc by OnckbS Ash co from the Abut. 1Jnd ~-CI pretm is. w m ample reo The cbing is bniw W to 11 1 Intp.3mw bshre puetiew do Fm pm FImm 54)

powft b vmmb by di-bohd

w -,I is

jem,.. bwWs

10

WM~ feuvamg
wd

ede AL b prow bub

anl

is Fip. 49 in hih nrat~q khu bowar

med, s" be codolo

do esmualus by a*ft~

so be baud by caft peckaps df zlps Ofth a psia.m or by hasin Astck drov a dwr in 0w kfg n dplp.mwe dat s W am ewgk.IW ifrvld ob suck a-f OW be raddfiC ibm ibmb wih a rob 4fis, DwKIAW WOWd Ww H Iamno INI in -a PMo.K by ft sapua of qpft mwims a pIIk 09 AMUne 100" IMWft U a wwt edo- d~kf pm*Ul *D e sno, M0-

a% at tk "bob. umd w be a I I d af so Val I too bewm -euI cpus. Thu por om * ,1 eswsingine eaamm o mextroi. cyi is keows as em amak md b aum deft' INN PeuuMu hha bwI-Iu.m af ba em .zkmd adsi eww muf rsmibd Is gmSf a beps mm il, vu 11! W* *IDk em O *11wM aM ~ -be oomw lwAt. ferndf P" emf a, em wtols =usmios utwd be mi. 1k, bd
cook isnmb mesiu f mI

wosa Flow So wMe =a&mwab buitAte d"awfem.n., md Iboiy po-

dem bewm adnshi% wd wdm

it

holes via a Puch Pm.L

4w

M&d ONOWIM SWIsm P wAt a eaftodise cossibasum bimi I g/ar,


pmiirdissty a wals mw 0.4-isicb sad in crmw shea Vauu , b ishf g- sp.oss an vdowo secdossupt bm 7bcte waw abe autoxKd em~vwqmauofdke proe .Fara oa by em anlveadeam cusim pwos thi mnS no 666ing qmpstas WW b

#2-2. Ph-db As S'd m

winn v d ruelm

si

jdnw udlhAwowatUhod So" wis

Fr

rockaetmouinemdudVWwA be.

4diksbrsds cureaproo u mm w o.~d c-u' emba 1'~ 11$ dm mm~w dbo em b F.i alww. emtsi bIne be sO- am M~ haf bapOt t a zpmim c~hus rw beMby &wusiassT ais by ftefta mump ehm fink a dbm at y f Asfwt d a-dken dowal tod j IaI IW am we bo*3.4 is a16Apres eofom apeltabw cssol eibuq ift fdzdwsto emwb p~ bw a Noe dited. promy ft. thed War .Iwr bt a nm Umibe em Ia~Ift how e do ssaft m be dab kWa -ris amo di abg d wo seba. of dol em bo" r f . ros by borarf . m sa aanm an s bewIt ,
ft-,"CIb 0",

a Afe bra
rw a

wfmddVat m.sum&s& Imoff ebm=A mawmeet* -r~ am we appbd. Ca pby d wis i


e rSi-d-

Ia

AtI =ye

MiFl o ano t slvmesesuu

udo

hbwp&na

I-

ALAIP

hSadAo

fbwo k~ona t Trm* Aow

... . . . .

I ItO
)IW

son

lr~est

V&CM ame

eIM

T Psdwfkamf

"

I I
i
-

!I

.1
--

i
I

I'

I I
I

I.

__)

* I

V...

Pbub

Wuib

a c.

m.

-1)

13

V 8, Army M~p

OAAW Woo

W1014. ~
-b

I~w 6n. nythem~


**

Ssbm
2

mdis WPism.ao

ubwd It UWm VA cmft Mbtmpapimzs

* ii m1wmexiuI bw& Anuy O,~cu

eumUpeC. ODUl-li~ Si. m p mi u


c
-

~ be ~ d baw anuru~w tua ~i t ". ~ ~ .e f te gai 7430 he WM bminE Wx rio ~t a- amowun at usradia d~imtion bocaliv: no Pl d addition-al sirface i, c.xpcmd wben dke ban,~~~~~~o~~~ et ~ t~ sur mIsc a. m
6s"

. wich may be made eidr by olv ematrinm (sitarl cyboders abow 0 (13-isch m 0me by 0.03-ineh kong oc by the SOl is auntw of pmesi-) solveue ofud awdo prm&m fpiel cm sovn wihaaba The b~k damity of die powdu is
Ib I- g/vu. mo dic
&UUimb

basis coupl14 with qualit atimW theu

Prup

ownpi

-n w it a"pow& This mt voi dw h atai owA the pealuatuo is 2dequate oumokin a Mainim mtroceiH-1 e conortrattam mint rolu sews at Macceptalbic miAuMtM. When theii protimcd is an eWd-t;urner. hovmter, no &%Winft cw piopeUa't of ohm I 5/ce- caW doubkbowe praptiluits we therefore Fossabhe in the umnt Am% may be permitted Grewt cmr mstvi be taken w repae nov paws couaatagan b flaws. Flaw ruse ci conmitomb as wilvendes r~itute deem=~ may be dome with X-rays or nto prtit. 84

fiowsbeis

shtepocmuaown in FWg the mdmduaiw pain go COalesc to form a ungie costing powder i: Slated to dissipate santic tiettty nod %a facah"W CMrNg grain boundije awe vbisil in the linishe casving. but fracture prodmed in Wenk Ure aac h testin do notl follow -ic grain boandaesm. 7bas indicates that die cmt pipellan has become redly hamopneous. The Circulicretial inhitor reqIte uf carvrMe-rpe uaawna bunin is Muafy ts

JM- he C~sW &K% p~jua S ADWift the moid and cvacused ovanighTke ces"u aent, A duoprvious CvacuaMI is dm dso Waedaamd into tOw Mad,. =usUy by &V Prau, whu'e it UsD &beioknd betwee the wuviduel cotn powd" Spin. irkcstn d Wdbe% the molveat and vock cams,

PAP"

S&mew

FI

~ ~ .~~

.)

Vf7P

AUw om"Lbov

V.47-

sk

amp

Dqpw
___ __

E.b '7

as pan of the aold. If a ca**-bonhdd p~ai is Caied fix, the cate is W lined shith mny rtqthifd kassda. ti andwth W a vswfate to which the propel~ant wMI boad.-The cae thea bewm-s pan of the mold. Typical old par" art shown in rigurt 56. Tte *ihled mold uWnw-vznes are ahown bi Figur 57- T~he flow 4f casting solven may be vqwvd, dwnward or radia tkwouigJ the wrK As r remit of bleedin &M'i it fcau
4K wd mCutlU'y cmbelfwS the cop umo

aq in ns1rns i tLe Uwerattta of mLRMa and casng and yet readlily sohible ax curn berntxzulre. At least tOcco sw~h psec~eses have beew dcacibed."~
1.J a - DO 100". IMAMnta"tt a( csilnoaw Ntime for pynnyho PMI .- caCim. Met. EJt4.. 26. 11 9~22). Pder Car-'.ny), U. S. Hot . L. L 3um (S iicak PaWua 2,228,OO (1941.
3. )AN-N-244. Nkprocrwlijoee W~oo t or im kArp4A&^.jI (31 JWi 1945) *"b Arwadwmt4 (27 Dum~abev

castin sahveaM largem lofs (cat, g s m be prewith an excclka wiisnw-iot rrproe~ilxity.

-w

U-2- (inh& The cur" which c esiwce iscuiais 'v~c1 ief~flfts (avot

opaiwio
dn
_

derlg
k

stow 3 t*%' Aer the grain bu OMMi 10 aniag

vsbd~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~ 407.ndrqbs leueum(bo

4. E. Dm5r. KL3.Abge and I& Cowdenm, Mirfte rw Lncaews dt? Mfo~IoAt,. P. 32 .1F. Laboaana, MUMWh Ckooumnr, 1937. (3 mm~aunld is J. Bw*ik& i of cettImI-i Semtione x Iofai~nk Eam,. i Ott, ft al. fehr$ Ceusoee mod CelfuiAW rk-.
"'rati",

2a *No

Pan1 P,

M20 hertacietw

Wmpesrum. After the completion of the mue the Srain is hbmed by sawng to lengt sad machemng Wiuacsnt prof e by' the amo. MdM MY dei
94.& M6p
___atm

rbsat n
(1936). & 6. It F.fbef
roa

Myd

"Nak35.

ro Wasoeto camtrdp CeWIr)Y U.S

fhasiW iz~qe
to

of

cod pro oWW&bas U=Aa c~w~kto

of propelact of the am ccinpcmtio producoed by solveallest emaumoo Flaws if Present aft ranJimily disribwcd and not eonapted, so that the Woerance of Saws for cwl-bunaing cashVtigis cm sidesbly ~ for~-buumam A Walled pain is showrn in Figure 58. S.34. 1am of Bobs Mob bw cog &A bas psamas Eupie of propcUats pmj~jmmd by anstin We 00K, 010, Md Bpy jo CW s applcatons UUa nd cm~wxdalpropllat~ ""Odd PVPCUI MPPM d BU1 'OM a No teIhtbese coaqxaoszon mumt be brolwa down to a cesling powdet coamodo &ad a castin miwea in aifder so Mmaufacture Uses..
llory rs s& mdn hM he ow__ i

2.140.626(19M9) 7. M"L.3964, Prupdwiumm tot Snmall A rmi Ammau~.pCOMM ~ -M oi tu 30 UM faimmi'e. Excqe RInik dd Cakin' ff (30 November 1956). C V .1 OWWL Jr. mad 0. It Cox (wbCt Min ahir-

2.7 40.70S &m CmhAA-ki Cwotutine) t. 5P (1956). 9 J. J. O'NC Jr. wad 0. a Cas (to Ofic Malbic. Cbmik-1 Cowpowrhia), U. S. Pawbs 2A30AS6 10. IL L. Coomk md E. A. Andrew (to Otis MadIc."
Cbeaucal Corpoention). U, S Pawtec 2,U,7 13 (0959),

1I. E A. Audiw (ND Olin Madica Cbn Crprt tMie), U.S. Pabst U~29,107 (IOW)_ a ~ 11. G. A Mckiis (woWotesra Cahrit U.S.Paboof 1,955,WV (1934j. 13.W. E_Waaw (so Weptern Cantrida Crapany). U.S
PatcrA 2,0W (139035q).

