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LECTURE 2 DSB-SC AMPLITUDE MODULATION

A/Prof Zhuquan Zang Dept of Electrical and Computer Engineering Curtin University Perth, Western Australia

CE304-DC603 LECTURE NOTES

Lecturer & Tutor:

Z.Zang@curtin.edu.au

LECTURE 2: DSB-SC AMPLITUDE MODULATION


In amplitude modulation, the amplitude Ac of the unmodulated carrier Ac cos(c t + c ) is varied in proportion to the baseband signal (known as the modulating signal). The frequency c and phase c are constant. We can assume c = 0 without loss of generality. If the carrier amplitude Ac is made directly proportional to the modulating signal m(t), the modulated carrier is m(t) cos(c t). Bouble-side band suppressed carrier (DSB-SC) amplitude modulation can be achieved in several way. We shall discuss here some important categories of modulators 1. Multiplier modulators. Modulation is performed directly by multiplying m(t) by cos c t using an analog multiplier whose output is proportional to the product of two input signals. In a variable-gain amplier, the gain parameter (such as the of a transistor) is controlled by one of the signals, say, m1 (t). The amplier gain is no longer constant but is km1 (t) (varying with time). The output is the gain times the input signal m2 (t), that is, km1 (t)m2 (t). Note that this type of modulator is a linear time-varying syste. Remark: The modulation is achieved directly by multiplying m(t) by cos(c t) using analog multiplierr whose output is proportional to the product of two input signals. It is dicult to maintain linearity in this kind of amplier, and they tend to be rather expensive. It is best to avoid them if possible.

2. Nonlinear modulators. Modulation can also be achieved by using nonlinear devices. A semiconductor diode or a transistor is an example of such a device.

Figure 1: Nonlinear DSB-SC modulator

Semester 2, 2010

CE304-DC603 LECTURE NOTES

Lecturer & Tutor:

Z.Zang@curtin.edu.au

Let the input-output characteristics of either of the nonlinear elements be approximated by a power series: y (t) = ax(t) + bx2 (t) where x(t) and y (t) are the input and the output, respectively, of the nonlinear element. The summer output z (t) in Fig. 1 is given by
2 z (t) = y1 (t) y2 (t) = [ax1 (t) + bx2 1 (t)] [ax2 (t) + bx2 (t)]

Subsituting the two inputs x1 (t) = cos(c t) + m(t) and x2 (t) = cos(c t) m(t) in this equation yields z (t) = 2am(t) + 4bm(t) cos(c t) . The spectrum of m(t) is centered at the origin, whereas the spectrum of m(t) cos(c t) is centered at c . Consequently, when z (t) is passed through a bandpass lter tuned to c , the signal am(t) is supressed and the desired modulated signal 4bm(t) cos(c t) passes through unharmed.

One possible scheme using nonlinear elements for producing modulation is shown in Fig. 2. Here the characteristics of the device again may be approximated by a power series: i = ae + be2

To analyze this circuit, consider the nonlinear element in series with the resistor R as a composite nonlinear element whose terminal voltage e and the current i are related by the power series mentioned above. The voltages e1 and e2 are given by e1 = cos c t + m(t), Hence, current i1 and i2 are given by
2 i1 = ae1 + be2 1 = a[cos c t + m(t)] + b[cos c t + m(t)]

and e2 = cos c t m(t)

Semester 2, 2010

CE304-DC603 LECTURE NOTES

Lecturer & Tutor:

Z.Zang@curtin.edu.au

Figure 2: Nonlinear DSB-SC modulator and


2 i2 = ae2 + be2 2 = a[cos c t m(t)] + b[cos c t m(t)]

The output voltage vo is given by vo = i1 R i2 R = 2R[2bm(t) cos c t + am(t)] The signal am(t) in this equation can be ltered out by using a bandpass lter tuned to c at the ouput terminals. 3. Switching modulators The multiplication operation required for modulation can be replaced by a simpler switching operation if we realize that a modulated signal cna be obtained by multiplying m(t) not only by a pure sinusoid but by any periodic signal (t) of the fundamental radian frequency c . Such a periodic signal cna be expressed by a trigonometric Fourier series as

(t) =
n=

Cn cos(nc t + n )

(1)

Hence,

m(t)(t) =
n=

Cn m(t) cos(nc t + n )

If this signal is passed through a bandpass lter of bandwidth 2B Hz and tuned to c , then we get the desired modulated signal cm (t) cos(c t + 1 ). The square pulse train k (t) in Fig. ?? is a periodic signal whose Fourier series is k (t) =
Semester 2, 2010

1 2 (1)(n1)/2 + cos(nc t) 2 n=1,3,5, n 4

CE304-DC603 LECTURE NOTES =

Lecturer & Tutor:

Z.Zang@curtin.edu.au

1 2 1 1 cos(c t) cos(3c t) + cos(5c t) + 2 3 5

The signal m(t)k (t) is given by 1 2 1 m(t) cos(c t) m(t) cos(3c t) + m(t)k (t = m(t) + 2 3 The product m(t)k (t) and its spectrum are show in Fig. ??. When the signal is passed through a bandpass lter tuned to c , the output is the desired modulated
2 signal ( m(t) cos(c t)).

