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Psychology 3102, Fall 2001 (Carey) Test 1 Matchi g (not all the letters will be used) A) genetic regulation and development genetic load _____ B) proportion of individuals with a given genotype exhibiting an associated phenotype inheritance of information _____ C) encouraging people with positive traits to have children pleiotropy _____ D) estimated number of deleterious recessive genes carried by an individual Lyoni ation _____ !) the blueprint for life is passed from parents to offspring anticipation _____ ") addition of a methyl group to cytosine variable expressivity _____ #) $%chromosome inactivation penetrance _____ &) a genetic disorder can be caused by mutations in several different genes epigenesis _____ ') the current generation is more severely affected than the preceding generation genetic heterogeneity _____ () a single genotype can generate a wide range of phenotypic values for a continuous trait )) a single gene can influence several different phenotypes M!lti"le Choice *hich of the following is the +energy pac,et- of the cell. a) ribosome b) synapse c) operon d) endoplasmic reticulum e) mitochondria _____

/ocial Darwinism is. a) a eugenics program b) a political theory c) a form of compulsory sterili ation d) imprisonment of geneticists e) the topic of the boo, +0rigin of /pecies*hat are the building bloc,s of proteins. a) nucleic acids b) nucleosomes c) histones d) amino acids e) nucleotides 1he first form of genetic engineering too, the form of. a) sheep cloning b) breeding plants and animals for desired traits c) selectively breeding horses for racing d) compulsory sterili ation e) American eugenics legislation *hich of the following bred peas to study heredity. a) 2endel b) Darwin c) 2organ d) #alton e) Linnaeus 1he physical unit of inheritance is. a) the gene b) the codon c) the chromosome d) the nucleosome e) the nucleus A chain or chains of amino acids folded into 3%D is. a) a peptide b) a promoter c) a polypeptide d) a protein e) a codon 4ibosomes are. a) located on the endoplasmic reticulum b) protein factories c) present in cells in thousands of copies

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d) located within the cytoplasm of the cell e) all of the above *ho performed the fist empirical study in behavioral genetics5 +&ereditary #enius-. a) &ippocrates b) 2endel c) #alton d) "isher e) 2organ &ow many chromosomes are present in most cells (excluding gametes). a) 63 b) 76 c) 68 d) 79 e) 67 1he ma:or genetic conse;uence of hormones is. a) binding to their receptors b) enhancing and inhibiting transcription c) setting off second messenger systems d) allowing ions to enter and exit the cell e) none of the above *hich of the following is not a result of synaptic transmission. a) excess neurotransmitter is en ymatically degraded b) ion pores are opened c) neurotransmitter binds to post%synaptic receptors d) cells divide by meiosis e) second messenger systems are turned on 1ransfer 4<A. a) carries an amino acid to attach to the polypeptide chain b) has an anti%codon specific for an amino acid c) binds to the messenger 4<A d) resembles a four%leaf clover e) all of the above 1here are at least how many coding genes in the human genome. a) 35=== b) 835=== c) 3=5=== d) 83=5=== e) 3==5=== *hich of the following is not true about &ox genes. _____

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a) they regulate the development of cell axis b) they can ma,e fly legs grow out of the eye c) they are arranged linearly on a chromosome d) their se;uence is highly conserved throughout evolution e) they code for en ymes responsible for hemoglobin oxygenation *hich of the following is true of the &uman #enome >ro:ect. a) it is being done entirely in the ?nited /tates b) the first phase is already completed c) its purpose is to locate all 2endelian disorders d) in terms of scientific expenditures5 it is very cheap e) all of the above Tr!e#False /ic,le cell anemia is caused by the mutation of a single base@ CA& females behave li,e their normal brothers@ A gene is polymorphic if it affects more than one trait@ All of the D<A is found in the cell nucleus@ ALD&%6 deficiency homo ygotes are completely protected against alcoholism@ *allace and Darwin both developed the principles of natural selection@ Buc, vs@ Bell overturned the sterili ation laws of the early 8A==Bs@ 'n the lac operon5 the regulatory protein regulates the lactose let into the cell@ /ome >)? individuals have normal 'C@ Lactose tolerance is correlated with ecology@ D%8DE of the human genome codes for structural genes@ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 " " " " " " " " " " " _____

Fill i the $la % 'n >)?5 levels of ____________________ are high in the urine of affected individuals@ ____________________ D<A is maternally transmitted@

A(n) ____________________ is a protein that speeds up chemical reactions@ 2ost cells of the body divide by ____________________5 but gametes divide by ____________________@ 1he elongated part of the nerve cell is called the ____________________@ 1he allele that causes the disease ____________________ also provides protection against a certain type of malaria@ ____________________ (F) nucleotides ma,e up a codon@ During editing of m4<A5 ____________________ are cut out and ____________________ are spliced together@ 1he ____________________ region of a gene is where transcription machinery binds and initiates transcription@ ____________________ is the most common 2endelian disorder associated with mental retardation@

&hort ' s(er <ame the four bases (nucleotides) in D<A and show their pairings (give the full names5 not :ust the letters)@

&ow does 4<A differ from D<A in terms of the nucleotides and pairings aboveG

Briefly explain how transcription factors can alter gene expression@

<ame the D steps of protein synthesis (in !nglish andHor /cientificese)@

#ive one example of a disorder caused by a metabolic bloc, and describe it@

Define a structural gene@