14. C. E. Sil (to Weustern Caaride Coeaqisy), U. S.


poqui=). U. S. P~k*L 2.916.775 (1959), 1- A Andror (10 Ohe. Maszista Cbcmkwcal orweioo. U. S.

-w of the hiquid ingreient exzos about 30 pretof the volume of the compousitio it be.the mlSd, ia.~aig The -o~ possble 10W
polyme, to the maeixd bqiads and poor the nemiZdirewq bctly into th-. mA~. ini this histswe the soft mumt be supplied in a shap rhot has pond pnking deasity such w %Asmu. As tb Sdesty of &e solids dceinsts fthre -

Patest 2,9,29,5(-7 (MWO). R. A. W. Moa. atd D. I Mai (to Atlaattc Ittmocb Ccnaubaorin). U. & Powats 2,931.80 &aJ2.931,801 0 %0L so Ar. TCam. NkramJ Pweluans-CoE,,poste Pnvth~~m Fornmduiowt Bamt on * PiaothW~NktoFslNaUW c-ioa-rda~ s maamthiso Tdmkein of ther Sl~gerti of The J*W AnnJ.Navy-Ait Paw Sola

qud s'abne ftautio at the liqui Wrpetheets pot


d.,that t

PraseLe

Group, Vel IV, p 9. t..N'lID.E14AL

polymaer pudtcles posses a sui-

Waryloo*

53.

GemneTlM&fust fuel binder composhme


in he eredevkpe rtita tat.4wng orm

,*osve undier rcntidtiogs of h~igi hurn~r' Thit co~bonho prom enntirely~ acceptabl fol counchin rocketry where the mnpnes are cApenck-d in a Single firing, It is Less acc.eptable for some gas
6005

v1 in respons to a need fc'w gii2rm for ube in aitiraft jatos Smokeless powders *d beeni widely

ibroad b) sohvedes cxtnasion into V-&Lr! Vx arflei)r rockets, and soiwailless extusiom was beiinS dttieloped in 6-is country. It wa& r4K rmnmediately apparenrt that anok-eless powder could be fabricate into 5T~in cros mectiuo(~ M- simn reutdfor such jam uw, such cross s'c.ioin beiag beyord the capacity of existing or conemsrated that a solid pr-opellant av ,ct not be a monorolxlan Exsting black powder ammufactrinng tochniqu-,s would no, prod"c larg grains. The eristdekird. Sub~stitution of a hydrocarbon for die suffar aod chamcma1 of Marck powder put all of the fuel into the binder has,. irxrcaing the %.olante raction of binder to a p.4nat wher a casting operaio bwAine feasib~e. At the caw time oxi dation of the hydrxcabon led to pn'ducts (including H2 aid 1120) of lower average mcgecular weight than those Itrived from black powde-r. Substituimjs of potassium perchiocate for potasium Wtraie inc-reased ox'yprn content per anit volume of filler and decreased Lth we~gbi of solid residue per unit weight of propellant. The a.ptalt-potws oh perehlcra interimt propellant succe-stu~y
an tine pio~uEntbid 6M~ an enc~a fNujbi

in

with metal parts :hai will bc mueiad. When oonsidkatioos other than maximum petformwcr~c, ar- as freedom from corropsivec xui~t or chirapnes and availait) of rAw mateialis, take prcoeienc enrno'un nitrate may be uicd in place of the ammonium pe-.chloraze
co~i,.

The third major development was the subsut-ubuintr. This perneitd came bxondaM of the prop~int ad cimimion f Oe inhtibitor from internal burning gramps. Replacesnent of tine intubitor bi- additioniil propelliant incrrawss the mass frrc, wrcigt. and t~iereby the performance of a rocket. Coltimnidog ned for thermal inwltiov, negates this advantage of Ws oadingj tor end-burninrn grains. ft. Cbakie of 9xizluier Thbe differcnces ar'ong Owe three oxidizers that have been widely umed in fuel bindcr composites, "oassiumn perchlorate, az--nnoiwun perchloraic, and ainnmeiuin aitrate arm shown in Table I I As a matter of interrcsi, TABLE 11I. OXIWIZFRLS FOR FVEL BKNIOER CONPOSlTIES

tUtn of a polymer systm for the x~halt. The filler Was nsd with binder in mnonomeric or P"Ataly pto.Ayr'tied form and cw in thht cooditioa Pot).mei Gmo win compkute in the curiog opezation in thim ei retitzig in a gaithat woulddno c*ld bow mude nxsderinely warm ambient codjtoios a ' V d th inpbat. The second najor improveenwrt was the suizdutd of &monxm.m perchorate for the pocas - s*,eminaiting K Uxwrpm resdues and dease inke. The gaseo combustion products, tkr*em'. now contakile HC? wbkhi is somewhat cot-

H.. 41i 'AN., 010.0285 spew&~ volum-2

0.0170
00043

0 397

0.03640 G0523

0,0250 0,0125 0 ()7 0.580

-~

00019 0 014' (0474

figures are incitided for KNO1 . Following the ofnawet Chapu'r 2, the otens Cl- is the number of gram atoms o' C1 in one &ram oxidtze, H.., the number of gram ato~ms of hydrogeu. c~c. In the cawe of potassium pcrchl~rat.- panl of the K" rvulting from pyrolysis of the oxidizer is found to be vaporized. arnd pw*. remdrns in the

phase. Fmr e- pwpow~ it the present argumeilt it w~ alsifl-d that hal of tit uiythe Wa X--pi-. L- d-e cae c-d am-mon. df the ch~minc it in th gas phase, and its contiibvUti to the gas %Volwx is Vi Q.,, Any hydogcn =H, rim&c the will be inf, m 2 oHO,,s-,the cotnn-bqon of tbt kydrogen of the oxi&.zre to the Ombul-tiOn Pfodwc volume is i-L.,. The QXygcr of the ozjizc~r W~fl appea as CQ, C0) 2. of Ii20 and makes no wepaur cotntbutio to the Wa vohun3,*. In the cw~s of poumusum nitrate it is assumed that a solid reudue of K 11 0 'wif emat nadr operating cooditios This, mnic-a coo-balf auom 0f oxygen front the quantity a"Ilwe IPe te, am lomlao wiha>wA a coodenstdc

The Pwtmuum wm'in~c member of ithu seie Propellun is cap--uk of p~cpdw4o &anwch ps

(G)

thi PL"iumPcchxa memberbu us Al thetoWtalavable oxygnhosncly ntmtgjhto oxidiu, the carbon to CO This propellant is bad~ly Underoxisatzed, 'tJ pu~awm nitrase t," propely

be"n ignored in~ tho developm-ent of fuel birder


CGM-lKmite5. Psai 54 Piusadvn m tea54-1.nl Fobwthe enuderabl tw =i-cadrbeutdnW a) tat of tbe KCI formed in its p~oiyuss m a renuins conckoand undc; o9czalms coadsicon, re-

KN08 it co.rwetad for tbit. A niore snifcant ca-snpazison ct the oxidizcn

~ Ma h eto i KC cosdcascs in thc exhaust, and an) propellant prhohcbm,%t $om~dwt osu an e tVrttpl, 00asider 4suictIs of propellants formua dense white uaoki-. Linear burning ratese xk~rs ith hy,5 wegh'perent 1&%dat echoaepop~n ed to behih WA-a h 4v wHI copercet ox~c r md Wdwtal fue wogh at 1000 psi. Propellant derwsite in/we 0.9 to 0-8 wbaw-i r fel P sb CHq Sravtica1 .2- ofj pcvnmo 2.0 I/CX, re& ctin the high 1-F 0 2o ubuw, ark' &6 n ifurl3, Wravtty 12 'n dt. Aior~ th png rs oUc spcilc a'~ii> o' potAU:um percloraic. Spocij i Tale th 1 roeli~ua an in fa a~te imPulltb Oue generdUY below 2W0 lb-se/lb. rcHPOTFJICALVV"oLfiets TA3I.112. CHI 4 BL3J~ C,
0.0740

suhuing irn a low p"s vo

the lov' ga's

Voltue,

Tiv picaure
ot be high

xowt

Eut.31atnsa se,

;osifc in jeneral

perchioate avoids most of the disadviantars off


FROPELAANnh
K-104 NH 4CIO 4 tH?4N% V.Nop

073 ffweegh 0.75 0Odx 0.2 01 Fid- &i COW18 .0113 Zc


%N%If-. ftH,
-

075 0.45 0.0195


O.DD94 0.0111 0.0139
V.W~

C." 0 0.0115
0.'X437
--

risidue or sukoke, and the oxidizer snakes a sub. suatial conitribution to the as, volume. As a reyit of thi, Specif iMWpise have bencalclatedW about 250 and measured to about 240 lb.c/nc. The (measured) specx umpulses and the nlame
IPAperatures of selected ammocuiam Wechiorate

0.0139

0.0032 0.0121 0.0 13F


I

0.0139
-

0.0.131
X0 =0
-

0.051it
0.0255 0,WnI 0.355 0206

.0406
0.0282 0,0097 0.433 0.206

0.0%1
6.018S 013f, 0.201
-

XC-

zMAWVkn owder vyAwnr

0.021f 00031 0.2"~ 01U4*

pajxpellats taken from SPIA,,W2 dwaa sheets are iniur39 As thent propallanu were nade up with at yanesy of binder., it is apparent th&At specdk impuls and Same temlteratun art largely deternimad by

fteodw.Oeterae ihloin ne mtern fteoii te tkke" oI wetjnt percmn omd&t.w the liame teat55 0

T*Wa 'Otew.'
Sp Sse-Z6ps 'y'0

0-4106
7

0.553
169

0.64
154 32

0-463
1.1

M06;, WUV&~u~ S 41

35

37

UM o be linesarnd newly psoporpematursen 6002al W the Weight frscdmi of oaidiw, The uz Wut ei&h qpecftc impule alsnoe Wiseska=itb 90