Now here is the payo. Multiplication of a signal by a square pulse train is in reality a switching operation. It involves switching the signal m(t) on and o periodically and cna be accomplished by simple switching elememts controlled by k (t). 4. Balanced modulators Demodulation of DSB-SC signals Demodulation of a DSB-SC signal is identical to modulation. At the receiver, we multiply the incoming signal by a local carrier of frequency and phase in synchronism with the carrier used at the modulator. The product is then passed through a lowpass lter. The only dierence between the modulator and demodulator is the output lter. In the modulator, the multiplier output is passed through a bandpass lter turned to c , whereas in the demodulator, the multiplier output is passed through a lowpass lter. Therefore, all four types of modulators discussed earlier can also be used as demodulators, provided the bandpass lters at the output are replaced by lowpass lters of bandwidth B . For demodulation, the receiver must generate a carrier in phase and frequency synchronism with the incoming carrier. These demodulators are called synchronous, or coherent (also homodyne) demodulators. Comparison of Various AM Systems The AM system has an advantage over the AM-SC systems (that is, DSB-SC and SSB-SC) at the receiver. The detectors required for AM are relatively simpler (rectier or envelope detectors) than those required for suppressed-carrier systems. For this
Semester 2, 2010

CE304-DC603 LECTURE NOTES

Lecturer & Tutor:

Z.Zang@curtin.edu.au

reason, all AM broadcast systems AM. In addition, AM signals are easier to generate at high power levels, as compared to suppressed-carrier signals. The balanced modulators required in the latter are somewhat dicult to design. Suppressed-carrier systems have an advantage over AM in that they require less power to transmit the same information. Under normal conditions, the carrier takes up to 75 percent (or even more) of the totaltransmitted power. This necessitates a rather expensive transmitter for AM. For suppressed-carrier systems, however, the receiver is much more complex and consequently more expensive. For a point-to-point communication system, where there are only a few receivers for one transmitter,, the complexity in a receiver is justied, whereas for public broadcast systems, where there are millions of receivers for each transmitter, AM is the obvious choice. The AM signal also suers from the phenomenon of fading, as mentioned earlier. Fading is strongly frequency dependent; that is, various frequency components suer dienrnt attenuation and nonlinear phase shifts. This is known as selective fading. The eect of fading is more serious on AM signals than on AM-SC signals, because in AM the carrier must maintain a certain strength in relation to the sidebands. Because of selective fading, the carrier may be attenuated to the point where the modulation index is no longer less than 1. In such a case, the received signal detected by an envelope detector will show severe distortion. Even if the carrier is not badly attenuation and the modulation index is still less than 1, selective fading can still badly distort the AM signal because of unequal attenuation and nonlinear phase shifts of the two sidebands and the carrier. The eect of selective fading becomes pronounced at higher frequencies. Therefore, suppressed-carrier systems are prefrred at higher frequencies. The AM system is generally used for medium-frequency broadcast transmission. Next we compare the DSBN-SC system with the SSB-SC system. Here we nd that the balance is mostly in favour of SSB-SC. The following are the advantages of the SSB-SC over DSB-SC. 1. SSB-SC needs only half the bandwidth needed for DSB-SC. Although this difference can be balanced out by quadrature multiplexing two DSB-SC signals,
Semester 2, 2010

CE304-DC603 LECTURE NOTES

Lecturer & Tutor:

Z.Zang@curtin.edu.au

practical diculties of crosstalk are much more serious in quadrature multiplexing. 2. Frequency and phase errors in the local carrier used for demodulation have more serious eects in DSB-SC than in SSB-SC, particularly for voice signals. 3. Selective fading disturbs the relationship of the two sidebands in DSB-SC and causes more serious distortion than in the case of SSB-SC, where only one sideband exists. For these reasons, DSB-SC is rarely used in audio communication. Long-haul telephone systems use SSB-SC multiplexed systems with a pilot carrier. For short-haul systems, DSB is sometimes used., PCM, however, is gradually replacing both. SSB compares poorly to DSB in one respect: the generation of high-level SSB signals is more dicult than that of DSB signals. This disadvantage is overcome in what is called vestigial sideband transmission.

Semester 2, 2010