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Challenges in utilizing Information Technology According to Merriam( 1983) the tasks performed by secretaries are specialized and demanding

and require good udgment in their e!ecution" Many of them #ere once considered administrati$e and e!ecuti$e functions" According to %ureau of &abor 'tatistics( )"' department of &abor( additional responsibilities to today*s secretary are as a result of changed roles because of information technology" +hese include, -eading( signing and sending out some e!ecuti$e correspondence .reparing rough drafts of e!ecuti$e responses( to communication /omposing speeches( memorandum( or reports for e!ecuti$e to edit /omposing articles for publication 0diting copies prepared and typed by others /onsulting references sources to obtain information from $arious sources for e!ecuti$e use" 1ther challenges include inadequate modern equipment( lack of training and lack of delegation by managers" 1n the other hand managers face challenges as #ell" 2hile a high school student may feel comfortable using computers( some managers fear it" +he reason for fear is that they are afraid of looking unskilled( if they are not able to understand ne# technology" 3ates (1994) re$ealed that a typical company could make 567 of in$estment in the technology that can gi$e it a healthy flo# of information yet it typically gets 867 of the benefits that are possible" +he gap bet#een #hat organizations getsstems from combination of not understanding #hat is possible and not seeing the potential #hen use of technology is applied"

According to 2ard (8669) firms in$est little time and money in training their staff to use :/+" )se of e!pert or professional kno#ledge in health care pro$iders reduces the autonomy of the indi$idual 2ard (8669)" +o some organizations computers are still seen as domain for secretaries and office managers (3etao( 866;)" Access to telecommunications infrastructure < telecommunications infrastructure is limited in most de$eloping countries and costs are e!ceedingly high" Access to :/+< access to :/+ is highly dependent on telecommunications infrastructure( particularly if one is focusing on telephone ser$ice( fa!es( e<mail and the :nternet" =o#e$er( the use of :/+ is not only based on these ser$ices ('onia( 8668)" 'ustainability<many organizations in de$eloping countries tend to ha$e the >head in the sand? approach to the challenge of sustainability (Mulira( 866;)" @uring the 0gyptian protests( despite apparent efforts by the go$ernment to disrupt communications among the protesters( many participants and obser$ers managed to post accounts( images( and $ideo of the demonstrations online (Mackey( 8611)" :n the :ranian presidential election in 8669( one +#itter feed links to a page on the photo<hosting site Alickr that includes dozens of pictures from the +ehran (BC +imes( 8669b)" Arom the literature re$ie#ed it is clear that :/+ de$elopment changes rapidly and that secretaries are faced by many challenges in the use of :/+" +hat :/+ is not only a challenge to secretaries but also to others as #ell" According to the literature re$ie#ed :/+ #ere supposedly going to reduce secretarial help and restructuring of other office obs" Arom the foregoing( it sho#s a there is a problem and need for further in$estigation into the study"