1.~2

-00'

AEl

zI

4C
I00 -

0000

7:000

4'1J

in

so
~ ~ ~NH
4

gS5 o
C!') 4 OXIDIZER,

70
WEIGHT PERCENT

so

F4* 9.SPAcIMPus.140

-dame Iserpwaflwa, T, cl NH, CIO, -Fuoi anal

Nndew Coam~op*6

1ract0 Of idize but 2PP~erS to WpfOi&cb a tuxirnwD of about M4lb-sec/lb. COMIPMnD the two exainpeic of potassium, per,r~ffae propellnts (ALT-161 and AK-141 with YFun 59, it wpears thai the potassium prahiorate propellauts at about '75 percet oiidiw are eqi~-tiL Ifip&Afi ii6jAa1 "nd flkme tcvwer_at turt aimcmium perchkiraz pW A-kUan
aot 60 percnt n@kltYTr_ Buraws rae faumm ecl cpo

in a Siven C*Moinoabo. Bi~uning ma~s of an=(>imum perchiorate propellants have aiso been increas~ed by subwtunwoa a poi~awum perchlonazc for pant of the mwnnoium perchkntat, but at the cost of a smoky edbarsl. Bti~rng Frv may aIM) be influenced by c~ataiytsw Ammofium pesdlrch t if, a twrnoopcpellant. It;cpyrofysii starts with dswcuazion aocorcing to
athe

PEDZant at 10XIO psi and room IMW~tAWur are PIotted n IF44rc 60. ThbeY alt Mew to trend upwaud with increasing wtight ptrcent of oxidizcrr but are subject to other infiumxKs. It ii recngipar that cuidizer ist has an effect oci thE bwiriig rawe. co"ls ozxaar leadrin to lou bwning rates

NH 4C1

4 -1.

NHj + H00,

(57)

Iea~ii lo a monbusuble inixtuir o( NH43 and HOC) 4 in the gas phase adjacent to a HCO crysuai.Subloquest teatues of tbe co tugaion r-c a.iojom are a matrw of scee digs it-. Ac~coduzg to the two-tmperawue sheory' the busriz* sur-

91

Vh I
-1.20
CII

Fn~
-NC

Is0

_so_

60

N~~H 4 CIO4 , WEIGHT

PERCEN~T(

1, C" 1000 psi, Afflbhsn 7.Tp*AVWCr. of N"XOOF.14~ lo F~iDWO 60. kwrn' am,g

1end~w coeqpuosi

of the binder and oxidizer wre the same. This


requires that the gurface temperatures of bvning oaidi=r M bindcr be different. The thermal layer dimy,' on the other hand, states tha the ratecomtollizt step is fte rdoxi reactionc O the monoproptUant, in this case between Vtr NH2 aixd

rate fuel bmrder composuccs am

N 2 , CO- Ct- 3 .

H2 ,

1110. and HC1. Of these produtu only HCl dtserves specia mention, the others bein com~mon to smokeles. powders which have kxi,; be -a used in vasious hewt engines* At relative hwnicitses
above wbow 85
-uci ?NV

te-% '-*

plane, and that HOG4, thax buniig murface is Wc thtmWa Layez whate the redox reaction is going on anras freaction betwee thr oxidizer-bunder

to droplets of aqueous HC1, giv.i

rise io smoke

of ammoniwun perchioratc fuel bubder comuwpit rockctry HC1 in the exhaust is not a seriauupro kem. 11 citbei atonne species wre present ini Lhe

pyrolyuis prodwuc and the exidze py-rcysis prod-

Fj"6-SPA

#WAK

OdFAOTWW~~

,OfN4__*4&d

CRKO

in~~~~~~~~'------

corsin

th----..-.-b-.dbva

COalye.U

Paae Im~~~~w j .a~wi h bao~~~~rtcvdIxseu

Ie~d 1utb aefawm mb anino ydcektteamnu irwiid % o yWo--af'ttaf)dop--

aiumPrr~sawei

UM

intmteLISO
vaporin of gmpan t &ad wolkA

prptiub (g.,OCR-00 compsil

n SW

Imma dlww~ e02.Tecmina


im bun* rue s wuvfopsSnrr

dious

suh a

ywwuandme

n
th

&bd

a oqp" uws Th Ug" rl" w avlaWthr ofa~d the pr mww u wcW

-propel"009ining
sutamownd ozih~bTdeit

inqf ratswj proue am ufagC irni0 ~ 027The bunz omtmaniu ofi ammoenprium n an inkurw af oxbe panm fd w inx.bda wjihute mowu birnma Iasgso &CJV 1431rW t ffits and shof~ tH3 hgerodat areP avaiale tug Wlf- lthe pexh isin wgto omygew ciOW avi Wthed tuoun OV4 at ti cost' cde iu owied Spbviac Uweih. As and HNOa;,tTuhe mk-otcw Peesacu (frrc ah,rucG crwnxancopon to bc tbf Saaxde' Itox~ kwad3n the vOMM C~kaution Ts~ UG biaw higher
sodmtt mwwire wqwnsity
ann!I

(es.

wC~0 axSIa' almIW Mi~~i than be sperorp~in-

an~ri

suga

Prdue +~sop~ N 02

ul ar +

n sN~z(5

We~~~j6Th VOWais wvte 71" iors aicids tm,pT*-m kn heM i n TagM FL3 71K vo&matk

-canastdue to
cii r-

(POC)

ra--le of!L ammC-u inbbwixx& podla ha been~ ezinsvoly theredazed. am k- pyilt prd& wit Ov anAm "(V a

suinnd ptobe h prodox rccno

Wpun to be in the aeS borbood of 700 lb-ec/lb, m th is asstmd at a Sutempa


am re si jwbm&hu of dcome kow than for fit SOnW VpC~iGa AWMse Wi Ldu &Moajm ?U-

-ul

from the bianwe, dwfce) that they do "~ cowinuhn;;&w Iwar the buwmag surface. This would e44=ul qualixairni the 5101k burnsg rates. The Rachasiwm of cawalysi has Wo bee expWane. 93

niurat CE-4oliare 1%., LI), LCQt ti4, WWrizky j-j(b inc same au fromD tmo&ekss powdcrs, sc pcierma ro
ncv%

The couibgitxoo prodwuv of amtau

volume iaction Q( the ~ctinuum mqy be at. crai to 4' o cx vra 55 volame per-oca; beturr ithe prescx= at the molid is ttrongl) Wti ist tht

tivcI

coo forWin

probleins Thcji am~ generally ir a coWnaahigh stae of oxidation, so dotn cial the
stoi burp witiout proG1wfl
much~f

fuidity 4~ thr. Ssict. BqYOn


ccomfy of the syumer
ctfaiim is m resiaT

iaucram- rqikf,

OwaPoint the visend a owewill

d What the sy"Mz

fiee carbonArrv=ni.-a

;; hn7rw

c a;4 4, a4

riot flow. In the fuel binder compsauc syuieua. ca-tqj tosc iu kwaibov16cy whcz, the ,daniri frac-

phmcagsatsvrltmprt Prvauin must be taken to keep munowa uitmi p~ielant bro%40percent relatve bwmidity dwimg manufacture and subabsq en hmadheg Procesaing is preel cmbI dcme at vempet autsue abov 90'F o avoid cyhiig through the phea chaw4 a; tawt ciprawrc. The higher pe$~cmar... ;aorowustni tUrm proptehss we so kirvo~Iae4 tW t heir voluma fractiw o binder is too bow io permnit casting. Exuvaim cw c . I
enokling proctsss arc co~ancusly mandsatfeircuc

tiehbt

Swch prqmelawou. 5". R


autside

ft Mui
ramp

cbdainb

sat of oftiwtimem

of the binder Scs vouch bedv* 30 percent. with elasloincri binders the discoiliam &Iqumre WPpode a lwVal"s wher the voivee fraction df the bniuizr deaitams bdv*' this regim, For c e-bosdod qyvcns,, thereftec. the frsoiof of binder wms be muaintaine abovc' this w~iu in order that the pain maiantan ats macpit over a ~wa1iEtir raw, This memo *r hen one is formulating a high pczformame grai n. wtakb wiIh thwirore equimr a low weW friamow of bandes, the pvtfcmd bmndr will be a low dewsiy Umawrwin a cedr that the Volume batw be iinoiraaizmly kWp bWL the id cit *
*.to

Concw-uiuiy cw

"'rm

-a 11tw

pio gal-

The cimbinaati
imca" ntTK

k8&Ds ko =~ bt~min PC0 eckqir rat=s than the arthuaew mc m of the normal rob -E.- th tookkfizes mcanned wsepa - 'U

citpotasmiam psor Miw'

with

aUMU %b be OX&~1 dows Wande to


TAUZ 14L

risw Mih W OWe Eight *U chetOW 8 amninnthe erwdope Tabi 14


47MLADING VUWm

b=

drwih

cowbwsaau

pvra-wi the high pcw~ ewonent (e~g., T IO-E3 in SPiIA!M2) of the pasimperchlorate pWtpe nts' adeed is acMM pronorlism of thewe two oxha vahat of RI

IM
BT1E
6-d-ui *v-W,

M TY
E

m}W.A

rfP t1 (e.3

O~
v.4

~cdtIhveb -v
sitrtue.

bcvsLAtwoi
ccetmtbie

vbif fM eP~vn.pfant

aivroqpanidubs, ot

jaX

030 0prwagor 30 0.4 0.70 137 3.37 3.73 1.79

meirenita= OUza ( mdiay be &wdn part of the

~Y-0

1607

omfews ~ i ~ heBbbPM ~
b5. Kvahwook fluidtdiung mSi ucm As showm abwithe vobe ffitti popete binder of end on

~ H'o pan~t ~at bw

ine
at a7

thesh 74stnt

Pw~b:0 werew zije loadin w egm pez ot bad2. 20de

bind chonic ofbidr, e

ieflinatdeumidbyth

Roug~hly qdwrbW solids caa bc dispersed in lqiqdk upto about 50 wiluma psevent withou having nmwac efct oa the LAWit of the syskai, end with tavrat" grst aW od wce eticie ih4e fte

quire either a cartridg-type gain, for ease of inspectio ar fix repemtitwe tof the chambtr. or

a caa-bonded gran for high

performance

- I

Gaitr4ypc Swj bs Coat for, fti propufiau

f ew. 62. S~iwry Costav Priocmu


mwhvNOmoduluis anrd savic coxnpyrsu-e itien&th If th V-u us to~ be caae-b~oudcd the SU SM t Whia di ii i b j)C to wdhm v c tit h c~logba Mi. AAphipi afawor D nm ~ r Aspha
si.pidue &zw-boawduhisk

p4yivinyl hod-,usd*hevg p1Larizer to being~ the modulus of the proptiant into fth proper ILk-e ~ tti~t ii~

W31

baTeutAb-x
emie

th. fitu btn&r undm ehpoytlie wstmuao


r~i hv

ub.

