Sie sind auf Seite 1von 3

Summary: The Renaissance Dates: around 1350-1500 CE An influential cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution,

religious reform and artistic transformation, at the dawn of modern European history. The Renaissance (from the French for rebirth) marks the transitional period between the end of the Middle Ages and the start of the modern age. The Renaissance is considered to have originated in the14th century in northern Italy and begun in the late 15th century in northern Europe. The rebirth of the Renaissance meant a rediscovery of ancient classical texts (Greek and Roman) and learning and their applications in the arts (such as painting and sculpture) and sciences. Second, it means that the results of these intellectual activities created a revitalization of European culture in general. Other knowledge, such as mathematics, came to Europe through contact with the Islamic world (especially the use of arabic numerals and algebra). The Renaissance was also a turning point in warfare as the cannon and gunpowder (which was discovered in China) became a central element of battle. The starting place of the Renaissance was in central and northern Italy, especially the city of Florence. Wealthy merchants in the central and northern Italian cities, such as the Medicis of Florence, were important patrons of the arts who allowed the arts, science and culture to blossom. Artwork of the Renaissance Early Renaissance painting bridges the period of European art history between the art of the Middle Ages and the art of the Renaissance. Two regions of Europe were particularly artistically active during this period: Italy, initially, and later northern Europe. The works of art of this period features mainly religious themes. Early Renaissance painting was similar to the painting of the Middle Ages. Saints and figures like Jesus and Mary were shown much larger than ordinary people. They used symbols to explain the painting. During the Renaissance, new techniques such as perspective (making distant objects smaller than those close to the viewer) and chiaroscuro (shading in figures to make objects look round and bodies look more lifelike) as well as new oil paints allowed artists to make more realistic looking landscapes and portraits of people. Artists began to move from just painting religious themes to painting Greek and Roman myths (like the painting of Prometheus Bound by Peter Paul Rubens we saw at the Philadelphia Museum of Art) and also began painting portraits of wealthy clients and important people in a realistic fashion. This new attention to themes of the ancient Greeks and Romans and a focus on people reflected the influence of humanism in the arts. The Church was the main client of these artists. Later, wealthy merchants and bankers became patrons of the arts. Major Figures of the Italian Renaissance Michelangelo (1475- 1564) Renaissance artist: sculptor, painter, architect, poet. Among his most famous works of art were:

the Pieta David- a huge marble statue in Florence, 1501-1504. Represented the power of the Republic of Florence. Moses statue Sistine Chapel ceiling (a fresco painting, started in 1508 in Vatican City, Rome) -Pope Julius II brought him back to Rome to do it -finished in October 1512-he had painted over 300 figures on the ceiling designed dome of St. Peters Basilica in Vatican City his patrons were the Medici family of Florence and the pope Leonardo da Vinci (1452- 1519): the ultimate Renaissance man Considered the greatest mind of the Renaissance Recorded his studies in illustrated notebooks that covered topics like anatomy, painting, architecture and mechanics. He wrote in mirror writing, because he was left handed and did not want to smear his writing. Rumor also has it that he was worried others would steal his ideas. Introduced the idea of perspective drawing, using one and two point perspective. A realistic painter that started the idea of drawing whats real; inspired many later artists with style and technique Most famous paintings were the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper Used oil paints for his paintings The Mona Lisa is very mysterious. She has a smirk, which people say means shes hiding a secret. Theories: shes pregnant or may be a painting of Leonardo himself Da Vinci was known for his incredible talents as an artist, anatomist, engineer and inventor. Much of his inventions were in the field of warfare. He was adept at the following fields: art, music, math, science-astronomy, anatomy, geology, inventing He designed many inventions that anticipated modern technology like the helicopter, tank, solar power, calculator etc, although few of these designs were constructed in his lifetime. Of his works, only a few paintings survive, together with his notebooks (written in a backwards script) containing drawings, scientific diagrams and notes. Da Vinci learned much about the human body through autopsies of cadavers (dead bodies) Machiavelli the most clever political writer of the Italian Renaissance

Niccolo Machiavelli lived May 3, 1469-June 21, 1527 He was born in Florence He was born in an era of rising and falling governments. He studied Italian and Latin and especially liked the classics. He entered the government in 1494 In 1502 he worked for Cesare Borgia, from very wealthy and powerful family. From 1503-1506 he was responsible for the Florentine militia. In 1512 the Medici reclaimed Florence and since Machiavelli played a large role in the anti-Medici movement he was removed from office and charged with conspiracy. He was tortured in jail, but released and began writing.

He was a statesman, a musician and a writer His best known work is The Prince which is a book that tells how a Prince should gain and keep control of a kingdom. Its main theme is the end justifies the means. It was a departure from previous advice to rulers, which expected them to rule with Christian morality. He wrote it to get into the good favor of the Medici but it did not achieve this.

The Northern Renaissance The ideas of the Renaissance also spread to northern Europe, especially the area of Flanders, which is now northern France, Belgium and the Netherlands. Artists and writers were greatly influenced by the intellectual movement known as humanism. Albrech Durer was the most famous artist of the Northern Renaissance. He often created art by engraving drawings on metal plates and making prints. We saw a painting of A Knight, Death and the Devil based on his work at the Philadelphia Art Museum. Hieronymus Bosch (1450 -1516)- a painter who sought to teach morals in his works a Dutch painter (from the Netherlands) Many of his works depict sin and human moral failings known for his grotesque and surrealistic scenes of Hell We looked at one of his works at the Art Museum: Behold the Man of the trial of Christ Essential Questions: The Renaissance Why were the Italian city-states a favorable setting for cultural rebirth? By whom were the artists and writers of the Renaissance influenced? What themes and techniques did Renaissance artists and writers explore? What was the intellectual movement known as humanism? Why did powerful rulers and wealthy merchants choose to become patrons of the arts during the Renaissance? Machiavelli stressed that the ends justify the means. What did these mean for political rulers like the Medici?