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LECTURE 2 DSB-SC AMPLITUDE MODULATION

A/Prof Zhuquan Zang Dept of Electrical and Computer Engineering Curtin University Perth, Western Australia

Lecturer & Tutor:

Z.Zang@curtin.edu.au

LECTURE 2: DSB-SC AMPLITUDE MODULATION

In amplitude modulation, the amplitude Ac of the unmodulated carrier Ac cos(c t + c ) is varied in proportion to the baseband signal (known as the modulating signal). The frequency c and phase c are constant. We can assume c = 0 without loss of generality. If the carrier amplitude Ac is made directly proportional to the modulating signal m(t), the modulated carrier is m(t) cos(c t). Bouble-side band suppressed carrier (DSB-SC) amplitude modulation can be achieved in several way. We shall discuss here some important categories of modulators 1. Multiplier modulators. Modulation is performed directly by multiplying m(t) by cos c t using an analog multiplier whose output is proportional to the product of two input signals. In a variable-gain amplier, the gain parameter (such as the of a transistor) is controlled by one of the signals, say, m1 (t). The amplier gain is no longer constant but is km1 (t) (varying with time). The output is the gain times the input signal m2 (t), that is, km1 (t)m2 (t). Note that this type of modulator is a linear time-varying syste. Remark: The modulation is achieved directly by multiplying m(t) by cos(c t) using analog multiplierr whose output is proportional to the product of two input signals. It is dicult to maintain linearity in this kind of amplier, and they tend to be rather expensive. It is best to avoid them if possible.

2. Nonlinear modulators. Modulation can also be achieved by using nonlinear devices. A semiconductor diode or a transistor is an example of such a device.

Semester 2, 2010

Lecturer & Tutor:

Z.Zang@curtin.edu.au

Let the input-output characteristics of either of the nonlinear elements be approximated by a power series: y (t) = ax(t) + bx2 (t) where x(t) and y (t) are the input and the output, respectively, of the nonlinear element. The summer output z (t) in Fig. 1 is given by
2 z (t) = y1 (t) y2 (t) = [ax1 (t) + bx2 1 (t)] [ax2 (t) + bx2 (t)]

Subsituting the two inputs x1 (t) = cos(c t) + m(t) and x2 (t) = cos(c t) m(t) in this equation yields z (t) = 2am(t) + 4bm(t) cos(c t) . The spectrum of m(t) is centered at the origin, whereas the spectrum of m(t) cos(c t) is centered at c . Consequently, when z (t) is passed through a bandpass lter tuned to c , the signal am(t) is supressed and the desired modulated signal 4bm(t) cos(c t) passes through unharmed.

One possible scheme using nonlinear elements for producing modulation is shown in Fig. 2. Here the characteristics of the device again may be approximated by a power series: i = ae + be2

To analyze this circuit, consider the nonlinear element in series with the resistor R as a composite nonlinear element whose terminal voltage e and the current i are related by the power series mentioned above. The voltages e1 and e2 are given by e1 = cos c t + m(t), Hence, current i1 and i2 are given by
2 i1 = ae1 + be2 1 = a[cos c t + m(t)] + b[cos c t + m(t)]

Semester 2, 2010

Lecturer & Tutor:

Z.Zang@curtin.edu.au

Figure 2: Nonlinear DSB-SC modulator and

2 i2 = ae2 + be2 2 = a[cos c t m(t)] + b[cos c t m(t)]

The output voltage vo is given by vo = i1 R i2 R = 2R[2bm(t) cos c t + am(t)] The signal am(t) in this equation can be ltered out by using a bandpass lter tuned to c at the ouput terminals. 3. Switching modulators The multiplication operation required for modulation can be replaced by a simpler switching operation if we realize that a modulated signal cna be obtained by multiplying m(t) not only by a pure sinusoid but by any periodic signal (t) of the fundamental radian frequency c . Such a periodic signal cna be expressed by a trigonometric Fourier series as

(t) =
n=

Cn cos(nc t + n )

(1)

Hence,

m(t)(t) =
n=

Cn m(t) cos(nc t + n )

If this signal is passed through a bandpass lter of bandwidth 2B Hz and tuned to c , then we get the desired modulated signal cm (t) cos(c t + 1 ). The square pulse train k (t) in Fig. ?? is a periodic signal whose Fourier series is k (t) =
Semester 2, 2010

Lecturer & Tutor:

Z.Zang@curtin.edu.au

1 2 1 1 cos(c t) cos(3c t) + cos(5c t) + 2 3 5

The signal m(t)k (t) is given by 1 2 1 m(t) cos(c t) m(t) cos(3c t) + m(t)k (t = m(t) + 2 3 The product m(t)k (t) and its spectrum are show in Fig. ??. When the signal is passed through a bandpass lter tuned to c , the output is the desired modulated
2 signal ( m(t) cos(c t)).

Now here is the payo. Multiplication of a signal by a square pulse train is in reality a switching operation. It involves switching the signal m(t) on and o periodically and cna be accomplished by simple switching elememts controlled by k (t). 4. Balanced modulators Demodulation of DSB-SC signals Demodulation of a DSB-SC signal is identical to modulation. At the receiver, we multiply the incoming signal by a local carrier of frequency and phase in synchronism with the carrier used at the modulator. The product is then passed through a lowpass lter. The only dierence between the modulator and demodulator is the output lter. In the modulator, the multiplier output is passed through a bandpass lter turned to c , whereas in the demodulator, the multiplier output is passed through a lowpass lter. Therefore, all four types of modulators discussed earlier can also be used as demodulators, provided the bandpass lters at the output are replaced by lowpass lters of bandwidth B . For demodulation, the receiver must generate a carrier in phase and frequency synchronism with the incoming carrier. These demodulators are called synchronous, or coherent (also homodyne) demodulators. Comparison of Various AM Systems The AM system has an advantage over the AM-SC systems (that is, DSB-SC and SSB-SC) at the receiver. The detectors required for AM are relatively simpler (rectier or envelope detectors) than those required for suppressed-carrier systems. For this
Semester 2, 2010

Lecturer & Tutor:

Z.Zang@curtin.edu.au