Ie

knpom V ~OWl~

ptcpUwt. As ira be ween from the data shee cc ALT- 161 (wee SI -M2). the aWj att was softened wfith m&wictsc'i wo &xire ta e ,sdo a us

so t~at the V.opeLwit couWd tk vwd ovet a mutakblew rrstrictd temperarr ranp A: tewpcraoam below about - 20c F wte pry-, kam bocamit very britt*, kna~ft to fracture and exploion on *mmtio. At semperatums above about 12WF the propehllw became qwate sot and Sowed a"a) frpa, asde qom),Ahah had the a~nuWof '6isn cheap and tv)aL". The propellar. tanuiino the bindet at eievale4 temperatu "sn a sigma blade nurand the auxturt wa) puinvd ~into the mold or case anD allcpwcd to cool MI Pey Poubtm
__d

sntitnts of cawe-bonded com~posite P~~at The polymcr is introduced as a part.fly potymcrmedi prcpolymecr (liquid polymer) and ~lmna sio ISCo0pie* d~aMi thle Curiz 0-,X uw in the cawe or awld kE elevated ten'eralturt and in the presenc of a polyinensation catalyst sdth as p-qWnomcedsoxi~m. In order to acceleatac the cure of Lo a npl~ah it at a lower k-miperture. a pioumotr suxb as dipheny~guaA~ise is sometimes LW~ uted Magoum xde and trm oxxkmit)be used to aodif), th bunrnig rate, and other addi Polysolfce propelHanu at. [a~rty densc, refkued *q the 4ksisty of the polymj~fle polymer. This kalizit revrmtcx the al;QUAble oxiize loading. In the Qaoderaic performance ran~ge. on the othe. hi band..a gnvi k"a imadsc can be conaurorii within auier rovetope than with a kes dense p ipe-

ki _p

diW1 fro MHs PakPqcRp-Ua. ciaef~ in ~ avinga ~a

pe n i
pe~~mi is
ben

D 231 (see Sf **a'M


(tSI.'()

Timea
__.21

az !I~t n 6tis ;p".all SOhtCl

be&% iawvi asath the higher loading density. This


-odeapr

50 to 100 percent,

-* Pernafts a )OW: than normal binder vo1kae fraction It aWs aftoe~s a 1CMWw bwuriag rase tha mmonnin)a XMOWaiL-kami Caz" sth p Caiiaer.a&agn $6.. Kboamir b~mis. Tasill smntrah enough to eaubl the propehist w, withstand hmlan and h"no aceeeratois iL Wdedt the buidcr prvperxsb" Inccwcporats" of a pdynacr ofte Crcss-hk4, h"w the beftdcr. Ut porymer "mabe one of the rubbers, wsed *ith or %ithout a Passficiw. at it mat me of the Donnib"ei theropkawt" such as cellula aceuks or

aw~nmre than 10 YtArs of existertc, P& P"rUA-Utls bavc nix hwmm senorios 3 deteterioub d&cs rsceix for a change on the exposed mdutac of the graisn that interferes with lpiiewn E~ *. bdie-~e4 that tNis property has been overcozw in laWer fo%mudatwns. but this can be demon stred &.Wy *hen ithe newer propewfats rj4vc bft., O&Q The waouanidourin~g process used for polysulhde PWOPCHlati, is shu 11wrrr CasLal V'Xct5" tor which t&e Sowshot is shown in Figu~e 62.

7iww 2oc 61 goon tma

hads"aw

14prod~~~~~~~~~~bi~~~~~ty~ r s co ri ~ ofte)dt, ,5p u o80 orhh v enmr


thicMWOinv M n~rl rta t th qulityCMUI fa.turd ad rQ~nin caekMc~s. xa~ple at

=aE ea hw~ trn -be bidca = m,, 34ys~fb -a~raowUM erclorae 04KO S

Mift. bCaiDOJ VWd Oget, z;I


I.txt iot ipthe W a iuaicZ, "riM InZ the~ peol s ry0ip'j n870pu.eenau UAt tCIJrt odro of 3Mth Mixin tbe cblade ~ra is ccluuc i df&anoum an tigue moto The. in rm Lsn ar dJcoapaied inue03 bawa r rn ( izmy is use~id fix[u chuwgf Th A~0r~tmod xkcsa ah,,eIthe -utW vhc- nth oai n 1-24 uaoi in te HorI (M-7);r~az(X.1; any oioi AS hattd oh qcapwrukei c

Sri &eWed UMiiit 6ti prwuccd by the M4.( In Ocwx&4j rh sfam arae e chic 4 tt&aft cad of dite grain. A IypkVa mandrel is shwn in Fajpxr 65, wa a MOR wit mcas-Wd prau in Figiart 6C. PolysW-aUI~mmmu peitbloraae grais ftms 1.5 isb&I 4U imam in dwwwt.r *adini -,n~ts
96

4' T-22 u"e it Lob;~ GCAR.201C wed inVfiai ~r ~ rockn, &W TF27 used in F&Won 014-6) two-ievel Lthnw

mmm.

Fiesw, 64. Vedeg A~sa (no GOO)

~97

Fog~&

65, Mo&'dr. fw Medwi


Apart frLom the

Sia* IokE M.ow suich as toluene dtisocyanate

SW-I, PCIYWMII

I-.

simpk diiskxquanzt

by vinyl-type polymnerizatlon, of additon at doubLe bq.,ud. Other polymerizatloo reactbons wAi in~oIin& r -.'Ealeion jF volatl~e by-Prodmue ar-c known ano L. 0 he Usefui in preparatwr. ot propelan: bsnd&A FG. CLAMPle. it Lan iwxcyanai~s added to a cmpoviI con auning an -OHf gmup, a urethwc 4s Iota" aouording te th.- recv.W

only rclafivcy fev% diioymn=atr art on the marke, The p(lymneriation rvwtion must bc catalyzed. as b'k ferrc acetyl wtonie, and acelrators of the pol),-newastioti are known. The polymer ma) bec used %ith or without a plasticizer. The physiacal ptoper-ics sue similar to thox of p-ysufibde propellants at the sume binder volumm fraction The density of the potyurctham propelR'N1_X) -t HOR' = R'NHCOORt" (59) hant rs naxu~rafl) kcwr dwa that cK a potlysu~ifa propellant at the same oxidizer wtcht fractio. Re-aidouof 2dicnqwrla and a diOw th" gi The rmufactu~n!n pfoztss is the %ame is that and the PMreTcte a c~infinrpiolyuwehaae, i% poAysulfidc propellant, with oisc impo .rtant preepom yol oi polyis.ocyana~r should auefor Sofi the pkIyrncr to crou-t.ink. in order to w4.tirniac tsch gxi roups' it is particuMad importarm ftia all ingrei t be- t 0( Poycrzo duin th wsierto isoclints b lieq dr) A tno ng chain d piotslch as potyw ak txry to u

CI-J
98

to decompose Polyurethane binders have born morwe cIexuralvel) used in the alumninurn-anno.

fw*66.

Alvdiu

Size Coa4ondWs GrcWn Wit

Thwm#-Corftc#w

Lu

mmpa~nbix~Khnc1 prec~lanu ORIIP 20-176.


53J.

c~bo

~~naad v ~ry~ isc~mN.ia ~C~d~ wat tvtth " auyisc and cured wi~~h an pxidc. u coas~tomeric binder results with properties faiuri! s~irrirto tho decnc fo th clurta~ This bindier "stsem hoa a vvpa-abke ccnsity to
Awae'-.c

her, IPB"A Wbe

*the

tha al th oyrtin hum) %rgbz percow' badbk rp~at n~ da

inot gic

or&ab

of oxKd~xi in a cawe-

tenstk stuigth. elongatiac. an~d roiiuli.s as a rubber) polywc-r with tiuk or wopWlasicr- Thu. is takeni mdian;W of in the poly(~vinyi stao chkiond) propellants tuch as Amrtu 3S8 used in t& Aico w~Audpriug rocket motor At a Wnparabk deOnlt) to tha' "LePluehepoelns a pCo1)(vy chkr 4.) prjpdUant pcrmiis a~boii [be sarx Weight iractuor of oxidizer "o dc~vclqps abou t the same &peQfic iimjau - A t a kA~ vr - pl&as c ."r k,cl a itifict biridcr ami therecont a nmoi.:
ri prW~n ~ re&~s ihpoetc fcm

smperaW Tbcmanfacurui prccu s rwnuially OLat shown in Figure 62 PBAA bind--ri


Are_

seoww n tk prse

com-htd h%~

a casvidgc loadfd grain. Creis-1bnkiag may be me


''
."

strength and hijh Wfoiula required for


&---ta

a:itnnum-amlmofdUM pcrchkwatc Propeliazats, disinORt)P 20-176, cw


C'~LII4 II]pellants

='"-"-

uarlu"ui

ib1 LhC

nCeWCr

51-34 ?Wylviayl cdmku~), A nonrlubbei) pc~mcr if w&.kn~y iaci~d. aw.devk~pin ak bheAvy loaded pitstic about the same WUiAle

dunrflfthI cure. of 0e polytviyl chloride) pioA novc' I:tr is Jhw- method of rnanuladute. The polynmer, alrcad) compkeiel) polyriwiizcd, is suspended in "h p&suciizer togets)er with the oxidant w4i rbe - mj pi~o.A un &die

2. Pr~wwuind filM9

-r

1 a

fw'ud

for Ara*, roiaoam

3. -flcC propoIwW hod 4.Nrved of nirudw

6. wowtm *VQh 7. roAr-off rofles 6. t4o-otir Sot-.' Irvued prop*flNd

Dieo
IOUI

Fagr. 6&. Extrivseah of Wkod Gkir.n

gcpeaflhic. or peraP a ii 044e Wnwas t . bclpoyr-er doe% rgot irubibc the p~asugiso th~iu good po, W :-ft attaaiable, The stil ftk~d tmai, calied p~wiast, is transfcrrcd l- the case~ ot moid &)~d tbe pain is cured and fi-niboie The cwiini op~f~omoa is mc ~nicalkJ the same as for the irynthetk rubber&. show~n in Fguxc 6?., but it 15 chemnicall qjiLe different. These propellant4 ma) Also be extudeod A swall cutnbd is sbo;*n in Figure 67, flu-stmiing the cwsntuals of this pizois~s Tthe exuntc Ii operakd&e ia a emp~eranixe above 350--F, aild cusnWg Lakes p'eaec during Lie extrusion, (3mYns ix~uinri vires strr~ pawraliel to the axis maky also be extroded, as sho~m L Fiqwe a~. Since no pol1 eriazauou tmLs pl~wt dwriuj thme cwt, tbeze is no cxothtrw and liuk~, if axzy, woiuav ""awe aOhe to curing On the ouhr- hiad, the high teapciarure of the: cunni eratma' enmails apprecib" thermai thrinkagec when tht ctarW' Zgm.~n is brau~hi to Lmbicnt wnipeiairuc

L L.a

uwwvi

6wtie'

io~

~r

graia,. Altough the cas--bondable binders do niot in gcZncial conitain, so ma~ch pklstkier tfiat the) can be ,tifewd, b3 rhmirnatir p~asttcVLLcr, there are at kas~i three iwa~s "t clm~tcqrnre cer be adapzied to sutch us,- Cirte suc~h wa) is to tb-rni the grain to a relauvely uig~d mnechanwicsi mrm~:vn &rotarable iromn the case, wtuch rnay also iiee a-, aui inhib~wr. Another is to eross-link the polymer to a getwei extent than is required for the Yeadib. defomt-'ital case bonds The third method is to docrease the volumne ffacuon of the binckr to bcly* 30 percent so that joterac-tion of the cry'stanaw~ pa.rticks carries part off the iipcodkd and helps res~si deforrruatkrn. The firbt two Awnatch -votsld still Fermix fabriwation o Oxz grain by castinj Thte tthrr WouLd require O~hhef tabik~alor) tedmkql.ck., In the came of prvpellant CPS-127A (%cc SP1Ai'M2) tused in aircraft jatos. tOme binwkr employved is a bwtadiclac-7-nik-hi1-5-vinyi-pys-ldUi

I
copot~~~~me w4o~t uu od.Temlsw b

.4]

I]m

to d thtl-ev propelunias Goethyle i~~~ jr-kto o~xn aara po4i=.n iseamo-a tbl eit eri if; lCabtl rnUd doeia oml mn. in amonmeric aor prpb-c f &taase It bas afairThe cmleo .~mL itiii in an pss, Or Fsg~e wt mt 76dul V %M-am s mnfor Thwe PA6 c~~t." 0 ingr*tninfli%.isautofw liilae Wuna P eIstcizer 3u1-*withe C evq 4 Fig sownu~ in etusion. proc oexu-i~oi jivptesh is~ an sot affi., ab a. aazt~ei,:crAAA".yn Th rY ~ ~~d ~ ~ 7ro s=tganbai ~ ~~ ~ ~ u.-xrddsrn (awefa aoperauc o flyZe izase.lIFTao rln,6Od . mpc x~m c ad doc in, ugv a Fwgw? a9. thein cudt
glyr-.69cbwy

moo)rin pr=! r

c~mpetethepolractzaioa Yh

cwd gain

SPWAIM2), used in the G3AR .3 Faicon AFU. tecLoeaeei


biize

blaark. are fin~shed by mwtarinj tu -a~l dirnzufo pi oStill anothcr fabrw4t~ik proom.& peI~snt C[BS-128K (see SPIA,/-'M, dcvt4gd for uwe GR-I ruier plskw wihd--tyhxi wt:-ave. and hts a binrder vcolurne fractiod zvnw lo'wcr thim CPN-127A The flwhe te thi 72. o-pundng od ,,,*Tin ilaproe-Ais

~t

dwt

cllti

Th oxkezirec tie omaintain intol eie c~ wi re omiu~ Lfr coanpmeby' i. formed bI~ade mixca, and the p&Wn uxnmoding. Largr grmis may be made by bondinzg wsegmes together ush4n a polyurtthaa'. laycr

between the &egintuas well as for the peripL-

era' ~it"ibito-. A 5 O-pound individua)I segment as U h OUa' poccss ios sh y wnins Fis 4 2. iwd V.x~ is showni in Figure 7 7 and a I OOGr-pouad SKin andit a i o.. wi stAcke4, is &rOCCE, 1 the rolled 4. n ifuti, are C.Ut

blazti". The paini blanks wec nuchined, as showL in. Fjgurc 74. vad tt-cn inlubiltd.
IyS*& Polywo IduI 5&4. YrUIMPbMC

S64. 06aw hb4sr PyaMM. The abKWC haiUM is by no meana a casuplmt romew of bimie sysswus that can be used or evvn of systemsa that have has b~e= cxpended on binder wantaimasp
wtetylcok

forembdp~dedgrans.rkcuseo: thea-mop;lhstic F-,4ymeu poaIymen'ae ir, .siu prodsaes the rwa Uh bnder 5)y& ulsetmner p we of L4CWMC Swss amc welmtc to gvye coaxpreaane streng&h and hWgb nwum'tuiu tJhre" perrittang aJuataUeta oi the d r iWa-ed pbrysioal propevoea in a prain p by the slin~ caufin promas of Figurc 62. Maje
Loziduzrm and other addiui.-ca i a sagwa blde oi
pre~~ioymncr or axnenr wec maued w~ith the

cqwuvaklro Mixtr and c~at into mo&'u. P(l,mwnzszfion is copulit # eevWA4e tmnperattweA in the 102

and other ekdthmic~ grouipswhkbi inxIi add to tL, beai o expk~iozt Q. df the prop&=aa at a (,,ve ezidim loabd= There is sOf &oo f1 viha binder with impwom'd phVa eeefiCsent ck "sP5D2Kic ckmcxc SO tic~ czjwicr c'oefficiaits C(t~ie uhasen'as UM1 for rucct wo~ cws maadact~A, kswer bnuktiempeatrawro and "es temperatUr deptadwc= of rzxsdals. cowpresst and teasile strength, and tkAWat*L., atf dugt ne bindc~e. rupaure. 11i s cWxpz V611 Coutinue to appeas.
Lr)

I
I U

U II)

*1

I
I

I!

p
(.'l'

.4 Atdy. Pit1 1

N.'&

A'.eiw.. i

F.gn.

BJQdIg

II
C

F~gws 7 1. EwA?

PLA5TI", EP

ROMl.

STACA DMCSSI

fow

72. Comjn~ioracn Molding Prcomu fmr PtqJ Rudw Cow~e&Vw

104

I,,

... . .

'J

I1

Fewwuk 7)&Crps

twk

Dias

KW5

F C)

I
I
I
.1

3-

fqa. 74. Meit

Os'

D*r

ad

(
II

fi
i t.

I-)

V1
S!

I0

Slef

I
I t

LA
.1

(vte.

Am-'wm

Caes.

Pqww 76. Fmmbsd Mm

(__
_I

:1
a

II

(1

I
9

Fww

Ctn

.1 Am

Cws

Cwparsa

I*dWMJUOJ

iqatri (SO Pound,) .1 I)O#os.4

S.eauswf GvgM

109
. f1

*1
0

I
I

78.

Gr

(I

P@4AEiJ

* I
-

110

.- -

*.-t..,wv.--.-

.-. --,r-.---------

--

I. L D. Sciwam a&4 A. 0. ?Akk., "Fmvin-&6w Tbwnof Lp",Rot s f Domosb~ of

WdO OR ,t p 6bd 1, ~ 3PL Cbroantboa PNe Yogi. N" Youk. 1957. 2. M, humamidd, L S& Sigba-;&. M, J. Wbb, 1. J. Tb&m L P. Had.Awm~ MOCAw"On 0,1 Am

ru~uae Sa

~yuam(1

wmty 89 Son&s. Maylasd CLA Abkuzv No, 371#)X 10.JN. . Dowmma& Dtftkapseni &6'm Amnw~aASMJU XlMe"m -~so" 'optLiri sM&~D& Oil C'om*%f (L&&ma, QuariM Iqisat No. 29 (An~ ~k 19%.). 13 Japsn 1957, C4*a= 3X011gl4754, Q)MFIj DO WJ AL fWLA AbstraI No. 17.132),

Ankrim ack lwmy oi 17-21p1~~ N4ovember 19M. Nww Yo I I& mt4Aamw YarL h6& 3. L F. C~afxm amd w. H. Abi~erm.L Tht XOf oe Q/ . h.kaby(~~n ~ gjg~o4 s cm-ulwi gbAw In ComWPOjj, PrOpetkw~ CO~amiaon. Aaa *s43oaimj Corpoweadoi 1.spoa TN.30. AJIOS 13. A. W. JCob mad 1. H. Gedw- 8urnwW Rae ModiTN 5;-540. JOY 1959.. COMc* AFP49(634I)-36 **A~o' v; Domab~e-A P ~wUne, A11epsa D46UMOP1A Akbstro No. 19.56 !) t"n IANW.icv. H=XWuM PoWa Ccaffa~j, Daboda 4. ay ~ ~ ydckkAcdd~ ~ ~ ~ N.A _ mr l l o the Plftaml bltb c4~a die Joa4 Asi'my-Nav-y-Ai P. N. . Laimy EIy4ichoM OOPAc.d boit, N YcaL ~ Fa DdPOCI GrOup. Val IV, V. 41, OONMm Yor-k 1927. DEMA1 o ueawub stm ocy 5. W. A- PrOWi L diopmmsj*o' Aaswowmin Nkre Ap~o ftmi Laarfty TheJcma-ski Lj& AMk SOW'. Profetioe. swomfsrd Ou Cow,;ozy and~-, v*a Si& -Ao mjI Siux"MY Raerm No. 3. November 195 1. Cos 14 C~E Ba&tivy, A Prebasbwuy In emi~gtrwa of Ath Rub. tam USAF 33(03M)7341, C )NF1DE-rnAL.(C'A *er-84Nr Sold Propezkm 0RD4!T 2), jet PiopulAbazrs" No, % 2,4J). amo Labomum-. CaI)Ewwi aae~t Of Thcimo&m 6- . .Lm~kandIL T" (D Smmu (XCcwQ&) CT/JP PR 4-19. 26 AAI~w 1945, OONFI6N-

Pm~mkaJX U.&. PameW 2,936125 (1940). 7. Ph~bpx Petriinm Conpiayj, Irel.r mer of P-b Propellaw o UnbW. Fooal Irpa cc COWpmana Apvumc No, qup -L,'n .3- S NKF) July 1-034. C~fracM AF 33(400j6710 (SPIA Abtsigcl No. 14,2-U). I Naiwaby Armam& B4= ReawcmA a0 plawi Atocki P-*~LA-m; bMR Iug*-Dmc.. 194. J-Uc1947, Jam-1D., 194S. )&&,.May, 1949. coWiLEIr-.AI (VIA Abruea No. 10,073). t, J. L laws, Progrem i the i D~en'eop:.w of A, Awmmvwww,, Nbi7u Siwokeka Sald opel~wU*U Jet ProPaluim Ltbwunory. Ca&ikwja Iaauiwr of Tocb. uoiogm, WA1JMe. of the Fourth Men-hr of the -' y-NA-Y SOWi PrOPelia GIroup. p. 207, CONFIENflA1, SOWi P"uiaw1u bfmmatio= Ajenc, kAndo Pwaica Labhiuimy. The 306 Naki uo-

ILOL

b~WNZ

Deaipi damd lwiuaj Batht usAM *M lt Uk WC~&mmU., ThiO*,Ol CbcaoCalmpwht~ak, Repa No. 24-5 1. kOmbet W91, ()NIAEnL (SPiA Ab~ta No. 1;.247)16. A. T. (u=6 D-rewopmesw of Ssj~ndard opwrattil P--ifor Mni~cmrwswe of PolynwA#4e Pepchlorat P-LJ0J-w Thi)&o UCwcai CQFo'ostAAdm Pont No. 26-5I, No~vmbca 1951, CONFID1EN1AL CRIA Ahstrw No. 11.361). 17. C- V bou*y1, Prvoceimg Rtbeg-R&MC Ckuwo.Uc Rocke PrpdAWO.' Clseft. Eft, Prog. 53, 48P tmlS). 1. IL S, Dobyas mad J A. Mcgrnde, Produu~ruo* Projkn,: amr SOWi Pnopefieaw Rocket Atororrr peW pr=Cm~d at Amima~ MocWtSoit SOCWYiminasl Madi%&j 10-13 Jun 1917, Sm Fiuodmp, Ca1idmia.

15w. , W. C. Ayeenc& P0Sl9eM

rINST SUMLANT5 FOR PMOPILANfl


S9 Ons Cat r t.Popelwans =r hunrdow Mauengines but risk, nmcesar for functioang la &asw mundesrable fmr many uses such as dtsplay and break-in d manutiwniutg equrpmet when fiwcunocq is riot eooempliaed. To met the requircrat for materials fof wath noafuancaoaiog uses, incrt siwuiants or dummy form ulariow havc been &velopu to represet prc.ellaats. Thr ideal inert A) propelLant shokd dupikalt the simulant fxan propellan in all physica prc~nties-*jpearan , dertaty. twxuax, hardocesi pbsica slreri( and plauidty over a twxpnwre rwrW--,itbout beang a propellant. CoradcrabL- cotnlromL3J with the ideal is permissiL& a" usual wo save rtizr and
detekapowra expens, 4cpcndiiw
Cc

Mcnatad another to duplkifa Other dup~ticu physical propert"e requnvd. dsffct whee The problem iLc- detybt KthPolymff is itself a propedant as is nitrocellulost b Othi Case an iner polyMer should be fosind, with densit and other phyxsical properies duplicat:wg the prupedani potyucr. This has, inyawe*a not been doac Cellulos acetat is a popular Muiiu mat foi nivow~ulc', but it is no itt) good, The daflea is apprecasbie at density, appearanc, ral feel, even with~ the best available plas~ticzers.j In order to wi-odvcc denskt it appears necessary to use orystallie filles which worsen the, match beflcen duzn=y antd kie propellant in other
px)lt

diea Ue to

~vbktb the dwaay

oon.w Mae"" %-b=c Pmefey it the onlyian Seratic, asf Uku lssntic of the spans rela tkwiship of The peoprwt wtotr pails* of tde with proprflan can be anemlded, the dummky may be badl! of wood aind painted the proper color. Coal is, an 4irkabl mixQk-up lor hiatt pov-dez.d

ii to biw put.

An

meat

(w

siulant to; 010 caist double-base

orakda
Sde

CL'Powder TrbMCsML
0CIO

0-062
-

Gmpkku
i

0.03 0.30-

po 61. 96o so $anpjwhe phytcd p-qrds order to ir~atrate the phy~cicl Prop)tofl t a propellant by the use of an inr wot mads smwdsinwg uwet ckosely akib to, the propellant than a WOWd mioc-up. Mst fli3dC prowflas aWe plzfascs and 'a Ptgio dummy wil
bn
---

ta
Cc.ioSthinwthleO.

...

Caina

=
POAeUer
c f2'0

Uf Ls

Daygi1.73
.duJW.

lack, ledl, "nd hauce men-1 lke IIas hit wimsare trMeWl
of

C4& powder
Deaity. p. goct
-

1.63

.5

to tht pcbYwn conten. Inth f0clase

cma&M Swrach psi

465
61 X

V 1Q-4

fuel binder cerposis propehmants the saw se txbne together wit Volum pmeren of tuph sould rewit in a reasocabkc dapha statabk le Lb "batoo of the pbhsI~cal Mroernet, The fillr should if poisibi, have the au specfi p-anly and aystal sructure ft the osidan used ins Lhe hit

vou y

fn-o

i &S P expana. Pegre

S.hbt roefProdace msans actwitg 62.lt prepwieg. In the developeet of new manufc-! narir equipment, for chCCkip out cnrLuder mand

'the spcfi~c gravity of the Ml~r cannot be precisely

rcod 7eplaement for in~oosum perchlorae, 1

seazanc or proc403ed inawtvity, and to displace live propelant prepratory to diauCabl of pineht4wsyt ave a dua'Ly esartg equipment, miabced and tkm.1y of the dummy is important formulatikm that behave-4 Wk s4ve propellan in as n k,-A4 te cgerof r'nty 4i the c ,One, reqire matchin nnechan proos. In generwl th vuepercen cd bnder =a erualy be m a at snkbknt tenica]- properties Moca3bdr procaisd safely. Aheneativeb), two winet Rant for a propebant maj be devclcp4 cat to 12peraturc but also oni a teapuare rang andj

pchaps dmxe4 with ve~a~k Wmsoer the pol~ic whisb Iarret cb&rm=

Sac it it masnufmc-

ins the live pfope~ant V-Ah these i!Lal onten the oon~xmitioo of tht scralLive propcilan cam tov
ane,it, semibic ant-44 are &hcumbeov..

in IRMI biD&,r compow. It rjuuv be %iktird tliat the replace~t filk, %-,b not aflec, the rmavmoe

K-5

z~iw.4ub.-bae

xopp-DLU~.

Wa.,'

*itI1

01

IX12-ethyl buyi z F-k

--

O.
--

withoul sawdust, or simila cart'onmxoou natcrial and Cc~luhi*c aoetaitc o pmrorns. respoctivel, h~ave been used siaczesuAW for cleae ow aad to

Dihl hh3.105 2-N urodk, arr 4me w.00 Lead aalt

2.40

2.11 2,10

63. Somk . JIn onu~ to ova==e the ch*hdantbges of a com*W)te irset dQnxy ta stdy-nS manuibctwtn4 pfrobiesni ef nlrotLlulov. syv=,h propellants. wmiLive simulants have b=e deve-ap~ed, it, whicb the rniLm= k L- retuined as the- polymnci but, all p ticiz used ame fix! pla~cizs 1is rsw~u in cop toslb Of lo-* or ncsativc caloli&ic n 'raim, If ~jk~~ ia l; hese loig~z simulan. azwng persovnel to tscape safel b1At empharaiir.) der~ou~t Mg 4 nieChanijCal Fations) tha tould CaUse &-Auctivc damar 9-A livet protif]. lant. InIoxinuiaing a samilive propeUliat, the r .,ncernt-abor. of nwLoceihilose Lbould be about tne sanie m in 1ih livC courterpari ano the vnscossry olthe fuel PLUscu-1 Tbould L-Cas clorg as 1pos:Pi tIdI Vic''F.4XJ.i
C

EkAwliOIC P~rCLAI The lower menz~il 5;trenk'

73 47 and grcate ckmgs" of the scailivc propeLlant. are mcn to folkyow tht lo.-er nixclaoeco&,ntraton aLs predice-d. Exbtn.Pr pmisre ihie b tht eI-e wzn.l , als oansicrahlMM lc~rr than v~iik 'w~e N-5. In &1:ivoithe fact that thx cseinibe appmai~ %o,besreh deficient ul obeki it niu-ict~~uose Xrs it has q boreiwilb~nsol uspten of eijx-sictJ& Th. n-~ue caoif -alue, 435 ca'g i wl ab%-% th calculated VAIUC, dealangr'i- HjkL., tbz lacL af Cqilibnlur in c-almrnctrz) ot ccxai prop-elants disc.qtscd in Chapte- 2. The burniag ras abouT 0-07 ingsc at 70'F, IWO) psa, it, "o evsotgh to prevre:': ie~tnictior, of extu-w~or equipnExnt in mws C'! fLrt

L-i=

comifltiUec( p

UCI

1. )4.jr-u

Pvr aer Cocap&any. uapub~mbWdm~aL

113

OLOMSARY
__The

terae

ae... t v.6 a

as

moot in SAti Or*oux to,** or amse

tw,

Othe

bctioww of 'Au't"i

thit itwok ctidcal diam-ute. Eameter -4 an ~pIew.ve col' <c 5&iciatni %IJ Mxpf opagatt. U= belaL ~h" a~~# ia xzs-g process in a k-4id s) stem def * *iv*" LK M-S.~ e o o irm ie% 60th 13A.Ant and huit in p~hkch U1111l II Statee Am)n Term,, * ~~h rc*--G fro~nt &d-anceca ga k"e than tonki
i'wir,

Aii Ar*A~ wer. ~-Vob~tr's vaIdQW ditiaer#ry, or cow-r waW

aa from wune4.ted Material. A dobuga~rtio MA). bu-t need orq, be am ezploenxi. a~swteb is consumed-

.~~ oa ~ c.w &ria ritn Pwut,) Ot appld to thec surfr-t of a &Law to the tUawt tcmperamure or r"~ h&tciz Ly propa A"Ltxmu An expkMl 01tmo the TtaLton fiorit %-Abin the wrebng cally the 2.36-indi. vek~uty and weni of mrediumD at supextor Cmtinucm~ phase in which june other Kwvt in the &&me direticu m~odedthervawxprodudca m~triJis fLI" ft ' as th 71h- rate Of buring Of a bmwmkag 'Ut, hnem. A prtoPUAnt %ih w Edmbk-b6c proipcftLa. prppe~awn meaure4 norm&] to the burning and rnrcihi-oa~u rapk~we ingrdnL, auw a-s surf 'X nto~mi ea&her. The diarnctre of a projectik or the diamefxii*e bwncqi-g Burn4n at a rate htzber rha~r qXI0( tht bolt of a UUor 1"aucbIng tvobe. due~ tiwal astxrA.t4 wah wrunin p-re"L Axial datance equal to Cth cahbei* 'irw 0_A aQt~w vvr$ (wihoa CmdC velkit. 1to o* * -. ~il*,HY ann~ta eaamia- A tUIO ?nbe and a~ bimAeh mechiniun, ~iting mechradu. The ralio of the nouie atit ftcexpa"aa~ arilin of base cap, %4ucb is a CoqMepnete CI a U004 area to I&e niZru tktoal arugun; howitzer, or mcmu. May izihdu wiauizl a~endagn. Yhe term is Seocr") limiteid to mqvkwioaia A 'trq rapid cbemicl reaction or mhcs et than. I ich. Chmub M4"Ate ryngg reaIt) Pf'xhvion~t of a large voluine of gas an rt.aultmg in rupcwaa-An cnrine %12ich wccluerts a kIs4 b) turn Of thL Coutaier !I przscat gfnd geuezaioni masof a pistm~ drio-n by Wi~ pnueaaw Sgas ediumr. of a &bo avc in tht surimm the urnng ofa such w ma) be ge ei &Wby ropellan. Id".$ [hacett mAltrial dis~xcad vi substanial qLuanutit in the continuouis or b~ind". pbhaie (3 a Telecfty. A fizgrt ol mtert of a CLXJ-tuiMu AJ!4L. iab&j. Allgii.an Ba-NU Lab~jnux). A~IUA. (abbr). AdLked Rtartmh Ptqpe'ts Agew-yd-.,reajec 41rrji1, spouti.b&Mj~: ~ Sbx~dc~~r M.A-t dcimdasPr4fotliuamA~hVK w prtung a disacrte
ecra'aArMe.

N A p-opeUant tymtm v--n.l "oid phAse dispeivs4 in a


cowU-

0rAILMLfLQ&Ii Sohd phaweJi

Voluirn ocxcPiod b) a I"s %whe pr*akkd to lx Imit of C~pCaswC&oC

ow, equilhbdun. Couditionotninu-s~iical e hi~b~wiu during ejpa=,toA Lutbt nozzle Rw Io" onwuo r eUM dum cz.niu inte o I DdOi h oi tia .,u *w M1D44

114

GIOSARYv

iCentinutd',

IV~ ~ Ne~ ~ ~~~ or at corrd. 0CMtiSiaing of a fici1bli fabt'F t-ube and a oore (wk~'r high explosive U-r in 4 bl~ing and derniworetwi. 4,41. ane .in icrtonf
anmun~to~ittm

Iipot 4f log

~n

inct

vets. kiyt P fer r= P ih*.j-t~ph~i:>ai'' phaae ctni.xlj )Xd;-Mf. ;;.- fi"e elfruaenu A con~w M'opmtk-fisng vaeapmcl
m tiboec

'ii~iW
.I

e cI

caebystxr rwaizcU and bi-xr

tua. Adevice Aii expleti.ve curp~wot ck. t4~ signed to iniltisto a tran ol hre or do-tona5(tr ta h&Mcrcin n im 0anuuni~oniii~ ai.~ae c~ ~. pliatiol. A &liaabk susiienwic of, a iol wer in in mmus~n n tm f b .araooi sh 1. a pla~s-tier! Ahich Lie.~~'. may later imbibe pf, ~ ~ cr ~ ~ CI4Il3 ~ t ;roduce FeltinacaJ ati'm impsict rmhcawcal time. or a PVQpuclfR embmna'ioo of th~ew Tvpei of furts are disp1pda. Poelntsiigarpn h ~ trtajkL&Id vr-duced .Onpe on a plot ol log the ite (in so ecases tOw ejpa4oeaelt frr otv ning th~ro.,t hic h PorIm isL The artea o4 &n~ cO)potaflu, ma be sirmiiiate x cwnittm3.) ip" %eueralwt. A dev'-! for producing gas. tA P>k he o idig en-d cU a gramr pcrlor-ation. brigof s~olid propellant, to pressurize a xank. cjr'*T ar engine. or actuate a mecharstian po lie Lenylh (V'tIfsne S It prifCIaNN' ltu, svSv;.sin. A wrigte piece oi sid pN-peiant. regssrdtern can 'cc Vheld tr V.0rkd oefoc Se-uins usp to k-& of size orwshapc. uszd in a, iiun or roActu "grvemv." Ve! %vjrh so"ent durine the n-trofa-i;pitsnier iAnt utr-mic. pro~n WTuIng crokesscharre. e-q-ec!Oyh !n in-, an~muaruc~n Vis. Pamtcle size dtivuiiouncm espcilh tLhat ln awlaiib e ofti 'eght rate c4i burnig procuced b) g-riding 3" V.eb 1"CN~u-C gun. A pioe~ uL ki~tidnaric comiSJ5f e~swnrliat rru*,wc(. roat. A rod inse-reed into the rcrfo icif a tubc or ban~e foi throwmng pro~eccices tlion of a rc'.lec. g7-cir to derxer~s the tcriders-. force. tisuall)- the force of an cvploImc but to0tard unstable aml somnetgwne wina of c.ornrqee-esed ra, ~trumpetc 1nh'a -. A , ~ .'tCC hew. ei expicoaioa. H~at ewlWe in bufning frx PULSsoul desit thatk Cor.Sscs esseneiaid of a VIoduig, a samg-se in a conit usuvrn bomb in an thrsi chamber rnd txhaust nozzle. ax.. that iotti atmosphere under standardiztd condtiion~s csiicus its omni solid oaiddiui-fuct comnbination of perisurc and temperat-rc fromn %hach hot ga3ses are generated b) Corrigju specii sAfiaranged chargt of a read% hu;-.aof and ca pandec, througfi a nozz',e. snj-W cor14x~itjor. usualis black poside" ghri kit. Tk" storagt tie-s dunog which an ilun ub~ed o siA i th iniatican o a Propelling remAins win.-kable. chgdegebawp~opeflams.roeaic proa pe~an t ~~ ~ JAuIF. ace WtO. d hit-rL Portwns if the grain tremainng at burn-

u&l ari~a. A gun o! sniall calibe Within the oie rmaiy-d r). Jon JANAF. ~~ Jot ~ ~ (abfra ~ Oina~ ~e hnN~AuFre teim ai prtwntt[ spplied to )ctrosaist fake Off, a rocktt moutor ;;X tow~at tn sc ci han~d and shouldtr a'cappcs &4 pisw6, c&rbwsnes ils ndsogn j>6ffe W.csd fro deiniti rm -'ue mohill.STO D4A"

the f &i fl~e5 ai~ra orInis~k Mi & V. (at'br; Mosaure and vOfatik4 wmii r-*io. Rawi of the wc~ht of the rpi ofellant to the %eniht Of 1die leaded fOCxke

GLOSSARY
Smt~efe Powider., S2P+ r npfrc.,e.ant corn* prni'ig rttrocclimuoc. 'Alim or wuhnui oztitArg And-O txfuci pilastCIzers. SPIA. e'abbr, Solid Propciiant lnf-rrnationi Ageitc'. SFIA,kNi. roeanAiu&SA'M.ted by &ini Propeltant Information Agrri,-,.a speakth ianpiL~t. A figuire a ment of a ppH1. &fncd as

(Contint-ed)
tkermtaResMir). The denlvatkw, cot the Cc-mnx-, situxtminipc!.ruure, and &zn'ct parsmnier 4f th&comb~asiuo- prodtvcts (sorx tie cOmpQUahl o the oiropellant. the beacA f4 fow-nntnr o4 the ~~~~~ingvid-tnL' and the tero~nzcfOtde off the products ru is.PoeaN ih he prockVr gredients. sas&h as rutzxmcihzkwe, fitsOgtcefl. anD'nu~o~ntm burning

Si D-nt.,

116

II~
WT-Acrtkcre caku~ab fm pcitk~e ji o 20. R6 4 ct o 4~~~ AILI-f ZW41. 45 A UnU iW -. 17 -A~m'zr btzc 44. M, 89. 93 Anx1MOii rnrcJkatac. 14. 44, 89, 90 Aamrj4, 94, 93 Aspaim, 80 9 ABL ibo 10 b2k. flr"lini
CSJ~*& feuirtsg 8

54

(av b und -m g . 'u , &5. 52 . g8 ~, 8 . 9 . 9 , 89,un 94. 95, Lu in, ss b se-b.e p c w 7 , 7 ( aia k-bpo 74. POC 74 9 C~~n orc-de, 85.li -u~o 95. S93 CaWIILbwrjg ae 15, 93 CAe-'Iuk &xti,4f) ro4~

Ce~~h~o~ rutratc. S"

Baxri-C life- Se -,r6,, ou~ 1

B&Wcc~A* 56 Scaijer, $I8ka8.-: Pi& k~ 16 5L

Cctrga Ow: t.7.S0u ,7

6 (

-4,

89 33vo. beta72,
101 12.

e-uu.e, 52,

II

5ifwLf8 9-1~f i,

5kocij 65

v'D'umv fy*CUOO,. 59, M.1J~ 94,

fluk ~ 332-4,

~
1 36,

~
90,

Coblt2
Cm6.

4dgnJT

272 94.

B-fdN 46rf. 63, 71. 8S, Block iicit


r, 6,

fix, hIJJ 2S 59,

I4 I~ IS-8J(

dwaj-cc.~~Cr~p Mt, rlibea rJJ, 3,62,1045, 30, , _j67 4.9

31 CcI.kIUflk 0

rtth 52, 95,

1,4-5 9, 10

IO ,wu .1,2

Met

CA rA.-,tn:11, 3

tonftnuedi INIflX
D i~w~uo~ 1920, ~iyn ~~Is,
.3,

I10. . 18

flume temperstart at coostatt pe~uxe. T,, 5. 6, 1C. 3 45, 5(). 11, 58 12 FblaL. 37. 50, S4, 58 9a 4, SE
how.

2.7, S., 90, 93, %'

bujlk. 72
grayune"n, 27 dt&L-aRobefl cqao (bulnn4 FCC). 13

equibbnw& 7

I
k

(,6, 72. 90
rnin.m 16. 23, 61, 92

Fl"in cuzi 80
F~~ taL&, L4 FwLi 6? Fiat 40 RI, 10, 1

~4~r49
mu&kine80 !f~sel rod D~Pc..-, UK. dmtaavcaI d.prk pR

Elmow~oo (WcaskJt. 28. 95, 9'9

ge~erstm4~p~aL 2,4. 50. 54, 56, 58, W0,

EndoUtrma grouri, 10
Eru")r, 45 Ezrmvity cotaswn15a.om

xx

~w~Ghp, 4.5

Gu.17

uO1fity =m i

6, 80, 94
E~~~~~~~hyl~LLI(~tC caatehirtj&dseL, oiihe5*

p-peiohihOCI

2 F~~lst-di~d 58,9,94, Onji,-ube dir 101 U-u 2, &9

23 23 18.ko

Fue

rn 12

~wpj,

FLuzcxx.*

G=i pirtopUancL, 37. 53, 58, 67, 80

He-At

c -iprop~ivI'L-1U,
MC~ . Minert- jelly. 49

14

1o~.2M""" 0i expiossonfQ i. )kijr'bu.9 of furinat~m. ,J, 6 * * H~Se~r-Sxn~ 51 ejU 5i 1 JfI 7, 9, o0. KMLX, 43, 94 Un" 1 Lrclaw& e, 2' 92 IF~davpn cwm-3e. 89. I2 S27, 36, ". 4t, 48, 32.19,z ,4 Ijut I~ia*~.,40 C-n~t - 4

Schiedei. 46. 7' q~ma bla&I. 67. 77, 95, C%, 102 6T 112 1610uhr (1~mg) 28, 31. 45, 51. 95- 99 Nv~a 8t. go 1610'ICU1&I wcight, 6, 48 MuOOlnOPCUn.W 1, 12, 16, 17. 42 44, 39, 93 MOr-Li P"Xlcint. 54 M'JUP&ITAM Chate. 21? ro bn~grsh1 M"uu*wcuOw(ua i&,1
kIing.

~-up,

IMW I
j

14-Aiou, 95 Imp. axgiI L, I J~~mpequ3 se, spec& i~xrteML.5 ~ImUIPAe. tmall. 22, 95
J .L Dc ni

~5

1 1 2A 11 3 1~no fliic,3 JANAFNitI~l~u~kft,

~ ~ nL,

Nt~uahty7 17, 39
Mitralwr (tw)occiujosc), 62,6

IhsA r~tiiVM 26
Tbttw.XbM" Jra epr.65 L. Lzad. 14, 50
f i,, r,

A4
mirar po&hLL& 65
ItclzmrIK4j

45. 58, 62, 112

Pam!, 7

62

74

ao~ubmlIj, 46, 66 wo,6


-

#A Mwr M SI rael, m, ; 66 MLU

iznt xe1J0"Lukw), 46, 65 u yc 46, 4o. 4,4,52 68, 75 NitrOg lmidkrhc, 37. 4", 58, 94 Ncayz baW-an~k, 11 4s,52

IL
I*

ofk aiscmW,22
ru~OA, 89

Oracit),3
, 16, 89, 102

Mi PETIN, 44 Phai. c&ang,. 44Q Pkuiazem 49 Piobett s L&A, 13 Pif~tLA pmpt'11m.1 N,

Pvcmiotutrr, 2'

~1
QLidlt% a uuwane or ctmtro%, 1., 20. 28. 84

Quckats&~ rclativ, RQ. 20. 43


KDA.. 1431 s Reduced velocity, 4
isf*ic im~pulse. 4

pluiasAtic. 46i, 52., 715. 95, 98, 9,, 1C2, 113 tueA 4-', MCI, 68 Oxda"L. 45. 4S. 49, 58. 638 piasusal. t(tcfuacttrns'bc plarteaL. pr~jp'CfintI' 14 Poaching, ritAiunczoskn, 65 Polyssobuteric, 9-% Poly-nit. 45, F9, 95. ! 12 00ku',o51. 52. -4, 677, 84, 113 P*o-Ti f~n act-tiatc . 4S Peyopykinc glbcol, 9R Ftn. i'invi c~ohlan, T-5. 99

Reel, 3,6 PFeubcmi rcds. 17 FPobert rroczess (nitroguanid ), 421 Rcxket profvllant, 22. 3's, 40. 54. 56, 56, 74, 9;, Roll Emillk 77 kkd shc piu~ciu, 77 cuttag,~ 37 Ru~iber, 95 butaidxix --acrylic acid cqv,1yznwr (PI3AAJ1, 99 butudten,-2-ime thy! - -vi) 4pyudrw. CUmx 101 GR-1, 102'
poly-,at Lktat 9L

Pof 0o,4v, 17 Port 4(>-tLboat mieo, 23 Pot lift, 88, 101I Potus~iuni Liir 3'
saikv, 50. 58 PremixnW4 67

Rkdit, SO

blockjn dte). v' CX-" On flmsbin; 8 mwwom.a~ f~.H

72, 10'2

, M0 72 72 Se t FM~i =Cfn Ptcut: , Ch~mer. 11 13Stal-basit


40caslutm,

S~alwtpctr, 33 Scfecning. 72, 75 S-cond order trans~tuoi Iciripcraturc, 31 Semilive, 113 Ser 1 Sh"If Wie See Suabilit) S--17 propellari 45. 53, 6~8, 72
Sur

KL&UMUDm, 19 inx.r, 13, 45,94 !Iunw, ..nnic, Pr~grcssivty, 18, 19, 20 Pnm~ja bMuc, 93 Puvr,3,6

75. 88. 95, 102 muIam xr~at 27, 34, 67, 72 Smc 40, 501. Z9, 910. 92, 9' SIIIckm1~ puJer, 45
68, 7

i ji (.onchjqide
1

)lr; OJA1 3elulvwej

7,

S'~x'um 33Tiwrmal tra~ 4t. 60

SolventC renmla!, 2 rcsjudl 66. 66 '~~ai,2.52, 54

Nrdcj~

dkcmrq~~m-jOn. 4?s, 52 cx'O, -xM3. 1*lFtlcon )Thermk),lemistry Of PT

cllants. 3. 5, 33. 42' for~e, 1- 4. 0, 20. p. 4i5, . 53. ~8Thermnoplasic 9 15, 10, bea racWj - 6, 7, 11 thifxyanatc PIOL--Ts. (nitiguiin) 42 iml-1w.. 1.,. 4, 11, 22. 45, 56. go. 93, 99 Tf~LI cakuned 4, 7 5~coeffwierit. i:. 11, 23 mea~jrd. IICOCUIhCinI anid expansjor. fiito tjgbki,1 volunie. 5 Triaccun, 50 1 'W~ume. 3, Trkthvkkne g,.col dirilu"t, 49 SFL4. JaW Nlanual. 2" Trip'4-'aW j'rofcilan1, 59. 74 Spotiirg prop,1tnnt, 511, 67. 72 Two ten~iaeijule iheor 91 0 Si~blU), 36, 4-,, 52. 61' S1.abdize. 45, 48 Staik. ekeuirtcy, 72 Va~Q Preksure. 49. 50, 52 S~~~ekii) tet,23NedL 56 Sub.i 74 t 2 Vibration mo-des, 17 ty 4 ic SueBm 74"lm 2
Suffur. 33

Spec-!w

Summifiel equatioi {btirrni9 rate). 13 Supersoniacs, ~IS Survi1Irxx tta, 32 Swttlk b&-nd, 72

of wuo-c';ulo( 46, 48, 6t, 'oluirietueOr,~ ;7 y OuTtx efcay,2

WatP Naiiihnuium, 6 Y eb. Is- 1; rd. ;,7, Vt I 43

~Ta
*Tcm~pv-turae Tensii

giigs 27, 72

14,

int!,

14X-rayi,

weri~th, 28,51. 9

84 X)!An, 6.6

121
.:

mt1j.A: F

Pt

-wr..

134